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1

Multilateral Activities in South East Asia, Pacific Symposium 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents include: A South East Asia Perspective; View From the Philippines; View From Indonesia; View From Malaysia; The South East Asia Environment: View from the Peripheral Nations; Australia's Relationship with South East Asia; China's Construc...

M. W. Everett M. A. Sommerville

1995-01-01

2

Regionalization in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional regionalization has come very late to East Asia compared with Europe, but its pace has dramatically increased\\u000a since the mid-1990s. Many agreements, including bilateral ones such as those signed between Japan and Singapore, or pluri-lateral\\u000a ones such as those between ASEAN countries, cover an ever increasing number of countries of the East Asian region, including\\u000a Japan, India, and China.

Michel Fouquin

2008-01-01

3

Can East Asia rise again?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, the economies of East Asia have been confronted by two major economic recessions, the first caused by the East Asian financial crisis, and the second by the slump in the ‘new economy.’ The causes of these two recessions, their scope and their influences differ significantly and during these periods of economic downturn the economies affected have adopted

Tzong-Shian Yu

2003-01-01

4

Kalinga In South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overseas trade and maritime activities played a significant role in the spread of the glorious Indian civilization abroad. Indians and more specifically the people of Kalinga went to South East Asia and established colonies there. The colonizing activity of the ancient Indians was distinctive in several respects. The Indians wherever they went, settled down there, absorbed some of the cultural

Benudhar Patra

5

Heart failure in East Asia.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) carries a major burden of disease in East Asia, with high associated risk of mortality and morbidity. In recent decades, the epidemiology of HF has changed with social and economical development in East Asia. The burden of HF is still severe in East Asia. The prevalence of HF ranges from 1.3% to 6.7% throughout the region. As aetiological factors, ischaemic heart disease has increased and valvular disease reduced in most East Asian countries. Diuretics are the most commonly used drugs (51.0%-97%), followed by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (59%-77%), with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEI, (32%-52%) and has angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, ARBs (31%-44%) in similar proportions. Betablocker use has also increased in recent years. Total mortality from HF ranges from 2% to 9% in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Age>65 years, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with adverse outcome. More prospective, region-specific data are still required, particularly regarding new drug therapies such as eplerenone and ivabradine. PMID:23597295

Guo, Yutao; Lip, Gregory Y H; Banerjee, Amitava

2013-05-01

6

Economic Outlook for East Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An Institute for Developing Economies (IDE) publication, the 1999 Economic Outlook for East Asia analyzes the East Asian countries in 1998 and presents forecasts for 1999 (in English and Japanese). According to IDE, Thailand and South Korea will begin to see signs of recovery in the coming year, as the impact of the new Miyazawa Initiative is felt, although Hong Kong will remain "afflicted" by recession. Malaysia and Singapore are also expected to recover as will the Philippines, Vietnam, and Taiwan. As a whole, the growth rate for the East Asian economies is predicted to rise to 3.1 percent in 1999 from 0.1 percent, and general prices are forecast to "swing back" to a single-digit inflation rate of 6.6 percent.

1998-01-01

7

IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

8

JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from South Asia and the Near East. Titles include: measures Planned to Combat Bureaucracy, Improve Administration; Sommentary Alleges Junejo Embarrassed by U.S.; North Korea Re...

1988-01-01

9

JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains foreign media information from the Near East and South Asia on issues related to civil affairs, international politics, international relations, political revolution, foreign policy, security, economics, investments, finance, labor an...

1990-01-01

10

Rural Diversification: Lessons from East Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a result of the declining contribution of rice-based farming in East Asia, investment in agriculture must diversify to maintain rural incomes. In the short-term, East Asian countries should diversify toward crops for which there is a promising market (...

S. Barghouti C. Timmer P. Siegel

1990-01-01

11

An East Asia FTA: A Malaysian Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been slightly more than a decade since the concept of the East Asia Economic Group (EAEG) was first mentioned by Malaysia’s Prime Minister. It was originally conceived of as an informal regional organization to serve as a loose consultative forum where East Asian economies consult each other on issues of common concern as an dw hen the need

MOHD HAFLAH PIEI

12

How international economic links affect East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author applies the theme of the last two papers in the Global Economic Prospects series, written by the International Economics Department, to the case of one developing region: East Asia. He documents the rapid integration of the East Asian economies into the world economy through trade and foreign direct investment, and suggests that this has helped create a relatively

Vikram Nehru

1993-01-01

13

Some important fermented foods of Mid-Asia, the Middle East, and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Other speakers in this Symposium discussed fermented foods of China, Japan, and Southeast Asia; I will describe several other\\u000a fermented foods that are very important in Mid-Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. These fermentations, unlike those of the\\u000a Orient, use bacteria and yeasts instead of filamentous fungi. They are acid products prepared from cereals traditionally grown\\u000a in the areas, notably

C. W. Hesseltine

1979-01-01

14

Political terrorism in South?East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will provide an overview of one specific non?military threat that is beginning to assume greater prominence on south?east Asia's broadened security agenda: political terrorism. Although by no means new to the south?east Asian environment, for much of the twentieth century its importance was sidelined and, in a sense ‘contained’, by the more pressing concern over US?Soviet nuclear rivalry.

Peter Chalk

1998-01-01

15

East Asia: A Climatological Study. Volume 2: Maritime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A climatological study of East Asia. This volume concentrates on the portion of East Asia that is directly influenced by a maritime weather regime. The region includes southeast and northeast China, Taiwan, and the Korean peninsula. After describing the g...

M. L. Higdon R. S. Lilianstrom V. H. Killman J. W. Louer J. S. Freeman

1997-01-01

16

South-East Asia regional perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the 11 Member States in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR) are undergoing extensive and radical reforms in national health systems. Trade liberalization processes are in progress to attract foreign investment leading to economic growth. There is a vast range of country experiences on the impact of globalization on health, including those related to multilateral trade agreements. While some

Abdul Sattar Yoosuf

17

Higher Education in South-East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

Online Submission, 2006

2006-01-01

18

Near East/South Asia Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from the Near East and South Asia. Titles include: Butrus Ghali Comments on African Mini-Summit; Party Leaders Respond to Criticisms During Elections; Pros and Cons of Establis...

1987-01-01

19

Developments in business networks in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines three forms of business networking that have been identified within South East Asia: Japanese business networking, Korean business networking and Chinese family business networking. These demonstrate distinct characteristics. The Japanese system is the most well known and is exhibited mainly through the formation of industrial networks. Korean business networking differs in terms of ownership and control with a familial

René Kienzle; Mark Shadur

1997-01-01

20

Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

21

The rule of law and capitalism in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between the emergence of the rule of law and the growth of capitalism in East Asia. The basic argument is that legal institutions in East Asia are embedded in the system of state?dominated corporatist capitalism of East Asia. This distinctive form of capitalism has produced a system of law and legalism that needs to be

Kanishka Jayasuriya

1996-01-01

22

The East Asia geographic map series  

SciTech Connect

During the last 15 years, the Circum-Pacific Map Project Northwest Quadrant Panel (NWQP) has created a map inventory of geoscience data at a scale of 1:10,000,000. Now, for East Asia, a second set of thematic maps is being initiated cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP). These new maps will constitute the East Asia Map Project, and they will present geoscience parameters at a scale of 1:2,000,000 that can be used to evaluate the potential for undiscovered resources with the application of new deposit modeling methodologies. The following map series are being compiled or are under consideration: geography, geotectonics, geophysics, mineral resources, energy resources, and hazards. The U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) is compiling the East Asia Geographic Map Series. Shorelines, rivers, and international boundaries have been computer plotted by the National Mapping Division from the most detailed version of the World Data Bank II (WDB II). This publicly available bank was hand digitized from a 1:3,000,000-scale global map compiled from a variety of sources. The East Asia series is composed of eight overlapping sheets with Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection having a common point of origin at 120{degree}E and 15{degree}N; neatlines for each sheet are 39{degree} {times} 54.4{degree}. Titles reflect each map's coverage: Sheet 1, Japan/Korea/Northeast China; Sheet 2, Southeast China; Sheet 3, Southeast Asia; Sheet 4, Philippines; Sheet 5, Malaysia/ West Indonesia; Sheet 6, East Indonesia; Sheet 7, Papua New Guinea/ Solomon Islands; and Sheet 8, Western Pacific Islands. Contours have been scribed by the USGS's Office of International Geology.

Terman, M.J.; Bell, E.P. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1990-06-01

23

East Asia's Recovery Gathering Force: An Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest World Bank regional brief describes East Asia's recovery from the 1997 economic crisis as "remarkable," but cautions that the region is still susceptible to another downturn. Presented by Masahiro Kawai, the bank's chief economist for East Asia and the Pacific, the 116-page report notes several signs of improvement, including high rates of economic growth, rising employment and labor earnings, increasing foreign investment, lower interest rates, and recovering currencies. The East Asian countries, Kawai concludes in the press release, "can at last return to the medium term development agenda," assisted, of course, by the World Bank. Users can download the full text of the report by section or in its entirety at the World Bank site.

24

Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes  

PubMed Central

East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history.

2013-01-01

25

East Asia: The Road to Recovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book by the World Bank Group examines factors contributing to East Asia's financial collapse and makes suggestions for economic recovery. Seven chapters spanning East Asian trade and competition and the sector at the heart of the crisis--the financial sector, may be downloaded individually. Figures displaying the evolution of interest rates in Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand (January 1996-July 1998) and a discussion of social effects are provided in the final chapter entitled "Priorities for a Sustainable Recovery."

1998-01-01

26

Foreign direct investment and corporate restructuring in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One trend in East Asia has been an emergence of East Asian countries, most notably newly industrializing countries often called first?tier tigers, as sources of FDI in the region. In ten developing economies in East Asia, four first?tier tigers (Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea) together emerged as almost equally important as Japan or the United States as sources

1999-01-01

27

Trade barriers in East and South East Asia: the implications for retailers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries in East and South East Asia have erected trade barriers at various times since 1945. Many retail markets have therefore been closed to outside influence and investment. In the 1990s however such measures are being reversed and markets in East and South East Asia are becoming increasingly open. This openness is both a willing embrace of outside investment

Keri Davies

1993-01-01

28

East Asia: A Climatological Study. Volume 1: Continental.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The climatological study of East Asia is divided into two volumes. Volume I discusses the the area of East Asia that are most affected by continental air masses. This includes Tibet, Mongolia and northeast China. After describing the geography and major m...

C. D. Surls D. E. Carey M. L. Higdon R. S. Lilianstrom

1997-01-01

29

Impact of China's WTO Accession on East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrialized and newly industrializing economies (NIEs) in East Asia will benefit from China's WTO accession, and the developing economies in the region may incur small welfare losses. China will increase its demand for high-end manufacturing products from Japan and the NIEs and farm products, natural resources, and manufactured goods from developing East Asia. New foreign investment may flow into

Elena Ianchovichina; Terrie Walmsley

2005-01-01

30

Training and certification of neurologists in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

South East Asia has 8% of world population, but only has 2% of the total number of neurologists in the world. Seven of the 11 countries in South East Asia have training programmes in Neurology. Brunei, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar and Singapore require prior training and certification in Internal Medicine before admission to training to Neurology. Most training programmes are 3

Shih-Hui LIM; Chong-Tin TAN

31

New magnetic anomaly map in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic data provides basic information for geologic and geophysical interpretation. From 2004 to 2010 we have collected 57 magnetic cruises by using different research vessels. In this study we attempt to compile the newly collected and existing magnetic data including land, marine and aeromagnetic data in East Asia area, which can provide us a general overview of the tectonic framework of the study area. Based on newly compiled map, several magnetic features can be identified in the new magnetic map. (1) The NE-SW trending high positive magnetic anomaly zone presenting in southwest Taiwan is still apparently. (2) A sharp boundary, named Zhongnan Fault, separates South China Sea into east and southwest sub-basin. The magnetic patterns in the southwest sub-basin differ from in east, not only in amplitude, but also in the trending of the spreading. (3) Between Gagua ridge and Luzon-Okinawa Fracture Zone, the magnetic lineations reveals NW-SE direction. This indicates that the spreading direction was NE-SW in this area. (4) Strong positive magnetic anomalies over the Taiwan-Sinzi, Yushan, Yandang, and Zhemin Ridges suggest the existence of remnant volcanic arcs. High positive magnetic anomalies located beneath Ryukyu arc and Ryukyu Trench implies a high magnetized material of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate.

Doo, W.

2011-12-01

32

Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic

Xiaoyun Cai; Zhendong Qin; Bo Wen; Shuhua Xu; Yi Wang; Yan Lu; Lanhai Wei; Chuanchao Wang; Shilin Li; Xingqiu Huang; Li Jin; Hui Li

2011-01-01

33

Industrial robotics in South-East Asia: ISIR Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on the proceedings of the 26th ISIR (International Symposium on Industrial Robots) held in Singapore, October 1995 and on the 4th Asian-Pacific Industrial Automation Exhibition (IA ’95) held in conjunction with it. Subjects included addressing robot technology to service jobs – a potentially greater marketing sector than manufacturing; the future of robotics in Asia; and robot technology for medium

Bijan Shirinzadeh

1996-01-01

34

Japan Between the United States and East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter integrates the explanations for Japan's relations with the United States, East Asia, and the three international financial institutions provided in the previous chapters. By resorting mainly to economic meansâand mostly cooperative at thatâJapan behaves \\

Ming Wan

1999-01-01

35

Health promotion in South East Asia.  

PubMed

The countries of the South East Asia region, which includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, have undertaken a variety of strategies to address the health challenges in the region. The ever-growing pressure of population in the region has allowed rapid transmission of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, and HIV/AIDS. One of the innovative community-based health initiatives in response to this problem is Indonesia's Primary Health Care Project. This project aimed to develop a sustainable health infrastructure by training medical staff, coordinators, village cadres, midwives and those working for TB programs; provision of ongoing guidance and education in this area; and provision of medicines and funds. The project has pioneered a process towards positive changes. Another strategy is the collaboration of youth groups, island development committees, and health workers in Maldives which has led to the declaration of two islands (Madifushi and Haa Alif Berinmadhoo) as 'no smoking' islands. In addition, Sarvodaya has successfully developed a methodology to involve Buddhist monks in AIDS prevention and control through "the Buddhist approach to AIDS prevention in Sri Lanka." PMID:12349574

Mir, N S

36

Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840-1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval.) A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840-1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki) and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne) magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50) during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69%) of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak?50). It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50) examples of sporadic aurorae observed in the United States during the interval AD 1880-1940. The localised nature and spatial structure of some sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia is indicated by the use of descriptive terms such as "lightning", "rainbow", "streak" and "grid".

Willis, D. M.; Stephenson, F. R.; Fang, Huiping

2007-03-01

37

Power Structure and Its Stability in North-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Its my pleasure to share viewpoints on the peace of North-East Asia with you here. But first, I would like to say thanks to the organizer for arranging the talk for me. The peace of northeast Asia, in my opinion, is decided and will be decided by the stability of Sino-America relationship, this is the center of this issue, while

Yuzhu Wang

2007-01-01

38

The United States and Extended Security Commitments: East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In East Asia and the Western Pacific the United States faces an impressive recent Soviet military (especially naval) buildup, continuing and serious tension in Korea, a Japan that to date has not done much to put itself in a viable defensive posture, and potential for further unrest in Southeast Asia. In the last year or two of the Carter administration,

Harold C. Hinton

1981-01-01

39

The genus Laetiporus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among East Asian, North American and European Laetiporus sulphureus s. lat., a cosmopolitan brown rot species complex, were assessed with phylogenetic analyses and incompatibility tests. Three East Asian taxa, Laetiporus cremeiporus sp. nov., Laetiporus montanus and Laetiporus versisporus, are described and illustrated as well as compared with related taxa from Southeast Asia, North America and Europe. Phylogenetic analyses showed

Yuko Ota; Tsutomu Hattori; Mark T. Banik; Gregor Hagedorn; Kozue Sotome; Sawako Tokuda; Yasuhisa Abe

2009-01-01

40

Regional Trade Policy Cooperation and Architecture in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial and economic crisis has affected East Asia mainly through the trade channel. The region remains heavily dependent on export markets in Europe and North America through both direct exports to these destinations and indirect exports via the export of parts and components to other East Asian countries, particularly the Peoples Republic of China, which are then assembled

Siow Yue Chia

2010-01-01

41

Initial Conditions and Miraculous Growth: Why is South East Asia Different From Taiwan and South Korea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that the economies of East and South East Asia are a very diverse group, only some of which have grown rapidly over the past three decades. The fast-growing economies of South East Asia, especially Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia are in a number of important respects different from the fast-growing economies of North East Asia, Japan, Taiwan and

Anne Booth

1999-01-01

42

Free trade agreements and vertical-specialisation in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional integration in East Asia has been described as ‘market-led’ integration driven by the activities of multinational\\u000a corporations creating vertical specialisation. This paper investigates the effect of free trade agreements (FTAs) on vertical\\u000a specialisation-based trade by employing a gravity estimation for a sample of nine East Asian countries plus the US. We find\\u000a that FTAs promote international trade based on

Xinyi Li

2009-01-01

43

India’s Interactions with East Asia: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

India’s relations with countries of East Asia reveal its growing profile in the region in economic, technological, diplomatic, political and military spheres. India’s Look East policy, initiated in 1992, is bearing fruit now, as seen in the region becoming the largest trading partner of India, enhanced bilateral and multilateral diplomatic interactions, and long-term commitments in the security (maritime, cyber and

Srikanth Kondapalli

2010-01-01

44

South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

Laird, John

1991-01-01

45

The United States and the East Asia Summit: Finding the Proper Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The East Asia Summit is the newest leaders-led regional organization in the Asia Pacific with a broad mandate and an unclear future. Its membership means that it is stuck halfway between being an East Asian regional body such as the ASEAN+3 process and an Asia-Pacific body such as Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Expanding the East Asia Summit to include the United

Malcolm Cook

2008-01-01

46

Asia Federation Report on International Symposium on Grid Computing 2009 (ISGC 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides an overview of developments in the Asia-Pacific region, based on presentations made at the International Symposium on Grid Computing 2009 (ISGC 09), held 21-23 April. This document contains 14 sections, including a progress report on general Asia-EU Grid activities as well as progress reports by representatives of 13 Asian countries presented at ISGC 09. In alphabetical order, these are: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.

Grey, Francois

47

The selection of international retail franchisees in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Although international franchising has occurred in East Asia over the past 20 years, surprisingly very little academic research has been undertaken to understand key dynamics of this marketing phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to examine franchise resources, which is a key construct in the internationalization of retail franchising. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A multiple case study approach has

Stephen Choo; Tim Mazzarol; Geoff Soutar

2007-01-01

48

History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

2012-01-01

49

Understanding India's Regional Initiatives with East and Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, India has concluded several bilateral and regional agreements with countries in East and Southeast Asia. This paper discusses four motivating factors underlying these initiatives: (i) the recognition by other Asian countries of India's growing importance as an investment and export market, as a supplier of manpower, and as a counterbalance to China's growing regional dominance; (ii) India's

Rupa Chanda; Sasidaran Gopalan

2009-01-01

50

Recent Human Evolution in East Asia and Australasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In both East Asia and Australasia arguments for evolutionary continuity between middle-late Pleistocene hominid populations and modern Homo sapiens are of long standing. In both regions, however, problems of chronological distribution, dating and preservation of hominid skeletal materials provide an effective barrier to extending regional sequences back to `archaic' Homo sapiens or Homo erectus. The earliest securely dated modern Homo

Peter Brown

1992-01-01

51

Economic Governance, Accountability and Accounting Change in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of economic governance is now thought to require the remaking of respective accountabilities along with significant corresponding accounting change. On the basis of key discourses about a particular ‘critical’ period in East Asia's recent history, this article considers whether certain regional and individual country accountabilities were actually remade and whether the role of accounting changed accordingly. It finds

John Ritchie

2008-01-01

52

Regional Numerical Modeling Study of the East Asia Dust Storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-line PRM-Dust model has developed to study the dust storms in the East Asia region by incorporating a dust module with a prognostic mesoscale meteorological model, the Purdue Regional Model (PRM). The dust module consists of emissions, dry and wet deposition, and optical depth calculation. The dust emission model applied herein is based on the dust emission source function

K. J. Yang; W. Sun

2003-01-01

53

Dynamics of Human Trafficking: The Colombia-East Asia Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes the dynamics of transnational trafficking in humans for commercial sexual exploitation from a business dimension. Based on a review of Colombian judicial records (2005-2011), this study analyses the interaction between victims, traffickers and intermediaries involved in cases of trafficking between Colombia and East Asia. This research argues that victims occasionally have a double-condition for a trafficking network:

Monica Hurtado

2012-01-01

54

Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

Lee, Hyuk-Jin

2010-01-01

55

Whither the look east policy: India and Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's policy with Southeast Asia, which took a distinctive shape since the early 1990s in the form of the Look East policy, has been a multi?pronged approach encompassing political, strategic and economic aspects. Apart from establishing institutional linkages with ASEAN and strengthening bilateral relations with its member states, especially in the field of defence, India has been an enthusiastic participant

G. V. C. Naidu

2004-01-01

56

Network effects in the East Asia container ports industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an integrated set of 4Cs indices, namely, centrality index, competition index, congestion index and concentration index to examine network effects in the East Asia container port industry. Empirical analysis confirms that larger ports enjoy greater direct network effects related to economies of scale, whereas, smaller ports leverage on indirect network effects to widen their scopes of influence

Joyce M. W. Low; Loon Ching Tang

2012-01-01

57

Power Parity, Alliance, Dissatisfaction, and Wars in East Asia, 1860-1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Original power transition theory is extended by relaxing the restrictive assumption of the method of augmenting national power. The occurrence of war in East Asia from 1860 to 1993 is examined to see if the revised power transition argument holds for the conflicts in East Asia. Results show that conflicts in East Asia occur under the same general conditions that

WOOSANG KIM

2002-01-01

58

Prevalence of Giardia lamblia with or without diarrhea in South East, South East Asia and the Far East  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review of the latest information on the prevalence of G. lamblia in South Asia, South East Asia and Far East, characterizing the current endemic situation within these regions. Around 33\\u000a published papers from 2002–2007 were collected on G. lamblia. The included countries were Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Republic\\u000a of Korea, and

Hassan H. Dib; Si Qi Lu; Shao Fang Wen

2008-01-01

59

Impact Of East Asia’s Growth Interruption and Policy Responses: The Case Of Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments to date of the consequences of implementing the Uruguay Round (UR) of multilateral trade negotiations have assumed medium-term rates of economic growth in East Asia that now seem unsustainable. This paper compares one set of those estimates to 2005 with an alternative set involving an interruption to East Asian economic growth in the late 1990s, using the global, economy-wide

Kym Anderson; Anna Strutt

1999-01-01

60

Trade, Investment and Development in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This seminar focuses on economic issues facing selective East Asian economies. The topics include Free Trade Areas, international production fragmentation, international trade, foreign direct investment, industrial policies, economic development and growth, etc. Countries to be examined include the two largest Asian countries, Japan and China; the four Asian tigers, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore. There is no standard

Hitomi Iizaka

61

Education and Development in East Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book examines the specific role that formal education has played in the development process of the East Asian regions since World War II. The essays emphasize education's role as a source of growth and analyze its links with economic, social, and political domains in the post-war period. The writers hope to demonstrate both the changing…

Morris, Paul, Ed.; Sweeting, Anthony, Ed.

62

The China factor in US alliances in East Asia and the Asia Pacific1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any discussion of the United States' alliances in East Asia and the Pacific should include an understanding of the role that China plays in regional security in general, and the influence of such a role on the alliance system in particular. The 'China factor' in the contemporary US alliance system can be understood by asking the following questions: (1) what

AILEEN SAN PABLO-BAVIERA

63

East Asia now important factor in oil world  

SciTech Connect

On one level the countries of East Asia are vital components of the global energy equation specifically in regard to oil production and are directly affected by the entire world. But equally they are independent nation states with their own particular energy characteristics, making each country worthy of specific consideration. There is not necessarily a regional dimension to every energy issue facing the countries and one must be careful to avoid facile generalizations about the region. For the purpose of this article, East Asia will be defined as Japan, the newly industrialized economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea; the industrializing economies of Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines, and the remainder, excluding the Indian subcontinent, but including China, Burma, and Viet Nam. Together these countries contain some one third of the world's population and produce around a fifth of the world gross domestic product (GDP). For the past 3 decades, they have made up the fastest growing economic region of the world. However, East Asia cannot be considered in isolation from the Middle East. No examination of any energy topic can ignore the importance of that area.

Norton, H. (BP Asia Pacific and Middle East (SG))

1991-10-21

64

Antenatal depression in East Asia: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

2012-05-22

65

Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied.

Schatz, David Beck; Liu, Chia-Yih

2012-01-01

66

Origins of Agriculture in East Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Some of the world's most important crops, including rice and soybean, originate from eastern Asia. This region is also the original home of several minor crops, such as buckwheat and certain types of millet. In their search for the earliest farms, archaeologists have been drawn to China's two major river valleys: the Yellow River in the north and the Yangtze River in the south. Grains of broomcorn and foxtail millet have been found in Neolithic farmsteads in the Yellow River region (1, 2), and sites in the Yangtze River region have yielded the world's earliest evidence of harvested rice grains (3).

Martin K. Jones (University of Cambridge;McDonald Institute of Archaeological Research)

2009-05-08

67

Industrialization in an age of globalization: some comparisons between East and South East Asia and Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contrast between industrial experience in East and South East Asia and Latin America is dramatic. Whilst a first generation of newly industrialized economies in East Asia grew rapidly on the basis of manufacturing expansion, the longer-established industries of Latin America have performed relatively poorly by most indicators. This paper utilizes data from UN and World Bank databases to assess

John Weiss; Hossein Jalilian

2004-01-01

68

Inverse modeling analysis of soil dust emissions over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil dust is the most important aerosol by mass concentrations in the troposphere and has considerable effects on air quality and climate. East Asia including southern Mongolia and northern China is one of important source regions. Accurate simulations of dust storm outbreak would be thus crucial for protecting human health as well as for better assessing its climatic impacts. However, huge uncertainties in soil dust simulations especially for dust sources in East Asia are still present in the state-of-the-art aerosol models. We here attempt to reduce uncertainty with simulated dust sources by applying inverse modeling technique and gain better understanding on physical processes determining dust mobilization over East Asia. We used a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with DEAD dust mobilization scheme in 2001. In addition we implemented in the model a Shao dust emission scheme which uses different threshold friction velocity as a function of particle sizes. We first evaluated the model by comparing simulated aerosol concentrations against observations in China, Korea, and Japan. The model with the DEAD scheme overestimated PM10 mass concentrations close to dust source regions in China but underestimated observed PM10 in downwind regions such as Korea and Japan during dust storm breaks. These simulated discrepancies, however, were much reduced in the model with Shao scheme resulting from spatial changes in dust sources. To examine determining parameters of dust sources in those two schemes and underlying physical processes we conduct an inverse modeling analysis of dust emissions from 4 source regions (Inner Mongolia, Gobi, Taklamakan desert, Mongolian plateau). Our analysis yields optimized dust sources over East Aisa, which enable us to better quantify spatial and temporal distributions of dust aerosol concentrations and their contributions to both air quality and climate over East Asia.

Ku, B.; Park, R.

2009-12-01

69

Country watch: South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

Bagasao, T M

1996-01-01

70

Saving, investment and international capital mobility in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the degree of international capital mobility in East Asia using the saving–investment correlation originated in Feldstein and Horioka [Feldstein, M., Horioka, C., 1980. Domestic saving and international capital flows. Economic Journal 90, 314–329]. We apply the empirical method used in Kim [Kim, S.H., 2001. The saving–investment correlation puzzle is still a puzzle. Journal of International Money and

Soyoung Kim; Sunghyun H. Kim; Yunjong Wang

2007-01-01

71

From Small Objects to Cars: Consumption Expansion in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To cover East Asia region analytically requires a researcher to abstract from specific geographic locations which vary widely\\u000a in economic development, and focus on consumer practices. Empirically, the visual urban landscape, which is being rapidly\\u000a transformed to accommodate consumer culture, appears to “convince” urbanites that goods on display, visually accessible, are\\u000a within reach, in spite of real financial deprivation. Ubiquitous

Beng Huat Chua

72

Simulated Seasonal Variations in Wet Acid Depositions over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System–Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4 , NO3 , and NH4 concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater

Cui Ge; Meigen Zhang; Lingyun Zhu; Xiao Han; Jun Wang

2011-01-01

73

Conservation And Management Of Grassland Biodiversity In East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asia has various types of grasslands, such as inland arid and semi-arid natural grasslands in China and Mongolia, and\\u000a artificially managed semi-natural grasslands in wet monsoon areas like Japan. Diversified utilization and livestock farming\\u000a are carried out on these grasslands. A variety of grasslands have been maintaining diversified organisms characteristic to\\u000a grassland ecosystems. However, in those grasslands, irrespective of

Hideharu Tsukada; Osamu Imura; Kun Shi

74

Food in health security in South East Asia.  

PubMed

With a global economic crisis, undernourished peoples in South East Asia, as elsewhere, face even greater food insecurity. Future challenges to food availability include increasing food prices, increasing population size and climate change. National policies are required which emphasise improved intersectoral coordination, enhanced government credibility and accountability, as well as a shift in food aid to investment in agriculture and the empowerment of independent institutions. PMID:19965337

Tuyen, Le Danh

2009-01-01

75

Growth and Distribution in the Market Economies of East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review and comparison of seven books dealing with income distribution and economic development focusing on the countries of East Asia. The books reviewed are:\\u000aIrma Adelman and Sherman Robinson, Income Distribution Policy in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.\\u000aEdward K. Y. Chen, Hyper-Growth in Asian Economies: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong, Japan, Korea,

Gary S Fields

1982-01-01

76

Validation of a multidecadal RCM hindcast over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precipitation and low-level air temperature in East Asia from a regional climate model (RCM) hindcast for the 22-year period 1979–2000 is evaluated against observational data in preparation for the model use in regional climate change research. Emphasis of the evaluation is placed on the RCM capability in capturing the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation and low-level temperature, especially

Jinwon Kim; Hyun-Sook Jung; C. R. Mechoso; Hyun-Suk Kang

2008-01-01

77

Simulation of soil moisture and its variability in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil moisture and related hydrological process play an important role in regional and global climates. However, large-scale and long-term observation of soil moisture is sparse. In this study, the latest NCAR Community Land Model is used to simulate regional soil moisture in East Asia for recent 25 years with the atmospheric forcing provided by NCEP\\/DOE reanalysis. A 50-year simulation has

Chuanli Du; Wanli Wu; Xiaodong Liu; Wei Gao

2006-01-01

78

Inverse modeling analysis of soil dust sources over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil dust is the dominant aerosol by mass concentration in the troposphere and has considerable effects on air quality and climate. Parts of East Asia, including southern Mongolia, northern China, and the Taklamakan Desert, are important dust source regions. Accurate simulations of dust storm events are crucial for protecting human health and assessing the climatic impacts of dust events. However, even state-of-the-art aerosol models still contain large uncertainties in soil dust simulations, particularly for the dust emissions over East Asia. In this study, we attempted to reduce these uncertainties by using an inverse modeling technique to simulate dust emissions. We used the measured mass concentration of particles less than 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ) in the surface air over East Asia, in combination with an inverse model, to understand the dust sources. The global three-dimensional GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) was used as a forward model. The inverse model analysis yielded a 76% decrease in dust emissions from the southern region of the Gobi Desert, relative to the a priori result. The a posteriori dust emissions from the Taklamakan Desert and deserts in eastern and Inner Mongolia were two to three fold higher than the a priori dust emissions. The simulation results with the a posteriori dust sources showed much better agreement with these observations, indicating that the inverse modeling technique can be useful for estimation of the optimized dust emissions from individually sourced regions.

Ku, Bonyang; Park, Rokjin J.

2011-10-01

79

The Russian Far East and Northeast Asia: Aspects of Energy Demand and Supply Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Overview of Energy Demand and Supply for Northeast Asia Northeast Asia (NEA), which in this report covers China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea and the Russian Far East, is one of Asia's most dynamic sub regions. With the exceptions of North Korea and the Russian Far East, the region has demonstrated spectacular economic growth at various times for over

Victor Kalashnikov

1997-01-01

80

Early evidence of the genus Homo in East Asia.  

PubMed

The timing and route of the earliest dispersal from Africa to Eastern Asia are contentious topics in the study of early human evolution because Asian hominin fossil sites with precise age constraints are very limited. Here we report new high-resolution magnetostratigraphic results that place stringent age controls on excavated hominin incisors and stone tools from the Yuanmou Basin, southwest China. The hominin-bearing layer resides in a reverse polarity magnetozone just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai subchron, yielding an estimated age of 1.7Ma. The finding represents the age of the earliest documented presence of Homo, with affinities to Homo erectus, in mainland East Asia. This age estimate is roughly the same as for H. erectus in island Southeast Asia and immediately prior to the oldest archaeological evidence in northeast Asia. Mammalian fauna and pollen obtained directly from the hominin site indicate that the Yuanmou hominins lived in a varied habitat of open vegetation with patches of bushland and forest on an alluvial fan close to a lake or swamp. The age and location are consistent with a rapid southern migration route of initial hominin populations into Eastern Asia. PMID:18842287

Zhu, R X; Potts, R; Pan, Y X; Yao, H T; Lü, L Q; Zhao, X; Gao, X; Chen, L W; Gao, F; Deng, C L

2008-10-07

81

Urban population exposure to lead and cadmium in east and south-east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is still scarce for many Asian countries on general population exposure to two potentially toxic heavy metals of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The present review on publications from this study group is intended to provide an overview of the non-occupational exposure to Pb and Cd among general populations in east and south-east Asia. During the period of 1991–1998,

Masayuki Ikeda; Zuo-Wen Zhang; Shinichiro Shimbo; Takao Watanabe; Haruo Nakatsuka; Chan-Seok Moon; Naoko Matsuda-Inoguchi; Kae Higashikawa

2000-01-01

82

Asia Federation Report on International Symposium on Grid Computing (ISGC) 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides an overview of developments in the Asia-Pacific region, based on presentations made at the International Symposium on Grid Computing 2010 (ISGC 2010), held 5-12 March at Academia Sinica, Taipei. The document includes a brief overview of the EUAsiaGrid project as well as progress reports by representatives of 13 Asian countries presented at ISGC 2010. In alphabetical order, these are: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.

Grey, Francois; Lin, Simon C.

83

HRD in Asia. Symposium 3. [AHRD Conference, 2001].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) in Asia. "The Experiences of HRD Professionals Participating in Continuing Professional Development in Taiwan" (Yu-Shu [Jason] Chen) reports on a study that was based on the method of hermeneutic phenomenology and conducted to describe and interpret the experiences of…

2001

84

Two funerals and a wedding? The ups and downs of regionalism in East Asia and Asia-Pacific after the Asian crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal regional organizations in East Asia and Asia-Pacific, ASEAN and APEC, are widely seen to be crisis-stricken, ‘becalmed’ or ‘adrift’. At the same time, East Asia is witnessing the emergence of a new, as yet embryonic body, ASEAN Plus Three (APT), and ambitious projects implying closer integration between Northeast and Southeast Asia are being mooted. Departing from an analysis

Douglas Webber

2001-01-01

85

Winter Precipitation variability over East Asia associated with ENSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) exhibits the greatest influence on the interannual variability over not only the tropical Pacific, but the global climate. In addition, there are closely related with variability of East Asian monsoon. We investigate winter precipitation variability associated with ENSO over East Asia during recent 30 years (1980-2009). In early winter, during El Nino peak phase, correlation coefficients between precipitation and Nino 3 SST over East Asia including Korean peninsula are significantly strong positive, but the correlation is significantly weakened and even negative in January. In early winter, the strong positive correlation of precipitation, accompanied by the strong southerly wind is induced by Philippine Sea anticyclone and strong anticyclonic flow over the Kuroshio expansion region (hereafter called the "Kuroshio anticyclone"). However, in January, the precipitation tends to decrease because that the Kuroshio anticyclone suddenly disappears, though the Philippine Sea anticyclone further develops. These results indicate that the Kuroshio anticyclone during El Nino peak phase play a critical role in strongly affecting Northeast Asia climate including Korea, Japan and North China. We suggest here that the Kuroshio anticyclone is related to the precipitation on the equator. In order to further understand dynamical process of the Kuroshio anticyclone in North Pacific, we carried out the linear baroclinic model (LBM) experiments. Based on the LBM modeling, it is revealed that the Kuroshio anticyclone is influenced by negative precipitation forcing over the western Pacific in December and its sudden disappearance in January is affected by the strengthened positive precipitation forcing over the eastern Pacific.

Son, H.-Y.; Park, J.-Y.; Kug, J.-S.

2012-04-01

86

A regional climate change simulation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, regional climate changes for seventy years (1980-2049) over East Asia and the Korean Peninsula are investigated using the Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES) B1 scenario via a high-resolution regional climate model, and the impact of global warming on extreme climate events over the study area is investigated. According to future climate predictions for East Asia, the annual mean surface air temperature increases by 1.8°C and precipitation decreases by 0.2 mm day-1 (2030-2049). The maximum wind intensity of tropical cyclones increases in the high wind categories, and the intra-seasonal variation of tropical cyclone occurrence changes in the western North Pacific. The predicted increase in surface air temperature results from increased longwave radiations at the surface. The predicted decrease in precipitation is caused primarily by northward shift of the monsoon rain-band due to the intensified subtropical high. In the nested higher-resolution (20 km) simulation over the Korean Peninsula, annual mean surface air temperature increases by 1.5°C and annual mean precipitation decreases by 0.2 mm day-1. Future surface air temperature over the Korean Peninsula increases in all seasons due to surface temperature warming, which leads to changes in the length of the four seasons. Future total precipitation over the Korean Peninsula is decreased, but the intensity and occurrence of heavy precipitation events increases. The regional climate changes information from this study can be used as a fruitful reference in climate change studies over East Asia and the Korean peninsula.

Lee, Dong-Kyou; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Chun-Sil; Choi, Suk-Jin

2013-09-01

87

Magnetic anomalies of east and southeast Asia andtheir linear features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic anomaly map of east and southeast Asia was produced by compiling manydata sets collected by air-borne and ship-borne surveys. In order to tie between adjoining areas, DGRF-RGRF removal and a linear shift were applied to each data set. Linear features are detected from the map as a special reference to suggest possible crustal structures. They can be classified into several provinces where they have similar trends. The trends suggest histories of origin and their subsequent deformations.

Okubo, Yasukuni; Ishihara, Takemi; Daigo, Maria Joy N.

88

Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in East Asia.  

PubMed

Japanese encephalitis virus is genetically divided into five genotypes. Until the early 1990s, only genotype-3 JE virus was identified in Japan, then, the genotype shifted to type-1 countrywide. Based on our molecular epidemiological study of JEV in Vietnam, China, and Japan, 8 subgroups of genotype 1 JEVs are circulating in East Asia and, at least, 4 of these subgroups are chronologically related and frequently introduced to Japan through China. Possibly, this subgroup distribution is due to bird migration and/or infected mosquitoes which carry viruses for long distances. While in Japan, a small population of genotype 1 is circulating locally. PMID:19799848

Morita, Kouichi

2009-09-30

89

Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia (EEPSEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1993, the Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia (EEPSEA) supports training and research in environmental and resource economics in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao PDR, China, and Sri Lanka. Information on EEPSEA research projects, workshops, postdoctoral awards, and organizational structure is available in addition to the educational guide How to Design a Research Project in Environmental Economics. Full-text publications include policy briefs on issues of environmental regulation, in-depth research reports (1997-present), and a recently released series of Special Papers.

1997-01-01

90

Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives.

ITO, HIROTO; SETOYA, YUTARO; SUZUKI, YURIKO

2012-01-01

91

Tectonics in East Asia : Contiunous or block-wise?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many researchers have derived GPS velocity fields in East Asia for elucidating tectonic motions. We have collected and combined published velocity fields to obtain a unified velocity field in the region. For this purpose, small rotations and offsets were given to all of velocity fields in accord with ITRF2000 velocities in the least squares sense according to Heki (1996). Then the combined velocity field was converted to stable Eurasia fixed reference frame. Results provide us with a picture of tectonic motions in East Asia in detail. Then we modeled the region by a thin elastic continuous plate to explain this unified velocity field. To better understand the tectonic environments, we started with simple boundary condition of indenting displacements along the Himalayan arc. Then, we successively added other three boundary conditions such as the effect of the Amurian plate motion etc. Results suggest that lateral shear by the eastward motion of Amurian plate might play an important role for the acute clockwise rotation of the velocities towards east in the north of Tibet. Though the velocity fields are rather well interpreted by the implemented boundary conditions as above, residual velocity fields indicated that further refinements of modeling are necessary. Departure from such a simple elastic plate naturally requires effects of block motions. We hypothesized that a small amount of aseismic slip along large active faults at depth such as Altyn Tagh fault may play a significant role in tectonic deformations in the area. Thus we applied a block-fault motion model originally developed by Matsu'ura et al. (1986) to examine if such model better interpret crustal deformation in this area. In this model, crustal deformation is represented by a sum of rigid block motions and elastic deformation due to slip deficit at the shallower part of faults between blocks. It may be naturally anticipated that if one uses more blocks, the rms of residual velocities decreases to unreasonably small numbers. To avoid such an over complexity, we started with very refined model and decreased the number of rigid blocks and found minimum number of rigid blocks needed to interpret the total tectonic motion of the East Asia. Our preliminary results show that estimated block and fault motion fit to the velocity data well and the root-mean-squared residual of velocity data is as small as 3.7 mm/yr. This relatively large rms suggests that we should further improve our current preliminary model.

Iwakuni, M.; Kato, T.; Miyazaki, S.; Sun, W.

2002-12-01

92

Emissions of HFCs in East Asia: Consumption or Production?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies ([Kim et al., 2010], [Li et al., 2011]) have reported significant emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-32 (CH2F2), HFC-125 (CF3CHF2), and HFC-152a(C2H4F2) in East Asia, especially China. Emissions estimates based on consumption patterns (such as the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) inventories) have speculated that HFC emissions from China and Korea would be very low. In this study the East Asian emissions of the HFCs are further investigated using in situ measurements at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases (AGAGE) network. First, the measurements were combined with a regional emission inversion method based on the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The inversion results are in good agreement with previous studies, confirming the large emissions of HFCs in East Asia. The spatial patterns found in the inversion results suggest large point-sources for the HFCs, rather than broad widely-dispersed emission patterns. Furthermore, analysis of interspecies correlation among the HFCs and also with other polluted compounds were found to be very poor. These findings are contrary to the emission patterns expected from their popular use as refrigerant mixtures (HFC-32 and HFC-125), aerosol repellents and/or foam blowing agents (HFC-152a). Our results suggest that the Chinese emissions of HFCs are unlikely to be from actual consumption of these compounds. One possible explanation for these emissions would be fugitive leaks at production sites. Further work in incorporating factory locations directly into the inversions may help further solidify this hypothesis. Nonetheless, our study reaffirms the importance of emissions of HFCs in the global budgets, and suggests that the sources of these emissions may be very different from emissions in other parts of the world.

Kim, J.; Trebler, A.; Li, S.; Muhle, J.; Park, S.; Park, M.; Kim, S.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; Stohl, A.; Weiss, R. F.; Kim, K.

2011-12-01

93

HRD in Asia. Symposium 35. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document consists of three symposia papers on human resources development (HRD) in Asia. "The Impact of Action Learning on the Conflict-Handling Styles of Managers in a Malaysian Firm" (Antony Hii, Michael J. Marquardt) presented results of a quantitative study of a three-month action learning program on managers' conflict-management skills.…

2000

94

Participation of Women in AID's Training Programs for Asia and the Near East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Women make up a disproportionately low percentage of Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) participants from Asia and the Near East region in U.S. and third-country training programs, accounting for only 14.8% (Asia) and 17.6% (Near East) in 1989....

J. Cotter A. Held

1990-01-01

95

Multinational enterprises in China, East Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe : Moving out or moving in?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether multinational corporations moving into China have a negative impact on the extent of foreign firms moving into other developing countries in East Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper controls for a comprehensive set of determinants of why multinational enterprises enter the economies of East Asia,

Busakorn Chantasasawat; K. C. Fung; Hitomi Iizaka; Alan Siu

2008-01-01

96

Model study of atmospheric particulates during dust storm period in March 2010 over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Regional Air Quality Model System (RAQMS) is utilized to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of PM10 concentrations and soil dust aerosol over East Asia in March 2010, when a severe dust storm occurred on 19–23 March. Dust aerosols were primarily generated in Gobi Deserts on 19 March and then swept across vast areas of East Asia. Model results

Jiawei Li; Zhiwei Han; Renjian Zhang

2011-01-01

97

Seasonal characteristics of precipitation in 1998 over East Asia as derived from TRMM PR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation radar data derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used to study precipitation\\u000a characteristics in 1998 over East Asia (10°–38°N, 100°–145°E), especially over mid-latitude land (continental land) and ocean\\u000a (East China Sea and South China Sea). Results are compared with precipitations in the tropics. Yearly statistics show dominant\\u000a stratiform rain events over East Asia (about 83.7%

Yunfei Fu; Yihua Lin; Guosheng Liu; Qiang Wang

2003-01-01

98

Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang

2013-05-01

99

Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia are investigated by a set of numerical experiments performed with the version 4 of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4). With reference to the pre-industrial period, most of the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal surface-air temperature and precipitation changes are found to result from a direct response of the atmosphere to insolation forcing, while dynamic ocean and vegetation modulate regional climate of East Asia to some extent. Because of its thermal inertia, the dynamic ocean induced an additional warming of 0.2 K for the annual mean, 0.5 K in winter (December-February), 0.0003 K in summer (June-August), and 1.0 K in autumn (September-November), but a cooling of 0.6 K in spring (March-May) averaged over China, and it counteracted (amplified) the direct effect of insolation forcing for the annual mean and in winter and autumn (spring) for that period. The dynamic vegetation had an area-average impact of no more than 0.4 K on the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal temperatures over China, with an average cooling of 0.2 K for the annual mean. On the other hand, ocean feedback induced a small increase of precipitation in winter (0.04 mm day-1) and autumn (0.05 mm day-1), but a reduction for the annual mean (0.14 mm day-1) and in spring (0.29 mm day-1) and summer (0.34 mm day-1) over China, while it also suppressed the East Asian summer monsoon rainfall. The effect of dynamic vegetation on the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal precipitation was comparatively small, ranging from -0.03 mm day-1 to 0.06 mm day-1 averaged over China. In comparison, the CCSM4 simulated annual and winter cooling over China agrees with simulations within the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), but the results are contrary to the warming reconstructed from multiple proxy data for the mid-Holocene. Ocean feedback narrows this model-data mismatch, whereas vegetation feedback plays an opposite role but with a level of uncertainty.

Tian, Z.; Jiang, D.

2013-09-01

100

Total Factor Productivity Growth in East Asia: Implications for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total factor productivity (TFP) growth controversy and the recent economic crisis raise many questions about the future growth of East Asia. Our analysis of historical experiences shows that low TFP growth in the East Asian newly industrialized economies (NIEs) is a natural pattern of growth at the initial phase of industrialization. Empirical evidence shows that East Asian NIEs in

Jong-il Kim

2002-01-01

101

Inward Foreign Direct Investment, Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Poverty: East and South-East Asia vs. Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using panel data of 12 middle-income countries in East and South-East Asia as well as Latin America, this paper examines how openness in general and outward FDI in particular affects poverty. While economic growth and trade openness are found to be associated with lower poverty, both outward and inward FDI adversely affect the mean income of the poorest quintile of

Kai-Fang Teng; Pan-Long Tsaic

102

Combining farm and regional level modelling for Integrated Resource Management in East and South-east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, in many of the highly productive lowland areas of East and South-east Asia a trend to further intensification and diversification of agricultural land use can be observed. Growing economies and urbanization also increase the claims on land and water by non-agricultural uses. As a result, decisions related to the management and planning of scarce resources become increasingly complex. Technological

Reimund P. Roetter; Marrit Van Den Berg; Alice G. Laborte; Huib Hengsdijk; Joost Wolf; Martin K. Van Ittersum; Herman Van Keulen; Epifania O. Agustin; Tran Thuc Son; Nguyen Xuan Lai; Wang Guanghuo

2007-01-01

103

Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

2006-01-01

104

Performance evaluation of atmospheric particulate matter modeling for East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system associated with emission and meteorological datasets to conduct a one-year Particulate Matter (PM) simulation in East Asia. The performance of the PM simulation results was evaluated against observed data using high-spatial resolution monitoring data from Taiwan (e.g., concentration of PM and its compositions and precursors), Air Pollution Index-derived data in 82 cities of China, and satellite-derived surface PM2.5 concentrations. Based on error analysis of two indicators (overall bias and gross error), the validity of model performance is demonstrated. Daily comparison results at the various stations (cities) in 2007 indicate that the simulations at Taiwan's monitoring stations were superior to those in cities in China. Overall, the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in Taiwan were underestimated by 11 and 10%, respectively, whereas the simulated PM10 concentrations in six regions of China showed significant differences, with the simulation overall bias ranging between ?55 and 52%. There are two primary reasons for the large differences in model performance between Taiwan and China. First, the grid resolution for China was coarser than that for Taiwan because of the limitation of emission data resolution in the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS). Second, the spatial distribution and magnitude of emissions in the REAS might be incorrect in some regions, particularly in the domain boundary areas of China. In addition to the relatively good emission database for Taiwan, the reasonable emission estimates for the central areas of China may be partially responsible for better model performance of PM in Taiwan.

Chen, Tu-Fu; Tsai, Chang-You; Chang, Ken-Hui

2013-10-01

105

The hair of the dog that bit you: successful market strategies in post-crisis South-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of post-crisis South-East Asia’s declining growth and declining per capita income, local companies are restructuring their operations and re-evaluating their strategies along with multinational companies (MNCs). This article explores the winning market-expansion strategies of two companies in South-East Asia’s changed business environments – the MNC, Unilever in Indonesia; and the local company, Asia Commercial Bank (ACB) in

Usha C. V. Haley

2000-01-01

106

Characteristics of aerosol transport and distribution in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used daily aerosol simulations for the period from 2001 to 2003 that were generated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to characterize aerosol transport and distributions in East Asia. In comparison with the AERONET, MODIS, and visibility observations, the model can capture the main distribution features of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its temporal changes with a correlation coefficient of 0.75 and 0.85, respectively. It was found that high AODs occur in Central China, the Sichuan basin, the Indo-China peninsula, the Indian subcontinent, and the Bay of Bengal because of black carbon, organic matter, and sulfate, whereas in the Taklimakan desert and its adjacent regions, high AODs occur because of dust. The potential effects of the hygroscopicity of aerosol particles on the AOD were mainly observed in the Sichuan basin, the Bay of Bengal, the Indo-China peninsula, and Central and Southern China. The East Asian aerosol transport was distinctly affected by the flux divergence induced by aerosol advection (AFD) and by the flux divergence induced by wind divergence/convergence (WFD). For black carbon, organic matter, and sulfate, the effect of AFD was a factor of 2 or 3 larger than that of WFD in the divergence region, whereas AFD dropped to 70% of WFD in the convergence region. The high AOD of black carbon, organic matter, and sulfate over the Sichuan basin related to the circulation characteristics of convergence in low altitudes and divergence in high altitudes, which can collect aerosol from adjacent regions at altitudes below 300 hPa and cause them to diverge easterly at higher altitudes.

Wu, Jian; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Deming

2013-10-01

107

Ballistic Missile as a Symbol of Asymmetry in East Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper offers two assertions: (1) Economic vitality and declining Western influence in Asia are gradually transforming Asia from a colonial geographic identity into a region with a modern and uniquely 'Asian' consciousness; and (2) The tremendous poli...

C. J. Davis

2000-01-01

108

East Asia oil-import dependency and vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Asian economies are expected to grow rapidly in 1982. It is estimated that the average annual real growth will reach 5.1%. The Asian Development Bank report shows that the oil price increases of the early 1970s drastically worsened the balance of payments problems of its developing member countries (DMC). The 1979-1980 oil price increases have led to a further deterioration in current accounts. The Asian Development Bank estimates that the DMC group oil import bill will escalate from $20 billion in 1978 to $47 billion in 1990. The added dependence on external financing can only damage these countries' future chances of borrowing on favorable financial terms. The greatest energy expense incurred by East Asian economies in the 1980s could come, however, not from oil import costs so much as from financing the transition from oil to alternative fuels. The Asia-Pacific region faces a major dilemma. An economic slowdown in the developing countries and a major increase in their foreign debt jeopardize their economic progress and threaten the international financial system. Yet, accelerated growth and economic development - which is in line with US foreign economic policy - can only mean a higher demand for oil and increased special arrangements with the oil-producing nations.

Himberg, H.A.; Morse, R.A.; Chapman, D.K.

1982-03-01

109

Energy, security and economic development in East Asia  

SciTech Connect

Politics plays a supremely important role in the energy supply of the countries of East Asia. The USSR and the People's Republic of China (PRC) are the two greatest suppliers of energy in the region-whilst the strong industrial economies of Japan, Taiwan and Korea are energy-deficient. These simple facts give rise to extraordinarily complex and often delicate political situations. China, for example supplies oil to Japan and imports Japanese technology and thereby manipulates Japan's relationship with the USSR. The Chinese capacity to generate energy surplus to its own developing domestic economic needs may also have a significant impact on the availability of new options for the energy supply of the Taiwanese and Korean economies. Taking the energy politics of the USSR and the PRC as its starting point this book goes on to consider the economic and political dilemmas of each of the major industrialised nations in the region. The authors also address wider issues such as the zoning of the South China Sea and the United States' perspective on the development of this region.

Keith, R.

1986-01-01

110

Spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts in the East Asian region (105-150°E, 20-50°N) are quantified using the effective drought index (EDI) over a period of 43 years, from 1962 to 2004, and the East Asian region was classified into six subregions on the basis of similarity in drought climate: (D1) South China; (D2) lower region of the Yangtze River, South Korea, and Central/South Japan; (D3) Central China and North Korea; (D4) Northwest China and middle region of the Yangtze River; (D5) North China; and (D6) Northeast China and North Japan. The EDI time series was then summarized for the different drought subregions and a drought map was created that shows the spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia. The map shows that in subregions, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and D6, there were 50 (11.63 per decade), 36 (8.37 per decade), 30 (6.98 per decade), 28 (6.51 per decade), 29 (6.74 per decade), and 33 (7.67 per decade) drought occurrences, respectively. The most common characteristic of droughts in the subregions is that short-term droughts (<200 days) which mainly occur in spring and summer, whereas long-term droughts (?200 days) mainly occur in autumn and winter. D1 shows the highest frequency of short-term droughts. Short-term droughts occur more frequently than long-term droughts in D2 and D3, but D4 and D6 showed a higher frequency of long-term droughts than short-term droughts. D5 showed a similar frequency of short- and long-term droughts. Drought onset dates are evenly distributed throughout the year for D1, D2, and D3, but distributed mostly in spring and summer in D4, D5, and D6. All the differences are linked to variations in the precipitation cycle of each subregion. In terms of annual variations in drought occurrence, D2 showed weakening droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a positive trend), whereas the other subregions showed intensifying droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a negative trend). The greatest intensifying trend was observed in D5, followed by D3, D6, D4, and D1.

Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

2013-08-01

111

Economic development in East Asia and a critique of the post-Confucian thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some scholars have put forward what they call a post-Confucian thesis to explain East Asia’s successful economic development.\\u000a The thesis makes two important arguments: first, that Confucianism has enabled East Asian countries to take a different type\\u000a of capitalism and a different path to modernity than did the West; second, that Confucianism has been the source of those\\u000a ethics such

Keedon Kwon

2007-01-01

112

Effects of El Niño on spring phenology of the highest mountain in north-east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data on the highest mountain in north-east Asia were analysed to understand their temporal variability and response to large-scale El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. We demonstrated that El Niño events played an important role in determining the phenology conditions in the Mt Baekdu area in north-east Asia. The analysis confirmed that the onset of phenological

Kyung-Ae Park; Uudus Bayarsaikhan; Kyung-Ryul Kim

2012-01-01

113

The marine Permian of East and Northeast Asia: an overview of biostratigraphy, palaeobiogeography and palaeogeographical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Permian marine biostratigraphy, faunal successions and mutual correlations (where possible) throughout East and Northeast Asia are synthesized, region by region, based on both published literature and the author's field observations in certain parts of the region. The correlation of the Permian marine successions of NE Asia with the Permian international timescale and, in particular, with Gondwanan Permian marine sequences

G. R. Shi

2006-01-01

114

Is Japan Creating a Yen Bloc in East Asia and the Pacific?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reaches seven conclusions regarding the Yen Bloc that Japan is reputed to be forming in Pacific Asia. (1) Gravity-model estimates of bilateral trade show that the level of trade in East Asia is biased intra-regionally, as it is within the European Community and within the Western Hemisphere, to a greater extent than can be explained naturally by distance.

Jeffrey A. Frankel

1995-01-01

115

Light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia from black carbon (BC) mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements at four sites: Korea Climate Observatory-Gosan (KCO-G), Korea Climate Observatory-Anmyeon (KCO-A), Maldives Climate Observatory-Hanimaadhoo (MCO-H) and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P). No significant seasonal variations of BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at MCO-H during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at KCO-G and KCO-A is higher than that in MCO-H due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at NCO-P is 0.14, which is two times great than that in MCO-H and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at NCO-P is the lowest among four sites. Consistently, the highest elemental carbon to sulfate ratio is found at NCO-P.

Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Lee, H.

2011-12-01

116

The MICS-Asia study: model intercomparison of long-range transport and sulfur deposition in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intercomparison study involving eight long-range transport models for sulfur deposition in East Asia has been initiated. The participating models included Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks, with a wide variety of vertical resolutions and numerical approaches. Results from this study, in which models used common data sets for emissions, meteorology, and dry, wet and chemical conversion rates, are reported and discussed.

Gregory R. Carmichael; Giuseppe Calori; Hiroshi Hayami; Itsushi Uno; Seog Yeon Cho; Magnuz Engardt; Seung-Bum Kim; Yoichi Ichikawa; Yukoh Ikeda; Jung-Hun Woo; Hiromasa Ueda; Markus Amann

2002-01-01

117

New Perspectives for US-ASIA Pacific Security Strategy: The 1991 Pacific Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents include: New Perspectives on Asia and the Pacific; Toward Democratization and Stability in Asia; American Security in the Asia-Pacific; Technology and Military Organization in Asia; Pacific Asia After the Oil Crisis and US Recession: Less...

D. Alves

1992-01-01

118

Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).  

PubMed

Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available. PMID:16050168

Bharucha, Z S

2005-01-01

119

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

120

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-05-28

121

Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

122

Moisture Circulation over East Asia during El Nino Episode in Northern Winter, Spring and Autumn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic analysis is made to investigate features of the moisture circulation over East Asian during the El Nino episode in northern winter, spring and autumn. It is found that in all these seasons, the anomalies of precipitation in China, atmospheric precipitable water, water vapor transport and moisture divergence over East Asia in the El Nino mature phase, differ from those

Renhe ZHANG; Akimasa SUMI

2002-01-01

123

The United States and East Asia in an age of financialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article starts from Peter Gowan's notion of a Dollar-Wall Street Regime (DWSR) characterized by financial deregulation, the dollar as the world's currency, large international capital flows, and frequent financial crises. The author argues that the DWSR has relied on a special economic relationship between the United States and East Asia, characterized by large East Asian trade and current account

Kristen Nordhaug

2005-01-01

124

The Effect of External Shocks on Macroeconomic Fluctuations: Implications for a Monetary Union in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovering from the severe economic downturn during the currency crisis, East Asian countries have shown considerable economic growth again and regional integration appears to be accelerating. Such a deepening integration process recalls to us an interesting question as to whether a regional monetary union or a common currency unit can be established in East Asia. While the ongoing economic integration

K. Sato; Zhaoyong Zhang; Michael McAleer

2009-01-01

125

Diversity and biogeography of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae, Gecarcinucidae) from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity and biogeography of the two families of freshwater crabs in East Asia (China, Taiwan, Ryukyus and mainland Japan) were studied. The richness in different areas, as well as the distributions of all 40 genera and 311 species were analysed, the patterns examined and possible mechanisms discussed. The published data of freshwater crab species and their distributions in East

HSI-TE SHIH; PETER K. L. NG

2011-01-01

126

Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

2011-01-01

127

Educational technology in transnational higher education in South East Asia: the cultural politics of flexible learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines appropriateness of using educational technologies to increase the flexibility of learning in tr ansnational higher education in South East Asia. It considers the argument that while interactive educational technologies may be appropriate in countries in which self-directed study and student autonomy are emphasised, the same uses of technology may not be as appropriate in South East Asian

Christopher Ziguras

2001-01-01

128

Vertical vegetation zones along 30° N latitude in humid East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes in altitudinal vegetation zones along a 30° N parallel were studied based on vegetation data from 20 mountains in East Asia, from 85° E to 130° E longitude. The altitude of comparable vegetation zones showed a sharp increase of 1400–1900 m from east to west. Forest limit reached an altitude of 4400–4600 m in the eastern Tibetan Plateau,

Jing-Yun Fang; Masahiko Ohsawa; Tatuo Kira

1996-01-01

129

Modelling vegetable marketing systems in South East Asia: phenomenological insights from Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a conceptual framework for the analysis of vegetable supply chains in a South East Asian context and the role wholesale markets play in these chains. Following a review of the literature on food marketing systems in developing countries and preliminary fieldwork in South East Asia, a holistic framework is proposed, including what are perceived to be the

Jean-Joseph Cadilhon; Andrew P. Fearne; Paule Moustier; Nigel D. Poole

2003-01-01

130

Teleconnection of climatic events between East Asia and polar, high latitude areas during the last deglaciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

From observations of continuous aeolian and swamp sediment sequences, augmented by a detailed 14C chronology, ?13C and organic C analyses, we can demonstrate century- to millennium-scale fluctuations in East Asian monsoon palaeoclimatic events. We also infer significant precipitation variability within the last deglaciation. The major climatic zones that have been recognised in Europe, and find counterparts in East Asia are,

Weijian Zhou; M. J Head; Xuefeng Lu; Zhisheng An; A. J. T Jull; D Donahue

1999-01-01

131

An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia. Situated on…

Lindow, Megan

2007-01-01

132

The Monsoon of East Asia and its Global Associations-A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations concerning the summer and winter monsoons of East Asia and their global associations are reviewed. The seasonal mean structure, transient variation, including intraseasonal to interannual, and synoptic to planetary scale fluctuations are discussed separately for the two monsoon components. Similarities and differences between the East Asian monsoon and that of India are also surveyed. We also present a description

Ka-Ming Lau; Mai-Tsun Li

1984-01-01

133

Natural positive selection and north–south genetic diversity in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports have identified a north–south cline in genetic variation in East and South-East Asia, but these studies have not formally explored the basis of these clinical differences. Understanding the origins of these variations may provide valuable insights in tracking down the functional variants in genomic regions identified by genetic association studies. Here we investigate the genetic basis of these

Chen Suo; Haiyan Xu; Chiea-Chuen Khor; Rick TH Ong; Xueling Sim; Jieming Chen; Wan-Ting Tay; Kar-Seng Sim; Yi-Xin Zeng; Xuejun Zhang; Jianjun Liu; E-Shyong Tai; Tien-Yin Wong; Kee-Seng Chia; Yik-Ying Teo; Y-Y Teo

2012-01-01

134

Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

Cheng, I-Hsuan

2010-01-01

135

FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices. Aubert et al introduce a novel technique of synthesizing composite nanomaterials and Cross and coworkers characterize Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films co-doped with Bi and Fe to enhance PZT capacitor ferroelectric properties. These articles are closely related to the global environmental load and energy issues that require solutions in modern ceramics technology. We hope that this focus issue will help advance not only ceramics-related but also other fields of materials science.

Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

2010-10-01

136

Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Dynamics and Structures of Terrorist Threats in Southeast Asia, Held at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the proceedings of the international symposium on 'The Dynamics and Structures of Terrorist Threats in Southeast Asia,' held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on 18-20 April 2005. The goals of the symposium were threefold: to lay the groun...

C. F. Ziemke J. J. Hanley K. O. Hassig

2005-01-01

137

Anatomy of Terrorism and Political Violence in South Asia Proceedings of the First Bi-Annual International Symposium of the Center for Asian Terrorism Research (CATR) October 19-21, 2005, Denpensar, Bali, Indonesia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the proceedings of the First Bi-annual International Symposium of the Council for Asian Terrorism Research (CATR). The goals of the symposium, entitled The Anatomy of Terrorism and Political Violence in South Asia were threefold: to...

C. Ziemke J. J. Hanley K. O. Hassig S. Limaye

2006-01-01

138

Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand,

Francis André

2000-01-01

139

Impact of the dominant large-scale teleconnections on winter temperature variability over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50°N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30°N-50°N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30°N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter temperature distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

2013-07-01

140

Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

141

Proof in climatology for circulation effect of stalagmite ?18O in East Asia: analysis on the ratios among water vapor transport passageway intensities in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Further verification about the circulation effect of stalagmite ?18O in East Asian monsoon region needs the quantitative description for the proportion of water vapor transport (WVT) from different source regions. WVT passageway intensities are defined as regionally averaged WVT flux modes in this paper. The ratio between two WVT passageways' intensities represents relative intensity of the two WVT passageways. Using the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data for 1948-2011, the ratios of the intensities of three WVT passageways from low latitudes (the intensity of WVT from Bay of Bengal (IBOB), the intensity of WVT from South China Sea (ISCS) and the intensity of WVT from western North Pacific (IWNP) in summer are calculated. SB is for the ISCS-IBOB ratio, WB for the IWNP-IBOB ratio, and WS for the IWNP-ISCS ratio. The decadal increase occurs in the time series of WB and WS, with higher values in 1976-1995 and lower values in 1950-1975, probably resulting from the strengthening of WVT from WNP in the midterm of 1970s. East Asian atmospheric circulations, WVTs and previous SST characters corresponding to the ratios are analyzed. The result indicates that SB, WB and WS may properly reflect the relative intensities between ISCS and IBOB, between IWNP and IBOB, and between IWNP and ISCS, respectively. For high SB years, the Asian Low and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weaken. The southwesterly winds from BOB to the Yangtze River valley by the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau weaken and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The southwesterly winds from SCS to East Asia strengthen and the WVT from SCS to East Asia strengthens. In high WB years, the Asian Low weakens and the WPSH shifts westwards, enhances and enlarges. The WVT from WNP to East Asia increases because of the strengthening of the easterly winds on the south of the WPSH. The westerly winds from BOB to East Asia by Indo-China Peninsula decrease and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The atmospheric circulation and WVT associated with WS are similar with those associated with WB. There are close relationships between WB (and WS) and the WPSH area, position and intensity. In high WB (and WS) years, the WPSH shifts westwards, enlarges and enhances. There is no obvious anomalous previous SST signal in tropical Indian Ocean and equatorial central and eastern Pacific for anomalous SB years. WB and WS are closely related to previous SST signal. When the equatorial central and eastern Pacific is in El Niño phase, SST in the tropical Indian Ocean, BOB and SCS is high and SST at middle latitudes in North Pacific is low, WB and WS tend to be high. After the midterm of 1970s, the equatorial central and eastern Pacific is often in El Niño phase. It is in agreement with higher WB in 1976-1995 than that in 1950-1975. In light of circulation effect of stalagmite ?18O in East Asia, high WB implies high stalagmite ?18O. Therefore, the interdecadal increase of WB in 1976-1995 than in 1950-1975 provides the proof using the conception of circulation effect to explain the interdecadal change of stalagmite ?18O at most regions in East Asia.

Nan, S.; Tan, M.; Zhao, P.

2013-07-01

142

Seasonal characteristics of precipitation in 1998 over East Asia as derived from TRMM PR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation radar data derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used to study precipitation characteristics in 1998 over East Asia (10° 38°N, 100° 145°E), especially over mid-latitude land (continental land) and ocean (East China Sea and South China Sea). Results are compared with precipitations in the tropics. Yearly statistics show dominant stratiform rain events over East Asia (about 83.7% by area fraction) contributing to 50% of the total precipitation. Deep convective rains contribute 48% to the total precipitation with a 13.7% area fraction. The statistics also show the unimportance of warm convective rain in East Asia, contributing 1.5% to the total precipitation with a 2.7% area fraction. On a seasonal scale, the results indicate that the rainfall ratio of stratiform rain to deep convective rain is proportional to their rainfall pixel ratio. Seasonal precipitation patterns compare well between Global Precipitation Climatology Project rainfall and TRMM PR measurements except in summer. Studies indicate a clear opposite shift of rainfall amount and events between deep convective and stratiform rains in the meridional in East Asia, which corresponds to the alternative activities of summer monsoon and winter monsoon in the region. The vertical structures of precipitation also exhibit strong seasonal variability in precipitation Contoured Rainrate by Altitude Diagrams (CRADs) and mean profiles in the mid-latitudes of East Asia. However, these structures in the South China Sea are of a tropical type except in winter. The analysis of CRADs reveals a wide range of surface rainfall rates for most deep convective rains, especially in the continental land, and light rain rate for most stratiform rains in East Asia, regardless of over land or ocean.

Fu, Yunfei; Lin, Yihua; Liu, Guosheng; Wang, Qiang

2003-07-01

143

Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East Asia. Our results also show that the active Tengchong volcano in SW China is related to the deep subduction of the Burma microplate down to the mantle transition zone and a BMW above the Burma slab. References: D. Zhao (2004) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. J. Huang, D. Zhao (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, B09305. D. Zhao et al. (2009) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 197-206.

Zhao, D.

2009-12-01

144

Emerging markets of South-East and Central Asia: Do they still offer a diversification benefit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to check whether, despite the growing world economic integration and progressive lifting of capital controls, emerging markets still offer international investors a diversification benefit. The study covers emerging markets from South-East Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia) and Central Asia (Korea, Taiwan, China and India) over the period 31\\/08\\/1999-29\\/08\\/2003 (a period characterized by both

Christian L. Dunis; Gary Shannon

2005-01-01

145

BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

2009-04-01

146

Is money still useful for policy in East Asia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the East Asian crises of 1997, a number of East Asian economies have allowed greater exchange rate flexibility and abandoned monetary targets in favor of inflation targeting, apparently because the perceived usefulness of money as a predictor of inflation, i.e. the information content of money, has fallen. In this paper, we discuss factors that are likely to have influenced

Ramon Moreno; Reuven Glick

2001-01-01

147

Globalisation, new education governance and state capacity in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue has chosen the theme ‘globalisation, changing nature of the state and governance in education’; the articles selected in this issue examine how and what strategies different East Asian states have adopted in response to the growing impact of globalisation. Major attention is paid to whether these East Asian states have reduced in capacity in governing education policy

Ka Ho Mok

2007-01-01

148

The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

Mok, Ka Ho

2013-01-01

149

Population genetic structure of crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus in East Asia, revealed by analysis of the mitochondrial control region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population genetic structure of the crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus in East Asia was examined with a 427-bp hypervariable portion of the mtDNA control region. A total of 262 samples were collected and 75 haplotypes were obtained. Neutrality tests (Tajima's and Fu's) suggested that Lutjanus erythropterus in East Asia had experienced a bottleneck fol- lowed by population expansion since the

Junbin Zhang; Zeping Cai; Liangmin Huang

2006-01-01

150

The perils of hyper-vigilance: the war on terrorism and the surveillance state in South-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis examines the puzzle as to why the intelligence structures of South-East Asia largely failed to detect the evolving threat of violently inclined radical Islamic groups, despite the existence of elaborate and pervasive internal security arrangements within the states of the region. The article explores this issue by positing contending viewpoints about how authoritarianism in South-East Asia might have

David Martin Jones; Michael Smith

2002-01-01

151

Changes of dependency structure in East Asia from 1990 to 2000: Analysis by intermediate input according to sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to interpret the situation surrounding the development of regional economy integration in East Asia by examining the degree of self-dependency and dependency on foreign countries in this region by using the International Input-Output (IIO) approach. We show that the economic interdependency in East Asia grew stronger from 1990 to 2000, with a strong upturn of the interdependency

Dan Jin; Yantian Chen

152

Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes  

PubMed Central

Asia has served as a focal point for human migration during much of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Clarification of East Asia’s role as a source and/or transit point for human dispersals requires that this region’s own settlement history be understood. To this end, we examined variation at 52 polymorphic sites on the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) in 1,383 unrelated males, representing 25 populations from southern East Asia (SEAS), northern East Asia (NEAS), and central Asia (CAS). The polymorphisms defined 45 global haplogroups, 28 of which were present in these three regions. Although heterozygosity levels were similar in all three regions, the average pairwise difference among haplogroups was noticeably smaller in SEAS. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated a general separation of SEAS versus NEAS and CAS populations, and analysis of molecular variance produced very different values of ?ST in NEAS and SEAS populations. In spatial autocorrelation analyses, the overall correlogram exhibited a clinal pattern; however, the NEAS populations showed evidence of both isolation by distance and ancient clines, whereas there was no evidence of structure in SEAS populations. Nested cladistic analysis demonstrated that population history events and ongoing demographic processes both contributed to the contrasting patterns of NRY variation in NEAS and SEAS. We conclude that the peopling of East Asia was more complex than earlier models had proposed—that is, a multilayered, multidirectional, and multidisciplinary framework is necessary. For instance, in addition to the previously recognized genetic and dental dispersal signals from SEAS to NEAS populations, CAS has made a significant contribution to the contemporary gene pool of NEAS, and the Sino-Tibetan expansion has left traces of a genetic trail from northern to southern China.

Karafet, Tatiana; Xu, Liping; Du, Ruofu; Wang, William; Feng, Shi; Wells, R. S.; Redd, Alan J.; Zegura, Stephen L.; Hammer, Michael F.

2001-01-01

153

Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project entitled…

Menton, Linda K.

2007-01-01

154

Genetic History of Hepatitis C Virus in East Asia ?  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis C virus (HCV), which currently infects an estimated 3% of people worldwide, has been present in some human populations for several centuries, notably HCV genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa and genotype 6 in Southeast Asia. Here we use newly developed methods of sequence analysis to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of the epidemic and evolutionary history of HCV in Asia. Our analysis includes new HCV core (n = 16) and NS5B (n = 14) gene sequences, obtained from serum samples of jaundiced patients from Laos. These exceptionally diverse isolates were analyzed in conjunction with all available reference strains using phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent methods. We performed statistical tests of phylogeographic structure and applied a recently developed “relaxed molecular clock” approach to HCV for the first time, which indicated an unexpectedly high degree of rate variation. Our results reveal a >1,000-year-long development of genotype 6 in Asia, characterized by substantial phylogeographic structure and two distinct phases of epidemic history, before and during the 20th century. We conclude that HCV lineages representing preexisting and spatially restricted strains were involved in multiple, independent local epidemics during the 20th century. Our analysis explains the generation and maintenance of HCV diversity in Asia and could provide a template for further investigations of HCV spread in other regions.

Pybus, Oliver G.; Barnes, Eleanor; Taggart, Rachel; Lemey, Philippe; Markov, Peter V.; Rasachak, Bouachan; Syhavong, Bounkong; Phetsouvanah, Rattanaphone; Sheridan, Isabelle; Humphreys, Isla S.; Lu, Ling; Newton, Paul N.; Klenerman, Paul

2009-01-01

155

Transnational satellite television and advertising in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

New media technologies such as satellite television allow international marketers to bypass national broadcasters and regulatory structures and advertise their goods and services direct to consumers and businesses on a regional or a global basis. In Asia, claims by the pioneering broadcaster StarTV to deliver pan-Asian elite audiences were met by a range of regulations on access by government concerned

Amos Owen Thomas

1998-01-01

156

Workshop on Power GRID Interconnection in NorthEast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OAK B135 The first workshop of the Northeast Asia Power Grid Interconnection project (Grid project) was held in Beijing from May 14 through 16, 2001 in collaboration with the State Power International Service and the Electric Power Research Institute of China. Power system experts, electrical engineers, economists, and energy policy researchers from all countries in the Northeast Asian region along

see website

2001-01-01

157

Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia.  

PubMed

In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (?HCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (?CMAQ, MEGAN and ?CMAQ, MOHYCAN), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (?SCIA). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HOy species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HOx radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NOy chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. PMID:23867846

Han, K M; Park, R S; Kim, H K; Woo, J H; Kim, J; Song, C H

2013-07-15

158

Chinese Military Modernization, The Economy, and Security in East Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper attempts to analyze the roots of current Chinese military modernization in the context of China's transformation to a market economy. The specific focus of the analysis is the relationship between the economy, the military and security in East ...

J. P. Long

2000-01-01

159

Projections of SO2, NOx, NH3 and VOC Emissions in East Asia Up to 2030  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from an inventory of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 emissions for the years 1990 and 1995 in East Asia (Japan, South and North Korea, China, Mongolia and Taiwan), the temporal development of the emissions of the four air pollutants is projected to the year 2030 based on scenarios of economic development. The projections are prepared at a regional level

Z. Klimont; J. Cofala; W. Schöpp; M. Amann; D. G. Streets; Y. Ichikawa; S. Fujita

2001-01-01

160

A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

2011-01-01

161

Directory of world seismograph stations. Volume 2, East Asia: China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the location of seismological instruments, their technical characteristics, dates of operation, and availability of data are fundamental to data exchange and to science. The volume is a directory of world seismograph stations in East Asia: China, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia

Miyamura, S.

1985-12-01

162

The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

Mok, Ka Ho

2012-01-01

163

Globalisation and the changing nature of the state in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with the rise of China’s

Andy Green

2007-01-01

164

Annual economic loss caused by Taenia saginata asiatica taeniasis in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taeniasis is an important medical and economic problem in many countries in East Asia, especially in the mountainous and remote areas where the inhabitants are fond of eating raw or undercooked meat. P.C. Fan here discusses how sociocultural factors and local customs can contribute to the transmission of taeniasis and evaluates the economic losses caused by the disease.

P. C. Fan

1997-01-01

165

Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently become apparent that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation in several countries of South and South-east Asia is adding arsenic to soils and rice, thus posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and to the health and livelihoods of affected people in those countries. This paper describes the many environmental, agricultural and social factors that determine practical

Hugh Brammer

2009-01-01

166

US Trade Policy Power and Sustainable Consumption: Beef and Cars in North East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the historical development of the traditionally marked contrast in regional consumption patterns between the Americas and North East Asia, and discusses the impact of these consumption patterns on the environment. Using the literature on consumption of beef and cars as indicators of consumption patterns and sustainability, the paper shows that the consumption style of the Americas is

Sjur Kasa

2003-01-01

167

Infant Feeding Patterns, Practices and Trends: Selected Asia/Near East Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months of life is probably the single most cost-effective child survival measure available and the infant's primary defense against infection, a review of 16 countries in the Asia/Near East region indicat...

N. Baumslag P. J. Putney

1989-01-01

168

Scaling Innovation in South East Asia: Empirical Evidence from Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diez J. R. and Kiese M. (2006) Scaling innovation in South East Asia: empirical evidence from Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok, Regional Studies40, 1–19. Our survey of 1600 manufacturing firms in Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok shows that the breadth and efficiency of innovative activities still lag considerably behind those found in 11 European regions. Cooperations are virtually indispensable for

Javier Revilla Diez; Matthias Kiese

2006-01-01

169

Exogenous Shocks and Endogenous Opportunities: The Economics-Security Tradeoff and Regionalism in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asia is becoming more regionalized. But it is doing so in fits and starts: two steps forward and one step back. Indeed, skeptics might suggest that even such a tentative description imputes unjustified clarity and speed to the process of regional cohesion. At present Asian governments share no overarching regional vision, nor have they demonstrated the political leadership and

T. J. PEMPEL

170

Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand in east Asia—a numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were investigated numerically by an Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new deflation module of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from

Hiroaki Terada; Hiromasa Ueda; Zifa Wang

2002-01-01

171

Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

2008-01-01

172

The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

Mok, Ka Ho

2012-01-01

173

Mapping Fragmentation: Electronics and Automobiles in East Asia and Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Fragmentation', the relocation of processes or functions across countries in response to cost and other differences, has important implications for development. We discuss the drivers of fragmentation and map it for electronics and automotives in East Asia and Latin America. For technical reasons, electronics is fragmenting faster worldwide than autos. Electronics networks are more advanced, widespread and integrated in EA

174

Integrating remotely sensed data with an ecosystem model to estimate net primary productivity in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of integrating remotely sensed data with an ecosystem model to estimate net primary productivity (NPP) in East Asia. We improved the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model for global NPP estimation by incorporating a new land cover map and employed a robust Normalized Difference Vegetation Index–Leaf Area Index (NDVI–LAI) algorithm. Using this method, we produced

Bunkei Matsushita; Masayuki Tamura

2002-01-01

175

Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains 40 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across five themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, Change"; (4) Institutions, Power & Government"; and (5)…

Aiken, Geoff; Benton, Susan; Duvall, James; Eltzroth, Diane; Hooyberg, Astrid; Keim, Marilee; Norris, Elizabeth; Smith, Peggy; Vogel, Kathy; Williams, Steven

176

Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains 23 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across six themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, and Change"; (4) "Aesthetics, Celebrations and Values"; (5)…

Beville, Francie; Boone, Mark; Chapman, Kelly; Crump, Claudia; Curtis, Lonnie; Erickson, Stacy; Kaiser-Polge, Tami; Klus, John A.; Luebbehusen, Mary Lou; Rea, Patrick S.; Ward, Mary E.

177

Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

Chiang, Li-chuan

2012-01-01

178

Globalisation and the Changing Nature of the State in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with…

Green, Andy

2007-01-01

179

History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)|

Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

2000-01-01

180

Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human population has increased greatly in size in the last 100,000 years, but the initial stimuli to growth, the times when expansion started, and their variation between different parts of the world are poorly understood. We have investigated male demography in East Asia, applying a Bayesian full- likelihood analysis to data from 988 men representing 27 populations from China,

Yali Xue; Tatiana Zerjal; Weidong Bao; Suling Zhu; Qunfang Shu; Jiujin Xu; Ruofu Du; Songbin Fu; Pu Li; Matthew E. Hurles; Huanming Yang; Chris Tyler-Smith

2006-01-01

181

Contemporary crustal deformation in east Asia constrained by Global Positioning System measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements collected since the early 90's allow us to derive geodetic velocities at 16 permanent stations in east Asia and 68 campaign mode sites in north China. The resulting velocity field shows the following: (1) Contrary to the early inferences that the Shanxi Rift has accommodated significant right-slip motion, our results suggest that the rift system,

Zheng-kang Shen; Chengkun Zhao; An Yin; Yanxing Li; David D. Jackson; Peng Fang; Danan Dong

2000-01-01

182

Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South East Asia for action planning and surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South East Asia for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and

F Stillman; M Hoang; R Linton; B Ritthiphakdee; W Trochim

2008-01-01

183

Multi-scale model analysis of boundary layer ozone over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to examine seasonal and diurnal variations of boundary layer ozone (O3) over East Asia. We evaluate the response of model simulations of boundary layer O3 to the choice of chemical mechanisms, meteorological fields, boundary conditions, and model resolutions. Data obtained from surface stations, aircraft measurements, and satellites are used

M. Lin; T. Holloway; T. Oki; D. G. Streets; A. Richter

2009-01-01

184

Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

Ho, Laina

185

WTO Compatibility and Rules of Origin - Assessing Bilateral Trade Agreements between Latin America and East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some theorists and practitioners argue that the stability of the global trade system is endangered by trade distorting effects of regional Free Trade Agreements. Does this also hold true for interregional FTAs? Based on criteria, such as scope, rules of origin and WTO notification, it is argued here that interregional FTAs between East Asia and Latin America do not fully

Howard Loewen

2009-01-01

186

Facing Constraints to Growth? Overseas Chinese Entrepreneurs and Traditional Business Practices in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overseas Chinese entrepreneurs in East Asia have achieved notable success in a number of traditional, slow growth industries. This success has been ascribed to distinctive aspects of Chinese business culture that favor alacrity, adaptability, networking, and close control of firm operations. Recently, some have suggested that the same characteristics that have promoted these firms' success in slower growth sectors may

David Ahlstrom; Michael N. Young; Eunice S. Chan; Garry D. Bruton

2004-01-01

187

Farm diversification and market inclusion in East Europe and Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents issues and challenges for farm and enterprise diversification and integration of small scale farmers into value chains in East Europe and Central Asia (EECA). First, it discuses context and approaches to agricultural and rural income diversification. Second, it assesses the extent of agricultural diversification in EECA. Third, it identifies issues, challenges and lessons learnt of the integration

Hrabrin Bachev

2012-01-01

188

Strategic Environment in East Asia and U.S.-Korean Security Relations in the 1980s.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Note assesses the likely influence of the evolving strategic environment in East Asia on U.S.-Korean security relations for the remainder of the 1980s. To assess this influence, the Note briefly examines recent trends in several areas: (1) the great ...

N. D. Levin

1983-01-01

189

Culture, Rationality and Economic Institutions in East Asia: The Chinese Family Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanation of economic interactions within East Asia has long been split between those who view action as an outcome of rational decision-making by an autonomous state and those who view it as a result of cultural patterns ingrained in Confucianism and other elements of traditional culture. This paper shows how these two approaches can used in a complementary rather than

Sun-Ki Chai

2003-01-01

190

Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

Hayden, Howard

191

Pointed Dome Architecture in the Middle East and Central Asia: Evolution, Definitions of Morphology, and Typologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at offering a closer view of pointed domes as the most significant and important cultural features of Eastern domes in the Middle East and Central Asia. In contrast to previous general historical studies, this study addresses the better comprehension of a formal architectural language of the pointed domes including their morphologies and typologies based on epistemological premise

Maryam Ashkan; Yahaya Ahmad; Ezrin Arbi

2012-01-01

192

Developing a knowledge base for educational leadership and management in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of school leadership in educational reform has reached the status of a truism, and led to major changes in school leader recruitment, selection, training and appraisal. While similar policy trends are evident in East Asia, the empirical knowledge base underlying these measures is distorted and lacking in validation. This paper begins by offering evidence in support of this

Philip Hallinger

2011-01-01

193

History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

2000-01-01

194

Reassortants in recent human influenza A and B isolates from South East Asia and Oceania.  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2002, human influenza A and B viruses that were genetic reassortants of contemporary circulating human strains, were isolated in South East Asia and Oceania. Similar to reports from other regions, A(H1N2) isolates were found to be reassortants of circulating A(H3N2) viruses that had acquired only the haemagglutinin gene of an A(H1N1) virus. Some of these reassortants from Thailand and Singapore predate those previously recorded during the winter of 2001-2002 in Europe and the Middle East and may be precursors of these viruses. The B reassortants had a haemagglutinin similar to an earlier B strain, B/Shangdong/7/97 (B/Victoria/2/87-lineage) and a neuraminidase similar to the recently circulating B/Sichuan/379/99 virus (B/Yamagata/16/88-lineage). Despite the early occurrences of A(H1N2) reassortants and the extensive circulation of A(H1) viruses in South East Asia and Oceania during 2000-2001, these reassortant influenza A viruses have to date not been prominent unlike Europe and the Middle East where they were common in the 2001-2002 winter. In contrast the reassortant B viruses, which first emerged in this region in early 2002, rapidly became the predominant strains isolated from patients with influenza B in South East Asia and Oceania. PMID:14609628

Barr, I G; Komadina, N; Hurt, A; Shaw, R; Durrant, C; Iannello, P; Tomasov, C; Sjogren, H; Hampson, A W

2003-12-01

195

East and Southeast Asia: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Asian Studies program at the University of Redlands, this easy-to-navigate directory allows users to access annotated links by country and by political, historical, and cultural topics. The site specifies seventeen East and Southeast Asian countries and hundreds of specific subjects, including sections on academic and library research sites. The homepage also offers direct links to current "hot topics," such as the crackdown on Falun Gong, the Asian financial crisis, the famine in North Korea, and East Timor's "Road to Independence." Frequently link-checked and updated, this is an excellent place to begin preliminary research on the region.

Eng, Robert Y.

196

Economic Integration and Openness in Europe and East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses European and East Asian Integration, and makes some comparisons between developments in the two regions. We stress that the process of integration is a political process as well as an economic one, and that the stimulation of competition is more important than the generation of trade in achieving the economic and political objectives that the Europeans have

Ray Barrell; Amanda Choy

2003-01-01

197

AEROSOLS AND CLIMATE: A PERSPECTIVE OVER EAST ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol is becoming a central theme in the climate research arena, due to many new findings concerning their significant direct and indirect effects on climate (e.g. by altering temperature, cloud, radiation and precipitation) and to the large uncertainties in our estimates of aerosol forcing on climate. Despite the large loading and complex properties of East Asian aerosols, our knowledge of

ZHANQING LI

198

ICT Experience in East Asia and Modelling for Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The remarkable development in ICT (Information and Communication Technology) was observed in the past decades that it has an increasing impact on economic and social activities in the world. ICT have had a significant role in the economic growth for developed and developing countries. The countries have been very dynamic in recent years in East…

Okur Dincsoy, Meltem

2010-01-01

199

Demand for international reserves: evidence from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the demand for international reserves in nine East Asian economies during the period 1970-2005 using panel cointegration and Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS). The panel cointegration tests find the existence of a long-run relationship between the demand for international reserves and its determinants. The panel group FMOLS results indicate that current account balance and total external

Eliza Nor; M. Azali; Siong Hook Law

2009-01-01

200

Inequality and Growth Reconsidered: Lessons from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asian economies have experienced rapid growth over three decades, with relatively low levels of income inequality, and appear to have also achieved reductions in income inequality. We argue that policies that reduced poverty and income inequalities, such as emphasizing high-quality basic education and augmenting labor demand, also stimulated growth. Closing two virtuous circles, rapid growth and reduced inequality led

Nancy Birdsall; David Ross; Richard Sabot

1995-01-01

201

China and arms control: Transition in East Asia  

SciTech Connect

With the Asian security environment in transition from the Cold War structure to whatever replaces it, prospects for arms control initiatives in the region and the attitudes and cooperative mechanisms to implement effective regimes are in a state of flux. Within Asia, Beijing`s conventional and nuclear defense modernization programs, combined with its active arms export program, make China a central player in present arms control regimes and any future agreements. While the end of the Cold War and the demise of the Soviet Union meant that China lost much of its strategic significance, Beijing`s growing economic and military power guarantee that it will be a major source affecting regional stability - or instability - for the foreseeable future. At present, China is viewed by many as a less-than-perfect partner in efforts to achieve a more effective Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), an agreement on a comprehensive test ban (CTB) treaty before 1996 and other non-proliferation and arms control initiatives. To understand why this is so, and to appreciate how the current transition in thinking among China`s elites can help or hinder these initiatives over the long term, it is necessary to more clearly see the post-Cold War world and Asia from Beijing`s perspective.

Godwin, P.H.B. [National War College, Washington, DC (United States); Schulz, J.J.

1994-11-01

202

Long-term aerosol trends over East Asia and its climate implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia is one of the largest source regions of gaseous pollutants and aerosols due to the rapid industrialization, urbanization and the population growth and has experienced air quality deterioration over the past. Increases in anthropogenic emissions are a main cause for the air quality degradation that is also sensitive to changes in climate conditions. We examine the long-term aerosol concentrations in East Asia using the 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations for the period of 1985-2006. The model was driven by the GEOS assimilated meteorology with the emission estimates from the Streets et al. inventory with annual scale factors of Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS). Over the past two decades precursor emissions have been dramatically changed. Our model simulations show that sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol concentrations are increased, whereas those of BC and OC are decreased. We computed the radiative forcing of aerosols as a measure of climate impact and found that increased cooling effect at the surface and top of the atmosphere, but decreased warming effect in the atmosphere. This result implies that the long-term aerosol concentrations may affect the regional climate over East Asia.

Jeong, Jaein; Park, Rokjin

2013-04-01

203

Promoting Growth in Sri Lanka: Lessons from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

June 1995Why---despite solid progress in human development and in the reduction of consumption poverty---has Sri Lanka's per capita income fallen far behind the dynamic East Asian economies? Sri Lanka's weaker growth performance was the result of several factors, including Sri Lanka's lower investment and (especially) domestic savings rates, its lower average productivity of investment (return on capital), its weak agricultural

Sadiq Ahmed; Priya Ranjan

1999-01-01

204

The United States Security Strategy for the East Asia-Pacific Region 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Defense recently released a review of security arrangements in East Asia and the Pacific, where close to 100,000 military personnel are currently stationed. Despite criticisms that the permanent stationing of these troops and another 100,000 in Europe is costly and unnecessary, the report argues, "our military presence in Asia serves as an important deterrent to aggression, often lessening the need for a more substantial and costly US response later." The report, which is available online and in .pdf format, outlines the key concepts behind the US presence in the region and discusses security and strategy issues for the next century.

205

Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia  

SciTech Connect

Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

2012-05-01

206

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

2010-07-01

207

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

2010-04-01

208

MPOWER and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation in the South-East Asia region.  

PubMed

The 11 member states of WHO's South-East Asia Region share common factors of high prevalence of tobacco use, practice of several forms of tobacco use, increasing prevalence of tobacco use among the youth and women, link of tobacco use with poverty, and influence of tobacco advertisements in propagating the use of tobacco, especially among young girls and women. The effects of tobacco use are many-fold, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates as well as loss of gross domestic product (GDP) to respective countries. The WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia has been actively involved in curbing this menace essentially by way of assisting member states in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper gives an overview of these activities and discusses the opportunities and challenges in implementing the FCTC and possible practical solutions. PMID:23442401

Singh, P K

209

A.I.D. Spring Review of Small Farmer Credit. Volume XI. Small Farmer Credit in East Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume consists of six separate reports describing the program characteristics, evaluation and role of technical assistance regarding farm credit as it is institutionalized and practiced in five countries in East Asia. The titles and authors of these...

1973-01-01

210

East Asia mantle tomography: New insight into plate subduction and intraplate volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new P-wave tomographic model beneath East Asia by inverting 1,401,797 arrival-time data recorded by the regional seismic networks in East Asia and temporary seismic arrays deployed on the Tibetan Plateau. Our high-resolution tomography shows that the subducted Pacific slab is revealed clearly as a high-velocity (high-V) zone and it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone beneath eastern China. Prominent high-V anomalies atop the 410 km discontinuity are detected beneath the eastern North China Craton and Northeast China, suggesting that lithospheric delamination may have occurred and greatly affected the thermal state, intraplate magmatism and surface topography of this region. The Indian lithosphere is characterized by a high-V anomaly and it is subducting nearly horizontally beneath the entire or most parts of western Tibet and with a small dipping angle to the southernmost part of eastern Tibet. The intraplate magmatism in different parts of East Asia has different origins. The active Tengchong volcano is underlain by a prominent low-velocity (low-V) anomaly in the shallow mantle, which may be caused by the subduction and dehydration of the Burma microplate plate (or Indian plate). The Hainan volcano is underlain by a plume-like low-V anomaly that extends down to at least 1000 km depth and seems to be related to the deep subductions of the Burma microplate (or Indian plate) in the west and the Philippine Sea plate in the east. Prominent low-V anomalies are detected beneath the Changbai, Longgang and Xianjindao volcanoes in Northeast Asia, which may be related to the rollback of the subducting Pacific slab as well as the convective circulation process in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant slab. The origin of the Wudalianchi volcano in Northeast China seems associated with the upwelling of asthenospheric materials caused by the subduction-induced lithospheric delamination.

Wei, Wei; Xu, Jiandong; Zhao, Dapeng; Shi, Yaolin

2012-10-01

211

Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) predictions of the tropospheric ozone budget over east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Langley Research Center and University of Wisconsin Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is used to estimate the tropospheric ozone budget over east Asia during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission. The computed ozone budget explicitly accounts for stratosphere\\/troposphere exchange (STE) and in situ ozone production using on-line chemical

R. B. Pierce; J. A. Al-Saadi; T. Schaack; A. Lenzen; T. Zapotocny; D. Johnson; C. Kittaka; M. Buker; M. H. Hitchman; G. Tripoli; T. D. Fairlie; J. R. Olson; M. Natarajan; J. Crawford; J. Fishman; M. Avery; E. V. Browell; J. Creilson; Y. Kondo; S. T. Sandholm

2003-01-01

212

A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSince 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered.Methods and FindingsWith evidence of a deteriorating situation, a

Paul N Newton; Facundo M Fernández; Aline Plançon; Dallas C Mildenhall; Michael D Green; Li Ziyong; Eva Maria Christophel; Souly Phanouvong; Stephen Howells; Eric McIntosh; Paul Laurin; Nancy Blum; Christina Y Hampton; Kevin Faure; Leonard Nyadong; C. W. Ray Soong; Budiono Santoso; Wang Zhiguang; John Newton; Kevin Palmer

2008-01-01

213

Vertical Specialization and New Determinants of FDI: Evidence from South and East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

By estimating a dynamic panel-gravity model of bilateral foreign direcr investment (FDI), this article investigates the location determinants of inward FDI in South and East Asia and assesses their short-run and long-run effects. The econometric results highlight the importance of the vertical specialization-, trade-, and international integration-related location factors. The gravity-specific variables are also found to be significant location determinants,

Klimis Vogiatzoglou

2007-01-01

214

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes and their applications to forensic and population studies in east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed 11 Y-STR loci (DYS19, the two DYS385 loci, DYS388, DYS389I\\/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DXYS156Y) in 700 males from ten ethnic groups in east Asia in order to evaluate their usefulness for forensic and population genetic studies. A total of 644 different haplotypes were identified, among which 603 (86.14%) were individual-specific. The haplotype diversity averaged over all

Kyoung Don Kwak; Han Jun Jin; Dong Jik Shin; Jung Min Kim; Lutz Roewer; Michael Krawczak; Chris Tyler-Smith; Wook Kim

2005-01-01

215

Cancer in the Global Health Era: Opportunities for the Middle East and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global burden of cancer is rising with almost 70% of cancer cases being in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).The Middle East and Asia have two thirds of the world’s population and the largest regional concentration of LMICs. Because of massive demographic and epidemiologic transitions, cancer mortality is projected to increase substantially in these populations. Lung cancer among men and

Subhojit Dey; Amr S. Soliman

2010-01-01

216

Reassortants in recent human influenza A and B isolates from South East Asia and Oceania  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2000 to 2002, human influenza A and B viruses that were genetic reassortants of contemporary circulating human strains, were isolated in South East Asia and Oceania. Similar to reports from other regions, A(H1N2) isolates were found to be reassortants of circulating A(H3N2) viruses that had acquired only the haeamagglutinin gene of an A(H1N1) virus. Some of these reassortants from

I. G. Barr; N. Komadina; A. Hurt; R. Shaw; C. Durrant; P. Iannello; C. Tomasov; H. Sjogren; A. W. Hampson

2003-01-01

217

Current Status of Dengue\\/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in WHO South-East Asia Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue fever\\/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF\\/DHF) is the most important emerging viral disease affecting nearly half of the world's population. It is estimated that there are between 50 to 100 million cases of DF and about 500 000 cases of DHF which require hospitalization every year. In the WHO South-East Asia Region, over the past 15 years, DF\\/DHF has become a

Chusak Prasittisuk; A. G. Andjaparidze; Vijay Kumar

218

Managing the rural–urban transformation in East Asia in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the special features of the rural–urban transformation in East Asia in the last 30 years within the\\u000a broader context of the development strategies of Asian governments. Despite an ongoing commitment to the rhetoric of concern\\u000a with rural development, food security and the alleviation of rural poverty, these policies have emphasised the important role\\u000a of urbanisation as the prime

T. G. McGee

2008-01-01

219

The political weakness of the EU in East Asia: a constructivist approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a constructivist explanation of the political weakness of the EU in East Asia. By examining the corporate\\u000a identity of the EU as well as its social identities towards ASEM, China and Japan, I argue that the identities which the EU\\u000a has constructed towards the outside world and in relation to the region, based on self recognitions of

Ramon Pacheco Pardo

2009-01-01

220

Analysis of aerosol properties from the AERONET over East Asia for a remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most satellite-based algorithms utilize Look-Up Table (LUT) approach, precalculated with radiative transfer models which are based on many assumptions. These assumptions can sometimes lead to significant error in satellite-based algorithms in aerosol products. All available daily level 2.0 AERONET data over East Asia are compiled to investigate monthly and seasonal variations of aerosol properties (aerosol optical depth, aerosol size distribution

J. Yoon; J. Kim

2007-01-01

221

Precipitation Characteristics in MidLatitude East Asia as Observed by TRMM PR and TMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation radar and microwave radiometer data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite during the spring and summer months of 1998 are used to study the precipitation characteristics in the mid-latitude East Asia region (20degrees-40degreesN, 100degrees-140degreesE), with particular emphasis on comparing the differences between stratiform and convective rains, and between rains during spring and summer. The characteristics in the

Yunfei FU; Guosheng LIU

2003-01-01

222

Distinct Principal Modes of Early and Late Summer Rainfall Anomalies in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th ec urrent seasonal prediction of East Asia (EA) summer monsoo nd eals with June-July-August (JJA) mean anomalies. This stud ys hows that th eE As umme rm onsoon ma yb ed ivided into earl ys umme r( May-June (MJ) )a nd late summer (July-August (JA) )a nd exhibits remarkable difference si nm ea ns tate betwee nM Ja nd

Bin Wang; Jian Liu; Jing Yang; Tianjun Zhou; Zhiwei Wu

2009-01-01

223

Sensitivity analysis of photochemical ozone to its precursor emissions over East Asia by CMAQ-DDM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past three decades, anthropogenic emissions in East Asia have increased dramatically in parallel with the economic growth, and the trans-boundary air pollution arose as a concerning issue. For instance, high photochemical oxidant (over 120 ppbv) was observed at the remote clean island in Japan during 2007 springtime. In this event, many studies concluded that the high possibility of the impact of Asian-scale trans-boundary pollutants. To investigate the source-receptor relationships, modeling study is useful, however, if the chemical reaction involves the nonlinear response (e.g., ozone), to estimate its S-R relationships is quite difficult. The decoupled direct method (DDM) which was implemented in CMAQ ver. 4.7.1 is an efficient and accurate way of performing sensitivity analysis to model inputs. CMAQ-DDM has been extended to higher-order (HDDM) for gas-phase, and calculates first and second-order sensitivity coefficients representing the responsiveness of atmospheric chemical concentrations to perturbations in a model input or parameter (e.g., emission, reaction rate, initical condition, or boundary condition). This applications are well conducted in the U.S., whereas it is not fully examined in East Asia. In this study, we apply CMAQ-DDM technique for ozone and its precursor pollutants in East Asia. In the case of trans-boundary air pollution episode occurred on 7-9 May, 2007, the 1st order ozone sensitivity to the anthropogenic NOx emissions from China show the positive value in almost part over East Asia, namely represent the NOx-sensitive region, whereas in the large-point sources in China (e.g., Beijing and Shanghai), it shows the negative value due to the ozone titration by NO. We will also report more detailed region specified S-R analysis and cross-sensitivity analysis between NOx and VOC over China, Korea and Japan.

Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; Kim, S.

2011-12-01

224

Interaction between anomalous winter monsoon in East Asia and El Nino events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a series of data analyses, the intimate relations between anomalous winter monsoon in East Asia and El Nino are studied\\u000a in this paper.\\u000a \\u000a Anomalistic circulation in the Northern Hemisphere caused by El Nino event can lead to enhancing the Ferrel cell and the westerlies\\u000a in the mid—latitudes as the Hadley cell and result in the location of the

Chongyin Li

1990-01-01

225

Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations  

PubMed Central

Background The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the Andaman Islands, is inconsistent with this scenario. Results In this study, we collected more than 5,000 male samples from 73 East Asian populations and reconstructed the phylogeography of the D-M174 lineage. Our results suggest that D-M174 represents an extremely ancient lineage of modern humans in East Asia, and a deep divergence was observed between northern and southern populations. Conclusion We proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages. The Neolithic expansion of Han culture and the last glacial maximum are likely the key factors leading to the current relic distribution of D-M174 in East Asia. The Tibetan and Japanese populations are the admixture of two ancient populations represented by two major East Asian specific Y chromosome lineages, the O and D haplogroups.

Shi, Hong; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Dong, Yong-Li; Qi, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lu-Fang; Tan, Si-Jie; Ma, Runlin Z; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Wells, R Spencer; Jin, Li; Su, Bing

2008-01-01

226

Impacts of Siberian forest fire aerosols on meteorology over East Asia in May 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense forest fires occurred over Siberia in May 2003 and released high concentrations of biomass burning aerosols into the atmosphere, affecting regional air quality in East Asia. The enhancement in aerosol concentrations from fires may also affect regional climate through their solar radiation extinction. In this study, we examine the effects of Siberian fire aerosols on regional meteorology using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of the Energy (NCEP-DOE) reanalysis II data and the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3). Our analysis of the NCEP-DOE reanalysis data show 99% statistically significant increases in both surface air pressure over Siberia and precipitation over the NW Pacific, possibly associated with significant changes in surface air temperature due to the Siberian fire aerosols, in 2003 relative to the 30 years climatology. We also conducted NCAR CAM3 simulations forced by 3-D daily mean biomass burning aerosols mainly consisting of black and organic carbons and sulfate aerosols from a global chemistry-transport model, GEOS-Chem. We found that the model simulation with the Siberian forest fire aerosols reproduced the observed cooling over Siberia and downwind East Asia and large-scale perturbations in surface pressure and precipitation. The simulated results clearly indicate a significant impact of Siberian fire aerosols on regional meteorology over East Asia, having important implications not only for regional climate but also for synoptic scale weather patterns.

Youn, Daeok; Park, Rokjin; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Moon, Byung-Kwon; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kim, Young Ho; Woo, Jung-Hun; Im, Eul Kyu; Song, Chang-Keun

2010-05-01

227

Tree-ring reconstructed summer temperature anomalies for temperate East Asia since 800 C.E.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a summer temperature reconstruction for temperate East Asia based on a network of annual tree-ring chronologies covering the period 800-1989 C.E. The East Asia reconstruction is the regional average of 585 individual grid point summer temperature reconstructions produced using an ensemble version of point-by-point regression. Statistical calibration and validation tests indicate that the regional average possesses sufficient overall skill to allow it to be used to study the causes of temperature variability and change over the region. The reconstruction suggests a moderately warm early medieval epoch (ca. 850-1050 C.E.), followed by generally cooler `Little Ice Age' conditions (ca. 1350-1880 C.E.) and 20th century warming up to the present time. Since 1990, average temperature has exceeded past warm epochs of comparable duration, but it is not statistically unprecedented. Superposed epoch analysis reveals a volcanic forcing signal in the East Asia summer temperature reconstruction, resulting in pulses of cooler summer conditions that may persist for several years. Substantial uncertainties remain, however, particularly at lower frequencies, thus requiring caution and scientific prudence in the interpretation of this record.

Cook, Edward R.; Krusic, Paul J.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki

2012-12-01

228

Diagnosis and simulation of a rapidly developing cyclone related to a severe dust storm in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mongolian cyclones are important to the outbreaks of severe dust storms in Northeast Asia. In this paper, we conduct a diagnostic study and a numerical simulation of a rapidly developing Mongolian cyclone that produced the April 5 to 7, 2000 severe dust storm in East Asia. The surface pressure of the cyclone decreased rapidly on April 5 to 6 causing

Linna Zhao; Sixiong Zhao

2006-01-01

229

Simulating Aerosol-cloud-radiation Feedbacks over East Asia Using Wrf-chem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols play an important role in climate change through their impact on the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Recently much effort has been put into studying the radiative forcing of aerosols in East Asia. In this study, we apply the regional chemistry and transport model, WRF-Chem, to study aerosol radiative forcing over eastern Asia. Version 3.3 of the model is used with the CBMZ chemical mechanism and the MOSAIC aerosol treatment. The time period of interest is Feb 21, 2005 to April 12, 2005, since there were extensive measurements of radiation, trace gases, and aerosol properties available from EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment ) campaign during that period. We conduct model simulations with and without aerosol forcing and compare the results to measurements. We investigate the aerosol radiative forcing as well as aerosol direct and indirect effects by analyzing the differences between short wave flux, temperature, and cloud fraction from these two runs. We evaluate our model simulated incoming short wave radiation at the surface with in situ measurements from EAST-AIRE site Xianghe (70 km southeast of Beijing, China). We find that shortwave radiation decreases when aerosols are added lessening the high-bias between model-calculated and observed short wave radiation. We further compare the model simulated cloud fraction from two runs with MODIS Level 2 retrievals, demonstrating aerosol indirect effects in cloud formations.

Wang, J.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Li, Z.; Dickerson, R. R.

2011-12-01

230

Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation of the East Asia and its chronological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) bear great information on the geodynamo field of the Earth's interior and can be used for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale. In this study, we constructed PSV curve of rapidly deposited Holocene marine sequence (Core MD06-3040) from the mud sediments on the East China Sea (ECS) inner continental shelf, and then a composite PSV curve of East Asia was established. Results show that the dominant magnetic carriers are pseudo single domain to multidomain magnetites, with some contributions from hematite and iron sulfide. Paleomagnetic information could still be retrieved after diagenetic alteration. The Characteristic Remanent magnetization is well defined by a single magnetization component and Maximum Angular Deviations values lower than 5°, which allows a reliable paleomagnetic results to be obtained. PSV after principal component analysis of the core MD06-3040 exhibits seven inclination peaks, and four declination swings, respectively during the last 7500 years. Within dating errors, the PSV curves from the ECS are comparable to that obtained from lakes in Japan and south China, and also to that of historical data in Japan and archeological data in China. In our study, a PSV stack from East Asia was obtained from these sedimentary PSV records after revision of the ages by PSV comparison. This new PSV stack has great potentials for site correlations and relative dating for sediments in East Asia. Age models for all the sediment cores are base on radiocarbon dating. In East Asia, 14C ages of Biwa Lake are consistent with various chronological data from other regions in Japan. However, there is no precise reservoir age of the East China Sea continental shelf, which would result in some dating errors. During the PSV comparison, age adjustment for core MD06-3040 is about 100-350 years, which is possible the effects from old carbon over this region. In this case, the potential the reservoir age should be calculated, as (100-350) ± (50-100) years. The new age model for core MD06-3040 is also confirmed by a strong correlation of paleoclimate records between magnetic susceptibility and stalagmite from upper Yangtze River. This correlation shows the links between mainland and the open sea (source and sink of sediments), which could be helpful for further paleoclimate studies.

Zheng, Y.; Kissel, C.; Zheng, H. B.; Laj, C.; Deng, C. L.; Liu, Q. S.

2012-04-01

231

Future Climate Projection over East Asia Using ECHO-G/S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climate projection based on IPCC SRES (20C3M and A1B, B1 and A2 scenarios) is completed using ECHO-G (ECHAM4/HOPE-G) with GHG and aerosol. In each scenario, two member ensemble runs are carried out. Simulations produced reliable present climate state, even though there are cold bias in temperature and dry bias in summertime precipitation. At the end of 21st century, global mean surface temperature projects to rise 1.8¡É, 2.6¡É, 3.0¡É under B1, A1B, A2 scenarios with respect to the period of 1980-1999. This suggests that higher GHG concentration has larger response in global warming. The ensemble-averaged spatial responses of JJA and DJF mean patterns are very similar through all the experiments. The ensemble range is smaller than the different among scenarios, except for changes of local precipitation. The greatest warming occurs at high northern latitudes and over lands with increase of precipitation. East Asian region may experience warmer and wetter climate and the amplitudes are larger than those in global mean. In particular, the temperature rising in winter and increase in the summer precipitation are clearly outstanding. In spite of large uncertainty of simulated precipitation in regional scale, the precipitation has highly variability and the summer precipitation amount has significantly increased (decreased) over the eastern coast (inland) of East Asia. The results point out that East Asia may suffer from extreme events such as drought and flood. Therefore this study analyzes changes in intensity and frequency of climate extremes as well as in the climate state for seasonal temperature and precipitation. In order to estimate the frequency of extreme events in global warming over East Asia, we have examined daily maximum and minimum temperatures and daily precipitation amounts for the period of 2080-2099 relative to the period of 1980-19999. According to the results, increase of minimum temperature is larger than that of maximum temperature by about 0.5¡É. The number of days with minimum temperature below 0¡É has decreased in winter and that of maximum temperature above 30¡É has increased in summer. The number of days with daily precipitation exceeding 50 mm/day has remarkably increased over coastal region while the frequency of non-precipitation has increased over East Asian inland. The results indicate that the opposed extreme events are likely to occur over the inland and eastern coast of East Asia by global warming.

Cha, Y.; Boo, K.; Kwon, W.

2007-12-01

232

HTT haplotypes contribute to differences in Huntington disease prevalence between Europe and East Asia  

PubMed Central

Huntington disease (HD) results from CAG expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Although HD occurs worldwide, there are large geographic differences in its prevalence. The prevalence in populations derived from Europe is 10–100 times greater than in East Asia. The European general population chromosomes can be grouped into three major haplogroups (group of similar haplotypes): A, B and C. The majority of HD chromosomes in Europe are found on haplogroup A. However, in the East-Asian populations of China and Japan, we find the majority of HD chromosomes are associated with haplogroup C. The highest risk HD haplotypes (A1 and A2), are absent from the general and HD populations of China and Japan, and therefore provide an explanation for why HD prevalence is low in East Asia. Interestingly, both East-Asian and European populations share a similar low level of HD on haplogroup C. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that different HTT haplotypes have different mutation rates, and geographic differences in HTT haplotypes explain the difference in HD prevalence. Further, the bias for expansion on haplogroup C in the East-Asian population cannot be explained by a higher average CAG size, as haplogroup C has a lower average CAG size in the general East-Asian population compared with other haplogroups. This finding suggests that CAG-tract size is not the only factor important for CAG instability. Instead, the expansion bias may be because of genetic cis-elements within the haplotype that influence CAG instability in HTT, possibly through different mutational mechanisms for the different haplogroups.

Warby, Simon C; Visscher, Henk; Collins, Jennifer A; Doty, Crystal N; Carter, Catherine; Butland, Stefanie L; Hayden, Anna R; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Ross, Colin J; Hayden, Michael R

2011-01-01

233

Summer rain events in south-east Asia: Spatial and temporal variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer monsoon period in south-east Asia marine airstreams normally prevail at the south China coast. However, when tropical cyclones approach then polluted airmasses from south-eastern China can impart high ionic concentrations and high acidity to rainwater. This is illustrated by two examples and the small-scale horizontal variations in rainwater composition are minor during these episodes. Since long-term quality-assured studies of the composition of rainwater in south-east Asia are scarce, the results at three sampling sites in Hong Kong during summer monsoon periods are compared with previous data from the same season. The results for the mid- to end-1990's show a similar trend to those for the ambient concentrations of sulphate and nitrate in aerosol in Hong Kong, which show flattened trends from 1995 to 1999. A marked increase in acidity is found in the summer monsoon period of 2004 which is attributed to the greater proportion of approaching cyclone weather systems in the dataset, reflecting both the increased local emission sources and the burgeoning economic growth of the Pearl River Delta Region. Comparison of the rainwater composition with that at other south-east Asian cities during the summer monsoon period shows that it is most acidic in Hong Kong.

Yeung, Ming Chee; Lee, Sze Chung; Lun, Bit Hon; Tanner, Peter A.

2007-12-01

234

Velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath East Asia from Pn tomography and its dynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the most tectonically active regions on Earth's surface due to the collision from the India plate and the suctions induced by the subduction of the Pacific and Philippine plates. To better understand the complicated deformation and active seismicity of the area, we conducted a Pn traveltime tomography to estimate the compressive wave speed of the uppermost mantle beneath <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We collected a total of 296,334 Pn arrivals recorded by 1354 stations from 27,777 earthquakes in a rectangular area from 60°E to 145°E in longitude, 15°N to 60°N in latitude. The data set was carefully integrated from three different catalogs after examining potential systematic biases in the catalogs. The inversion results revealed a large-scale velocity perturbation in the study area. Pn velocity in the region west to ~108°E is approximately 10% higher than that in the <span class="hlt">east</span>. In each region, stable blocks tend to have high Pn velocity while the boundary regions, which show a high level of seismicity and surface deformation, appear to have low Pn velocity. We further computed the Benioff strain rate in the two regions and found it correlates negatively with the averaged Pn velocity. Our observations here suggest that Pn velocity, which is predominantly determined by Moho temperature, is a good indicator of lithosphere strength.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Suyun; Niu, Fenglin; Zhang, Guomin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23152818"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tracing the origin of the <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23152818</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3494716"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tracing the Origin of the <span class="hlt">East</span>-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gonzalez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simon, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpcio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A51I0230Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of vegetation changes on air quality and climate in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in land cover can directly impact air quality because of its effect on precursor concentrations of tropospheric aerosols and ozone whose changes in concentrations may in turn have an important implication for regional climate. We investigate these relationships between vegetation change, aerosol and ozone air quality, and regional climate in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using numerical models together with long-term observations over the past decade. For this purpose we conducted transient climate simulations using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) coupled global climate model, Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3) with the observed sea surface temperature (SST) from the NCEP reanalysis for 1997-2007. Simulated vegetation cover and surface temperature are evaluated by comparing with the observations from the MODIS satellite instrument and surface stations in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We then conduct full chemistry simulations using the GEOS-Chem 3-D global chemical transport model driven by the simulated meteorology from the CCSM3 for the same period. The trend of modeled biogenic emissions is examined and quantitatively compared with the space-based formaldehyde measurements. A comparison of the simulated ozone and aerosols concentrations between using the fixed versus using the transient anthropogenic emissions for the past 10 yrs is used to diagnose the effect of the past vegetation changes on air quality over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Finally we compute the radiative forcing of ozone and aerosols due to changes in biogenic emissions to examine the climate-chemistry interactions induced by the vegetation change and its resulting effect on climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Youn, D.; Park, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9316L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spin-up behavior of soil moisture content in land surface model for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Efficient and accurate initialization of soil moisture content is critical for the reliable prediction of weather and climate. The spin-up procedure, wherein a land surface model (LSM) is run until the modeled state converges to the equilibrium, is typically used for soil moisture initialization. The spin-up behavior of soil moisture content is closely linked to the memory of the initial soil moisture content of the LSM, and this memory depends on the unique properties of each LSM. Therefore, different LSMs show inconsistencies in the initial soil moisture contents (the so-called soil moisture inconsistency problem) even when they are run under the same atmospheric conditions. In this study, we examined the impact of such soil moisture inconsistency on the spin-up behavior of an offline LSM for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In particular, we focused on the unique features of the spin-up timescale over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which is influenced by heavy rainfall events during the Asian summer monsoon. Our results indicate the following: (1) the LSM approaches the same equilibrium despite the difference in the initial soil moisture contents. However, the spin-up time is reduced if the output from the same LSM is used and the model is initialized before heavy rainfall events. (2) The spin-up timescale shows strong dependence on the magnitude of the evaporative fraction. A spin-up time of three months was sufficient for the Asian region affected by the summer monsoon but a spin-up time of several years was required for the Asian dry land. Our findings provide practical guidelines for the LSM spin-up and initialization of soil moisture content for regional climate modeling in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lim, Y.; Hong, J.; Lee, T.-Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.195..706Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changbai intraplate volcanism and deep earthquakes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: a possible link?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The origin of intraplate volcanoes in Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is considered to be associated with upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Among these intraplate volcanoes, Changbai is the largest and most active one, and very deep earthquakes (500-650 km depths) in the Pacific slab under <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> occur ˜300 km to the <span class="hlt">east</span> of the Changbai volcano. Integrating the findings of geophysical, geochemical and petrologic studies so far, we suggest a link between Changbai volcanism and the deep earthquakes in the Pacific slab. Many large shallow earthquakes occurred in the Pacific Plate in the outer-rise areas close to the oceanic trench, and sea water may enter down to a deep portion of the oceanic lithosphere through the active normal faults which generated the large outer-rise earthquakes. Sea water or fluids may be preserved in the active faults even after the Pacific Plate subducts into the mantle. Many large deep earthquakes are observed that took place in the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian margin. At least some of the large deep earthquakes are caused by the reactivation of faults preserved in the subducting slab, and the fluids preserved in the faults within the slab may cause the observed non-double-couple components of the deep earthquake faulting. Fluids preserved in the slab may be released to the overlying mantle wedge through large deep earthquakes. Because large deep earthquakes occur frequently in the vicinity of the Changbai volcano, many more fluids could be supplied to this volcano than in other areas in Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, making Changbai the largest and most active intraplate volcano in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Dapeng; Tian, You</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11524215S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> as seen by POLDER space-borne sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is devoted to analysis of aerosol distribution and variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on PARASOL/POLDER-3 aerosol products over land. We first compared POLDER-3 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with fine mode AOD (particles radius ? 0.30 ?m) computed from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) inversions over 14 sites. The rather good correlation (R ? 0.92) observed over land demonstrates the remarkable sensitivity of POLDER-3 retrievals to the smaller fraction of fine particles, mostly originating from anthropogenic sources. We analyzed the characteristics and seasonal variation of aerosol distribution over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by considering 4 years of POLDER-3 Level 2 data (March 2005 to February 2009). Our study shows that the spatial distribution of fine-mode aerosols over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, as retrieved from POLDER-3, is highly associated with human activities. Our work also evidenced a strong variability of seasonal fine-mode AOD patterns with geographical locations. Finally, the interannual variation during 2003-2009 periods of summer fine-mode AOD over North China, in particular the Beijing City region, was analyzed for the contribution to evaluating the regional impact of emission reduction enforced in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Summer Games. We found that the summer average of fine-mode AOD exhibited relatively higher values in 2003, 2007, and 2008. The interannual variation patterns of monthly averaged AOD (June to August) shows that June generally exhibits the strongest variation and varies similarly to July, but differs from August. As a reference point, measured total AOD and fine-mode AOD computed from AERONET inversions in summer are also discussed for the Beijing City region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Su, X.; Goloub, P.; Chiapello, I.; Chen, H.; Ducos, F.; Li, Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22279500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Education and training of medical physicists in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: accomplishments and challenges.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">John Cameron has made significant contributions to the field of Medical Physics. His contributions encompassed research and development, technical developments and education. He had a particular interest in the education of medical physicists in developing countries. Structured clinical training is also an essential component of the professional development of a medical physicist. This paper considers aspects of the clinical training and education of medical physicists in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the challenges facing the profession in the region if it is to keep pace with the rapid increase in the amount and technical complexity of medical physics infrastructure in the region. PMID:22279500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, B J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6341674"> <span id="translatedtitle">World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>, Africa and <span class="hlt">Asia</span>/Pacific</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2820001"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded); CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya) by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and diploids indicates that triploids are not composed of a single independent lineage. The ancient origins and evolutionary uniqueness of the seven lineages warrant their conservation. An overall phylogenetic framework obtained from the present study will be of use for estimating the phylogenetic relationships of Carassius fishes on the Eurasian continent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A24D..07J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composite Study Of Aerosol Long-Range Transport Events From <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> And North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we combine satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS together with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to understand the factors controlling the variability in long-range transport of aerosols from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and from North America for the 2004-2009 time period. The GEOS-Chem model reproduces the observed daily, seasonal, and interannual variability in AOD over the N. Pacific and N. Atlantic oceans, with a 30% underestimate in fine mode AOD during spring and summer. Using the model timeseries of sulfate AOD anomalies downwind of <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and N. America we identify 30-50 days with enhanced pollution aerosol export in each season. By compositing meteorological fields for these enhanced outflow days, we find that Asian and N. American aerosol export are favored by a dipole structure in sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies, with reduced SLP over the continents and enhanced SLP over the oceans. This pattern leads to strong convergent winds and upward motion over NE China and eastern N. America. The surface low pressure centers over <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and N. America are associated with midlatitude cyclones, except in winter when the low SLP anomaly over E. <span class="hlt">Asia</span> represents a weakening of the Siberian High. We are able to follow the evolution of the composite plume over the N. Pacific and N. Atlantic for 7 days in both the model and MODIS. Compared to N. America, we find that free tropospheric export of aerosols is more efficient in E. <span class="hlt">Asia</span> as a result of the inhibition of midlatitude cyclone precipitation, and hence aerosol scavenging, during the dry winter monsoon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaegle, L.; Luan, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AdAtS..22..831K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal variation of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Subtropical Westerly Jet and its association with the heating field over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The structure and seasonal variation of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Subtropical Westerly Jet (EAWJ) and associations with heating fields over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are examined by using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Obvious differences exist in the westerly jet intensity and location in different regions and seasons due to the ocean-land distribution and seasonal thermal contrast, as well as the dynamic and thermodynamic impacts of the Tibetan Plateau. In winter, the EAWJ center is situated over the western Pacific Ocean and the intensity is reduced gradually from <span class="hlt">east</span> to west over the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian region. In summer, the EAWJ center is located over the north of the Tibetan Plateau and the jet intensity is reduced evidently compared with that in winter. The EAWJ seasonal evolution is characterized by the obvious longitudinal inconsistency of the northward migration and in-phase southward retreat of the EAWJ axis. A good correspondence between the seasonal variations of EAWJ and the meridional differences of air temperature (MDT) in the mid-upper troposphere demonstrates that the MDT is the basic reason for the seasonal variation of EAWJ. Correlation analyses indicate that the Kuroshio Current region to the south of Japan and the Tibetan Plateau are the key areas for the variations of the EAWJ intensities in winter and in summer, respectively. The strong sensible and latent heating in the Kuroshio Current region is closely related to the intensification of EAWJ in winter. In summer, strong sensible heating in the Tibetan Plateau corresponds to the EAWJ strengthening and southward shift, while the weak sensible heating in the Tibetan Plateau is consistent with the EAWJ weakening and northward migration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuang, Xueyuan; Zhang, Yaocun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39711855"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three species of Heterobasidion (Basidiomycota, Hericiales), H. parviporum, H. orientale sp. nov. and H. ecrustosum sp. nov. from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe and illustrate three Heterobasidion species distributed in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, based on both dried specimens and cultures. Heterobasidion parviporum, formerly known as H. annosum from <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, is characterized by effused-reflexed basidiocarps with cuticulate pilei, small round pores, thin context and short\\u000a tubes in each layer. Examination of the type specimen of Trametes insularis revealed that this is distinct from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sawako Tokuda; Tsutomu Hattori; Yu-Cheng Dai; Yuko Ota; Peter K. Buchanan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39710382"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cryptic diversification of the swamp eel Monopterus albus in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with special reference to the Ryukyuan populations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The swamp eel Monopterus albus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical freshwaters ranging from Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and is unique in\\u000a its ability to breathe air through the buccal mucosa. To examine the genetic structure of this widespread species, molecular\\u000a phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequence (514 bp) were conducted for 84 specimens from 13 localities in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seiji Matsumoto; Takeshi Kon; Motoomi Yamaguchi; Hirohiko Takeshima; Yuji Yamazaki; Takahiko Mukai; Kaoru Kuriiwa; Masanori Kohda; Mutsumi Nishida</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AdAtS..29..101L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A modeling study of seasonal variation of atmospheric aerosols over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, a regional air quality model system (RAQMS) was applied to investigate the spatial distributions and seasonal variations of atmospheric aerosols in 2006 over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Model validations demonstrated that RAQMS was able to reproduce the evolution processes of aerosol components reasonably well. Ground-level PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm) concentrations were highest in spring and lowest in summer and were characterized by three maximum centers: the Taklimakan Desert (˜1000 µg m-3), the Gobi Desert (˜ 400 µg m-3), and the Huabei Plain (˜ 300 µg m-3) of China. Vertically, high PM10 concentrations ranging from 100 µg m-3 to 250 µg m-3 occurred from the surface to an altitude of 6000 m at 30°-45°N in spring. In winter, the vertical gradient was so large that most aerosols were restricted in the boundary layer. Both sulfate and ammonium reached their highest concentrations in autumn, while nitrate reached its maximum level in winter. Black carbon and organic carbon aerosol concentrations reached maximums in winter. Soil dust were strongest in spring, whereas sea salt exerted the strongest influence on the coastal regions of eastern China in summer. The estimated burden of anthropogenic aerosols was largest in winter (1621 Gg) and smallest in summer (1040 Gg). The sulfate burden accounted for ˜42% of the total anthropogenic aerosol burden. The dust burden was about twice the anthropogenic aerosol burden, implying the potentially important impacts of the natural aerosols on air quality and climate over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Jiawei; Han, Zhiwei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2700P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of dry deposition on O3 concentrations in surface air over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ozone, one of key air pollutants, affects human health and vegetation growth in surface air where its concentrations are determined by complex NOx-VOC photochemistry and loss processes. We use a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to understand processes determining O3 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, in particular, focusing on the dry deposition process that has a large uncertainty because of insufficient observational and numerical studies in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Here we examine two widely used dry deposition schemes: Weseley versus M3DRY schemes used in WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. We also conduct a comparison of simulated versus observed dry deposition velocities at a BEACHON-ROCS site in the United States to evaluate the dry deposition schemes. Finally model simulations with different surface types are conducted to examine the sensitivity of ozone simulations to the surface condition. Our results show considerable differences in O3 concentrations with different dry deposition calculations dependent on parameterization schemes and surface types, indicating high sensitivity of model simulation to dry deposition and its importance for air quality models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Rokjin; Hong, Seungkyu; Woo, Jung-Hun; Choi, Ki-Chul; Loughner, Christopher; Kim, Saewung; Kwon, Hyeong-Ahn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A41E0080L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Study on Superensemble Simulation of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Summer Climate Projection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the superensemble simulation method is applied to combine the predicted results of various global circulation models: MPIM, NCAR, CCCma, CCSRNIES, GFDL and HCCPR. Climate factors considered are the 2m temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure and wind flow. Due to various domain and grid of each model output, all data (including the global reanalysis data ERA40) are interpolated to an identical domain (<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>). Then, linear combination of all model outputs are done by designating a weighting coefficient for each model output by either the equal weight, which is the ensemble mean, or the inverse of square error summation (ISES) method. The training period for ISES is from 1980 to 1999, while the verification period will be from 2000 to 2005. Then the super-ensemble projections for the 2040s and 2090s decades are obtained and studied. Since we are mainly concerned with the summer climate projection, the variation of the intensity of the Pacific High and the expansion or contraction of its domain will affect significantly the strength of the southwesterly flow from South China Sea into Mainland China and therefore the intensification of temperature increase and rainfall enhancement over most of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, C.; Yang, Y.; Chen, C.; Lin, S.; Lee, Y.; Chen, S.; Paul, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009E%26PSL.279..340K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Permo-Triassic collision in Far <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: The Korean collisional orogen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eclogites from paragneiss in the Korean Peninsula are characterized by a peak pressure assemblage of garnet + omphacite + quartz + rutile, that is overprinted by multiphase symplectites involving augite, amphibole, orthopyroxene, ilmenite and plagioclase and by a similar high-pressure assemblage with a pronounced absence of the omphacite component in clinopyroxene formed during the peak and orthopyroxene in the retrograde stage. Eclogites were metamorphosed at a minimum pressures of ˜ 20-23 kbar at temperatures of ˜ 840-1000 °C, equivalent to a crustal depth of ˜ 70-75 km, whereas high-pressure granulite in Late Paleozoic rocks underwent metamorphic conditions of ˜ 18-19 kbar at ˜ 950 °C with a minimum crustal depth of ˜ 60-65 km. The presence of the eclogites and high-pressure granulite suggests deep-seated subduction of crustal complexes with metamorphism at different crustal levels. The eclogites were exhumed quickly resulting in near- isothermal decompression. On the other hand, the multistage exhumation of the high-pressure granulites suggests retrograde overprinting after initial decompression. The similarity of these petrological characteristics, metamorphic conditions and also the regional structural styles with those of the Sulu belt (China) strongly suggests the existence of a Permo-Triassic Alpine-type "Korean collision belt" in Far <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. This model provides a better understanding of the paleogeograpic evolution of Permo-Triassic <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, including a robust tectonic correlation of the Korean collision belt with the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision belt.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kwon, Sanghoon; Sajeev, K.; Mitra, Gautam; Park, Youngdo; Kim, Sung Won; Ryu, In-Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22579769"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technological options for the removal of arsenic with special reference to South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arsenic contamination in ground water, used for drinking purpose, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. However, arsenic contamination of ground water in parts of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is assuming greater proportions and posing a serious threat to the health of millions of people. A variety of treatment technologies based on oxidation, co-precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange and membrane process are available for the removal of arsenic from ground water. However, question remains regarding the efficiency and applicability/appropriateness of the technologies, particularly because of low influent arsenic concentration and differences in source water composition. Some of these methods are quite simple, but the disadvantage associated with them is that they produce large amounts of toxic sludge, which needs further treatment before disposal into the environment. Besides, the system must be economically viable and socially acceptable. In this paper an attempt has been made to review and update the recent advances made in the technological development in arsenic removal technologies to explore the potential of those advances to address the problem of arsenic contamination in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:22579769</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jain, C K; Singh, R D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20441144"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large emissions of perfluorocarbons in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> deduced from continuous atmospheric measurements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The atmospheric mixing ratios of perfluorocarbons (PFCs), extremely potent greenhouse gases, have been continuously measured at two Japanese stations (Cape Ochiishi and Hateruma Island) since 2006, to infer their global and regional emissions. The baseline mixing ratios of the measured C(2)-C(4) PFCs [PFC-116 (C(2)F(6)), PFC-218 (C(3)F(8)), and PFC-318 (c-C(4)F(8))] showed slight annual increases of 1%-3%. Enhanced mixing ratios above baseline were occasionally observed at both sites in air masses that had passed over metropolitan regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, suggesting high PFC emissions from those regions. We applied transport models to these pollution events and an inversion technique to estimate national emissions. The results suggest that, among the studied regions (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan), China was the largest PFC emitter, accounting for more than half of the regional emissions, followed by Japan. The estimated total emissions of each PFC from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were 0.86 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-116, 0.31 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-218, and 0.56 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-318. They contributed greatly to global emissions as derived from the annual increases in the baseline mixing ratios, accounting for more than 75% of global PFC-218 and PFC-318 emissions and for approximately 40% of global PFC-116 emissions. PMID:20441144</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saito, Takuya; Yokouchi, Yoko; Stohl, Andreas; Taguchi, Shoichi; Mukai, Hitoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23354135"> <span id="translatedtitle">Progress in health-related millennium development goals in the WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Home to 25% of the world's population and bearing 30% of the Global disease burden, the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region [1] of the World Health Organization has an important role in the progress of global health. Three of the eight million development goal (MDG) goals that relate to health are MDG 4, 5, and 6. There is progress in all three goals within the countries of the region, although the progress varies across countries and even within countries. With concerted and accelerated efforts in some countries and certain specific areas, the region will achieve the targets of the three health MDGs. The key challenges are in sustainable scaling up of evidence-based interventions to improve maternal and child health and controlling communicable diseases. This will require continued focus and investments in strengthening health systems that provide individual and family centered comprehensive package of interventions with equitable reach and that which is provided free at the point of service delivery. Important lessons that have been learnt in implementing the MDG agenda in the past two decades will inform setting up of the post MDG global health agenda. This article provides a snap shot of progress thus far, key challenges and opportunities in WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region and lays down the way forward for the global health agenda post 2015. PMID:23354135</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, Poonam Khetrapal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/195171"> <span id="translatedtitle">United States security strategy for the <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031413"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m-2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m-2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiewi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7844535"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of hepatitis C virus sequence variants in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nature and distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypic variants present in south-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> have not been extensively investigated. We analysed HCV RNA obtained from 67 clinical serum samples from Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and South Korea. All samples were amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR and the nucleotide sequence determined for four regions within the E1, E2/NS1, NS4 and NS5 genes. Each isolate had a unique nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence, consistent with the genetic heterogeneity of this virus. There was remarkably little amino acid sequence variation between isolates of the same genotype, apart from variable domains within putative envelope glycoproteins that are likely to be under immune pressure. All isolates could be classified according to the currently recognized genotypes of HCV, with the exception of one Singapore isolate that defined a new group 3 subtype. The 1b genotype, which predominates in Japan, was the most widely distributed genotype and accounted for 58% of all isolates sequenced. Regional variations in HCV genotype distribution were observed, with type 3a being found almost exclusively in Thailand. By contrast, the 1a genotype, which predominates in the USA was the most prevalent genotype in the Philippines. Genotype 1a was found less commonly among the Thai isolates, presumably having been introduced from the West in stored blood products or by sporadic transmission. The significant prevalence of HCV types 2 and 3 restates the need for variant genotypes to be included in immunodiagnostic and vaccine development strategies. This study reveals that the 1b genotype of HCV, previously found to be the major variant present in <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, also predominantes in the south-<span class="hlt">east</span> Asian region, and may be the major HCV type found worldwide. PMID:7844535</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greene, W K; Cheong, M K; Ng, V; Yap, K W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/w3072k566373ww81.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Study of Global Business Ethics of Taiwanese Enterprises in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Identifying Taiwanese Enterprises in Mainland China, Vietnam and Indonesia as Targets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study explores the traits and influences on global business ethics practiced by Taiwanese enterprises in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in order to provide those enterprises with a ready guide to contemporaneous standards of ethical management overseas and, in particular, in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The study randomly sampled 1496 Taiwanese enterprises in Mainland China, Vietnam and Indonesia. One questionnaire per enterprise was answered</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen-Fong Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.apfic.org/Archive/symposia/1976/55.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">RESERVOlR FlSHERIES 1N SOUTH <span class="hlt">EAST</span> <span class="hlt">ASIA</span> : PAST, PK13SEN'14 AN11 FUTURE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reservoirs are being constructd at :in accelerating pace in S*)uth <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> adding vastly to ancient and more recently built reservoir systems. At present ihc reservoir area for the region is 5.0 million hmn and the figure will itlcreasc to I 5 million hm2 before the turn of the ccntury. Natural lakes in South <span class="hlt">East</span> Ash are few and some</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. H. Fernando</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g73x038v06047883.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Behavioral and Environmental Background to ‘Out-of-Africa I’ and the Arrival of Homo erectus in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Current evidence of hominin fossils and artifacts in China and Indonesia points to the arrival and persistence of the genus\\u000a Homo in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by 1.7 million years ago (Ma). By at least 1.66 Ma, <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian hominins had spread across a wide range of biotic\\u000a and climatic zones, spanning 7°S–40°N on the basis of well-constrained age data from the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard Potts; Robin Teague</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4076X"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Primary Study on Influence of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Monsoon to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abastract Large amplitude stationary Rossby wave trains with wavelength which emerges from North Africa to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> along the west jet in the middle latitude areas. It has been identified in the mid-upper troposphere during summer based on the correlation analysis between Dynamic Plateau Monsoon Index (DPMI) and zonal velocity at 500-200hPa. The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau monsoon would influence the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoon by general circulation indirectly. It is show that an enhanced anticyclone is located in the area of the central and eastern Pacific in composite maps of four relatively strong summer DPMI years. The west Pacific subtropical high located westward and made the equatorial westerly and the cross-equatorial flow weaken. The South China Sea summer monsoon is weaker than normal. The south wind enhances over the south of Yangtze River and South China areas. The anomalous southwesterly flow in the northwest side of the west Pacific subtropical high dominates over the Yangtze River Valley. It is propitious to maintain the rain-belt and bring more rainfall there. A muffled anticyclone is located in the area of the central and eastern Pacific contrarily in composite maps of four relatively weak summer DPMI years contrastively. The west Pacific subtropical high moved eastward and makes the equatorial westerly and the cross-equatorial flow strengthen. The South China Sea summer monsoon is stronger than normal. The south wind enhances over the north of Yellow River and Northeast China areas. The anomalous southwesterly flow in the northwest side of the west Pacific subtropical high dominates over the Huang-Huai Valley. It is propitious to maintain rain-belt and bring more rainfall there. Key words: Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Monsoon; <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoon; General circulation Acknowledgments. This work was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB951701), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41175068 and 40875005) and the European Commission (Call FP7-ENV-2007-1, Grant nr. 212921) as part of the CEOP-AEGIS project.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xun, X.; Hu, Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22089683"> <span id="translatedtitle">Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio-cultural acceptance of tobacco use is still a major challenge in tobacco control efforts for the governments and stakeholders in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region. The myth that chewing tobacco is less harmful than smoking tobacco needs to be addressed with public awareness campaigns. Advocacy on the integration of tobacco control with poverty alleviation campaigns and development programs is urgently required. Law enforcement is a critical area to be strengthened and supported by WHO and the civil society organizations working in the area of tobacco control. PMID:22089683</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.3277L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-scale model analysis of boundary layer ozone over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study employs the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to examine seasonal and diurnal variations of boundary layer ozone (O3) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We evaluate the response of model simulations of boundary layer O3 to the choice of chemical mechanisms, meteorological fields, boundary conditions, and model resolutions. Data obtained from surface stations, aircraft measurements, and satellites are used to advance understanding of O3 chemistry and mechanisms over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and evaluate how well the model represents the observed features. Satellite measurements and model simulations of summertime rainfall are used to assess the impact of the Asian monsoon on O3 production. Our results suggest that summertime O3 over Central Eastern China is highly sensitive to cloud cover and monsoonal rainfall over this region. Thus, accurate simulation of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer monsoon is critical to model analysis of atmospheric chemistry over China. Examination of hourly summertime O3 mixing ratios from sites in Japan confirms the important role of diurnal boundary layer fluctuations in controlling ground-level O3. By comparing five different model configurations with observations at six sites, the specific mechanisms responsible for model behavior are identified and discussed. In particular, vertical mixing, urban chemistry, and dry deposition depending on boundary layer height strongly affect model ability to capture observed behavior. Central Eastern China appears to be the most sensitive region in our study to the choice of chemical mechanisms. Evaluation with TRACE-P aircraft measurements reveals that neither the CB4 nor the SAPRC99 mechanisms consistently capture observed behavior of key photochemical oxidants in springtime. However, our analysis finds that SAPRC99 performs somewhat better in simulating mixing ratios of H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate) at flight altitudes below 1 km. The high level of uncertainty associated with O3 production in Central Eastern China poses a major problem for regional air quality management. This highly polluted, densely populated region would greatly benefit from comprehensive air quality monitoring and the development of model chemical mechanisms appropriate to this unique atmospheric environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Oki, T.; Streets, D. G.; Richter, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sumatra&id=ED446161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endangered Peoples of Southeast & <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie E.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0511/2004JD005408/2004JD005408.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on wintertime surface air temperature and cold surges in <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The variations of wintertime surface air temperature (SAT) and the occurrences of cold surges over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in association with the Madden and Julian Oscillation (MJO) are examined. The MJO is defined as a combination of the two leading empirical orthogonal function modes of 850 and 200 hPa zonal winds and outgoing longwave radiation in the tropics. The spatial pattern</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jee-Hoon Jeong; Chang-Hoi Ho; Baek-Min Kim; Won-Tae Kwon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37396457"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creating Instability in Dangerous Global Regions: North Korean Proliferation and Support to Terrorism in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and South <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">North Korea contributes to instability in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and South <span class="hlt">Asia</span> through its proliferation of missiles and other weapons systems used as delivery platforms for chemical (and the production of chemical munitions) or biological weapons, including long-range artillery. Evidence also shows that North Korea has collaborated in the nuclear programs of Syria, Iran, Libya, and Pakistan and has provided</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce E. Bechtol Jr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38751066"> <span id="translatedtitle">Internet Marketing in Tourism in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: An Evaluation of the Performance of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian National Tourism Organization Websites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the increasing importance of the Internet as a marketing tool among national tourism organizations (NTOs) and the importance of tourism in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region, relatively few studies have been done on measuring the marketing effectiveness of NTO Websites and this exploratory study was designed to fill this gap. It included an extensive content analysis to compare NTO Websites</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siu-Ian Amy So; Alastair M. Morrison</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22bulusu%22&id=ED446161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endangered Peoples of Southeast & <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie E.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://nzc.iap.ac.cn/uploadpdf/2001JD001040.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Observations and model results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zifa Wang; Hajime Akimoto; Itsushi Uno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54137853"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mineral Dust Analysis and Application in Refining Source Region Information for the Sahara and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Deserts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study of transported mineral dust aerosols relies heavily on simplified dust source region parameters. Source regions are broadly defined by soil class and expected erodibility, factors which continuously changes with land use and climate conditions. Mineral dust particles may undergo numerous cycles of deposition and re-entrainment prior to collection and analysis. Using the Sahara Desert and the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. A. Reid; J. S. Reid; D. Westphal; S. Cliff; M. Dunlap</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49472987"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to environmental impacts that occur, and (3) the accuracy of an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bart Durlinger; Angèle Reinders; Marten Toxopeus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26425888"> <span id="translatedtitle">Policy, legal and institutional reforms for public–private partnerships needed to sustain large marine ecosystems of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The legacy of overfishing, destruction of coastal habitats, and accelerated pollution loading has dramatically reduced the biomass and diversity of marine waters in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Coasts can no longer support the numbers of people migrating to them, thus risking future economic benefits and social stability. Some countries are adopting needed reforms while, in others, less priority is given to reforms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alfred M. Duda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42572875"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of regional financial arrangements and monetary integration in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Europe in relations with the United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regional financial arrangements and monetary integration in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Europe have made considerable progress in recent years. This paper discusses whether governments in both regions, Japan and Germany as the most advanced regional economies in particular, can use the new dynamics as levers to raise their status vis-à-vis the United States. It will be argued that activities are defensive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Werner Pascha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40725722"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Siberian forest fires on air quality in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during May 2003 and its climate implication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In May 2003, intense forest fires occurred over Siberia, which were the largest fires in the past decade. In order to quantify the effects of these fires on regional air quality in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, we used a global chemical transport model (CTM) with a biomass burning emission inventory constrained by satellite. Our focus was mainly on the enhancements of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaein I. Jeong; Daeok Youn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T11B1814P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tomographic Imaging of Pn and Sn Velocities in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have obtained Vp and Vs velocity images of the uppermost mantle beneath the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by performing tomographic inversion of both Pn and Sn travel times. In total 654,999 Pn and 121,838 Sn arrivals were selected from the ISC/EHB database and the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes. Average Pn and Sn velocities are 8.04 km/s and 4.60 km/s, respectively with maximum velocity perturbations more than 6%. Pn velocities correlate well with topography. In general, low velocities are found beneath mountains and high velocities are found beneath oceans, basins and plains with low elevation. Tectonic boundaries are clearly outlined in between the high and low Pn velocities. These boundaries include Hellenic arc, Cyprean arc, Zagros suture, Charman fault, Hari Rod fault. The Sn velocities show similar patterns to the Pn velocities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pei, S.; Sun, Y.; Toksoz, M. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3467762"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resilience and Well-Being Among Children of Migrant Parents in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>—a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15002004"> <span id="translatedtitle">Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B13J..06T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Warming will weaken carbon sink strength of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> subtropical evergreen forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Little is known about the effects of warming on the carbon cycle of subtropical evergreen forest ecosystems, which are characterized by a year-round growing season and cold winters. We investigated the carbon balance in three typical <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> subtropical evergreen forests, using eddy flux, soil respiration, and leaf-level measurements. Here we show that regional warming weakens the carbon-sink strength of these forest ecosystems. Continuous, high photosynthetic rates were observed during cold periods; during warm periods, light was the factor limiting ecosystem productivity. Temperature-dependent respiration rates contribute to the weakening of carbon-sink strength in response to regional warming; however, ecosystem responses should be assessed in the context of multiple interdependent factors, augmented by ecosystem-level manipulation experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tan, Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23442393"> <span id="translatedtitle">Best practices in tobacco control in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities. PMID:23442393</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AdAtS..21..163Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">A numerical study of tropospheric ozone in the springtime in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is applied to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to study the transport and photochemical transformation of tropospheric ozone in March 1998. The calculated mixing ratios of ozone and carbon monoxide are compared with ground level observations at three remote sites in Japan and it is found that the model reproduces the observed features very well. Examination of several high episodes of ozone and carbon monoxide indicates that these elevated levels are found in association with continental outflow, demonstrating the critical role of the rapid transport of carbon monoxide and other ozone precursors from the continental boundary layer. In comparison with available ozonesonde data, it is found that the model-calculated ozone concentrations are generally in good agreement with the measurements, and the stratospheric contribution to surface ozone mixing ratios is quite limited.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Meigen; Xu, Yongfu; Itsushi, Uno; Hajime, Akimoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AdAtS..19..927G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes of extreme events in regional climate simulations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes of extreme events due to greenhouse effects (2 x CO2) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with a focus on the China region its simulated by it regional climate model (RegCM2), are investigated, The model is nested to a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model (CSIRO R21L9 AOGCM). Analysis of the control run of the regional model indicates that it can reproduce well the extreme events in China. Statistically significant changes of the events are analyzed Results show that both daily maximum and daily minimum temperature increase in 2 x CO2 conditions, while the diurnal temperature range decreases. The number of hot spell days increases while the number of cold spell days decreases. The number of rainy days and heavy rain days increases over some sub-regions of China. The 2 x CO2 conditions also cause some changes in the tropical storms affecting China.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gao, X. J.; Zhao, Z. C.; Giorgi, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6941P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of precipitation from reanalyses and satellite products in Australia and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precipitation estimates from reanalyses and satellite observations are routinely used as forcing in global and regional hydrologic models but their accuracy is rarely systematically evaluated. The discrepancies and biases of different precipitation outputs are important, casting potentially high uncertainty in the results from hydrological models and their applications. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, JRA-25 and NCEP-DOE) and three satellite precipitation estimates (TRMM 3B42V6, CMORPH and PERSIANN) as well as a simple ensemble mean of the products. Grid cells with reasonable gauge density from two high resolution gauge-only daily precipitation analyses for Australia (SILO) and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (APHRODITE) were used to evaluate daily time series for 2003-2007. We computed metrics of detection and agreement in daily precipitation. To account for differences in precipitation regime, results were stratified by rainfall seasonality and the geographical domain was divided into southern Australia (SAu), northern Australia (NAu) and south and <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SEA). Reanalyses showed higher detection performance, with best performers being ERA-Interim in SAu and NAu and JRA-25 in SEA, as well as when averaged over the three sub domains. The exception was the monsoon months in SEA; for which satellite estimates from TRMM and CMORPH showed slightly better performance. Over the three sub domains combined, the ensemble mean generally outperformed both reanalyses and satellite precipitation, with higher correlation coefficient, lower root mean square difference and closer agreement in terms of a rainfall intensity proxy (the ratio of monthly precipitation amount to total days with precipitation). The results of the simple ensemble mean show the value in the additional information captured from the (co)variance of the multiple input sources. This finding suggests that, depending on rainfall regime and/or location, a combination of selected reanalysis and satellite products may lead to better precipitation estimates and thus more accurate hydrological applications than any single method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peña Arancibia, J. L.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3113330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adolescent fertility and family planning in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report data for unmarried adolescents and report age-disaggregated data for some indicators. Further research is required to better understand the barriers that both married and unmarried adolescents face accessing reproductive health information and services, and their information and service delivery preferences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22089682"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco use: a major risk factor for non communicable diseases in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tobacco use is a serious public health problem in the South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region where use of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco is widely prevalent. The region has almost one quarter of the global population and about one quarter of all smokers in the world. Smoking among men is high in the Region and women usually take to chewing tobacco. The prevalence across countries varies significantly with smoking among adult men ranges from 24.3% (India) to 63.1% (Indonesia) and among adult women from 0.4% (Sri Lanka) to 15% (Myanmar and Nepal). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men varies from 1.3% (Thailand) to 31.8% (Myanmar), while for women it is from 4.6% (Nepal) to 27.9% (Bangladesh). About 55% of total deaths are due to Non communicable diseases (NCDs) with 53.4% among females with highest in Maldives (79.4%) and low in Timor-Leste (34.4%). Premature mortality due to NCDs in young age is high in the region with 60.7% deaths in Timor Leste and 60.6% deaths in Bangladesh occurring below the age of 70 years. Age standardized death rate per 100,000 populations due to NCDs ranges from 793 (Bhutan) and 612 (Maldives) among males and 654 (Bhutan) and 461 (Sri Lanka) among females respectively. Out of 5.1 millions tobacco attributable deaths in the world, more than 1 million are in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region (SEAR) countries. Reducing tobacco use is one of the best buys along with harmful use of alcohol, salt reduction and promotion of physical activity for preventing NCDs. Integrating tobacco control with broader population services in the health system framework is crucial to achieve control of NCDs and sustain development in SEAR countries. PMID:22089682</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thakur, J S; Garg, Renu; Narain, J P; Menabde, Nata</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23923425"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synergistic impacts of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on summer surface O3 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A factor separation technique and an improved regional air quality model (RAQM) were applied to calculate synergistic contributions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs), biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to daily maximum surface 03 (O3DM) concentrations in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in summer (June to August 2000). The summer averaged synergistic impacts of AVOCs and NOx are dominant in most areas of North China, with a maximum of 60 ppbv, while those of BVOCs and NOx are notable only in some limited areas with high BVOC emissions in South China, with a maximum of 25 ppbv. This result implies that BVOCs contribute much less to summer averaged O3DM concentrations than AVOCs in most areas of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> at a coarse spatial resolution (1 degree x 1 degree) although global emissions of BVOCs are much greater than those of AVOCs. Daily maximum total contributions of BVOCs can approach 20 ppbv in North China, but they can reach 40 ppbv in South China, approaching or exceeding those in some developed countries in Europe and North America. BVOC emissions in such special areas should be considered when 03 control measures are taken. Synergistic contributions among AVOCs, BVOCs and NOx significantly enhance O3 concentrations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region and decrease them in some areas in South China. Thus, the total contributions of BVOCs to O3DM vary significantly from day to day and from location to location. This result suggests that 03 control measures obtained from episodic studies could be limited for long-term applications. PMID:23923425</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qu, Yu; An, Junling; Li, Jian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20905842"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in Spring 2004</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, high-volume air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan between 22 March and 2 May 2004. Contributions from different source regions (China, Japan, the Koreas, Russia, and ocean/local) were estimated by use of source region impact factors (SRIFs). Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current-use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Chlordanes showed a technical mixture profile and similar concentrations regardless of source region. {alpha}/{gamma} HCH and trans/cis chlordane ratios did not vary significantly with different source regions and had regional averages of 2.5 {+-} 1.0 and 1.2 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Particulate-phase PAH concentrations were significantly correlated (p value {lt} 0.05) with other incomplete combustion byproduct concentrations, including elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}), CO, NOx{asterisk}, black carbon, submicrometer aerosols, and SO{sub 2}. By use of measured PAH, CO, and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of six carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs was estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and 778-1728 metric tons/year for China, respectively. These results confirm that <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs. 39 refs., 3 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toby Primbs; Staci Simonich; David Schmedding; Glenn Wilson; Dan Jaffe; Akinori Takami; Shungo Kato; Shiro Hatakeyama; Yoshizumi Kajii [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States). Departments of Chemistry and Environmental and Molecular Toxicology</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.tmp..185Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">How recent climate change influences water use efficiency in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity to evapotranspiration, is an important indicator of the trade-off between water loss and carbon gain. We used a biophysical process-based model to examine the relative importance of climate-induced changes in meteorological factors and leaf area index (LAI) on the changes in WUE in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Validation showed that our simulation could capture the magnitudes and variations of WUE at 18 flux sites in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Regional results indicated that the highest WUE occurred in boreal forests at high latitudes and the lowest WUE in desert areas of China. Changes in meteorological factors negatively affected WUE in the northwestern, northern, and eastern study regions. Changes in LAI had determinant impacts on changes in WUE in most areas except for those with sparse or low-density vegetation (e.g., western interior China, southeast island countries) where meteorological factors dominated. We conclude that, aside from the impact of meteorological factors on WUE, climate-induced changes in LAI may play a prominent role in regulating WUE changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Fangmin; Ju, Weimin; Shen, Shuanghe; Wang, Shaoqiang; Yu, Guirui; Han, Shijie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A51D..10K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Export of Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds From the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region in Spring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of gaseous and particulate compounds of sulfur and reactive nitrogen species as well as other chemical species were made over the western Pacific during the NASA/TRACE-P experiment conducted between February and April 2001. Emission ratios of SO2, NOx, CO, and CO2 over <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries were compared with observed ratios of increases of these species to study the transport efficiency of anthropogenic sulfur and reactive nitrogen compounds. The result obtained in this study suggests that only 20-40% and 10% of SO2 emitted over the continent was exported out into the western Pacific in an altitude range of 0-2 and 4-7 km, respectively. Similarly, a transport efficiency of reactive nitrogen compounds was suggested to be 10-35% and 10-20% at 0-2 and 4-7 km ranges. Only 2-4% and 0.5-1% of NOx emitted in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region was suggested to be transported in the form of NOx in these altitude ranges.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Takegawa, N.; Masui, Y.; Weber, R.; Lee, Y.; Ma, Y.; Thornton, D.; Bandy, A.; Sachse, G.; Avery, M.; Vay, S.; Streets, D.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ikeda, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22888982"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparative evaluation of the glycaemic potential of commercial breads consumed in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bread has become a widely consumed staple food in South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. However, there is very little data on the glycaemic potential of local commercial breads. The objective of this study was to comparatively assess the glycaemic potential of some commonly consumed commercial breads using a validated in vitro model. Sixteen types of breads representing the most popular brands and types were evaluated. The results showed that white and enriched white breads had a greater glycaemic potential than wholemeal breads (rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content >450 mg of glucose/g of sample). The lowest glycaemic potential was observed for wholegrain breads (RDS content < 375 mg of glucose/g of sample). The glycaemic impact of some specialty breads such as pandan bread, milk bread and corn loaf was also examined. Whist the data show that South-<span class="hlt">east</span> Asian breads have notably differential effects on glycaemia, it highlights the need to formulate Asian dietary guidelines for bread which will enable better food choice and glycaemic control. PMID:22888982</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ranawana, Viren; Henry, C Jeya K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989STIN...9030166T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Re-analysis of data on the space radiation environment above south-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new analysis was performed on the hand held HRM 3 gamma ray detector data collected from Shuttle missions STS-41B, 41C, 41D, 41G, and 51A. The new analysis shows no evidence for the existence of enhanced levels of radiation in low Earth orbit over South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (i.e., in the area bounded by longitudes 100 to 190 deg <span class="hlt">east</span> and latitudes 10 deg south to 15 deg north) as previously suggested. Variation in the detector count rates with geographical location are shown to be consistent with the variation of the cosmic ray flux with geomagnetic latitude, and also show expected increases due to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer belt electrons. However, at times poor quantitative agreement is found between the expected positions of the SAA or outer electron belt, and the Shuttle's geographical location on the occasions when high count rates were observed. It is believed that this lack of correlation is a result of the sensitivity of the trapped particle environment to geographical position and magnetospheric activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Truscott, P. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3031002"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical Characteristics and Etiology of Travelers' Diarrhea among Korean Travelers Visiting South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The morbidity of travelers' diarrhea (TD) is still high. This study examined the incidence of common pathogens and characteristics of TD among Korean travelers who visited South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries. We performed a prospective study involving 479 Korean travelers with diarrheal disease from February 2009 to April 2009 and stool samples were examined and questionnaire surveys were done after arrival. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was found in 36.0% of TD cases, as were the following: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in 27.0%, Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 13.1%, and Norovirus in 11.5%. The detected rate of classic TD was higher in men (P = 0.007), in patients who had a shorter duration trip (P = 0.023) and in patients who drank more than 1 liter of water per day (P = 0.037). Positive stool culture rates were higher in men (P = 0.005), in hospitalized patients (P = 0.013). and in those who consumed impure water or raw foods (P = 0.033). A higher severity of disease corresponded to a significantly higher culture positivity rate (P = 0.029). We should consider the possibility of other pathogens in addition to ETEC in patients with TD who visit South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Travelers need to educate about risk factors associated with TD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahn, Ji Yong; Chang, Kyu-Jin; You, Myung Hwan; Chai, Jin Sung; Kang, Young A; Kim, Seong-Han; Jeoung, Hyesook; Cheon, Doosung; Jeoung, Ahyong; Choi, Eun Suk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.111..437Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in <span class="hlt">East</span> China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in <span class="hlt">East</span> China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer" of 1816 in Europe and North America and led to coldness and famines in the Chinese province Yunnan, depends crucially on the ENSO state of the coupled model. A comparison with reconstructed El Niño events shows a moderate cool climate with wet (in the south) and extreme dry anomalies (in the north) persisting for several years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215694Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far <span class="hlt">east</span> coasts of Russia at North <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from Petropavlosk (Kamchatka), Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir), Kurilsk (Iturup, coast of the Okhotsk sea), Malokurilskoe (Shikotan), Korsakov, Kholmsk and Aniva Bay (Sakhalin). These records and also other offshore DART records are analyzed and used for comparison of the modeling results with offshore and nearshore records. The transmission of tsunami waves through Sakhalin and Kuril straits and their propagation to nearby coasts are investigated. The spectral analysis of records in settlements of Sakhalin and Kurile Islands are investigated. The performance and capabilities of NAMI DANCE is also presented together with comparisons between the model, observations and discussions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S14C..06Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismic imaging of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and mantle down to 1200 km depth under Western Pacific to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Zhao, 2004, 2007; Huang and Zhao, 2006). A large number of arrival times of P, pP, PP and PcP waves recorded by many seismic stations in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are used in the tomographic inversions. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to 670-km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under eastern China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topographic boundary in <span class="hlt">East</span> China. Although there are some discrepancies between the topographic boundary and the western edge of the stagnant slab, both of them are located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The entire Pacific slab is stagnant in the mantle transition zone under Northeast China (53-37 degree north latitude). Under 37-28 degree north latitude, however, some of the slab materials are visible below the 670-km discontinuity, though most of the slab materials are still in the transition zone, suggesting that part of the slab materials have started to drop down to the lower mantle. Under the Mariana arc, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. It is also visible that the Philippine Sea slab has subducted down to the mantle transition zone depth under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region (Abdelwahed and Zhao, 2007). There are three active intraplate volcanoes in China. The Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes in Northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab, suggesting that the two active volcanoes are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcanoes associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific slab and its stagnancy in the transition zone as well as corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The active Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is related to the eastward subduction of the Burma microplate. References: D. Zhao (2004) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. D. Zhao (2007) Gondwana Research 12, 335-355. J. Huang, D. Zhao (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, B09305.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..11024201L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of bulk ice microphysics on the simulated monsoonal precipitation over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines the effects of bulk ice microphysical processes on the simulation of monsoonal precipitation in summer over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, centered over Korea. The mixed phase microphysics scheme of the WRF-Single-Moment-MicroPhysics class 5 (WSM5) is implemented into the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). The performance of the WSM5 scheme is compared to that of Reisner's mixed phase scheme, that is, the MM5-Single-moment-Microphysics class 5 (MSM5). Together with looking at the impact of ice microphysics, the importance of the sedimentation of falling ice crystals on simulated rainfall events is investigated. The same sensitivity experiments are extended to a 2-month-long simulation of the <span class="hlt">east</span> Asian summer monsoon. It was found that the new microphysics in the WSM5 scheme produces a more realistic vertical distribution of condensates. For a locally developed heavy rainfall event over Korea, the impact of revised ice microphysics is significant. The WSM5 scheme simulates more (less) precipitation in the south (north), compared with that of the MSM5 scheme, by stabilizing the air columns in the rainfall area, leading to a better agreement with the observed precipitation. By contrast, ice sedimentation becomes more important for those cases of heavy rainfall, associated with a mobile surface cyclone system, accomplished by suppressing large-scale bias through a realistic ice cloud/radiation feedback. The sedimentation of cloud ice is found to be crucial to the successful simulation of monsoonal precipitation and large-scale features within the <span class="hlt">east</span> Asian summer monsoon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lim, Jeong-Ock Jade; Hong, Song-You</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1317519M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> observed from space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for <span class="hlt">East</span> Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A52C..03D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Episodes of dust and pollution aerosols exported from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to the Arctic: Satellite observations and model simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has emerged as an important source region of Arctic Haze in the last 20 years because of the remarkable industrial development it has undergone. In this study we present a detailed analysis of three case studies of aerosol export from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to the Arctic making use of observations from lidar remote sensing (CALIPSO satellite), chemical transport model simulations (GEOS-Chem) and a lagrangian trajectory model. We investigate the composition and altitude of these Arctic haze layers, as well as the meteorological conditions that led to their export from <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Model and satellite observations are in good agreement on the altitude and location of the haze plumes. The model indicates that the composition of the plumes is predominantly sulfate with varying ratios of mineral dust. We find that in one episode CALIPSO classification algorithm misclassifies haze layers as clouds as a result of their relatively high depolarization ratio, caused by the presence of non-spherical dust particles. By compositing 500 hPa geopotential heights anomalies of eleven export events observed during 2007-2009 we define an index that captures 62% of the variance of modeled Asian anthropogenic aerosol optical depth that enters the Arctic at high latitudes in the winter and 45% in spring. The Pacific North American oscillation and the Western Pacific oscillation are also found to be related to the frequency of rapid export events from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to the Arctic in winter/spring, although weakly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">di Pierro, M.; Jaegle, L.; Anderson, T. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AdAtS..22...39J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible impacts of the Arctic oscillation on the interdecadal variation of summer monsoon rainfall in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influences of the wintertime AO (Arctic Oscillation) on the interdecadal variation of summer monsoon rainfall in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were examined. An interdecadal abrupt change was found by the end of the 1970s in the variation of the AO index and the leading principal component time series of the summer rainfall in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The rainfall anomaly changed from below normal to above normal in central China, the southern part of northeastern China and the Korean peninsula around 1978. However, the opposite interdecadal variation was found in the rainfall anomaly in North China and South China. The interdecadal variation of summer rainfall is associated with the weakening of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer monsoon circulation. It is indicated that the interdecadal variation of the AO exerts an influence on the weakening of the monsoon circulation. The recent trend in the AO toward its high-index polarity during the past two decades plays important roles in the land-sea contrast anomalies and wintertime precipitation anomaly. The mid- and high-latitude regions of the Asian continent are warming, while the low-latitude regions are cooling in winter and spring along with the AO entering its high-index polarity after the late 1970s. In the meantime, the precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau and South China is excessive, implying an increase of soil moisture. The cooling tendency of the land in the southern part of <span class="hlt">Asia</span> will persist until summer because of the memory of soil moisture. So the warming of the Asian continent is relatively slow in summer. Moreover, the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, which are located southward and eastward of the Asian land, are warming from winter to summer. This suggests that the contrast between the land and sea is decreased in summer. The interdecadal decrease of the land-sea heat contrast finally leads to the weakening of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer monsoon circulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jianhua, Ju; Junmei, Lü; Jie, Cao; Juzhang, Ren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0058K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of bottom-up NO2 emissions using CMAQ and multiple satellite NO2 data over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over several decades, increasing NOx emissions in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region have been featured on a number of articles due to their significant contributions to the regional ozone formation and the global NOx emissions budget. However, it is believed that the bottom-up emission inventories of NOx for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are quite uncertain and need to be improved. Although several inversion-based quantitative comparison studies (i.e. top-down versus bottom-up emissions) have been conducted to investigate the reliability of the current NOx emission inventories, uncertainties induced by satellite retrieval and chemical transport modeling data on the inter-comparison between bottom-up and top-down emissions have not been well addressed to our knowledge. In this research, we evaluate our NO2 modeling emissions inventory for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using the satellite-based top-down NO2 emission estimation method for April and October 2008. For the top-down estimation, we investigated an optimal combination of NO2 column datasets from multiple satellite sensors (i.e., the GOME2 on ESA's MetOp, SCIAMACHY on ESA's Envisat, and the OMI on NASA's Aura) and the CMAQ-CCTM runs. Furthermore, we address the uncertainties arise in the process of the top-down NO2 emission estimation. We will present our evaluation results for the <span class="hlt">East</span>-Asian bottom-up NO2 emissions with respect to the uncertainties of satellite-based top-down emission estimates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, H.; Woo, J.; Jung, T.; Eo, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1221977L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composite study of aerosol export events from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) together with the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to contrast export of aerosols from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and North America during 2004-2010. The GEOS-Chem model reproduces the spatial distribution and temporal variations of Asian aerosol outflow generally well, although a low bias (-30%) is found in the model fine mode AOD. We use the model to identify 244 aerosol pollution export events from E. <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and 251 export events from N. America over our 7-yr study period. When these events are composited by season, we find that the AOD in the outflow is enhanced by 50-100% relative to seasonal mean values. The composite Asian plume splits into one branch going poleward towards the Arctic, with the other crossing the Pacific in 6-8 days. A fraction of the aerosols is trapped in the subtropical Pacific High. The N. American plume travels to the northeast Atlantic, reaching Europe after 4-5 days. Part of the composite plume turns anticyclonically in the Azores High, where it slowly decays. Both the Asian and N. American export events are favored by a dipole structure in sea-level pressure anomalies, associated with mid-latitude cyclone activity over the respective source regions. The observed AOD in the E. Asian outflow exhibits stronger seasonality, with a spring maximum, than the N. American outflow, with a weak summer maximum. The large spring AOD in the Asian outflow is the result of enhanced sulfate and dust aerosol concentrations, but is also due to a larger export efficiency of sulfate and SO2 from the Asian boundary layer relative to the N. American boundary layer. While the N. American sulfate outflow is mostly found in the lower troposphere (1-3 km altitude), the Asian sulfate outflow occurs at higher altitudes (2-6 km). In the Asian outflow 42-59% of the sulfate column is present above 2 km altitude, with only 24-35% in the N. American outflow. We link this to the factor of 2-5 lower precipitation in the warm conveyor belts (WCB) of midlatitude cyclones over E. <span class="hlt">Asia</span> compared to N. America. This relative lack of precipitation makes Asian WCB very efficient for injecting aerosols in the middle troposphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luan, Y.; Jaeglé, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.1221L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composite study of aerosol export events from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) together with the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to contrast export of aerosols from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and North America during 2004-2010. The GEOS-Chem model reproduces the spatial distribution and temporal variations of Asian aerosol outflow generally well, although a low bias (-30%) is found in the model fine mode AOD, particularly during summer. We use the model to identify 244 aerosol pollution export events from E. <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and 251 export events from N. America over our 7-year study period. When these events are composited by season, we find that the AOD in the outflow is enhanced by 50-100% relative to seasonal mean values. The composite Asian plume splits into one branch going poleward to the Arctic in 3-4 days, with the other crossing the Pacific Ocean in 6-8 days. A fraction of the aerosols is trapped in the subtropical Pacific High during spring and summer. The N. American plume travels to the northeast Atlantic, reaching Europe after 4-5 days. Part of the composite plume turns anticyclonically in the Azores High, where it slowly decays. Both the Asian and N. American export events are favored by a dipole structure in sea-level pressure anomalies, associated with mid-latitude cyclone activity over the respective source regions. This dipole structure during outflow events is a strong feature for all seasons except summer, when convection becomes more important. The observed AOD in the E. Asian outflow exhibits stronger seasonality, with a spring maximum, than the N. American outflow, with a broad spring/summer maximum. The large spring AOD in the Asian outflow is the result of enhanced sulfate and dust aerosol concentrations, but is also due to a larger export efficiency of sulfate and SO2 from the Asian boundary layer relative to the N. American boundary layer. While the N. American sulfate outflow is mostly found in the lower troposphere (1-3 km altitude), the Asian sulfate outflow occurs at higher altitudes (2-6 km). In the Asian outflow 42-59% of the sulfate column is present above 2 km altitude, with only 24-35% in the N. American outflow. We link this to the factor of 2-5 lower precipitation in the warm conveyor belts (WCB) of midlatitude cyclones over E. <span class="hlt">Asia</span> compared to N. America. This relative lack of precipitation makes Asian WCB very efficient for injecting aerosols in the middle troposphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luan, Y.; Jaeglé, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A41B0063M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low Molecular-Weight Dicarboxylic and Fatty Acids Over the Northwestern Pacific and the Sea off <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> During the ACE-<span class="hlt">Asia</span> Campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sampling of dicarboxylic and fatty acids was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2001 on R/V NOAA Ronald H. Brown over the Northwestern Pacific, <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea and the Sea of Japan, as part of the ACE-<span class="hlt">Asia</span> campaign. During the cruise, aerosol particles were collected on pre-combusted quartz fiber filters using a high volume air sampler, and organic acids in gas and particles were collected separately using an annular denuder with a backup quartz filter. In addition, MOUDI impactor was used for size-segregated aerosols. The collected samples were analyzed for water and ethyl-acetate extractable organic compounds such as low molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids and fatty acids using capillary GC and GC/MS. Throughout the cruise, oxalic acid, followed by malonic and succinic acids, was found to be the most dominant species. For oxalic acid, concentrations as high as 1 ? g m-3 was observed occasionally at sea off <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Chemical transport model calculations predicted high sulfate concentrations in the regions where oxalic acid concentrations were high, suggesting that oxalic acid should have been strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from the Asian continent. This is consistent with our hypothesis that the main source of oxalic and some other dicarboxylic acids are anthropogenic in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region. The relative abundances of dicarboxylic acids and fatty acids between gas and particles were obtained by analyses of denuder samples. For oxalic acid, 65-90 % were present in particles, whereas some fatty acids were detected only in particles. Molecular compositions, gas to particle ratios, and size distributions of the organic aerosol particles obtained by this study would provide information of sources, chemical processes and transport, which will be discussed in this presentation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mochida, M.; Umemoto, N.; Matsunaga, S.; Kawamura, K.; Uematsu, M.; Bates, T. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdAtS..28.1077G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of dynamic downscaling of the extreme rainfall over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using a regional climate model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigates the capability of the dynamic downscaling method (DDM) in an <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian climate study for June 1998 using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (MM5). Sensitivity experiments show that MM5 results at upper atmospheric levels cannot match reanalyses data, but the results show consistent improvement in simulating moisture transport at low levels. The downscaling ability for precipitation is regionally dependent. During the monsoon season over the Yangtze River basin and the pre-monsoon season over North China, the DDM cannot match observed precipitation. Over Northwest China and the Tibetan Plateau (TP), where there is high topography, the DDM shows better performance than reanalyses. Simulated monsoon evolution processes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, however, are much closer to observational data than reanalyses. The convection scheme has a substantial impact on extreme rainfall over the Yangtze River basin and the pre-monsoon over North China, but only a marginal contribution for Northwest China and the TP. Land surface parameterizations affect the locations and pattern of rainfall bands. The 10-day re-initialization in this study shows some improvement in simulated precipitation over some sub-regions but with no obvious improvement in circulation. The setting of the location of lateral boundaries (LLB) westward improves performance of the DDM. Including the entire TP in the western model domain improves the DDM performance in simulating precipitation in most sub-regions. In addition, a seasonal simulation demonstrates that the DDM can also obtain consistent results, as in the June case, even when another two months consist of no strong climate/weather events.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gao, Yanhong; Xue, Yongkang; Peng, Wen; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Waliser, Duane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1034966"> <span id="translatedtitle">Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and <span class="hlt">East</span> China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.111..251L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wetting tendency in the Central Mekong Basin consistent with climate change-induced atmospheric disturbances already observed in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regional and local trends in rainfall intensity, frequency, seasonality, and extremes were analyzed in the central Mekong Basin in continental Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> over the period 1953-2004 using the modified Mann-Kendall test, accounting for long-term persistence and the regional average of the Kendall's statistic. Regionally significant and insignificant wetting tendencies of the dry and wet seasons, respectively, were found to be consistent with rainfall alterations in the neighboring southeastern part of China and attributed by previous studies to the weakening of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Summer and Winter Monsoons. These observations suggest the existence of causal links between global warming and rainfall changes observed in continental Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Although these changes most likely did not alter agricultural production, they confirm the need to account for climate change impacts when assessing water resources availability in this region under rapid economic development.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lacombe, G.; Smakhtin, V.; Hoanh, C. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..78..291H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact assessment of biomass burning on air quality in Southeast and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during BASE-<span class="hlt">ASIA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SE <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-<span class="hlt">ASIA</span>). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in March-April when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K+, OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via long-range transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n5x8862330534067.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution and genetic structure of the Japanese wood pigeon ( Columba janthina ) endemic to the islands of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Japanese wood pigeon (Columba janthina) is endemic to the islands of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and it is included in the Japanese and Asian Red Lists because of its narrow habitat\\u000a range that is restricted to mature forests on small islands and because of the destruction of these habitats. We examined\\u000a the genetic structure of Columba janthina by studying 463 base</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shin-Ichi Seki; Hajime Takano; Kazuto Kawakami; Nobuhiko Kotaka; Akira Endo; Kenji Takehara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy..tmp..284L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of future climate change over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> due to the RCP scenarios downscaled by GRIMs-RMP</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study assesses future climate change over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system—Regional Model Program (RMP). The RMP is forced by two types of future climate scenarios produced by the Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2 (HG2); the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for the intergovernmental panel on climate change fifth assessment report (AR5). Analyses for the current (1980-2005) climate are performed to evaluate the RMP's ability to reproduce precipitation and temperature. Two different future (2006-2050) simulations are compared with the current climatology to investigate the climatic change over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> centered in Korea. The RMP satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of precipitation and temperature. The spatial distribution of the simulated large-scale features and precipitation by the RMP is generally less reflective of current climatic conditions than that is given by the HG2, but their inter-annual variations in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are better captured by the RMP. Furthermore, the RMP shows higher reproducibility of climate extremes including excessive heat wave and precipitation events over South Korea. In the future, strong warming is distinctly coupled with intensified monsoonal precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In particular, extreme weather conditions are increased and intensified over South Korea as follows: (1) The frequency of heat wave events with temperature greater than 30 °C is projected to increase by 131 and 111 % in the RCP 8.5 and 4.5 downscaling, relative to the current climate. (2) The RCP 8.5 downscaling shows the frequency and variability of heavy rainfall to increase by 24 and 31.5 %, respectively, while the statistics given by the RCP 4.5 downscaling are similar to those of the current climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Ji-Woo; Hong, Song-You; Chang, Eun-Chul; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B23C0445X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gross primary production of grassland for the Drylands in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> derived from MODIS, MERRA and Flux data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The quantitative simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at regional spatial and temporal scales has been a major challenge in quantifying the global carbon cycle. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning continuous and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. In order to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the regional scale, we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) and meteorology data from global MERRA dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications). This study is focus on the GPP of grassland for the Drylands in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Fig. 1). First, we combined GPP, MODIS normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) and MERRA data, include temperature(TA), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and relativity humidity (RH), for 15 grassland Flux towers encompassing the Drylands in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to develop a predictive GPP model using regression tree(RT), neuralnetworks(NNs) and support vector machine(SVM) approaches. For the three regression methods the predict models are all driven by four variables: NDVI, TA, PAR and RH. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2002 - 2010. By comparing the three regression methods, RT is the best approach. So we used the RT model to estimate GPP for each 0.04135 degree (nearly 4 km) × 0.04135 degree pixel across the Drylands in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for each month interval over the period 2000 - 2009, for each year only the growing season data is included, which is from April to October. We estimated average GPP uptake 1.12996 PgC yr-1 for the Drylands in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> over the period 2000 - 2009. Then we examined the spatial patterns (Fig. 2) and interannual variability of GPP (Fig. 3).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xia, J.; Yuan, W.; Liang, S.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S.; Li, X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=379171"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic Isolates in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: A Study of Linkage Disequilibrium in the X Chromosome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The background linkage disequilibrium (LD) in genetic isolates is of great interest in human genetics. Although many empirical studies have evaluated the background LD in European isolates, such as the Finnish and Sardinians, few data from other regions, such as <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, have been reported. To evaluate the extent of background LD in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian genetic isolates, we analyzed the X chromosome in the Japanese population and in four Mongolian populations (Khalkh, Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin), the demographic histories of which are quite different from one another. Fisher’s exact test revealed that the Japanese and Khalkh, which are the expanded populations, had the same or a relatively higher level of LD than did the Finnish, European American, and Sardinian populations. In contrast, the Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin populations, which have kept their population size constant, had a higher background LD. These results were consistent with previous genetic anthropological studies in European isolates and indicate that the Japanese and Khalkh populations could be utilized in the fine mapping of both complex and monogenic diseases, whereas the Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin populations could play an important role in the initial mapping of complex disease genes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Katoh, T.; Mano, S.; Ikuta, T.; Munkhbat, B.; Tounai, K.; Ando, H.; Munkhtuvshin, N.; Imanishi, T.; Inoko, H.; Tamiya, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMSA23A0300N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hokkaido HF radar: progress report on mid-latitude SuperDARN radar in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a progress report on new HF radar in Hokkaido, northern Japan. The planned Hokkaido radar is located at (43.5°, 143.6°) geographic coordinates and at geomagnetic latitude of ~ 37°, much lower than the existing SuperDARN HF radars. The funding for constructing Hokkaido radar was approved by the government for 2005 fiscal year. It will be the second mid-latitude SuperDARN radar, and the first one in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The radar can monitor the wide latitudinal range ( 38° to 65° in geomagnetic coordinates), which could not be covered by using the existing radars. Using this radar, we can deal with a wide variety of scientific targets, ranging from the magnetosphere/ionosphere to the thermosphere/mesosphere. In particular, Hokkaido is situated in an excellent location to monitor the energy budget between the polar and middle latitude regions, by collaborating with a wide variety of observation network such as high-latitude SuperDARN, 210° MM network, airglow imager network and Japanese GPS network (GEONET).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nishitani, N.; Ogawa, T.; Kikuchi, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3811702K"> <span id="translatedtitle">What caused a recent increase in dust outbreaks over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A decadal change in the frequency of dust outbreaks for April over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using World Meteorological Organization (WMO) synoptic data was identified. The causes of the decadal change can be defined in terms of aeolian erosivity (i.e., ability of wind to cause erosion represented by wind speed) and erodibility (i.e., susceptibility of soil and land surface to wind erosion represented by the threshold wind speed for dust outbreak). Dust outbreak frequency (fDO) increased at many stations in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northeastern China, and the Hexi Corridor from the 1990s to the 2000s. Especially, remarkable increases were observed for Mongolia. Strong wind frequency (fu>ut5%) decreased or changed little over the period of study, and the 5th percentile of the threshold wind speed for dust outbreak (ut5%) decreased at many stations in Mongolia, eastern Inner Mongolia, and northeastern China. This suggests changes in erodibility factors increased fDO in these regions. There are stations where fu>ut5% increased and ut5% remained relatively constant in western Inner Mongolia and the Hexi Corridor. This suggests changes in the erosivity factor increased fDO at these locations. The change in erodibility is linked, in part, to the effect of dead leaves of grasses in spring, which are the residue of vegetation in summer from the previous year, which can cause an increase in the threshold wind speed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurosaki, Yasunori; Shinoda, Masato; Mikami, Masao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937641"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Fei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MAP...tmp...76Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">The intraseasonal oscillations of precipitation and circulations from January to March in 2010 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The rainfall from January to March in 2010 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is positive anomaly and the temporal evolution characteristics present the cycle of 20-40 days. In the present paper, the low-frequency circulations and its formation mechanism are analyzed. The results show that during the peak rainfall phase, the upstream of the rainfall regions is controlled by low-frequency cyclone, and the downstream is controlled by low-frequency anticyclone in the middle and low troposphere. In the upper troposphere, the westerly jet presents the oscillation characteristics between the north and the south. Both the integrated (from the surface to 100 hPa) diabatic heating and the horizontal vorticity advection contribute to the vertical velocity. In addition, the vorticity vertical advection has effects on the vertical speed, which is a self-feedback process. The latent heating in the precipitation has influences on the westerly jet in the upper troposphere. The interactions between the precipitation and the westerly jet are mainly manifested as the intraseasonal oscillations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yao, Suxiang; Huang, Qian; Li, Tim; Zhang, Chunying</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A23C0184P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional climate projection for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and its added-value to global projection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High resolution climate projection data is essential to the climate change adaptation and climate risk management. We reproduced regional climate projections for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> with 50-km and for Korea with 12.5-km resolution using dynamical downscaling method from global climate change projection data under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5/4.5 by a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (GCM) with about 135-km resolution. Results of current climate simulation show that the regional climate model (RCM) has small large-scale drift from lateral boundary forcing and at the same time has ability to produce small-scale features due to its high resolution. This features leads that the RCM simulate current climate more realistically than the GCM around complicated topography and coast lines. In addition this, the RCM is much better at simulating and projecting changes to extremes, such as maximum daily precipitation amount and daily maximum temperature. More detailed results will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, S.; Lee, I.; Kang, H.; Cho, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626648"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for action planning and surveillance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and (3) building capacity to improve tobacco control planning in the participating countries. Design: A structured conceptualisation methodology known as concept mapping was used. The process included brainstorming, sorting and rating of statements describing industry activities. Statistical analyses used multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Interpretation of the maps was participatory, using regional tobacco control researchers, practitioners, and policy makers during a face to face meeting. Participants: 31 participants in this study come from the four countries represented in the project along with six people from the Johns Hopkins Blomberg School of Public Health. Conclusions: The map shows eight clusters of industry activities within the four countries. These were arranged into four general sectors: economics, politics, public relations and deception. For project design purposes, the map indicates areas of importance and feasibility for monitoring tobacco industry activities and serves as a basis for an initial discussion about action planning. Furthermore, the development of the map used a consensus building process across different stakeholders or stakeholder agencies and is critical when developing regional, cross border strategies for tracking and surveillance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stillman, F; Hoang, M; Linton, R; Ritthiphakdee, B; Trochim, W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484744"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Eastern Mediterranean regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n?=?49 studies), mortality (n?=?28), nutrition (n?=?24), and infectious diseases (n?=?33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n?=?56 studies), socioeconomic (n?=?50) and biological sampling (n?=?25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22291510"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovisp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickaisp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoisp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovisp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timurisp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoisp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedisp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixisp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskiisp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidussp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyinom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedli?ka, 1967, syn. n.;Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedli?ka, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anichtchenko, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1456369"> <span id="translatedtitle">Male Demography in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The human population has increased greatly in size in the last 100,000 years, but the initial stimuli to growth, the times when expansion started, and their variation between different parts of the world are poorly understood. We have investigated male demography in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, applying a Bayesian full-likelihood analysis to data from 988 men representing 27 populations from China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan typed with 45 binary and 16 STR markers from the Y chromosome. According to our analysis, the northern populations examined all started to expand in number between 34 (18–68) and 22 (12–39) thousand years ago (KYA), before the last glacial maximum at 21–18 KYA, while the southern populations all started to expand between 18 (6–47) and 12 (1–45) KYA, but then grew faster. We suggest that the northern populations expanded earlier because they could exploit the abundant megafauna of the “Mammoth Steppe,” while the southern populations could increase in number only when a warmer and more stable climate led to more plentiful plant resources such as tubers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xue, Yali; Zerjal, Tatiana; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Suling; Shu, Qunfang; Xu, Jiujin; Du, Ruofu; Fu, Songbin; Li, Pu; Hurles, Matthew E.; Yang, Huanming; Tyler-Smith, Chris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3179628"> <span id="translatedtitle">The conservation value of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3238047"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedli?ka, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedli?ka, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anichtchenko, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692695"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: a review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.8674S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian domain containing 164 × 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 ± 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE <span class="hlt">Asia</span> field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G.G., Woo, J.-H., Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., 2007a. Top-down estimate of mercury emissions in China using four-dimensional variational data assimilation. Atmospheric Environment 41, 2804-2819) in China for the year 2001. The estimated natural emission helps explain the gap between the anthropogenic emission estimates based on activity data (e.g., Pacyna, J.M., Pacyna, E., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S., 2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4048-4063; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) and the emission inferred from field observations (e.g., Jaffe, D., Prestbo, E., Swartzendruber, P., Weiss-Penzias, P., Kato, S., Takami, A., Hatakeyama, S., Kajii, Y., 2005. Export of atmospheric mercury from <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Atmospheric Environment 39, 3029-3038; Weiss-Penzias, P., Jaffe, D., Swartzendruber, P., Hafner, W., Chand, D., Prestbo, E., 2007. Quantifying Asian and biomass burning sources of mercury using the Hg/CO ratio in pollution plumes observed at the Mount Bachelor observatory. Atmospheric Environment 41, 4366-4379) in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A13C0232L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary results from measurement of methane at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea for understanding emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Importance of methane (CH4) to the global biogeochemical cycle and climate change has been well documented, and while the total global methane emissions are relatively well known, the strength of each source component and their trends are not, due to the varied biological and anthropogenic sources of emissions. This is especially true in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, where strong expected emissions of CH4 from fossil fuel mining and burning as well as rice agriculture remain less understood. In this study, we present atmospheric measurements of methane and preliminary analysis of the results. Measurement site for this study is at Gosan, a remote background site located on Jeju Island, Korea. Due to its central location in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, monitoring of both background and pollution from the surrounding regions is possible, thus ideal for monitoring methane emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. To facilitate high-quality continuous measurements, an automated measurement system with a GC-FID has been created and tested at Seoul National University. Identification of the dominant CH4 emission sources could be better understood by analyzing correlation with other anthropogenically and biogenically emitted compounds such as CO (important indicator for fossil fuel burning) and chlorinated compounds (emitted from biomass burning and the use of coal). Advanced air mass transport modeling will also be used to analyze different emission patterns by region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, E.; Kim, J.; Ahn, K.; Park, M.; Kim, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40563789"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and migration routes of large mammal faunas in South–<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the Late Middle Pleistocene: focus on the fossil and extant faunas from Thailand</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thailand has long held a key position in South–<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> because of its location at the boundary of the Indochinese and Sundaic provinces, the major biogeographical regions of South–<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. These provinces are distinct climatically, floristically and faunistically. The present-day limit between them is located at the Kra Isthmus, in peninsular Thailand.Previous studies of the Javanese large mammal fossil faunas</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C Tougard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AtmEn..43.3891T"> <span id="translatedtitle">A modeling assessment of association between <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon and fate/outflow of ?-HCH in Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a dynamic numerical atmospheric transport model for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), the relationship between the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon and the fate of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), a banned OCP, in the atmosphere over Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was investigated and assessed. The modeled temporal and spatial patterns and variability of ?-HCH air concentrations during the summer months of 2005 revealed a strong link between this chemical in the atmosphere over Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon. At lower atmospheric levels, easterly and southeasterly winds blowing from relatively cold ocean surface convey ?-HCH air concentration from southeast China to northeast China. A monsoon front extending from southeast China to Japan, characterized by a strong wind convergence, carried the air concentration to a high elevation of the atmosphere where it was delivered by southerly monsoon flow to northern China and North Pacific Ocean. This summer monsoon associated northward atmospheric transport caused a reversal of the soil/air exchange from outgassing to net deposition during spring-summer period. The modeled wet deposition fluxes of ?-HCH agreed well with the changes in the typical summer monsoon rain bands, designated as Meiyu in China, Changma in Korea, and Baiu in Japan. The major wet deposition flux paralleled with the monsoon front as well as the monsoon rain bands. The temporal change in the fluxes exhibits abrupt northward advances, which is associated with a stepwise northward and northeastward advance of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon. The modeled ?-HCH outflow in the atmosphere from China occurs mostly in the summer months and through northeast China, featured strongly by the evolution of the summer month. This study suggests that the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon provides a major atmospheric pathway and summer outflows to ?-HCH over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tian, Chongguo; Ma, Jianmin; Liu, Liyan; Jia, Hongliang; Xu, Diandou; Li, Yi-Fan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..754W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric aerosol measurements over tropical rainforests are important in order to understand their sources and sinks, and hence the rainforests' influence on local and regional climate. To date, there have been no published studies in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which, compared to the African and South American continents, represents a unique mixture of tropical seas and islands. Aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-<span class="hlt">east</span> Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Ultrafine particle fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to entrainment of particles into the growing mixed layer. In-canopy measurements were conducted at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1 - 20 µm) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. Number concentrations in this size range in the canopy understory correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5 - 1.0 µm) between above and below canopy showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites, which varied according to time of day. This lag time was shortest during the middle of the day by a significant margin. This was not observed for coarse mode (> 1.0 µm) aerosols. Further evidence of daytime coupling between above and below canopy in terms of aerosol measurements is implied by comparison of measurements from an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at the GAW tower and simultaneous bag sampling at the in-canopy site, subsequently analysed with the AMS. The transport of particles through the canopy, and fluxes above canopy, will be discussed in terms of mechanisms and diurnal variation, and the results of this study will be examined in order to build up a picture of the dynamics of aerosols above and within the rainforest canopy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whitehead, James; Gallagher, Martin; Robinson, Niall; Gabey, Andrew; Dorsey, James; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Ryder, James; Nemitz, Eiko; Davies, Fay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23353604"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vitamin D status and food security in North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The functions of vitamin D are pleiotropic affecting all body organs and systems in some way. Its adequacy depends principally on sunshine for UV light to stimulate its synthesis in skin and on foods which contain it, either animal-derived or obtained from fungi or mushrooms, with the UV-responsive substrates dehydrocholesterol for vitamin D-3 or ergosterol for vitamin D-2, respectively. Thus, vitamin D health is very environmentally dependent. With ecosytem degradation, whether by atmospheric pollution or food systems which do not derive UV irradiation, as with fish farming or mushroom processing, then this nutrient input into human biology may falter. Vitamin D deficiency is now common and widespread in North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> as elsewhere. When discovered early in the 20th century it was linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and, for a generation or so, children were given fish, usually cod, liver oil to prevent bone disease. Now cod as a species and many edible fish are threatened. Over-exposure to sun-light increases the risk of skin cancer. We may tackle this problem by vitamin D supplementation with an alternative to fish liver. But the demographic pressures of population size and ageing (when the skin is less UV responsive) make the clinical and public health decisions and strategies demanding. Vitamin D health has become indicative of food security whose usual indicator is food diversity; such diversity may allow lesser concentrations to be more effective in organ and system function, but we have little evidence to support this at present. PMID:23353604</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wahlqvist, Mark L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3355188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Knowledge Fusion to Analyze Avian Influenza H5N1 in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, a disease associated with high rates of mortality in infected human populations, poses a serious threat to public health in many parts of the world. This article reports findings from a study aimed at improving our understanding of the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza, H5N1, risk in <span class="hlt">East</span>-Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> where the disease is both persistent and devastating. Though many disciplines have made important contributions to our understanding of H5N1, it remains a challenge to integrate knowledge from different disciplines. This study applies genetic analysis that identifies the evolution of the H5N1 virus in space and time, epidemiological analysis that determines socio-ecological factors associated with H5N1 occurrence, and statistical analysis that identifies outbreak clusters, and then applies a methodology to formally integrate the findings of the three sets of methodologies. The present study is novel in two respects. First it makes the initiative attempt to use genetic sequences and space-time data to create a space-time phylogenetic tree to estimate and map the virus' ability to spread. Second, by integrating the results we are able to generate insights into the space-time occurrence and spread of H5N1 that we believe have a higher level of corroboration than is possible when analysis is based on only one methodology. Our research identifies links between the occurrence of H5N1 by area and a set of socio-ecological factors including altitude, population density, poultry density, and the shortest path distances to inland water, coastlines, migrating routes, railways, and roads. This study seeks to lay a solid foundation for the interdisciplinary study of this and other influenza outbreaks. It will provide substantive information for containing H5N1 outbreaks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ge, Erjia; Haining, Robert; Li, Chi Pang; Yu, Zuguo; Waye, Miu Yee; Chu, Ka Hou; Leung, Yee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5089K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cloud properties derived from satellite remote sensing and their relationships with other factors in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clouds are crucial in climate formation and variability studies. In particular, the cloud optical properties such as the optical depth and effective particle radius are important for calculating earth radiation budget. Effect of cloud modification or cloud-aerosol interaction is the most uncertain among cloud-relevant climatic issues. China had undergone substantial political changes since early 1980s, and then subsequent social and economical effects have drastically increased in industrial production and the number of car and so on. With this background, we examine the variability of cloud properties which were derived from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data to study the effect of industrial growth on clouds in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We have analyzed 10-year data from 1985 to 1994, and found gradual decreases in the effective particle size for both oceanic and continental clouds. Although a part of decrease in the particle size might be due to additional pollution for this area, there are, however, several causes to bring artifacts in the retrievals such as sensor degradation, discontinuity of platform and orbital shift. So considerable efforts should be addressed to reduce the artifact. Also we compare the cloud properties with SO2 emission and precipitation amount. As for SO2 emission, the results support Twomey effect, indicating that larger optical depth, smaller particle size and more cloud droplet number are observed as SO2 emission increases. And for precipitation amount, we find a good seasonal agreement with the effective particle size. This phenomena would be explained from scavenging of particles by precipitation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kawamoto, K.; Hayasaka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Street, D.; Woo, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23442396"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among adults in WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is an understudied problem in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Information on SLT use among the adult population was collected from various available sources. SLT use prevalence varies among countries in the region. The prevalence of SLT use is known for all countries at national level in the region with the exception of Bhutan and DPR Korea. For Bhutan, data pertains to Thimphu only. There is no available data on SLT use for DPR Korea. Using all available data from Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, SLT use was found to be higher among males as compared to females; however, in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Thailand, SLT use was higher among females as compared to males. Among males, prevalence of SLT use varied from 51.4% in Myanmar to 1.1% in Thailand. Among females, the prevalence of SLT use varied from 27.9% in Bangladesh to 1.9% in Timor-Leste. The prevalence also varies in different parts of countries. For instance, the prevalence of current use of SLT in India ranges from 48.7% in Bihar to 4.5% in Himachal Pradesh. In Thailand, prevalence of current use of tobacco use varies from 0.8% in Bangkok to over 4% in the northern (4.1%) and northeastern (4.7%) region. Among all SLT products, betel quid was the most commonly used product in most countries including Bangladesh (24.3%) and Thailand (1.8%). However, Khaini (11.6%) chewing was practiced most commonly in India. Nearly 5% of the adult population used tobacco as dentifrice in Bangladesh and India. SLT is more commonly used in rural areas and among disadvantaged groups. Questions from standard "Tobacco Questions for Surveys (TQS)" need to be integrated in routine health system surveys in respective countries to obtain standardized tobacco use data at regular intervals that will help in providing trends of SLT use in countries. PMID:23442396</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sinha, D N; Gupta, P C; Ray, Cecily; Singh, P K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A33D0180O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aircraft Measurements of Upward Transport of Black Carbon Over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in Spring 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A wet removal is considered to be a major loss process of black carbon (BC) aerosols from the atmosphere. However, a quantitative understanding of this process is still limited due to the insufficient observations of BC in the free troposphere (FT). We conducted aircraft observations of BC over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in March-April 2009, together with carbon monoxide (CO). The concentrations of BC and CO were greatly enhanced in air parcels sampled at 3-6 km over the Yellow Sea in March, associated with upward transport due to the cyclonic activity over the northeastern China. However, the BC-to-CO (BC/CO) ratio was greatly reduced in the plumes uplifted to 5-6 km over the southern China in April. The large difference in the BC/CO ratios was related to the large difference in the amounts of precipitation that air parcels had been influenced during the vertical transport. We derived the fraction of BC removed from the atmosphere during transport of air parcels (removal efficiency of BC) and the accumulated precipitation along the trajectories (APT) using the entire data sets obtained in the FT. The median removal efficiencies of BC for air parcels uplifted over northern China were 14% (sampled at 2-4 km) and 51% (4-9 km). They were much greater for those uplifted over southern China, namely 31% at 2-4 km and 68% at 4-9 km. Correspondingly, the median APT was smaller for the air parcels uplifted over northern China than those uplifted over southern China. On average, the removal efficiency of BC increased with the increases in the APT, demonstrating the importance of the precipitation in controlling transport of BC from the planetary boundary layer to the FT over the Asian continent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oshima, N.; Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MAP...118..151L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spin-up behavior of soil moisture content over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in a land surface model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents an investigation of the spin-up behavior of soil moisture content (SMC) and evapotranspiration (ET) in an offline Noah land surface model (LSM) for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, focusing on its interplay with the Asian monsoon. The set of 5-year recursive runs is conducted to properly assess the spin-up behavior of land surface processes and consists of simulations initialized with (1) a spatially uniform soil moisture, (2) NCEP GDAS soil moisture data, and (3) ECMWF ERA-Interim soil moisture data. Each run starts either after or before the summer monsoon. Initial SMCs from GDAS and ERA-Interim data significantly deviate from the equilibrium state (spin-up state) with the given input forcing even though the same equilibrium is reached within 3-year spin-up time, indicating that spin-up of land surface process is necessary. SMC reaches the equilibrium much quickly when (1) the consistent LSMs have been used in the prediction and analysis systems and (2) the spin-up simulation starts before the onset of heavy rainfall events during summer monsoon. For an area with heavy monsoon rainfall, the total column SMC and ET spin up quickly. The spin-up time over dry land is about 2-3 years, but for monsoon rainfall area decreases dramatically to about 3 months if the spin-up run starts just before the onset of monsoon. Further scrutiny shows that the spin-up time is well correlated with evaporative fraction given by the ratio between the latent heat flux and the available energy at the land surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lim, Yoon-Jin; Hong, Jinkyu; Lee, Tae-Young</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22089686"> <span id="translatedtitle">WHO framework convention on tobacco control and its implementation in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The birth of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took place in response to the global tobacco epidemic and it became the most important global tobacco control instrument. Duly recognizing tobacco use as an important public health problem and in the wake of rising prevalence of and mortality related to tobacco use, almost all Member States of the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region signed and ratified the WHO FCTC. Following the ratification, Member countries have enacted comprehensive national tobacco control laws and regulations. Most countries have covered some important provisions, such as tax and price measures, smoke-free places, health warnings, a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, and a ban on tobacco sales to minors. In spite of innumerable constraints and challenges, particularly human, infrastructural and financial resources, Member countries have been doing their best to enforce those legislations and regulations as effectively as possible. In order to educate the general public on the harmful effects of tobacco, mass health campaigns have been organized which are being continued and sustained. However, some of the important areas that need attention in due course of time are tax raises, illicit trade, tobacco industry interference and alternate cropping systems. All Member States in the Region are striving harder to achieving the goals and provisions of the Framework Convention through actively engaging all relevant sectors and addressing the tobacco issue holistically, and thus protecting the present and future generations from the devastating health, social, economic and environmental consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:22089686</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sinha, Dhirendra N; Narain, Jai P; Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Rinchen, Sonam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3372A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Economy of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-<span class="hlt">east</span> of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7252S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional climate projection based on RCP scenarios in the CORDEX <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Domain Using RegCM4</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regional climate projection data is essential to the adaptation and risk management for the expected climate change. In this stduy, we reproduced regional climate over CORDEX <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for 72 years from 1979 to 2050 with 50-km resolution using the latest regional climate model version 4, RegCM4, driven by HadGEM2-AO with about 135-km resolution under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5/4.5. Simulation skills of RegCM4 for the present climate (1980-2005, spin up time: 1979) over CORDEX <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are evaluated with CRU-TS (Climate Research Unit Time-Series) 3.0 and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). And KMA ground observation data are also used for the detailed assessment of RegCM4 over South Korea. The evaluation results showed that RegCM4 reasonalbly simulated the spatial distribution, and inter-annual and seasonal variations of surface air temperature. However, it showed a non-negligible systemartic biases in the precipitation. In particular, the rainband accompanied by the seasonal march of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon was simulated too southward, below 30° N comparing to the GPCP. As a reulst, summer precipitation over South Korea and Japan island was significantly underestimated. Under RCP8.5 (RCP4.5) scenario, annual mean temperature over the CORDEX <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is expected to increase by + 1.6 oC(+1.4oC) above the present level (1980-2005) by the end of the future simulation period. Most of the regions (South-Korea, South-China, North-China, India, Japan, Mongolia) show the increaseing trend of surface air temperature. On the other hand, the future changes of precipitation are not systemaic at the most of regions and seasons. More detailed results including projected regional climate change will be discussed in the presentation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suh, M. S.; Oh, S. G.; Cha, D. H.; Kang, H. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AdAtS..20..799X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the Mascarene high and Australian high on the summer monsoon in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Ensemble simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using a nine-level atmospheric general circulation model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP 9L AGCM), two sets of numerical experiments are carried out to investigate the influence of the Mascarene high (MH) and Australian high (AH) over the southern subtropics upon the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon circulation and summer precipitation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The use of ensemble statistics is adopted to reduce the simulation errors. The result shows that with the intensification of MH, the Somali low-level jet is significantly enhanced together with the summer monsoon circulation in the tropical <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and western Pacific region. Furthermore, the anticyclonic anomaly in the tropical western Pacific to the <span class="hlt">east</span> of the Philippines may induce a weak <span class="hlt">East-Asia</span>-Pacific teleconnection pattern. In the meantime, geopotential height in the Tropics is enhanced while it is reduced over most regions of mid-high latitudes, thus the northwestern Pacific subtropical high at 500 hPa extends southwestward, resulting in more rainfall in southern China and less rainfall in northern China. A similar anomaly pattern of the atmospheric circulation systems is found in the experiment of the intensification of AH. On the other hand, because the cross-equatorial currents associated with AH are much weaker than the Somali jet, the anomaly magnitude caused by the intensification of AH is generally weak, and the influence of AH on summer rainfall in China seems to be localized in southern China. Comparison between the two sets of experiments indicates that MH plays a crucial role in the interactions of general atmospheric circulation between the two hemispheres.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xue, Feng; Jiang, Dabang; Lang, Xianmei; Wang, Huijun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3003Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Simulation of Dust Aerosol and Its Future Changes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by a RCM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ICTP regional climate model coupled with a dust aerosol model (RegCM3-dust) is employed to simulate dust production, its climatic effects, and the futures changes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Firstly, two sets of experiments are completed with the high resolution global model output data from the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC3.2_hires), one for current (1991-2000), the other for future (2091-2100, following the A1B scenario) climate and dust aerosol. Simulated current climates by both MIROC3.2_hires and RegCM3-dust model are inter-compared and evaluated against observations, while the results of climate change (future-current) from above two models are analyzed also. Simulated dust aerosols by RegCM3-dust are compared with the satellite data and the changes of dust aerosols are predicted. Then, another two experiments with the radiative effects of dust aerosols for different periods are conducted. The modeled dust aerosols climate effect and its regional feedbacks are assessed. Our main conclusions are as follows: Both MIROC3.2_hires and RegCM3-dust can reproduce well the atmospheric circulation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The simulated multi-years mean surface air temperature is colder/warmer than observations in the range of 1-2°C by MIROC3.2_hires/ RegCM3-dust. The lesser bias can be found in RegCM3-dust simulation for JJA, while in MIROC3.2_hires for DJF, the RegCM3-dust shows a cold bias over region. Both models overestimate the precipitation in the northern part of the model domain and show a bias of ±25% in the most southern part of model domain. The main inadequacy of models is an underestimate of precipitation over Southeast China in winter. In general, no obvious improvements are shown in RegCM3-dust compared to MIROC3.2_hires. The pattern of changes (future-current) in surface air temperature by RegCM3-dust is similar to MIROC3.2_hires, characterized with a larger increase in northern part than in southern part and the maximum rise is found in winter. The differences between MIROC3.2_hires and RegCM3-dust are found in the areas covered by snow, where the temperature rise by MIROC3.2_hires is much higher than by RegCM3-dust. The multi-years mean precipitations increase over most simulation region by MIROC3.2_hires, while decrease over Northeast China and the lower-middle reaches of Yangtze River by RegCM3-dust, due to the decrease in JJA and SON. The mean precipitations over Tibet Plateau in snow covered seasons increase by MIROC3.2_hires and decrease by RegCM3-dust. The seasonally averaged comparisons of simulated AOD and DI to observations show that the RegCM3-dust has the ability of reproduce the averaged seasonal spatial and temporal distribution of dust aerosol over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by the MIROC3.2_hires driven. The modeled dust emission and load are rational also. However, the same model deficiency is found compared to NCEP driven experiments. The dust emission decreases over the snow free areas and increases over the areas covered by snow in the future. An increase of the multi-years mean dust emission by 2% is shown over the domain, with the increase from December to March due to the decrease of snow amount and reduction from April to November because of the decreased wind speeds. The projected frequencies of high dust emission show the same identities. The multi-years mean dust load increases by 14%, while a little decreases in MAM and August. The distribution of the surface and TOA radiative forcing from dust aerosol in both current and future run are in agreement with that in NCEP- driven simulation. The surface cooling with a little more cooler in the future run can be found. Unsystematic precipitation change is shown, with the only exception over the Taklimakan Desert, where precipitation increases in both current and future run. The dust radiative forcing induces a negative feedback mechanism on dust emission and dust load, the differences of this feedback between the current and future run are related to the value of dust emission and dust load themselves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Dongfeng; Gao, Xuejie; Zakey, Ashraf; Giorgi, Filippo; Solmon, Fabien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A53A0292C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating absorbing black carbon and organic carbon optical properties from AERONET and MISR data over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The radiative forcing due to carbonaceous aerosols is one of the largest source of uncertainties in global and regional climate change. Black carbon and organic carbon from biomass and fossil fuel are two major types of carbonaceous aerosols. In this study we use available ground based and satellite observations to infer the optical properties of black and organic carbon. NASA's AERONET and MISR data over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> provide the observational basis. We use the spectral variations in the observed aerosol extinction optical depth and absorption optical depth to categorize the optical properties including their mixing state with other aerosols such as dust and other inorganic aerosols. We create 8 different categories of aerosol mixtures: Dust, Biomass Burning, Fossil Fuel, Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Dust with Biomass Burning, Mixed Dust with Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Biomass Burning with Fossil Fuel, and Mixed Dust, Biomass Burning, with Fossil Fuel, over the following 6 regions of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Nepal, Gobi, North Industrial China, South Industrial China, Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and Korea/Japan. Our results are compared with independent surface observations over China using Aethalometers and Single Particle Soot Photometers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, B.; Ramanathan, V.; Huang, J.; Zhang, G. J.; Xu, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1314037I"> <span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of the CMAQ reproducibility of satellite tropospheric NO2 column observations at different local times over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the importance of the role of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in tropospheric chemistry, the causes leading to the discrepancy between satellite-derived and modeled tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> remain unclear. Here the reproducibility of satellite tropospheric NO2 VCD data by a regional chemical transport model (CMAQ) with the Regional Emission inventory in <span class="hlt">ASia</span> (REAS) Version 2 is evaluated from the viewpoint of the diurnal variation of tropospheric NO2 VCDs, where satellite observations at different local times (SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, OMI/Aura, and GOME-2/Metop-A) are utilized considering literature validation results. As a case study, we concentrate on June and December 2007 for a detailed evaluation based on various sensitivity simulations, for example with different spatial resolutions (80, 40, 20, and 10 km) for CMAQ. For June, CMAQ generally reproduces absolute values of satellite NO2 VCDs and their diurnal variations over all 12 selected diagnostic regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In contrast, a difficulty arises in interpreting the significant disagreement between satellite and CMAQ values over most of the diagnostic regions in December. The disagreement cannot be explained by any of the sensitivity simulations performed in this study. To address this, more investigations, including further efforts for satellite validations in wintertime, are needed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Irie, H.; Yamaji, K.; Ikeda, K.; Uno, I.; Itahashi, S.; Ohara, T.; Kurokawa, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26425850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis on the development trends of capture fisheries in North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the policy and management implications for regional co-operation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seas in North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the Yellow\\/<span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea and the <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea, which are semi-enclosed seas constituting unitary ecosystems are now facing many problems such as depletion of fish stocks, poor fishery management policies, and large-scale deterioration of the marine environment. The fishery resources of the region have long been subject to heavy fishing pressures, and many stocks are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joon-Suk Kang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2427861"> <span id="translatedtitle">Immunological surveys of arbovirus infections in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with special reference to dengue, chikungunya, and Kyasanur Forest disease*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Serological surveys have been widely used in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to determine the presence and activity of arboviruses. The haemagglutination-inhibition test has been most frequently employed but complement-fixation and neutralization tests have also been used in some investigations. Although virus isolations provide the most conclusive evidence, they can be carried out in a few specialized centres only, and serological surveys are very important for studying the distribution of arboviruses. The surveys have shown that group B arboviruses (principally all four types of dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile) are widely prevalent. Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are more widespread than West Nile virus, which was not known previously to extend <span class="hlt">east</span> of India although recent survyes have shown that its range extends to Burma. Japanese encephalitis is frequent in most of South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> but in India is found mainly in eastern and south-eastern parts of the country. Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) and Langat viruses are the only tick-borne group B arboviruses definitely known to occur in the region, the former in India, the latter in Malaysia. KFD virus has been isolated only from a small focus in Mysore, although human and animal sera containing neutralizing antibodies to this virus have been found sporadically in widely scattered areas. Among the group A arboviruses, chikungunya and Sindbis have been detected in serological surveys, but the former has not yet been found in Malaysia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rao, T. Ramachandra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47359344"> <span id="translatedtitle">Japan's Policy Towards <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>Trends in Re-Asianization&ast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent years Japan's definition of <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has been undergoing a significant change. So farfor Japan, <span class="hlt">Asia</span> meant mainly China, the two Koreas and the Southeast Asian countriesAfter the events of 11 September, the US invasion of Afghanistan, the war in Iraq, the massivanti-Japan movement in China and South Korea and other developments Japan was impelleto strengthen its relations with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lalima Varma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.7481L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transient simulation of orbital-scale precipitation variation in monsoonal <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and arid central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the last 150 ka</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">long-term transient simulation is conducted using the Community Climate System Model version 3 and the orbital acceleration technique to analyze the impact of insolation change caused by the Earth's orbital forcing on precipitation in the monsoonal <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (EA) and arid central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (CA) over the past 150 ka. Our results show that annual precipitation in both EA and CA has strong signals of the 20 ka precessional cycles and varies in phase with the Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. Similar characteristics can also be observed from previously published oxygen isotope records of stalagmites near EA and CA. Composite analyses based on seven precessional cycles suggest that the increase (decrease) in the NH summer (winter) insolation enhances EA (CA) summer (winter) precipitation by modulation of the Asian monsoon (westerly) circulation in summer (winter). When the precession-induced NH summer insolation increases, the Asian summer monsoon circulation is enhanced and EA precipitation increases significantly. Meanwhile, the increase in the summer insolation at the precessional scale is accompanied by a decrease in the winter insolation, which causes dramatic cooling of the troposphere in the lower latitudes. Consequently, the CA winter precipitation increases due to the changes in the temperature gradient and the westerly circulation. Therefore, the responses of the Asian monsoon and westerly circulation to summer and winter insolation variations induced by the precessional cycles determine precipitation in the respective rainy seasons and are the primary cause leading to the synchronous variation patterns of annual precipitation in EA and CA at the orbital scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Xinzhou; Liu, Xiaodong; Qiu, Linjing; An, Zhisheng; Yin, Zhi-Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2249211"> <span id="translatedtitle">HTLV-1, HIV-1, hepatitis B and hepatitis delta in the Pacific and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: a serological survey.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blood samples from 13 locations in the Pacific and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were tested for evidence of infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV). No samples were positive for antibody to HIV-1. Antibodies to HTLV-1 were found in samples from five locations, the maximum prevalence being 19%, in Vanuatu. Serological markers of HBV infection were found in all locations, the maximal prevalence being 88%, in Majuro, Micronesia. Antibodies to HDV in HBsAg positive sera were found in six locations with a maximum prevalence of 81% in Kiribati.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brindle, R. J.; Eglin, R. P.; Parsons, A. J.; Hill, A. V.; Selkon, J. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC13A0701H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of the thermal environment evolution from subsurface temperature distribution in large cities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperature changes at the ground surface propagate into the underground and disturb the subsurface temperature structure. Analyzing disturbances in the subsurface temperature structure, we can reconstruct the past ground surface temperature (GST) change, which is closely related to the past surface air temperature change. This method can be applied to studies of thermal environment evolution in urban areas such as the development of “heat islands”. As part of an international multidisciplinary research project “Human Impacts on Urban Subsurface Environments”, we have been investigating GST histories in and around several large cities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, including Bangkok and Tokyo. We have also started a study on the subsurface thermal environment in Saitama prefecture, located on the north of Tokyo, as a research project of CESS (Center for Environmental Science in Saitama). The eastern part of Saitama prefecture is densely populated and considered to be a part of Tokyo Metropolitan area. In this presentation, we show the results of GST history reconstruction in the both areas. In Bangkok area, we conducted measurements of temperature profiles in groundwater monitoring wells at 45 sites in 2004, 2006, and 2008. In Saitama, we measured temperature profiles at 15 sites in 2009. We examined the shapes of the temperature profiles and selected ones that are not significantly disturbed by groundwater flow. Reconstruction of GST history for the last several hundred years was made at six sites in the Bangkok area and at two sites in the Saitama area. We used a multi-layer model that allows layers with different thermal properties, determining layer boundaries based on lithology of the formations around the wells. All of the reconstructed GST histories show surface warming in the last century. In the Bangkok area, the amount of the temperature increase ranges from 0.4 to 2.6 K and is larger in the city than in the area to the west of Bangkok and in the northern rural area. This tendency may reflect difference in the degree of urbanization or human activities. In the Saitama area, the GST increased by more than 2.5 K at both of the two sites, which are located in the densely populated part. The two sites in Saitama and the site at the center of Bangkok all show large GST increase, whereas the onset time of warming appears to be different among the three sites. These results should be combined with other information on development of the two large cities to investigate the main cause of the surface warming, e.g., increase in the surface air temperature and land use change. We also estimated the amount of heat stored in the subsurface after 1900 based on the reconstructed GST histories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamamoto, H.; Goto, S.; Vuthy, M.; Nishijima, J.; Yamano, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Miyakoshi, A.; Hachinohe, S.; Sasaka, K.; Shiraishi, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7763S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and regional aerosol characteristics in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> investigated with model-predicted and remotely-sensed aerosol properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the spatio-temporal and seasonal distributions of EOS/Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were analyzed in conjunction with US EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) v4.3 modeling system. In this study, two MODIS AOD products (?mODIS: ?m-BAER and ?NASA) retrieved through a modified Bremen Aerosol Retrieval (M-BAER) algorithm and NASA collection 5 (C005) algorithm were compared with the AOD (?CMAQ) that was calculated from the US EPA Models-3/CMAQ model simulations. In general, the CMAQ-predicted AOD values captured the spatial and temporal variations of the two MODIS AOD products over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> reasonably well. Since ?mODIS cannot provide information on the aerosol chemical composition in the atmosphere, different aerosol formation characteristics in different regions and different seasons in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> cannot be described or identified by ?mODIS itself. Therefore, the seasonally and regionally varying aerosol formation and distribution characteristics were investigated by the US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v4.3 model simulations. The contribution of each particulate chemical species to ?mODIS and ?CMAQ showed strong spatial, temporal and seasonal variations. For example, during the summer episode, ?mODIS and ?CMAQ were mainly raised due to high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 over Chinese urban and industrial centers and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) over the southern parts of China, whereas during the late fall and winter episodes, ?mODIS and ?CMAQ were higher due largely to high levels of NH4NO3 formed over the urban and industrial centers, as well as over Chinese agricultural and livestock farming areas with high NH3 emissions. ?CMAQ was in general larger than ?mODIS during the year, except for spring. The high biases (?CMAQ > ?mODIS) may be due to the excessive formation of both (NH4)2SO4 (summer episode) and NH4NO3 (fall and winter episodes) over China, possibly from the use of overestimated values for NH3 emissions in the CMAQ modeling. According to CMAQ modeling, particulate NH4NO3 made a 14% (summer) to 54% (winter) contribution to ?ext and ?CMAQ. Therefore, the importance of NH4NO3 in estimating ?should not be ignored, particularly in studies of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian air quality. In addition, the accuracy of ?m-BAER and ?NASA was evaluated by a comparison with the AOD (?AERONET) from the AERONET sites in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Both ?m-BAER and ?NASA showed a strong correlation with ?AERONET around the 1:1 line (R=0.79), indicating promising potential for the application of both the M-BAER and NASA aerosol retrieval algorithms to satellite-based air quality monitoring studies in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, C. H.; Park, M. E.; Lee, K. H.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Ghim, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57102463"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Crisis and Corporate Finances: The Untold Micro Story</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">October 1998Empirical findings about corporate finance support Krugman's view that crony capitalism lay at the core of <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s recent financial crisis. Implicit government guarantees and poor banking supervision led to poor decisions about credit allocation in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s banking-dominated financial systems.Explanations of what caused the Asian crisis have focused on macroeconomic factors. Pomerleano offers a complementary perspective focusing on corporate distress</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Pomerleano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0721/2006JD008201/2006JD008201.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consistency of the aerosol type classification from satellite remote sensing during the Atmospheric Brown Cloud–<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Regional Experiment campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Atmospheric Brown Cloud–<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Regional Experiment (ABC-EAREX) was conducted under the UNEP\\/ABC-<span class="hlt">Asia</span> project to intercompare the aerosol and gas measurements in springtime from various instruments from late February to April 2005 at the Gosan Supersite on Jeju Island, Korea. Satellite instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) provide a large-scale regional</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jhoon Kim; Jaehwa Lee; Hee Choon Lee; Akiko Higurashi; Toshihiko Takemura; Chul Han Song</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A53D0230L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Modeling of 1997-2006 Asian Dust and Mass Budget Analysis in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and West Pacific</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has two of the Earth's major natural dust sources: the Taklamakan Desert in west China and the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and northwest China. Desertification has increased dust-erodible areas surrounding the deserts so the dust storm frequency has increased in the last few decades. Severe dust storms not only impact <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, but also can reach far beyond the continent, as did the dust clouds of April 1998, 2001 and 2005 that drifted over the Pacific Ocean and to North America. The US Navy's operational Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to simulate the dust events for the springs of 1997 through 2006 at a resolution of one quarter of degree with multiple size bins. We use the modeled data to investigate the spatial and temporal dependence of dust emission, transport and deposition, and estimate the impacts of dust on environment. The distribution of dust plumes in area coverage and vertical depth is studied, as is the inter-annual variation of dust patterns from the different deserts of China and Mongolia, and the fluxes across the Pacific. It is found that PM10 is the dominant fraction particles over the continent and near the ocean, while PM2.5 becomes dominant in the boundary outflow along 170E. The details of analyzed model results will be presented at the meeting.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, M.; Westphal, D. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sir20105090G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>—China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the China Geological Survey (CGS) to conduct a mineral resource assessment of Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Dexing deposit in eastern China that contains more than 8,000,000 metric tons of copper. In addition, large parts of the area are undergoing active exploration and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits. Three tracts were delineated to be permissive for Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: the Manchuride, Coastal Pacific, and <span class="hlt">East</span> Qinling tracts, all Jurassic through Cretaceous in age. The tracts are based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits is possible. These tracts range in area from about 170,000 to about 1,400,000 km2. Although maps at a variety of scales were used in the assessment, the final tract boundaries are intended for use at a scale of 1:1,000,000. These Mesozoic deposits in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> all formed in post-subduction environments, environments newly recognized as permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits. Based on the grade, tonnage, and geologic characteristics of the known deposits, two tracts, Manchuride and Coastal Pacific, were evaluated using the general (Cu-Mo-Au) porphyry copper grade and tonnage model. The <span class="hlt">East</span> Qinling tract was evaluated using the molybdenum-rich (Cu-Mo) model. Assessment participants estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits at different levels of confidence for each permissive tract. These estimates were then combined with the selected grade and tonnage models using Monte Carlo simulation to generate quantitative probabilistic estimates of undiscovered resources. Resources in future extensions of deposits with identified resources were not specifically evaluated. Assessment results, presented in tables and graphs, show mean amounts of metal and rock in undiscovered deposits at different quantile levels, as well as the arithmetic mean for each tract. This assessment estimated a mean total of about 44 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the assessed permissive tracts in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. This represents nearly 4 times the 12 known deposits. Predicted mean (arithmetic) resources that could be associated with these undiscovered deposits are about 198,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper and about 3,900 t of gold, as well as byproduct molybdenum and silver. The reported identified resources for those 12 known deposits total about 23,000,000 t of copper and about 850 t of gold. The assessment area is estimated to contain nearly nine times as much copper in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits as has been identified to date. This report includes an overview of the assessment results and summary tables. Descriptions of each tract are included in appendixes, with estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits, and probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. A geographic information system that accompanies the report includes tract boundaries and a database of known porphyry copper deposits and prospects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R., Jr.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T32B..06K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of the Seismogenic Layer for Deforming Zones in Central and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present solutions for the seismogenic layer of the India-Eurasia collision zone by utilizing a forward dynamic modeling approach, where body force distributions, inferred lateral variations in linear effective viscosity, and known far-field velocity boundary conditions are defined. Body forces are the differences in gravity potential energy per unit area calculated as the depth integral of vertical stress from the surface down to a common depth reference of 20 km below sea level (assumed long-term brittle-ductile transition). Velocity boundary conditions are defined using long-term plate motion estimates. Effective viscosities in our models are proportional to the long-term friction on faults and are inversely proportional to strain rates inferred from Kostrov summation of Quaternary fault observations. Lateral variations in effective viscosity for the modeled layer span over 5 orders of magnitude. We neglect stresses due to flexure as well as small shear stresses at the base of the crustal layer. Our dynamic approximation is oversimplified because the width of the deforming zone for even geometrically simple faults increases with depth. Moreover, the long-term brittle-ductile transition depth (our proxy for the base of our model seiemogenic layer) is likely spatially variable and not at uniform depth below sea level. Nevertheless, this approach does produce quantitative insight on the question of frictional strength for faults within deforming upper crust. Self-consistent dynamic strain rate tensor solutions to the force-balance equations are solved and tested for fitness with the kinematic strain rate tensor styles inferred from Quaternary fault observations and from CMT solutions. We assume an isotropic relationship between dynamic strain rate tensor directions and kinematic strain rate directions and assume that these are appropriate strain field indicators. Dynamic model velocity fields are scored via reduced chi-square misfit with GPS velocity observations at over 2500 GPS locations. Preliminary models defined with fault friction values of ? = 0.025 for the Burma region, ? = 0.10 - 0.25 for the Tibetan Plateau region, and ? > 0.6 for the megathrust system as well as for north central and far <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> achieve optimal fit to Quaternary deformation indicators. Successful models indicate that deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with velocity boundary conditions within Burma and parts of the Tibetan Plateau. The dynamic stress and strain rate tensor fields and the dynamic velocity field each are acutely sensitive to the intrinsic mechanical properties of the faults, the density of available fault fabric, and perhaps to contributions from horizontal basal tractions. We test our models of the seismogenic layer, which do not account for contributions from basal tractions, to the effect of deeper lithospheric loads. Initial results indicate that such loads are generally smaller than the stresses associated with our models of the seismogenic layer. Stresses associated from deeper sources together with stresses from the seismogenic layer yield dynamical model output that may enhance the fit to deformation indicators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klein, E. C.; Flesch, L. M.; Holt, W. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP41C0631K"> <span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of aeolian erodibility over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the recent two decades</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many researchers have shown spatial distributions and inter-annual variations of frequency in the occurrences of dust storm and dust outbreak, which is a category of present weather included in WMO SYNOP report defined in Kurosaki and Mikami (2003GL017261) that indicates injection of soil particles from the surface to the atmosphere. These frequencies do not directly express the amount of emitted soil particles from land surface, but we can recognize that they work as good indices of intensity of wind erosion. Wind erosion depends on the relationship between aeolian erosivity and erodibility. The erosivity is the ability of the wind to cause erosion, and the erodibility is characterized as the susceptibility of a soil and land surface to wind erosion, which is influenced by soil and land surface characteristics, particularly the soil particle size distribution, soil water content, vegetation coverage, soil crust, snow cover, soil freeze/thaw processes, and land use. The erosivity is expressed by one parameter, wind friction speed or simplistically wind speed as a substitute. On the other hand, we have difficulties in expression of erodibility due to a huge number of factors as above and different units of them. However, threshold wind speed, which is the minimum wind speed initiating wind erosion, can be a unified index of a variety of erodibility factors. Weather condition such as a dust storm and wind speed have been observed at synoptic meteorological stations, which widely distribute in the world, but threshold wind speed is not included in items of synoptic observation. However, Kurosaki et al. (2011GL047494) developed a methodology to obtain a frequency distribution of threshold wind speed from a combination of SYNOP present weather and wind speed. In this presentation, we will show decadal changes in dust outbreak frequency, strong wind frequency, and the 5th-percentile of threshold wind speed from 1990s (1990-1999) to 2000s (2000-2009) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Here, a strong wind is defined as a wind whose speed is higher than the 5th-percentile of threshold wind speed for 1970 to 2009. The results are (1) Dust outbreak frequency increased at many stations in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northeastern China, and the Hexi Corridor from the 1990s to the 2000s, and especially remarkable increases were observed for Mongolia; (2) Strong wind frequency decreased or changed little over the period and the 5th-percentile of threshold wind speed decreased at many stations in Mongolia, eastern Inner Mongolia, and northeastern China. This suggests changes in erodibility factors increased dust outbreak frequency in these regions; (3) there are stations where strong wind frequency increased and the 5th-percentile of threshold wind speed remained relatively constant in western Inner Mongolia and the Hexi Corridor. This suggests changes in the erosivity factor increased dust outbreak frequency at these locations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurosaki, Y.; Shinoda, M.; Mikami, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3496595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of the care transition measure in multi-ethnic South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in Singapore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The 15-item Care Transition Measure (CTM-15) is a measure for assessing the quality of care during transition from the patients’ perspective. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the CTM-15 and CTM-3 (a 3-item version of the CTM-15) in Singapore, a multi-ethnic urban state in South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Methods A consecutive sample of patients was recruited from two tertiary hospitals. The subjects or their proxies were interviewed 3?weeks after discharge from hospital to home in English or Chinese using the CTM-15 questionnaire. Information about patients’ visit to emergency department (ED), non-elective rehospitalisation for the condition of index hospitalisation, and care experience after discharge was also collected from respondents. Psychometric properties of CTM-15 and CTM-3 based on the five-point response scale (i.e. strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly agree) and the three-point response scale (i.e. [strongly] agree, neutral, and [strongly] disagree) were tested for English and Chinese versions separately. Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and construct validity was tested with T-test or Pearson’s correlation by examining hypothesised association of CTM scores with ED visit, rehospitalisation, and experience with care after discharge. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine latent dimensions of CTM-15. Results A total of 414 (proxy: 96.1%) and 165 (proxy: 84.8%) subjects completed the interviews in English and Chinese, respectively. Cronbach’s alpha values of the different CTM-15 versions ranged from 0.81 to 0.87. In contrast, Cronbach’s alpha values of the CTM-3 ranged from 0.42 to 0.63. Both CTM-15 and CTM-3 were correlated with care experience after discharge regardless of survey language or response scale (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: 0.36 to 0.46). Among the English-speaking respondents, the CTM-15 and CTM-3 scores based on both the three- and five-point response scales discriminated well between patients with and without ED visits or rehospitalisation for their index condition. Among Chinese-speaking respondents, no difference in CTM scores was observed between patients with and without ED visits or patients with and without rehospitalisation. The English and Chinese versions of the CTM-15 items demonstrated a similar 4-factor structure representing general care plan, medication, agreement on care plan, and specific care instructions. Conclusions The care transition measure is a valid and reliable measure for quality of care transition in Singapore. Moreover, the care transition measure can be administered to proxies using a simpler response scale. The discriminatory power of the Chinese version of this instrument needs to be further tested in future studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3909120"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of Confucianism on interpersonal relationships and communication patterns in <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is argued that <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian communication patterns differ from those of North America because of the Eastern emphasis on social relationships as opposed to the North American emphasis on individualism. This <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian preoccupation with social relationships stems from the doctrines of Confucianism, which considers proper human relationships to be the basis of society. The cardinal principle of Confucianism</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">June-ock Yum</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmRe.109...36Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of SST magnitude and gradient on typhoon tracks around <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Acase study for Typhoon Maemi (2003)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of sea surface temperature (SST) magnitude and horizontal gradient of SST on the northeastward typhoon motion around <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are investigated in a case for Typhoon Maemi (2003), using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The effects of SST on tropical cyclone (TC) motion are explained using the concept of potential vorticity tendency (PVT), which provides a good dynamical explanation for the TC motion. A warm SST significantly strengthens the TC intensity and induces a greater eastward drift in the TC motion. Asymmetry in the PVT reveals the maximum to the northeast and the minimum to the southwest, implying the northeastward-moving TC motion. A warmer SST induces a greater eastward deflection of the maximum PVT. The change in the PVT is primarily due to the horizontal advection of the cyclonic vortex rather than diabatic heating or vertical advection. Southwesterly flow advects the TC northeastward more effectively as SST magnitude is increased. In addition, a zonal SST increase from west to <span class="hlt">east</span> produces a larger eastward deflection in the TC motion than a meridional SST gradient and a SST magnitude. Compared to the other SST gradients, the SST increase from west to <span class="hlt">east</span> is more favorable for the southwestward tilt of the vortex axis and the resultant verticalsoutheasterly wind shear. Consequently, this SST gradient may induce a greater eastward drift in the TC motion owing to the enhancement of asymmetric vortex and flow.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yun, Kyung-Sook; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Ha, Kyung-Ja</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44605529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Political Parties, Party Systems, and Democracy in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>Lessons from Latin America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Institutionalized parties and party systems have traditionally been viewed as necessary conditions for democracies to function effectively. Although this area of research is germane to all democracies, most analyses have been divided by regional investigation. Seeking to bridge the gap, this article applies concepts and measures of institutionalization from the study of Latin America to Pacific <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s two most prominent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">HANS STOCKTON</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22secondary+education+reform%22&pg=2&id=ED465476"> <span id="translatedtitle">West Meets <span class="hlt">East</span> in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Competing Discourses on Secondary Education Reform in the Kyrgyz Republic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The Kyrgyz Republic--a remote mountainous region--is one of five former Soviet states in central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. This case study begins with a brief overview of the political and economic situation of the Kyrgyz Republic and its relation to aims of Soviet schooling in the 20th century. A critique of the Soviet schooling model by foreign academics before…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Young, Alan J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam&pg=6&id=EJ919144"> <span id="translatedtitle">Higher Education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper reviews <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific higher education and university research, focusing principally on the "Confucian" education nations Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong China, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam. Except for Vietnam, these systems exhibit a special developmental dynamism--still playing out everywhere except Japan--and have created a distinctive…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marginson, Simon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www1.worldbank.org/economicpolicy/managing%20volatility/contagion/documents/FrankSchm.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crisis, Contagion, and Country Funds: Effects on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Latin America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spillover effects, from one country or region to other countries and regions, have attracted renewed attention in the aftermath of the Mexican crisis of December 1994. This paper uses data on closed-end country funds to study how a negative shock in Mexican equities is transmitted to <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Latin America, and to particular countries within each region. Country funds allow</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeffrey A. Frankel; Sergio L. Schmukler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Central+Asia%22&pg=5&id=ED465476"> <span id="translatedtitle">West Meets <span class="hlt">East</span> in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Competing Discourses on Secondary Education Reform in the Kyrgyz Republic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Kyrgyz Republic--a remote mountainous region--is one of five former Soviet states in central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. This case study begins with a brief overview of the political and economic situation of the Kyrgyz Republic and its relation to aims of Soviet schooling in the 20th century. A critique of the Soviet schooling model by foreign academics before and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Young, Alan J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A44C..07Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Precipitation from Reanalyses Products Using Gauge-Based Analysis of Daily Precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During last decades, several reanalysis datasets have been produced for climate research. Such reanalyses include the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalyses covering the period from 1948 until present, the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analyses (ERA-40) from 1957 to 2002, and the Japanese Reanalysis (JRA-25) from 1979 to 2004. However, the present generation of reanalysis has many problems that make them sub-optimal or even unusable for regional climate studies. Therefore, the applicability evaluation of the reanalyzed products is crucial for their intelligent utilization, the improvement of the data assimilation technique and the reliability of climate change research. In this study, a new gauge-based analysis of daily precipitation (regard as observations) developed by the ‘Asian Precipitation Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of the Water Resources (APHRODITE)’ project will be used to validate the precipitation products from NCEP-NCAR, NCEP-DOE, ERA-40 and JRA-25 reanalysis over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoon region (5°-60°N, 65°-155°E) for a 25-yr period from 1979 to 2003. The reliability and applicability represented by reanalyzed precipitation in climate research will be analyzed through multi-statistical diagnostic analysis methods on different spatio-temporal scales, especially in seasonal and interannual variation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The main results about this study reveal that the ERA-40 and JRA-25 are better than NCRP-NCAR and NCEP-DOE to describe the spatial distribution and temporal variation represented by observations in most regions of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, but the NCEP-DOE has a better ability to represent the variation of Meiyu belt in the Yangtze-Huai River Valley of China. With regard to the magnitude of the precipitation difference among the reanalyes and the observations, the JRA-25 is closer to the observed precipitation than others over most domains. However, some uncertainties existed in the study results are still needed to discus due to the difference of data resolution and other issues.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, T.; Yatagai, A. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA481612"> <span id="translatedtitle">U.S. Foreign Aid to <span class="hlt">East</span> and South <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Selected Recipients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report analyzes annual budget justifications and legislation for foreign operations appropriations and discusses U.S. foreign aid trends, programs, and restrictions in 16 <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian and South Asian countries. It does not cover aid to Pacific Island n...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Lum</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/20065323"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-<span class="hlt">East</span> Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June\\/July 2008. Here, aerosol fluxes and diurnal variability in and above the rainforest canopy were examined in order to gain an understanding of their dynamics in the surface layer of the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. D. Whitehead; M. W. Gallagher; J. R. Dorsey; N. Robinson; A. M. Gabey; H. Coe; G. McFiggans; M. J. Flynn; J. Ryder; E. Nemitz; F. Davies</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55848367"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-<span class="hlt">East</span> Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June\\/July 2008. Here, aerosol fluxes and diurnal variability in and above the rainforest canopy were examined in order to gain an understanding of their behaviour in the surface layer of the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. D. Whitehead; M. W. Gallagher; J. R. Dorsey; N. Robinson; A. M. Gabey; H. Coe; G. McFiggans; M. J. Flynn; J. Ryder; E. Nemitz; F. Davies</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38576922"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health status, cognitive and motor development of young children adopted from China, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and Russia across the first 6 months after adoption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight, height, and head circumference percentiles, and weight\\/height and height\\/age</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrée Pomerleau; Gérard Malcuit; Jean-François Chicoine; Renée Séguin; Céline Belhumeur; Patricia Germain; Isabelle Amyot; Gloria Jéliu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37376494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Standardization of tourism education and training to address the increasing demand for tourism staff in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>\\/pacific region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Major travel and tourism organizations, including the World Tourism Organization (WTO) and the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), agree that tourism will continue to grow significantly throughout the next two decades, with the most prolific inbound and outbound growth occurring in that part of the world (Northeast and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) from which most <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Tourism Forum (EATOF) members</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ray Pine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB92158096"> <span id="translatedtitle">Summary Paper for Investing in Female Education for Development: Women in Development Strategy for the 1990's in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Near <span class="hlt">East</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report reviews the current state of female education and development in the <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Near <span class="hlt">East</span> (ANE) region as a basis for Women in Development strategies in the 1990's. Section Two examines the extent and prevalence of educational gender gaps in ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R. Behrman W. R. Kenan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37388948"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping aquatic faunal exchanges across the Sunda shelf, South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, using distributional and genetic data sets from the cyprinid fish Barbodes gonionotus (Bleeker, 1850)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo and mainland South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are encompassed by a shallow marine shelf, the Sunda shelf. The striking faunal similarities between countries bordering the Sunda shelf have been attributed to faunal exchanges across the shelf during Pleistocene glacial maxima when sea levels fell by up to 120 m and the shelf was exposed and drained</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. K. J. McConnell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30315319"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimising reproductive and child health outcomes by building evidence-based research and practice in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SEA-ORCHID): study protocol</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Disorders related to pregnancy and childbirth are a major health issue in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. They represent one of the biggest health risk differentials between the developed and developing world. Our broad research question is: Can the health of mothers and babies in Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia be improved by increasing the local capacity for the synthesis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David J Henderson-Smart; Pisake Lumbiganon; Mario R Festin; Jacqueline J Ho; Hakimi Mohammad; Steve J McDonald; Sally Green; Caroline A Crowther</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57607066"> <span id="translatedtitle">Iranian covert aggression: Support for radical political Islamists conducting internal subversion against states in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>\\/Southwest <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The extent to which the Islamic Republic of Iran provides covert assistance to radical Islamist groups employing terrorism and violence against states in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>\\/Southwest <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region is a controversial issue. This study takes an analytic approach to the topic to determine the degree to which linkages exist. The evidence examined was drawn exclusively from open sources. The author</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard H. Shultz Jr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26425898"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sunken WWII shipwrecks of the Pacific and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: The need for regional collaboration to address the potential marine pollution threat</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oil, chemicals and unexploded ordinances onboard sunken World War II (WWII) warships and merchant vessels pose a real and significant marine pollution risk to the nations of the Pacific and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. A recent project of the South Pacific Regional Environment Program (SPREP), through its Pacific Ocean Pollution Prevention Program, has highlighted the extent of the risk posed by vessels</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rean Monfils; Trevor Gilbert; Sefanaia Nawadra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40856968"> <span id="translatedtitle">A model-based estimation of nitrogen flow in the food production–supply system and its environmental effects in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We created a numerical model to evaluate the anthropogenic nitrogen load on the environment and the nitrogen concentration in river water on a 0.5° × 0.5° scale. We estimated the nitrogen load of each country in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from FAO statistics on fertilizer consumption, food balance sheet data, and grid data of NOx emissions due to fossil fuel combustion. For</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Junko Shindo; Katsuo Okamoto; Hiroyuki Kawashima</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=malnutrition&pg=2&id=EJ815227"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geog.mcgill.ca/grad/youngil/Hwang_etal_GCB_2008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating drought effect on MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) with an eco-hydrological model in the mountainous forest, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface soil moisture dynamics is a key link between climate fluctuation and vegetation dynamics in space and time. In <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, precipitation is concentrated in the short monsoon season, which reduces plants water availability in the dry season. Furthermore, most forests are located in mountainous areas because of high demand for agricultural land, which results in increased lateral water flux</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T A EHEE; H W A NG; S I N K Y U K A N Gw; J OON K IM; OUNGIL K IM; D OWON L EE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/j27w666104u10w83.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Higher education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Singapore: rise of the Confucian Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper reviews <span class="hlt">Asia</span>–Pacific higher education and university research, focusing principally on the “Confucian” education\\u000a nations Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong China, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam. Except for Vietnam, these systems exhibit a special\\u000a developmental dynamism—still playing out everywhere except Japan—and have created a distinctive model of higher education\\u000a more effective in some respects than systems in North America, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simon Marginson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42547247"> <span id="translatedtitle">Editorial introduction: international marriage, rights and the state in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dramatic increase in intra-<span class="hlt">Asia</span> cross-nationality marriage is a distinct, yet relatively under-researched, aspect of globalization and regionalization. Most existing research focuses on individual experiences of international marriage, but articles in this issue are intended to examine the politics of legal recognition: namely, how states categorize, legitimate and de-legitimate various intimacies, and how gender, religion, nationality and class play their</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mika Toyota</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22108628"> <span id="translatedtitle">Origins of domestic dog in southern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog-wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West <span class="hlt">Asia</span> but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14,437 bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13-24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog-wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog-wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool. PMID:22108628</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3330686"> <span id="translatedtitle">Origins of domestic dog in Southern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog–wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West <span class="hlt">Asia</span> but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14?437?bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13–24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog–wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog–wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6701K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation impact estimation using a forecast sensitivity to observation (FSO) method in the global and <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the observation impact to the forecast for the summer and winter months (i.e., JJA 2011 and DJF 2011-2012) in the global and <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> regions, using the forecast sensitivity to observation (FSO) tool in the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) Unified Model (UM). The SONDE, AIRCRAFT, SURFACE, BOGUS, NOAA ATOVS, MetOp2 ATOVS, IASI, AIRS, GPSRO, SSMIS, Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) of KMA, AMV of JMA, ESA, GEOS, MSG, and ASCAT observations were used to estimate the observation impact to the forecast. Overall each observation showed consistent contribution to the forecast error reduction for summer and winter months. In the global region, the observation impact to the forecast error reduction depended on the number of observations assimilated in the numerical model. The contribution of the SONDE to the forecast error reduction is the largest, followed by NOAA / MetOp2 ATOVS and IASI. In satellite sounding observations, the contribution of channel number 5, 6, 7 of NOAA AMSU-A and channel number 56-215, 271-280 of IASI to the forecast error reduction were large. In the <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region, the contribution of the SONDE to the forecast error reduction was the largest, similar to that in the global region. However, the contribution of the satellite data to the forecast error reduction was decreased when compared to that in the global region because of exception of millions of satellite observations located the ocean and southern hemisphere. Especially, Atmospheric Motion Vector (AMV) observations of COMS launched in 2009 showed the largest impact among several Imager sensors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Hyun Mee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> 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showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.1652P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of boundary conditions on the precipitation simulation of RegCM4 in the CORDEX <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> domain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of boundary conditions (BCs) on simulations of precipitation characteristics using the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) driven by two BCs (ERA-Interim: ERA, NCEP/DOE 2: R2) was investigated using 18 years (1989-2006) of simulations from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region. The RegCM4 adequately simulated spatial distribution of precipitation over the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region and its temporal variations, irrespective of the BC used. It overestimated precipitation over the central region of the model domain except for India and South Korea and underestimated precipitation over equatorial ocean regions. The RegCM4's simulation skills were better in winter than in summer regardless of the BC, which can be related to the low spatial resolution (50 km) of the model, but detailed simulations of precipitation are significantly impacted by the BCs, although the impact varies with geographical location and season. Driven by ERA, the RegCM4 reproduces more precipitation in the central inland region of the model's domain and less precipitation in the southern coastal areas than when driven by R2. The differences occur because RegCM4 driven by ERA simulated the lower troposphere as being warmer and more humid and the upper troposphere as being cooler than that by R2. The transport of moisture into the central region of the model domain is also enhanced when the RegCM4 is driven by ERA. Although the RegCM4 accurately simulated the seasonal variations in precipitation, it failed to capture diurnal variations over South Korea, particularly when driven by R2, and overestimated and underestimated light precipitation (<25 mm/day) and heavy precipitation (> 50 mm/day), respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Ju-Hee; Oh, Seok-Geun; Suh, Myoung-Seok</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18049907"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of atmospheric circulation system playing in coupling relationship between spring NPP and precipitation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> area.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In many <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> regions, spring (from March to May) precipitation is an important restricting factor to vegetation growth, and atmospheric circulation system may influence spring precipitation patter. It is helpful to under the response of ecosystem to climate change by studying the influence of atmospheric circulation system on the coupling relationship between spring net primary productivity and precipitation. Driving CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) NPP (Net Primary Productivity) model, we estimated spring NPP for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> area (70 degrees E-1 70 degrees E, 10 degrees N-70 degrees N) from 1982 to 1999, and by the method of singular value decomposition we further analyzed the coupling features of spring NPP with precipitation. The result showed that the response features of NPP to precipitation were mainly embodied within the leading six NPP-precipitation paired-modes. The interpretation rates of the leading six paired-modes to the covariance of NPP-precipitation were 42.91, 23.29, 9.96, 5.60, 5.04 and 3.95%, respectively, and total to 90.75%. The temporal correlation coefficients of the leading six paired-modes were 0.830, 0.889, 0.841, 0.747, 0.912 and 0.923, respectively, and all the correlations were significant at significant level of 0.001. In some high latitude regions, there was no obviously corresponding relationship between NPP and precipitation in the leading two paired-modes, and the reason of it may be that spring temperature was the main restricting factor to NPP. In middle and low latitude regions, the effect of precipitation on NPP was relatively more notable. Nine atmospheric circulation factors in spring affected the patterns of NPP and precipitation greatly, and the regions with interpretation rate over 50% shared 60.41 and 65.58% of the whole study area, respectively. PMID:18049907</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deyong, Yu; Wenquan, Zhu; Yaozhong, Pan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21436033"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Institutional Phase II Clinical Study of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, a multi-institutional Phase II clinical study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Methods and Materials: Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky Stage IIB and 60 with Stage IIIB) with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were enrolled in the present study. Radiotherapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy according to institutional practice. The planned Point A dose was 24-28 Gy in four fractions for high-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy and 40-45 Gy in one to two fractions for low-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered during the radiotherapy course. Results: All patients were eligible for the study. The median follow-up was 27.3 months. Of the 120 patients, 100 (83%) received four or five cycles of chemotherapy. Acute Grade 3 leukopenia was observed in 21% of the patients, and Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 6%. No patient failed to complete the radiotherapy course because of toxicity. The 2-year local control and overall survival rate for all patients was 87.1% and 79.6%, respectively. The 2-year major late rectal and bladder complication rate was 2.5% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The results have suggested that concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin is feasible and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kato, Shingo, E-mail: s_kato@nirs.go.j [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, Gunma (Japan); Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A11E0176M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation between Black Carbon and CO on Urban and Wildfire Area in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> From Satellite Remote Sensing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent development in satellite remote sensing, with its global coverage now enables us to investigate correlation between aerosols and pollutant gases. MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere) onboard the Terra satellite launched in 1999 has observed CO(carbon monoxide) density, and MODIS(Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) has observed AOD(Aerosol Optical Depth). Increases of CO, a very important gas in tropospheric chemistry, in atmosphere can reduce the self- purification ability of atmosphere, thus modifies atmospheric chemical, physical, and climatological properties. Direct radiative forcing of black carbon aerosol has been regarded as a potential factor causing global warming(IPCC, 2007). MODIS-OMI algorithm is used to investigate correlation between CO and black carbon AOD. This algorithm uses OMI's AI(Aerosol Index) to determine radiative absorption of aerosol and MODIS's AE(Angstrom Exponent) to determine size of aerosol (Kim et al., 2007). Using this algorithm, we can classify the aerosol into 4 types - black carbon, soil dust, sulfate, and seasalt(Higurashi and Nakajima, 2002; Kim et al., 2007). Main sources of both CO and black carbon are related to incomplete combustion which results from wildfires and urban industrial emissions, but sinks are different. This research investigates how the correlation between CO and black carbon varies according to these two sources in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We use the MODIS Land cover, MODIS fire counts, sulfate by MODIS-OMI algorithm, and OMI's nitrogen dioxide data to distinguish urban and wildfires region. To scrutinize how the correlation between CO and black carbon varies in relation to urban and wildfires, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is divided into 2 areas - A (urban industrial emissions are dominant) and B (wildfires are dominant). The density of black carbon and CO in both A and B region is high, but that in A region is higher than that in B region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mok, J.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Song, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..79..853S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of continental sources and sinks on the seasonal and latitudinal gradient of atmospheric carbon dioxide over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we demonstrate the sharp seasonal and latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, where there are relatively few ground-based observations. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) column-averaged dry air CO2 mole fraction (xCO2) retrieved by NASA's Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS) (2009-2011) program and GEOS-Chem nested-grid CO2 results are used. The strong anthropogenic emissions mainly from China and intensive vegetation uptake from northeastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span> lead to a clear seasonal change of the xCO2 between spring maximum and summer minimum (>10 ppm). In particular, the steep latitudinal gradient of summer time xCO2 by 3-5 ppm in the vicinity of the Korean Peninsula (32°N-44°N) is likely attributed to the large difference in CO2 fluxes among industry/cities, northeastern forests and the northwest Pacific region. This study represents the current progress to understand sub-continental scale atmospheric CO2 variabilities with recent satellite retrievals and nested-grid modeling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shim, Changsub; Lee, Jeongsoon; Wang, Yuxuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..3319802H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based assessment of possible dust aerosols semi-direct effect on cloud water path over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The semi-direct effects of dust aerosols are analyzed over eastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using 2 years (June 2002 to June 2004) of data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, and 18 years (1984 to 2001) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. The results show that the water path of dust-contaminated clouds is considerably smaller than that of dust-free clouds. The mean ice water path (IWP) and liquid water path (LWP) of dusty clouds are less than their dust-free counterparts by 23.7% and 49.8%, respectively. The long-term statistical relationship derived from ISCCP also confirms that there is significant negative correlation between dust storm index and ISCCP cloud water path (CWP). These results suggest that dust aerosols warm clouds, increase the evaporation of cloud droplets and further reduce the CWP, the so-called semi-direct effect. The semi-direct effect may play a role in cloud development over arid and semi-arid areas of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and contribute to the reduction of precipitation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick; Wang, Tianhe; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yongxiang; Yi, Yuhong; Ayers, J. Kirk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA219903"> <span id="translatedtitle">Realities of Revolutionary Violence in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Challenges and Responses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The subregion of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> known as Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, sometimes labeled the 'Balkans' of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, is a collection of linguistic, sociocultural, and political entities. Vast differences exist between the 10 countries in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and the area has no ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. E. Grinter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://shikanda.net/ancient_models/Binsbergen_Edinburgh_2007_%20for_Cosmos.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transcontinental mythological patterns in prehistory A multivariate contents analysis of flood myths worldwide challenges Oppenheimer's claim that the core mythologies of the Ancient Near <span class="hlt">East</span> and the Bible originate from early Holocene South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present argument is devoted to the Sunda thesis, launched by the leading British geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer in 1998. He made two claims: (1) there was decisive Indonesian \\/ Sundaland prehistoric cultural influence on West <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (the General Sunda Thesis); (2) this influence is specifically manifest in the core mythologies of the Ancient Near <span class="hlt">East</span> and the Bible (the Special</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wim van Binsbergen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23782901"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fighting Rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> - Experts Call for a Regional Initiative for Rabies Elimination.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>, Eastern Europe and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses. PMID:23782901</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57711019"> <span id="translatedtitle">Which country should be the monetary anchor for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: the US, Japan or China?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we apply the optimum currency area (OCA) criteria to assess the suitability of whether the US, Japan or China would best serve as the monetary anchor country for <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries. The OCA criteria used are trade openness, business cycle synchronisation, real exchange rate volatility, inflation convergence and real interest rate cycle synchronisation. The ‘performance’ of these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chee-Heong Quah; Patrick M. Crowley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dirp4.pids.gov.ph/ris/dps/pidsdps0532.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Economic Integration and Regional Cooperation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> - A Pragmatic View</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intra-regional trade and investment among the ASEAN+3 countriesand the entire <span class="hlt">East</span> Asiahas been progressing at a robust pace over the past 25 years. The process of economic integration could be aptly described as regionalization or marketdriven integration. In contrast, the European Union has followed regionalism which refers to formal economic cooperation and economic arrangements. Over the past decade, efforts at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Josef T. Yap</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57333995"> <span id="translatedtitle">Economic, social and institutional conditions of network governance : Network governance in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – This paper intends to discuss the effect of social and institutional mechanisms in allowing network governance embedded in non-contractual and social relations to emerge and persist. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Building on the extant theoretical literature on network governance of varied research strands and drawing empirical observations from research on <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian network governance, the paper explores the effect of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woojin Yoon; Eunjung Hyun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fas.nus.edu.sg/ecs/pub/wp-scape/0601.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prospects for enhanced exchange rate cooperation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: some preliminary findings from generalized PPP theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Asian financial crisis increased economic disparities in the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian (EA) region, thus making monetary integration more difficult, but rekindled political interest in Asian monetary and exchange rate cooperation. This article applies the theory of Generalized Purchasing Power Parity (G-PPP), which looks at the behaviour of long-run real exchange rates, to assess the potential for an optimum currency area</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Wilson; Keen Meng Choy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4920839"> <span id="translatedtitle">High growth and low consumption in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: How to improve welfare while avoiding financial failures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper analyzes certain policies that are typical of a number of rapidly growing <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries in which a fixed exchange rate, combined with a surplus labor market, has made domestic assets relatively inexpensive, generating high rates of FDI as well as domestic capital formation. This “investment hunger” can lead to unanticipated declines in the returns to investment, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrew Feltenstein; Céline Rochon; Maral Shamloo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/15/3/249.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health promotion in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Indonesia, DPR Korea, Thailand, the Maldives and Myanmar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY The state of health of South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian nations depends as much or more on extranational forces beyond their control —global warming, economic boom and bust—as it does on their own policies and practices. Nonetheless, the political systems of the region, the scope that these allow for com- munity participation, and their attitudes to human rights, are also key determinants</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ROB MOODIE; CHRIS BORTHWICK; SERI PHONGPHIT; RHONDA GALBALLY; BRIDGET H.-H. HSU-HAGE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repec.org/mmf2006/up.26720.1155116117.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Financial Liberalisation and Breaks in Stock Market Volatility: Evidence from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the short and medium term impact of financial reforms on stock market volatility in five <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian emerging markets. Several newly proposed tests are employed to identify and verify the number and timing of structural breaks in the variance dynamics. The detected breakdates do not correspond to official liberalisation dates. The magnitude and direction of the change</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Panicos Demetriades; Michaeil Karoglou; Siong Hook Law</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22world+bank+staff%22&pg=2&id=ED243642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Rural Development in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 439.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The paper presents results of discussions during an 8-day workshop (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 1979) on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian and Pacific rural development projects. Major workshop themes identified are managerial, technical, and institutional aspects of monitoring. The introduction discusses previous World Bank…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deboeck, Guido; Ng, Ronald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1525125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Culture and mental health of women in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article reviews the impact of cultural factors on mental health of South Asian women. Marked gender discrimination in South <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has led to second class status of women in society. Their mobility, work, self-esteem and self-image, in fact their worth and identity, seem to depend upon the male members of a patriarchal society. Women's lack of empowerment and both financial and emotional dependence have restricted their self-expression and choices in life. This, along with family, social and work pressures, has a definite impact on women's mental health.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NIAZ, UNAIZA; HASSAN, SEHAR</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12137330"> <span id="translatedtitle">A spatial aspect on mitochondrial DNA genealogy in Apodemus peninsulae from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Apodemus peninsulae is a field mouse that inhabits the broad-leafed forests of temperate Eurasia. We examined the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 57 in dividuals of A. peninsulae from northeastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, including Siberia, Primorye, Magadan region, Sakhalin, Hokkaido, and the Korean Peninsula. The genealogy of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in A. peninsulae was shown to have substantial geographic affinity, suggesting geographic architecture of northeastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, including the islands of Sakhalin and Hokkaido, played important roles on the cladogenesis. Taking into account the presence of region-specific anciently divergent mtDNA types, three parts of the regions of Primorye, Siberia, and the Korean Peninsula can be denoted as refugia for A. peninsulae during the substantial period of the Quaternary glacial ages. Among the geographic regions examined, Primorye is likely to be the most influential one, from which the mtDNA is thought to have migrated to the neighboring regions of Sakhalin, Hokkaido, the Magadan region, and Siberia during the evolution of this species. PMID:12137330</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Serizawa, Keiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Iwasa, Masahiro A; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Pavlenko, Marina V; Kartavtseva, Irina V; Chelomina, Galina N; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Han, Sang-Hoon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://tobias-lib.uni-tuebingen.de/volltexte/2005/1866/pdf/263.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">China: A Stabilizing or Deflationary Influence in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>? THe Problem of Conflict Virtue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rapidly growing Chinese exports are middle-tech¡V¡Vand increasingly high-tech¡V¡Vmanufactured goods. China runs a huge and growing bilateral trade surplus with the United States, and the position of Japan has changed radically from being a net exporter to China in the 1980s and most of the 1990s to being a net importer today. China¡¦s smaller <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian industrial competitors such as Taiwan,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ronald McKinnon; Gunther Schnabl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58996646"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unsettling Settlement: Perspectives of Refugees from South and South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study explored the settlement challenges of South and South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian refugees in the City of Hamilton. This study was undertaken to represent the voices of the marginalized and vulnerable communities such as refugees to be included on settlement related research. The purpose of the study was also to identify issues to suggest directions for future policy planning.\\u000aThe</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bus.umich.edu/KresgeLibrary/Collections/Workingpapers/wdi/wp583.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Investigation of Firm-Level R&D Capabilities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper uses a survey of 1,826 firms distributed over ten <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian metropolitan areas - Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Seoul, and five Chinese cities - to investigate the sources of firm-level R&D capabilities. The analysis identifies the impact of 23 survey variables, classified by openness, human capital, R&D network, and institutional quality, on the efficiency of firm R&D operations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gary H. Jefferson; Zhong Kaifeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wdi.umich.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp583.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Investigation of Firm-Level R&D Capabilities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper uses a survey of 1,826 firms distributed over ten <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian metropolitan areas – Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Seoul, and five Chinese cities – to investigate the sources of firm-level R&D capabilities. The analysis identifies the impact of 23 survey variables, classified by openness, human capital, R&D network, and institutional quality, on the efficiency of firm R&D operations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gary H. Jefferson; Zhong Kaifeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ir.ide.go.jp/dspace/bitstream/2344/777/3/ARRIDE_Discussion_No.160_hayakawa.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Border Barriers in Agricultural Trade and the Impact of their Elimination: Evidence from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">By means of a GTAP based-CGE model, we investigate the impact of the elimination of import tariffs and non-tariff policy barriers (NTPBs) on agricultural trade towards <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian FTAs. To do that, we first measure the NTPBs by employing a widely-used method derived from the literature on border effects. Next, by adding into the GTAP database our estimates on the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazunobu Hayakawa; Kuo-I Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42714060"> <span id="translatedtitle">The political economy of the dollar and the yen in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">From the early 1980s until 1997 large amounts of Japan's current account dollar surplus were invested in U.S. Treasury securities. This economic relationship developed into an “alliance” sustained by the economic policies of U.S. and Japanese authorities. The U.S.-Japanese alliance indirectly promoted <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian export-led growth during 1985–95. However, policies associated with the U.S.-Japanese alliance also contributed significantly to the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kristen Nordhaug</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40098206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Labor union strength and human development in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Latin America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ordinary least squares multiple regression is used to test the impact of labor movement strength on growth, income distribution,\\u000a and premature mortality in sixteen <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian and Latin American countries. Labor movement strength is measured by a new index\\u000a based on information from the International Labour Organisation. Controlling for other relevant variables, the Labor Strength\\u000a Index is found to have</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James W. McGuire</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42527511"> <span id="translatedtitle">Marine oil spill detection, statistics and mapping with ERS SAR imagery in south-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With a large coverage, short repeativity, day and night, and all- weather capability, ERS SAR imagery has been proven to be a useful tool for ocean oil spill monitoring. The paper discusses ocean oil pollution detection, statistics and mapping in south-<span class="hlt">east</span> Asian waters by using ERS-1\\/2 SAR data. The work is roughly divided into four main steps. Possible oil slicks</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Lu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59234942"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prefatory Remarks on the Open Society and its Enemies in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The two volumes of Karl Popper’s The Open Society and its Enemies were published in 1945. Although my central argument in these prefatory remarks is that Popper’s book is of relevance to modern <span class="hlt">East</span>-Asian societies, I first must first grant the fact, squarely and honestly, that it was a product of a specific time and place, if not a veritable</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gregory C G Moore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3794850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predictors and consequences of adherence to the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Central Europe and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose To assess baseline predictors and consequences of medication non-adherence in the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from Central Europe and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Patients and methods Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 1-year prospective, observational study that included a total of 1,068 newly-diagnosed pediatric patients with ADHD symptoms from Central Europe and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Medication adherence during the week prior to each visit was assessed by treating physicians using a 5-point Likert scale, and then dichotomized into either adherent or non-adherent. Clinical severity was measured by the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD) scale and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) Checklist. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was measured using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE). Regression analyses were used to assess baseline predictors of overall adherence during follow-up, and the impact of time-varying adherence on subsequent outcomes: response (defined as a decrease of at least 1 point in CGI), changes in CGI-ADHD, CSI-4, and the five dimensions of CHIP-CE. Results Of the 860 patients analyzed, 64.5% (71.6% in Central Europe and 55.5% in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) were rated as adherent and 35.5% as non-adherent during follow-up. Being from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was found to be a strong predictor of non-adherence. In <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, a family history of ADHD and parental emotional distress were associated with non-adherence, while having no other children living at home was associated with non-adherence in Central Europe as well as in the overall sample. Non-adherence was associated with poorer response and less improvement on CGI-ADHD and CSI-4, but not on CHIP-CE. Conclusion Non-adherence to medication is common in the treatment of ADHD, particularly in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Non-adherence was associated with poorer response and less improvement in clinical severity. A limitation of this study is that medication adherence was assessed by the treating clinician using a single item question.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Treuer, Tamas; Montgomery, William; Haynes, Virginia S; Wu, Shenghu; Haro, Josep Maria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.3431J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis products of downward surface solar radiation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Spatial and seasonal variations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface solar radiation plays a crucial role in surface energy and water budgets, and it is also an important forcing for land hydrological models. In this study, the downward surface solar radiation (DSSR) from two satellite products, the Fengyun-2C satellite (FY-2C) and the Fast Longwave and Shortwave Radiative Fluxes project (FLASHFlux), and two reanalysis datasets, NCEP-DOE and ERA-Interim, was evaluated against ground-based observations (OBS) from 94 stations over mainland China during July 2006 to June 2009. It is found that the mean DSSR derived from FY-2C is comparable to OBS, with small positive biases of 3.0 Wm-2 for daily data and 3.5 Wm-2 for monthly data and moderate RMSEs of 49.3 Wm-2 (daily) and 31.9 Wm-2 (monthly). These results are comparable to those for FLASHFlux, which has the lowest RMSEs (43.2 Wm-2 and 30.5 Wm-2 for daily and monthly data, respectively) and the strongest correlations with OBS (r = 0.90 and 0.93 for daily and monthly data, respectively) among the four products. The DSSR from the reanalyses has much larger RMSEs and generally lower correlations with OBS than the satellite products, especially for the NCEP-DOE products. Results also show that daily DSSR values are sensitive to the averaging grid size, while monthly mean DSSR is largely insensitive to the averaging scale. The DSSR from the four datasets over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> shows similar spatial patterns with large seasonal variations but differs in magnitude. In summer, high DSSR is observed over western China, while low DSSR is seen primarily over South <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Sichuan Basin associated with extensive cloud cover (CC) and large precipitable water (PW). In winter, the high DSSR center shifts to South <span class="hlt">Asia</span> due to decreased CC and PW, and the DSSR decreases from the South to the North. Deficiencies in the parameterizations of clouds, aerosols, and water vapor, as well as errors in atmospheric and surface properties for the retrieval algorithms contribute to the lower correlation of the DSSR derived from FY-2C (r = 0.82 and 0.90 for daily and monthly data) with OBS than those from FLASHFlux product. Further improvements to the representation of clouds and aerosols in the FY-2C retrieval algorithm are needed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jia, Binghao; Xie, Zhenghui; Dai, Aiguo; Shi, Chunxiang; Chen, Feng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcMeS..27...26Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observational characteristics of cloud vertical profiles over the continent of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from the CloudSat data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The CloudSat satellite data from June 2006 to April 2011 are used to investigate the characteristics of cloud vertical profiles over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (20°-50°N, 80°-120°E), with particular emphasis on the profiles of precipitative clouds in comparison with those of nonprecipitative clouds, as well as the seasonal variations of these profiles. There are some obvious differences between the precipitative and nonprecipitative cloud profiles. Generally, precipitative clouds mainly locate below 8 km with radar reflectivity in the range of -20 to 15 dBZ and maximum values appearing within 2-4-km height, and the clouds usually reach the ground; while nonprecipitative clouds locate in the layers of 4-12 km with radar reflectivity between -28 and 0 dBZ and maximum values within 8-10-km height. There are also some differences among the liquid precipitative, solid precipitative, and possible drizzle precipitative cloud profiles. In precipitative clouds, radar reflectivity increases rapidly from 11 to 7 km in vertical, implying that condensation and collision-coalescence processes play a crucial role in the formation of large-size drops. The frequency distribution of temperature at -15°C is consistent with the highest frequency of radar reflectivity in solid precipitative clouds, which suggests that the temperatures near -15°C are conductive to deposition and accretion processes. The vertical profiles of liquid precipitative clouds show almost the same distributions in spring, summer, and autumn but with differences in winter at mainly lower levels. In contrast, the vertical profiles of solid precipitative clouds change from spring to winter with an alternate double and single high-frequency core, which is consistent with variations of the frequency distribution of temperature at -15°C. The vertical profiles of nonprecipitative clouds show a little change with season. The observations also show that the precipitation events over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are mostly related to deep convective clouds and nimbostratus clouds. These results are expected to be useful for evaluation of weather and climate models and for improvement of microphysical parameterizations in numerical models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yin, Jinfang; Wang, Donghai; Zhai, Guoqing; Wang, Zhien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESRv..103..135W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asynchronous evolution of the Indian and <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Summer Monsoon indicated by Holocene moisture patterns in monsoonal central <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The numerical meta-analysis of 92 proxy records (72 sites) of moisture and/or temperature change confirms earlier findings that the dominant trends of climatic evolution in monsoonal central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> since the Last Glacial roughly parallel changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, i.e. the period following the Last Glacial Maximum was characterized by dry and cold conditions until 15 cal. kyr BP, followed by a warm, wet period coincident with the Bølling/Allerød warm period and terminated by a cold, dry reversal during the Younger Dryas period. After an abrupt increase at the start of the Holocene, warm and wet conditions prevailed until ca. 4 cal. kyr BP when moisture levels and temperatures started to decrease. Ordination of moisture records reveals strong spatial heterogeneity in moisture evolution during the last 10 cal. kyr. The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) areas (northern India, Tibetan Plateau and southwest China) exhibit maximum wet conditions during the early Holocene, while many records from the area of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Summer Monsoon indicate relatively dry conditions, especially in north-central China where the maximum moisture levels occurred during the mid-Holocene. We assign such phenomena to strengthened Hadley Circulation centered over the Tibetan Plateau during the early Holocene which resulted in subsidence in the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian monsoonal regions leading to relatively dry conditions. Our observations of the asynchronous nature of the two Asian monsoon subsystems on millennial time scales have also been observed on annual time-scales as well as implied through the spatial analysis of vertical air motion patterns after strong ascending airflows over the Tibetan Plateau area that were calculated from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for the last 30 years. Analogous with the early Holocene, the enhancement of the ISM in a 'future warming world' will result in an increase in the asynchronous nature of the monsoon subsystems; this trend is already observed in the meteorological data from the last 15 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Yongbo; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3292519"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat neuropsychiatric conditions in sub-Saharan Africa and South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: mathematical modelling study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To assess the comparative costs and effects of interventions to combat five neuropsychiatric conditions (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, epilepsy, and heavy alcohol use). Design Cost effectiveness analysis based on an epidemiological model. Setting Two epidemiologically defined World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE); and countries in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> with high adult and high child mortality (SearD). Data sources Published studies, costing databases. Main outcome measures Cost per capita and cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted, expressed in international dollars ($Int) for the year 2005. Results Across 44 assessed intervention strategies for the five neuropsychiatric conditions, cost effectiveness values differed by as much as two orders of magnitude (from $Int100–250 to $Int10?000–25?000 for a year of healthy life gained). In both sub-regions, inpatient based treatment of schizophrenia with newer antipsychotic drugs was the most costly and least cost effective strategy. The most cost effective strategies in the African sub-region related to population based alcohol control, while in the South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian sub-region the most cost effective intervention was drug treatment of epilepsy in primary care. The cumulative cost per capita of the most cost effective set of interventions covering all five conditions was estimated at $Int4.90–5.70. This package comprises interventions for epilepsy (older first line antiepileptic drugs); depression (generically produced newer antidepressants and psychosocial treatment); bipolar disorder (mood stabiliser drug lithium); schizophrenia (neuroleptic antipsychotic drugs and psychosocial treatment); and heavy alcohol use (increased taxation and its enforcement, reduced access, and, in the African sub-region, advertising bans and brief advice to heavy drinkers in primary care). Conclusions Reallocation of resources to cost effective intervention strategies would increase health gain, save money and help implement much needed expansion of services for neuropsychiatric conditions in low resource settings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AdSpR..39...73S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of rainfall on land cover change over South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Some observational results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global vegetation cover is strongly related to the climatic conditions. Based on the rainfall forecast the productivity of the crops and also the drought conditions are being monitored on routine basis. Since past several decades efforts have been made to understand the role of tropical forcing in the maintenance of general circulation in the atmosphere. It has been found that the low latitude condensation process and lateral coupling with the higher latitude energy is the most important driving force in the tropics. In the present paper, we have studied the variability of rainfall and vegetation in the South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian (SEA) region. Nineteen years (January 1982 December 2000) of vegetation and rainfall data have been analyzed for different land cover of SEA and it has been found that the cultivated land controls the variability of rainfall in this region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarkar, S.; Chiu, L.; Kafatos, M.; Singh, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5045353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">East</span> Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using regional Chinese seismograms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed <span class="hlt">East</span> Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the <span class="hlt">East</span> Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39999352"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discontinuous Double-shell Domes through Islamic eras in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: History, Morphology, Typologies, Geometry, and Construction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a developed geometric approach for deriving the typologies and geometries of discontinuous double-shell\\u000a domes in Islamic architecture. Common geometric attributes are created using a corpus of twenty one domes that were built\\u000a in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, beginning from the early through to the late Islamic periods. An outline of the origin\\u000a and development of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maryam Ashkan; Yahaya Ahmad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m7q4033750868421.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of genetic variability within Argulus japonicus from representatives of Africa, Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>, and <span class="hlt">Asia</span> revealed by sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the genetic variability within fish louse Argulus japonicus (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Africa, Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>, and <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by polymerase chain reaction in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)\\u000a regions, namely, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 (nad1 and nad4). Six different sequences from a portion of the cox1 gene (pcox1) and a portion</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hicham Wadeh; Muhamd Alsarakibi; Guoqing Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40754197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and spatial variations in the seasonal patterns of CO 2 flux in boreal, temperate, and tropical forests in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of net ecosystem production (NEP) over forest stands were conducted from 11 flux towers in sub-arctic, temperate, and tropical regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> between 2000 and 2005. The sites extend over a wide latitude, ranging from 3 to 64°N, and include sub-arctic and temperate needle-leaf deciduous forests (larch) (central Siberia, Mongolia, China, and northern Japan), temperate mixed, broadleaf deciduous,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nobuko Saigusa; Susumu Yamamoto; Ryuichi Hirata; Yoshikazu Ohtani; Reiko Ide; Jun Asanuma; Minoru Gamo; Takashi Hirano; Hiroaki Kondo; Yoshiko Kosugi; Sheng-Gong Li; Yuichiro Nakai; Kentaro Takagi; Makoto Tani; Huimin Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59009179"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kidnappings, Missiles, and Nukes!: Outlooks and recommendations for the next President to make sure our strongest ally in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>...stays our strongest ally</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Japan has been, and continues to be, the United States? strongest ally in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In spite of significant constitutional restrictions and domestic opposition, Japan has actively contributed to America?s counter-terrorism efforts, providing rear end support for US operations in Afghanistan, and even deploying peacekeepers to Iraq. The US-Japan Relationship, while being one of the closest in the world, is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mathew Mikuni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40596059"> <span id="translatedtitle">Race\\/ethnicity and depressive symptoms: a cross-cultural\\/ethnic comparison among university students in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, North and South America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To examine manifestations of depressive symptomatology among undergraduate students in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, North and South America, responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were compared across Japanese (n=310), Anglo-American (n=377), Native American (n=353), and Argentinean (n=110) undergraduate students. Japanese reported a significantly higher level of low positive affect, leading to significantly higher total CES-D scores, whereas their</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noboru Iwata; Stephen Buka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48912439"> <span id="translatedtitle">Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constraints on volatile organic compound emissions in <span class="hlt">east</span> and south <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and implications for ozone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use a continuous 6-year record (1996–2001) of GOME satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) columns over <span class="hlt">east</span> and south <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to improve regional emission estimates of reactive nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), including isoprene, alkenes, HCHO, and xylenes. Mean monthly HCHO observations are compared to simulated HCHO columns from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model using state-of-science, “bottom-up” emission inventories from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tzung-May Fu; Daniel J. Jacob; Paul I. Palmer; Kelly Chance; Yuxuan X. Wang; Barbara Barletta; Donald R. Blake; Jenny C. Stanton; Michael J. Pilling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sklog.labs.gov.cn/atticle/a03/a03018.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in terrestrial ecosystem since 30 Ma in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Stable isotope evidence from black carbon in the South China Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 30 m.y. stable isotopic record of marine-deposited black carbon from regional terrestrial biomass burning from the northern South China Sea reveals photosynthetic pathway evolution for terrestrial ecosystems in the late Cenozoic. This record indicates that C3 plants negatively adjusted their isotopic discrimination and C4 plants appeared gradually as a component of land vegetation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> since the early</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guodong Jia; Ping'an Peng; Quanhong Zhao; Zhimin Jian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53207850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Aerosols from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to North Pacific: Meteorological Aspects Associated with the Long-range Transport</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The long-range transport of photochemical pollutants on the continental scale has been studied through the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation(ITCT) 2k2. The mission took place in April-May 2002 over the eastern and western Pacific, mainly in the northern hemisphere. Meteorological studies associated with the long-range transport of pollutants from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to North Pacific were done to provide a better</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Kim; B. Choi; S. Oh; H. Chung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59390015"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: mathematical modelling study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To determine the costs and health effects of interventions to combat breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers in order to guide resource allocation decisions in developing countries. Two World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE); and countries in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> with high adult and high child mortality</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. M. Ginsberg; J. A. Lauer; S. G. Zelle; S. A. Baeten; R. M. P. M. Baltussen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40496432"> <span id="translatedtitle">A systems network (SysNet) approach for interactively evaluating strategic land use options at sub-national scale in South and South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents SysNet, a systems research network in South and South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, established to develop and evaluate methodologies for enhancing formulation of strategic land use policies. SysNet adopted theory and concepts from both natural and social science approaches. Multiple goal linear programming was used to integrate information on a broad range of alternative land use systems, resource availability and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. K van Ittersum; R. P. Roetter; H van Keulen; N de Ridder; C. T. Hoanh; A. G. Laborte; P. K. Aggarwal; A. B. Ismail; A. Tawang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11515303S"> <span id="translatedtitle">HCFC-22 flux estimates over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by inverse modeling from hourly observations at Hateruma monitoring station</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of high-frequency observations of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) at Hateruma Island (latitude 24.1°N, longitude 123.8°E) was used to evaluate the strength of various sources in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by a tracer transport inversion. The forward calculation was conducted with a regional meteorological model using an online tracer transport scheme, and the inversion calculation used a Bayesian approach. On the basis of winter observations during 2005-2007, we estimated the annual HCFC-22 emission from China to be 32 Gg, which is nine times current estimates. The total uncertainty of the Chinese emission was reduced from 50% (a priori) to 15% (a posteriori) by the inversion calculation. A sensitivity study showed that the a posteriori values for China showed little dependency on the a priori values, whereas those for Japan, Korea, and Taiwan were considerably affected by the a priori values used. This can be explained by the more frequent high-concentration events from China observed at the Hateruma site. The a posteriori emission estimates from central China accounted for half of the total emissions from China.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shirai, Tomoko; Yokouchi, Yoko; Sugata, Seiji; Maksyutov, Shamil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AnGeo..27..303L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of magnetic activity on plasma bubbles over equatorial and low-latitude regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dependence of plasma bubble occurrence in the eveningside ionosphere, with magnetic activity during the period years 2001-2004, is studied here based on the TEC observations gathered by ground-based GPS receivers which are located in the equatorial and low-latitude regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The observed plasma bubbles consist of the plasma-bubble events in the equatorial (stations GUAM, PIMO and KAYT), and low-latitude regions (stations WUHN, DAEJ and SHAO). It is shown that most equatorial plasma-bubble events commence at 20:00 LT, and may last for >60 min. The magnetic activity appears to suppress the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles with a time delay of more than 3 h (4-9 h). While in the low-latitude regions, most plasma-bubble events commence at about 23:00 LT and last for <45 min. The best correlation between Kp and low-latitude plasma-bubble occurrence is found with an 8-9 h delay, a weak correlation exists for time delays of 6-7 h. This probably indicates that over 3 h delayed disturbance dynamo electric fields obviously inhibit the development of plasma bubbles in the pre-midnight sector.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, G.; Ning, B.; Liu, L.; Wan, W.; Liu, J. Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139332"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arsenic-induced straighthead: an impending threat to sustainable rice production in South and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>!</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Straighthead is a physiological disorder of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that results in sterile florets with distorted lemma and palea, and the panicles or heads may not form at all in extreme cases. Heads remain upright at maturity, hence the name 'straighthead'. The diseased panicles may not emerge from the flag leaf sheath when the disease is severe. Straighthead disease in rice results in poorly developed panicles and significant yield loss. Although other soil physicochemical factors involved, arsenic contamination in soil has also been reported to be closely associated with straighthead of rice. Monosodium methanearsonate has been a popular herbicide in cotton production in the USA, which has shown to cause injuries in rice that are similar to straighthead. Since toxicity of inorganic arsenic (iAs) is higher than other forms of arsenic, it may produce a more severe straighthead disorder in rice. The use of iAs-rich groundwater for irrigation, and the increase of iAs concentrations in agricultural soil in arsenic epidemic South and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> may cause a high incidence of straighthead in rice, resulting in a threat to sustainable rice production in this region. PMID:22139332</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, M Mamunur; Hasegawa, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22006968"> <span id="translatedtitle">Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The conversion of natural forest to oil palm plantation is a major current threat to the conservation of biodiversity in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Most animal taxa decrease in both species richness and abundance on conversion of forest to oil palm, and there is usually a severe loss of forest species. The extent of loss varies significantly across both different taxa and different microhabitats within the oil palm habitat. The principal driver of this loss in diversity is probably the biological and physical simplification of the habitat, but there is little direct evidence for this. The conservation of forest species requires the preservation of large reserves of intact forest, but we must not lose sight of the importance of conserving biodiversity and ecosystem processes within the oil palm habitat itself. We urgently need to carry out research that will establish whether maintaining diversity supports economically and ecologically important processes. There is some evidence that both landscape and local complexity can have positive impacts on biodiversity in the oil palm habitat. By intelligent manipulation of habitat complexity, it could be possible to enhance not only the number of species that can live in oil palm plantations but also their contribution to the healthy functioning of this exceptionally important and widespread landscape. PMID:22006968</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foster, William A; Snaddon, Jake L; Turner, Edgar C; Fayle, Tom M; Cockerill, Timothy D; Ellwood, M D Farnon; Broad, Gavin R; Chung, Arthur Y C; Eggleton, Paul; Khen, Chey Vun; Yusah, Kalsum M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19114408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nutrition leadership training in North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: an IUNS initiative in conjunction with nutrition societies in the region.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Food for humans is one of the most important of all global issues. It is a critical determinant of planetary and individual health, of economic development, of how sustainable energy and water supplies are, and its security a powerful determinant of peace or conflict. Those who assume leadership for the integrity of food and health systems have great responsibility. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), regional and national nutrition science and food technology organizations have concern about the leadership capacity available and required in what are rapidly changing and increasingly demanding circumstances. These include persistent poverty and hunger, climate change which threatens the sustainability of food production and fragile financial systems which are making food less affordable for many. North <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (NEA) is a major region for its population size, its economic wealth and disparities, its food production, its life expectancies among the best and its global reach. In 2008, for those of Chinese ancestry and of wider Asian origin, Nutrition Leadership training has been conducted in Hangzhou, Shanghai, Seoul and Taiwan (Hsinchu and Zhunan). Ninety prospective young leaders participated in all. Several successful early career Asian nutrition scientists and professionals served as role models. Senior colleagues acted as mentors for groups of 2 or 3. With mentors, the concept of leadership has been examined, careers and roles explored, knowledge and skills honed for a different future, and plans made to network in mutual support. Early feedback indicates that new opportunities have been created and seized. PMID:19114408</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo; Sun, Jiang-Qin; Ge, Keyou; Paik, Hee-Young; Cho, Sung Hee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985E%26PSL..75..184B"> <span id="translatedtitle">South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> as a part of an Ordovician Gondwanaland—a palaeobiogeographic test of a tectonic hypothesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hypothesis that Thailand and Malaysia (the Sibumasu block) were adjacent to Australia in the Early Palaeozoic has been tested by an examination of the Ordovician sequences and faunas of Sibumasu and Australia. The relatively stenogeographic nautiloids of the two areas are remarkably similar and have a Simpson Index of 0.92 at the generic level. Two new genera of discosorids are restricted to the two blocks and Georgina and Mesaktoceras are found elsewhere only in Tibet. Very close affinities are also evident between the gastropod, polyplacophoran and rostroconch molluscs. The Ordovician brachiopod faunas are also very close including the genus Spanodonta. Other very close similarities are found between the Upper Cambrian trilobite faunas and the Ordovician conodonts and stromatoporoids. No Ordovician faunas younger than Upper Whiterockian were found during this study in either northern Australia or Sibumasu and a stratigraphic gap probably exists from the Upper Whiterockian to the Upper Ordovician over most of the two blocks. These remarkably close faunal similarities are good evidence in favour of the hypothesis that Sibumasu was adjacent to Australia during the Early Palaeozoic. Similarly close faunal relationships between North China, South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Tibet and Australia may also suggest close proximity of those blocks during the Early Palaeozoic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burrett, Clive; Stait, Bryan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981PEPI...25...71M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tidal loading along a profile Europe-<span class="hlt">East</span> Africa-South <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Australia and the Pacific Ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precision measurements of earth tides along a profile stretching from Europe to Polynesia through <span class="hlt">East</span> Africa, <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Australia are used to characterize ocean tides in different basins and thus provide a check on proposed cotidal maps. Ocean tide information was extracted from tidal gravity profiles made with correctly intercalibrated gravimeters at 91 tidal gravity stations by the subtraction of electric earth tide model vectors from the observed tidal vector. Analysis of possible instrumental errors due to calibration, thermal, barometric and power supply interruption effects indicates the data observed at a level of 0.5 microgal cannot be ascribed to computational or instrumental errors. Calculations of the ocean load and attraction signal obtained from the earth tide measurements are observed to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the cotidal maps of Schwiderski (1979, 1980) for satellite altimetry reductions for the diurnal components of the tides, however, less satisfactory agreement is observed in some large areas for the semi-diurnal components. The maps of Hendershott (1973) and Parke (1979) are also found to provide good results in several large areas, but not everywhere. Regions where a more detailed investigation is required are indicated, including Iran-Pakistan, Malaysia, the South China Sea and the South Pacific.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melchior, P.; Moens, M.; Ducarme, B.; van Ruymbeke, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11623206L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional variational assimilation of MODIS aerosol optical depth: Implementation and application to a dust storm over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assimilation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) total aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval products (at 550 nm wavelength) from both Terra and Aqua satellites have been developed within the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system. This newly developed algorithm allows, in a one-step procedure, the analysis of 3-D mass concentration of 14 aerosol variables from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) module. The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) was extended to calculate AOD using GOCART aerosol variables as input. Both the AOD forward model and corresponding Jacobian model were developed within the CRTM and used in the 3DVAR minimization algorithm to compute the AOD cost function and its gradient with respect to 3-D aerosol mass concentration. The impact of MODIS AOD data assimilation was demonstrated by application to a dust storm from 17 to 24 March 2010 over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aerosol analyses initialized Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model forecasts. Results indicate that assimilating MODIS AOD substantially improves aerosol analyses and subsequent forecasts when compared to MODIS AOD, independent AOD observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument, and surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameters less than 10 ?m) observations. The newly developed AOD data assimilation system can serve as a tool to improve simulations of dust storms and general air quality analyses and forecasts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Zhiquan; Liu, Quanhua; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Schwartz, Craig S.; Lee, Yen-Huei; Wang, Tijian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p>