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Sample records for east asia symposium

  1. Cranes in East Asia; proceedings of the symposium held in Harbin, People's Republic of China, June 9-18, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R. L., (Edited By); Hongfei, Zou; Stendell, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Introductory Remarks (R.C. Stendell) I appreciate the opportunity to be in Harbin and participate in the international scientific workshop on Cranes in East Asia. I would like to provide some background information on how this meeting came to be. Almost one year ago, in July 1997, Dr. Kun John of the Seoul National University contacted the U.S. Geological Surveya??s Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) requesting that we host a meeting of scientists from the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic Peoplea??s Republic of Korea (DPRK) to discuss the biology and ecology of cranes on the Korean peninsula. Dr. John and his colleagues expressed concern about three species of cranes that migrate up and down the Korean Peninsula and use the Demilitarized Zone. The species of interest are the Red-crowned Crane, White-naped Crane, and the Hooded Crane. The primary question was the conservation of these species in this part of the world. Another concern involved exploring potential economic values and opportunities associated with these species. Dr. Richard Johnson, and economist at MESC, assumed responsibility as the primary MESC contact to help bring about this meetinga?|

  2. The Progress of Globalization and Educational Reforms in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimbo, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    The symposium entitled "Social Changes in East Asia and Educational reforms: China, Korea, and Singapore" suggested that these countries are carrying out rather drastic educational reforms in the context of rapid social changes. The knowledge gained from the symposium also has important suggestions for Japanese educational reform. In addition, as…

  3. Heart Failure in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yutao; Lip, Gregory YH; Banerjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) carries a major burden of disease in East Asia, with high associated risk of mortality and morbidity. In recent decades, the epidemiology of HF has changed with social and economical development in East Asia. The burden of HF is still severe in East Asia. The prevalence of HF ranges from 1.3% to 6.7% throughout the region. As aetiological factors, ischaemic heart disease has increased and valvular disease reduced in most East Asian countries. Diuretics are the most commonly used drugs (51.0%-97%), followed by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (59%-77%), with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEI, (32%-52%) and has angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, ARBs (31%-44%) in similar proportions. β-blocker use has also increased in recent years. Total mortality from HF ranges from 2% to 9% in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Age>65 years, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with adverse outcome. More prospective, region-specific data are still required, particularly regarding new drug therapies such as eplerenone and ivabradine. PMID:23597295

  4. Karaoke and Interpersonal Communication in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ringo

    An exploratory study investigated the interpersonal meaning of karaoke to its participants in East Asia. Current research suggests that the popularity of karaoke in East Asia is associated with the cultural value of harmony and the indirect mode of communication in this region. Subjects, 51 East Asian undergraduate-level students who had…

  5. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  6. Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

    This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

  7. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  8. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-Chao; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

  9. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

  10. Natural and anthropogenic particles over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.

    2014-10-01

    Both natural and anthropogenic aerosols are emitted to the atmosphere. The increase in anthropogenic aerosol emissions in East Asia associated with rapid economic growth combined with the complex behavior of natural dusts makes predicting aerosol distribution in this region extremely difficult. Therefore, detailed investigation of atmospheric particles is important. In this study, the characteristics of aerosols over East Asia were investigated using a combination of ground measurements and model simulations. Ground measurement data was collected using a sunphotometer supported by NASA/AERONET (aerosol robotics network) and a suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampler. In addition to altering the radiation budget, aerosols may also affect cloud cover and precipitation, which, in turn, influence the emission of natural aerosols. Thus, model simulations were utilized to investigate the influence of these changes on natural dust loading.

  11. East Asia: Seismotectonics, magmatism and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Sheng; Ohtani, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review the significant recent results of geophysical studies and discuss their implications on seismotectonics, magmatism, and mantle dynamics in East Asia. High-resolution geophysical imaging revealed structural heterogeneities in the source areas of large crustal earthquakes, which may reflect magma and fluids that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. In subduction zone regions, the crustal fluids originate from the dehydration of the subducting slab. Magmatism in arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab. The intraplate magmatism has different origins. The continental volcanoes in Northeast Asia (such as Changbai and Wudalianchi) seem to be caused by the corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and the deep dehydration of the stagnant slab as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is possibly caused by a similar process in BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China seems to be a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin may be related to a metastable olivine wedge in the subducting Pacific slab. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which may trigger upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and cause the slab-plume interactions. Some of these issues, such as the origin of intraplate magmatism, are still controversial, and so further detailed studies are needed from now.

  12. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  13. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  14. The Misnomer of East Asia Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode

    2004-01-01

    The terminology East Asian summer monsoon is used to refer to the heavy rainfall in southeast China including the Yangtze River Valley starting in May and ending in August (e.g., Chen and Chang 1980, Tao and Chen 1987, Ding 1992, Chang et al. 2000a.) This rainfall region is associated with the Mei-Yu front, which extends to Japan and its neighborhood and is called Baiu there. The Mei-Yu front becomes prominent in May and has a slow northward movement. From May to July the elongated rain belt moves from the southeast coast of China to the Yangtze River Valley. The rain belt extends north-east-ward to south of Japan in May and later covers Korea also. The purpose of this note is to point out that the terminology of East Asian summer monsoon is a misnomer to refer to the portion of this rainbelt residing over East Asia, in the sense that it is not a monsoon.

  15. Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

  16. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to develop a better understanding of the impacts of aerosols on regional-to-global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

  17. Preliminary Bibliography on East Asia for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Edith; Morehouse, Ward

    This classified bibliography on East Asia and similar bibliographies on Africa south of the Sahara (LI 000 882) and South Asia (LI 000 061) have been compiled under the first phase of a three-year cooperative project to strengthen bibliographical resources for undergraduate libraries on "neglected" foreign areas. The bibliography in its present…

  18. Characteristics of ionospheric storms in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guojun; Shi, Jiankui

       The ionosphere experiences intense response during the geomagnetic storm and it varies with latitude and longitude. The DPS-4 digisonde measurements and GPS-TEC data of ionospheric stations located at different latitudes in the longitudinal sector of 90-130E during 2002 to 2012 were analyzed to investigate the ionospheric effects in the different latitude of East Asia during geomagnetic storm. About 70 geomagnetic storms are selected according to the Dst index and observed data and they are in different seasons and different solar activity levels. A few quiet days’ averages of data before geomagnetic storm were used as the undisturbed level. Results show that for the middle and high latitude, the short-lived positive disturbance associated with the initial phase of the every storm was observed in each season and then the disturbances were negative till the termination of storm. At the low latitude, storm-time disturbances of foF2 have obvious diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics. Generally, geomagnetic activity will cause foF2 to increase at daytime and decrease at nighttime except for the summer in low solar activity period. The intensity of response of foF2 is stronger at nighttime than that at daytime. The negative ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in summer and the positive ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in winter. In high solar activity period, the diurnal variation of the response of foF2 is very pronounced in each season, and the strong ionospheric response can last several days. In low solar activity period, ionospheric response has very pronounced diurnal variation in winter only. It’s notable that geomagnetic activities occurred at local time nighttime can cause stronger and longer responses of foF2 at the low latitude. All in all, the obvious negative phase ionospheric storms often occurred at the low latitude. Moreover a notable phenomenon was observed for the low latitude, there are the intensive oscillations of foF2 occurring during the main storm phase of enhanced storm in Hainan, and it occurred in the morning generally. For the TEC data, strong disturbances can be observed simultaneously from high latitude to low latitude during the main phase of some storms. Generally strong/weak storms can cause the negative/positive phase storms of TEC in the low latitude and which are obvious in the daytime for the summer and winter and in the period from noon to midnight for the equinox. The differences of the responses of foF2 and TEC are also investigated.

  19. Reduced genome size of Helicobacter pylori originating from East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Quan-Jiang; Wang, Li-Li; Tian, Zi-Bing; Yu, Xin-Jun; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major pathogen colonizing the human stomach, shows great genetic variation. Comparative analysis of strains from different H. pylori populations revealed that the genome size of strains from East Asia decreased to 1.60 Mbp, which is significantly smaller than that from Europe or Africa. In parallel with the genome reduction, the number of protein coding genes was decreased, and the guanine-cytosine content was lowered to 38.9%. Elimination of non-essential genes by mutations is likely to be a major cause of the genome reduction. Bacteria with a small genome cost less energy. Thus, H. pylori strains from East Asia may have proliferation and growth advantages over those from Western countries. This could result in enhanced capacity of bacterial spreading. Therefore, the reduced genome size potentially contributes to the high prevalence of H. pylori in East Asia. PMID:24914326

  20. Asia Federation Report on International Symposium on Grid Computing 2009 (ISGC 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois

    This report provides an overview of developments in the Asia-Pacific region, based on presentations made at the International Symposium on Grid Computing 2009 (ISGC 09), held 21-23 April. This document contains 14 sections, including a progress report on general Asia-EU Grid activities as well as progress reports by representatives of 13 Asian countries presented at ISGC 09. In alphabetical order, these are: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.

  1. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,

  2. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  3. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  4. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  5. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues

  6. An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.; Hong, Seungkyu K.; Kwon, Hyoung-Ahn; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Loughner, C. P.

    2014-08-11

    We used a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine processes that determine O3 in East Asia; in particular, we focused on O3 dry deposition, which is an uncertain research area due to insufficient observation and numerical studies in East Asia. Here, we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, Wesely and M3DRY, which are used in the WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. The O3 dry deposition velocities simulated using the two aforementioned schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) due to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. The O3 concentration differed by up to 10 ppbv for the monthly mean. The simulated and observed dry deposition velocities were compared, which showed that the Wesely scheme model is consistent with the observations and successfully reproduces the observed diurnal variation. We conduct several sensitivity simulations by changing the land use data, the surface resistance of the water and the model’s spatial resolution to examine the factors that affect O3 concentrations in East Asia. As shown, the model was considerably sensitive to the input parameters, which indicates a high uncertainty for such O3 dry deposition simulations. Observations are necessary to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and input data to improve the East Asia air quality models.

  7. [Dengue and other arboviral diseases in South-East Asia].

    PubMed

    Duong, V; Vong, S; Buchy, P

    2009-08-01

    The most medically significant arboviruses causing human illness in south-east Asia belong to the genera Flavivirus (dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Kunjin, Zika, etc.) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya, Sindbis, Getah, etc.). All of these arboviral diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue virus is the most prevalent arbovirus in south-east Asia and constitutes a major public health problem. Japanese encephalitis virus is also widespread in the region and symptomatic infection is associated with high mortality and severe neurological morbidity. Chikungunya virus causes mild but extremely painful illness. The number of Chikungunya cases has been increasing since early 2009. Epidemiological data show a steady, sometimes exponential, increase in the number of arbovirus infections in Asia. The spread of these viral infections can be linked to a number of complex factors. PMID:19725383

  8. Education and Development in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul, Ed.; Sweeting, Anthony, Ed.

    This book examines the specific role that formal education has played in the development process of the East Asian regions since World War II. The essays emphasize education's role as a source of growth and analyze its links with economic, social, and political domains in the post-war period. The writers hope to demonstrate both the changing…

  9. Archaic human ancestry in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Pontus; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies of ancient genomes have suggested that gene flow from archaic hominin groups to the ancestors of modern humans occurred on two separate occasions during the modern human expansion out of Africa. At the same time, decreasing levels of human genetic diversity have been found at increasing distance from Africa as a consequence of human expansion out of Africa. We analyzed the signal of archaic ancestry in modern human populations, and we investigated how serial founder models of human expansion affect the signal of archaic ancestry using simulations. For descendants of an archaic admixture event, we show that genetic drift coupled with ascertainment bias for common alleles can cause artificial but largely predictable differences in similarity to archaic genomes. In genotype data from non-Africans, this effect results in a biased genetic similarity to Neandertals with increasing distance from Africa. However, in addition to the previously reported gene flow between Neandertals and non-Africans as well as gene flow between an archaic human population from Siberia ("Denisovans") and Oceanians, we found a significant affinity between East Asians, particularly Southeast Asians, and the Denisova genome--a pattern that is not expected under a model of solely Neandertal admixture in the ancestry of East Asians. These results suggest admixture between Denisovans or a Denisova-related population and the ancestors of East Asians, and that the history of anatomically modern and archaic humans might be more complex than previously proposed. PMID:22042846

  10. Trilobite evidence for Gondwanaland in east Asia during the Ordovician

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiyi, Zhou; Dean, W. T.

    In this paper are listed certain trilobite genera considered both to be important in east Asia and to have relevance when defining Gondwanaland Ordovician faunas. Trilobite evidence indicates that China, Korea, southeast Asia and Kazakhstan may have formed part of, or at least have been located close to, Gondwanaland during the Ordovician. Ordovician Gondwanaland, extending from the South Pole to across the Equator, was large enough to account for the considerable differences in the faunas between the cold and warm areas. The distribution of Gondwanaland trilobites varied throughout the Ordovician, being mainly affected by place of origin of genera, differences in migration routes, and changes in the position of facies belts.

  11. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, David Beck; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  12. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

  13. A Report to the Australian Development Assistance Bureau. Regional Symposium on Distance Teaching in Asia (Penang, Malaysia, May 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid-Smith, Edward R.

    Reports and summaries of papers presented at the 1981 Regional Symposium on Distance Teaching in Asia are presented. The symposium, which was represented by 22 countries, was organized by the Universiti Sains (University of Science) Malaysia as part of the activities associated with the completion of 10 years of off-campus program facilities. The…

  14. HRD in Asia. Symposium 3. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) in Asia. "The Experiences of HRD Professionals Participating in Continuing Professional Development in Taiwan" (Yu-Shu [Jason] Chen) reports on a study that was based on the method of hermeneutic phenomenology and conducted to describe and interpret the experiences of…

  15. Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

  16. The human genetic history of East Asia: weaving a complex tapestry.

    PubMed

    Stoneking, Mark; Delfin, Frederick

    2010-02-23

    East Asia encompasses a wide variety of environments, peoples, cultures and languages. Although this review focuses on East Asia, no geographic region can be considered in isolation in terms of human population history, and migrations to and from East Asia have had a major impact. Here, we review the following topics: the initial colonization of East Asia, the direction of migrations between southeast Asia and northern Asia, the genetic relationships of East Asian hunter-gatherers and the genetic impact of various social practices on East Asian populations. By necessity we focus on insights derived from mitochondrial DNA and/or Y-chromosome data; ongoing and future studies of genome-wide SNP or multi-locus re-sequencing data, combined with the use of simulation, model-based methods to infer demographic parameters, will undoubtedly provide additional insights into the population history of East Asia. PMID:20178766

  17. Asia Federation Report on International Symposium on Grid Computing (ISGC) 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Lin, Simon C.

    This report provides an overview of developments in the Asia-Pacific region, based on presentations made at the International Symposium on Grid Computing 2010 (ISGC 2010), held 5-12 March at Academia Sinica, Taipei. The document includes a brief overview of the EUAsiaGrid project as well as progress reports by representatives of 13 Asian countries presented at ISGC 2010. In alphabetical order, these are: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.

  18. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  19. Aerosol impacts on climate and environment over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that the aerosol distribution in East Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in East Asian are important. It is concerned about the change of concentration of aerosols causes various effects on the climate by directly and indirectly modifying the optical properties and lifetimes of cloud. In addition to radiation budget change, aerosol has a significant potential to change cloud and precipitation. These circulation fields change influence on emission of natural aerosols such as dust aerosols and sea salt aerosols. Also, air pollution in megacities in East Asia has become a serious problem. Especially problematic are fine particles called PM2.5, whose diameter is 2.5 mm or less. Particulate matter (PM) pollution as indicated by high PM2.5 readings will cause a spike in the mortality rate of patients suffering from heart and lung diseases. Because fine particles are much smaller than inhalable coarse particles, the can penetrate deeper into the lungs and cause more severe effects on human health. Anthropogenic sources of PM2.5 include automobiles, factories, coal-burning power plants, and heaters in homes. It is well known that the size of dust particles decreases during long-range transport via westerly winds, and the resulting dust storms can contain high concentrations of fine particles. Accordingly, PM2.5 concentrations correspond well to both anthropogenic and dust aerosols. This work intends to investigate impacts of aerosol on regional climate change and environment over East Asia using observations and model simulations.

  20. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    PubMed

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

  1. HRD in Asia. Symposium 35. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document consists of three symposia papers on human resources development (HRD) in Asia. "The Impact of Action Learning on the Conflict-Handling Styles of Managers in a Malaysian Firm" (Antony Hii, Michael J. Marquardt) presented results of a quantitative study of a three-month action learning program on managers' conflict-management skills.…

  2. A regional climate change simulation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Kyou; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Chun-Sil; Choi, Suk-Jin

    2013-11-01

    In this study, regional climate changes for seventy years (1980-2049) over East Asia and the Korean Peninsula are investigated using the Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES) B1 scenario via a high-resolution regional climate model, and the impact of global warming on extreme climate events over the study area is investigated. According to future climate predictions for East Asia, the annual mean surface air temperature increases by 1.8°C and precipitation decreases by 0.2 mm day-1 (2030-2049). The maximum wind intensity of tropical cyclones increases in the high wind categories, and the intra-seasonal variation of tropical cyclone occurrence changes in the western North Pacific. The predicted increase in surface air temperature results from increased longwave radiations at the surface. The predicted decrease in precipitation is caused primarily by northward shift of the monsoon rain-band due to the intensified subtropical high. In the nested higher-resolution (20 km) simulation over the Korean Peninsula, annual mean surface air temperature increases by 1.5°C and annual mean precipitation decreases by 0.2 mm day-1. Future surface air temperature over the Korean Peninsula increases in all seasons due to surface temperature warming, which leads to changes in the length of the four seasons. Future total precipitation over the Korean Peninsula is decreased, but the intensity and occurrence of heavy precipitation events increases. The regional climate changes information from this study can be used as a fruitful reference in climate change studies over East Asia and the Korean peninsula.

  3. Combined analysis of temperature and precipitation extremes over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Jin, Jonghun

    2014-05-01

    Climate extremes occur in various phenomena such as heat wave and heavy rains but generally extreme indices have been developed and applied for each phenomenon or variable separately. In order to monitor and analyze changes in frequency and intensity of various extremes in an integrated way, combined extreme indices have been devised. In particular, the Climate Extremes Index (CEI) which consists of five components related to temperature and precipitation extremes has been widely used to examine long-term changes in extremes over United States, Australia, and Europe. Each component of CEI is standardized by calculating fraction of areas that experience extremes (both above normal and below normal) for a specified period, and multi-variable index (defined as CEI) is obtained by taking arithmetic averages of five components. Recently, a modified CEI which includes directional information by looking at difference between upper-tail and lower-tail extremes has been suggested so as to better describe long-term trends of extremes. In this study, we analyze long-term changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over East Asia using mCEI for the past and future periods. Daily datasets of temperature and precipitation are obtained from a high-resolution gridded observation (APHRODITE) and three regional climate model (RCM) simulations participating in the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) East Asia project. Analysis results show that there are increasing trends in mCEIs during 1979-2005 in both observations and simulations, which are mostly explained by increases of temperature extremes. Results from future simulations based on RCP4.5 scenario suggest that mCEI will be increasing rapidly around 2030s due to increases in temperature extremes. This implies that most part of East Asia will start experiencing above normal extremes every year before mid-21st century.

  4. The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented and discussed their contribution to better understand the impacts of aerosols on regional-to- global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

  5. Uncertainties in calculating precipitation climatology in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the uncertainty in calculating the fundamental climatological characteristics of precipitation in the East Asia region from multiple fine-resolution gridded analysis datasets based on in-situ rain gauge observations. Five observation-based gridded precipitation datasets are used to derive the long-term means, standard deviations in lieu of interannual variability and linear trends over the 28-year period from 1980 to 2007. Both the annual and summer (June-July-August) mean precipitation is examined. The agreement amongst these precipitation datasets are examined using multiple metrics including the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) defined as the ratio between long-term means and the corresponding standard deviations, and Taylor diagrams which allows examinations of the pattern correlation, the standard deviation, and the centered root mean square error. It is found that the five gauge-based precipitation analysis datasets agree well in the long-term mean and interannual variability in most of the East Asia region including eastern China, Manchuria, South Korea, and Japan, which are densely populated and have fairly high density observation networks. The regions of large inter-dataset variations include Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Indo-China, and North Korea. The regions of large uncertainties are typically lightly populated and are characterized by severe terrain and/or extreme high elevations. Unlike the long-term mean and interannual variability, agreements between datasets in the linear trend is weak, both for the annual and summer mean values. In most of the East Asia region, the SNR for the linear trend is below 0.5, i.e., the inter-dataset variability exceeds the multi-data ensemble mean. The uncertainty in the spatial distribution of long-term means among these datasets occurs both in the spatial pattern and variability, but the uncertainty for the interannual variability and time trend is much larger in the variability than in the pattern correlation. Thus, care must be taken in using long-term trends calculated from gridded precipitation analysis data for climate studies over the East Asia region.

  6. Uncertainties in calculating precipitation climatology in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the uncertainty in calculating the fundamental climatological characteristics of precipitation in the East Asia region from multiple fine-resolution gridded analysis data sets based on in situ rain gauge observations and data assimilations. Five observation-based gridded precipitation data sets are used to derive the long-term means, standard deviations in lieu of interannual variability and linear trends over the 28-year period from 1980 to 2007. Both the annual and summer (June-July-August) mean precipitation is examined. The agreement amongst these precipitation data sets is examined using two metrics including the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) defined as the ratio between long-term means and the corresponding standard deviations, and Taylor diagrams, which allow examinations of the pattern correlation, the standard deviation, and the centered root mean square error. It is found that the five gauge-based precipitation analysis data sets agree well in the long-term mean and interannual variability in most of the East Asia region including eastern China, Manchuria, South Korea, and Japan, which are densely populated and have fairly high-density observation networks. The regions of large inter-data-set variations include Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Indo-China, and North Korea. The regions of large uncertainties are typically lightly populated and are characterized by severe terrain and/or extremely high elevations. Unlike the long-term mean and interannual variability, agreement between data sets in the linear trend is weak, both for the annual and summer mean values. In most of the East Asia region, the SNR for the linear trend is below 0.5: the inter-data-set variability exceeds the multi-data ensemble mean. The uncertainty in the spatial distribution of long-term means among these data sets occurs both in the spatial pattern and variability, but the uncertainty for the interannual variability and time trend is much larger in the variability than in the pattern correlation. Thus, care must be taken in using long-term trends calculated from gridded precipitation analysis data for climate studies over the East Asia region.

  7. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines - Meeting report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-05-17

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a "South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines" was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150

  8. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines – Meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-01-01

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a “South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines” was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150

  9. 78 FR 77141 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2014 East Coast Trade Symposium: “Increasing Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Symposium: ``Increasing Economic Competitiveness Through Global Partnership and Innovation'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security (DHS). ACTION: Notice of Trade Symposium. SUMMARY: This document announces that CBP will convene only one Symposium in 2014, the East Coast...

  10. 78 FR 57408 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2013 East Coast Trade Symposium: “Increasing Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Symposium: ``Increasing Economic Competitiveness Through Global Partnership and Innovation'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security (DHS). ACTION: Notice of Trade Symposium. SUMMARY: This document announces that CBP will convene only one Symposium this year, the East Coast...

  11. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control. PMID:10683538

  12. Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T D

    1980-01-01

    The acceleration of demographic transition in East Asia is a process of great potential import for the world. The most rapid and large scale transformation of demographic pattern in world history is being accomplished in this region. Demographic processes in other countries and regions have been viewed in the light of past events. Demographic transition has been accepted as a desirable goal, but its realization was believed subject to certain constraints. These include the need to attain high rates of economic growth in order to stimulate the transition and the longer period of time required to accomplish the transition. It was assumed that at least 2 generations would be subject to gradually diminishing rates of increase and slow cultural modification before transition entered its last phase. This interpretation of the preconditions and specific character of demographic transition has been subject to increasing challenge, and recent events in East Asia accentuate such doubts. Most new views begin with the premises that contemporary pretransition societies are not European in culture and the 1970s are not the 1880s. East Asia also differs culturally from other developing areas, including South and Southeast Asia. The most significant regional features are cultural. Demographic transition in the region began after World War 2 and somewhat differently in each East Asian country. The process began first in Japan. The 3rd phase was accomplished rapidly but not as a specific consequence of the modernization process. The end of World War 2 and the spurt in births accompanying military demobilization contributed to a population surge. The cultural factors of practicality, homogeneity, social discipline, and nearly universial literacy were decisive here. Abortion was legalized in 1948 and other forms of birth control were made readily available. Between 1947 and 1957 the birthrate was halved to 17/1000. In Taiwan and South Korea public concern about high rates of population increase was initially expressed in the early 1960s. The government of Taiwan designed a 10-year plan of action to reduce the rate of increase from 2.9% to 1.9% by 1975, a goal that was reached on schedule. The South Korean experience was similar. The birthrate decreased from 2.9% to about 2.0% between 1960-70. Demographic conditions in North Korea are known only poorly. Decreased growth rates in all of these countries would not be of major significance if the demographic situation within China remained unchanged, but marked alterations in birthrate have occurred in China. These reductions in average family size were realized in essentially similar ways. The basic mechanisms were delayed marriage, increased use of contraceptive devices, abortion, and sterilization. More fundamental to the success of family planning programs than mere access to the techniques have been the ability of different countries to provide incentives for birth limitation. A vital element in the success of family planning programs in East Asia has been a marked drop in mortality. Overall, a rising level of prosperity appears less essential than does provision of basic subsistence and a broadened range of occupational options for both sexes and all classes. PMID:12338953

  13. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    ITO, HIROTO; SETOYA, YUTARO; SUZUKI, YURIKO

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives. PMID:23024679

  14. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroto; Setoya, Yutaro; Suzuki, Yuriko

    2012-10-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives. PMID:23024679

  15. Emissions of HFCs in East Asia: Consumption or Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Trebler, A.; Li, S.; Muhle, J.; Park, S.; Park, M.; Kim, S.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; Stohl, A.; Weiss, R. F.; Kim, K.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies ([Kim et al., 2010], [Li et al., 2011]) have reported significant emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-32 (CH2F2), HFC-125 (CF3CHF2), and HFC-152a(C2H4F2) in East Asia, especially China. Emissions estimates based on consumption patterns (such as the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) inventories) have speculated that HFC emissions from China and Korea would be very low. In this study the East Asian emissions of the HFCs are further investigated using in situ measurements at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases (AGAGE) network. First, the measurements were combined with a regional emission inversion method based on the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The inversion results are in good agreement with previous studies, confirming the large emissions of HFCs in East Asia. The spatial patterns found in the inversion results suggest large point-sources for the HFCs, rather than broad widely-dispersed emission patterns. Furthermore, analysis of interspecies correlation among the HFCs and also with other polluted compounds were found to be very poor. These findings are contrary to the emission patterns expected from their popular use as refrigerant mixtures (HFC-32 and HFC-125), aerosol repellents and/or foam blowing agents (HFC-152a). Our results suggest that the Chinese emissions of HFCs are unlikely to be from actual consumption of these compounds. One possible explanation for these emissions would be fugitive leaks at production sites. Further work in incorporating factory locations directly into the inversions may help further solidify this hypothesis. Nonetheless, our study reaffirms the importance of emissions of HFCs in the global budgets, and suggests that the sources of these emissions may be very different from emissions in other parts of the world.

  16. Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Purvish M; Raja, T; Mula-Hussain, L; Baral, R P; Ingle, P; Narayanan, P; Tsikai, N; Baki, M O; Satyapal, N; Adusei, K O; Popoola, A; Musibi, A; Nyaim, E; Tsomo, U; Opio, C; Jamshed, A; Reddy, P

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps. PMID:24818109

  17. Impacts of global warming on climate change over East Asia as simulated by 15 GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Zong-ci Zhao; Xiaodong Li

    1997-12-31

    About 15 GCMs (GFDL1, GISS, LLNL, MPI, OSU, UKMOL, UKMOH, GCMs90-92, GFDL2, NCAR, OPYC, LSG, HADL, GCMs95) obtained from the IPCC WG 1 1990, 1992 and 1995 reports have been chosen to examine the impacts of global warming, on the climate chance over East Asia. Although the models scenarios of the human activities were different for the different GCMs, the climate change over East Asia (70E-140E, 15N-60N) for tile doubled CO{sub 2} as simulated by about 15 GCMs have been analysed. The Simulations shown that the temperature might increased by about 0.5 - 1.5 C over East Asia, especially in winter and northwestern parts of East Asia. The precipitation might increase in northwestern and northeastern parts of East Asia and decrease in the central part of East Asia. The evaluations and assessments of the GCMs over East Asia have indicated that the GCMs have the abilities to simulate the climate change over East Asia, especially for the temperature and the winter season. There are some uncertainties for the simulations to compare with the observations, especially for tile precipitation and tile summer season.

  18. Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

  19. The Culex pipiens fatigans problem in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.

    1967-01-01

    In South-East Asia in recent years urbanization has proceeded rapidly. Because of limited financial resources it has seldom been possible to provide sufficient sanitation; this has led to conditions favourable to the breeding of Culex pipiens fatigans. The density of C. p. fatigans is higher in urban areas than in rural ones. Differences in infection and infectivity rates in C. p. fatigans seem to be due to differences in infection rates in the human population rather than to differences in the life-span of the mosquito. Precipitin tests have shown that the species feeds predominantly on man. It breeds in almost any type of stagnant water with organic contamination. Filariasis problems in India have been classified according to the duration of established transmission. PMID:5300060

  20. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, M.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Narain, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia. PMID:22664492

  1. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  2. Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation from East China Sea and a PSV stack of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Hongbo; Deng, Chenglong; Liu, Qingsong

    2014-11-01

    Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) provides information on the mechanisms of the geodynamo and can also be used for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale. In this study, we constructed PSV curves of relative rapidly deposited Holocene marine sequence from East China Sea. Results show that the dominant magnetic carriers are pseudo-single domain (PSD) to multidomain (MD) magnetites. Paleomagnetic directions are preserved by coarse-grained magnetite, even affected by post-depositional diagenetic alteration. The PSV record of core MD06-3040 exhibits six major inclination peaks and five declination swings during the Holocene. The periodicities for inclination are about 2000 and 550 years, and for declination are about 1400 and 500 years. The PSV of MD06-3040 is comparable to archeomagnetic and historic results for the last 2500 years and to PSV results from lake sediments in southern China and Japan during the Holocene. A PSV stack of East Asia is constructed by sedimentary and archeological PSV results, which can be used as an important reference curve for a large region, and the PSV correlation between sites can be applied for relative dating of East Asia.

  3. Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang

    2013-05-01

    In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

  4. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  5. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  6. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259

  7. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  8. East Asia oil-import dependency and vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Himberg, H.A.; Morse, R.A.; Chapman, D.K.

    1982-03-01

    The Asian economies are expected to grow rapidly in 1982. It is estimated that the average annual real growth will reach 5.1%. The Asian Development Bank report shows that the oil price increases of the early 1970s drastically worsened the balance of payments problems of its developing member countries (DMC). The 1979-1980 oil price increases have led to a further deterioration in current accounts. The Asian Development Bank estimates that the DMC group oil import bill will escalate from $20 billion in 1978 to $47 billion in 1990. The added dependence on external financing can only damage these countries' future chances of borrowing on favorable financial terms. The greatest energy expense incurred by East Asian economies in the 1980s could come, however, not from oil import costs so much as from financing the transition from oil to alternative fuels. The Asia-Pacific region faces a major dilemma. An economic slowdown in the developing countries and a major increase in their foreign debt jeopardize their economic progress and threaten the international financial system. Yet, accelerated growth and economic development - which is in line with US foreign economic policy - can only mean a higher demand for oil and increased special arrangements with the oil-producing nations.

  9. Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2015-07-01

    The combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the temperature variation during the winter in the northern hemisphere and East Asia over the last 56 years (1958/1959-2013/2014) was investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phase of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the temperature of East Asia (25-45N, 110-145E) and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were out-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500 hPa related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. An index considering the effect of both AO and WP on East Asia winter temperature was proposed. The correlation between the index and the East Asia winter temperature was statistically significant at the 99 % confidence level. The index was correlated with synoptic characteristics of the EAWM, including the Siberian High, East Asian trough, East Asian jet stream and surface air temperature.

  10. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014. PMID:25316838

  11. Light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Lee, H.

    2011-12-01

    We compared light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia from black carbon (BC) mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements at four sites: Korea Climate Observatory-Gosan (KCO-G), Korea Climate Observatory-Anmyeon (KCO-A), Maldives Climate Observatory-Hanimaadhoo (MCO-H) and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P). No significant seasonal variations of BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at MCO-H during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at KCO-G and KCO-A is higher than that in MCO-H due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at NCO-P is 0.14, which is two times great than that in MCO-H and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at NCO-P is the lowest among four sites. Consistently, the highest elemental carbon to sulfate ratio is found at NCO-P.

  12. ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14) and A. luchuensis (n = 6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

  13. Industrial captive power supply: Its merits and increasingly important role in meeting East Asia`s Power needs

    SciTech Connect

    Klimchuk, J.G.

    1995-06-01

    The international power development community committed to the East Asian market should look to develop strategic alliances with industrial companies to meet their power development objectives. Industrial power development represents an attractive market in East Asia as a result of the region`s current and prospective industrial capacity. In addition, the governing bodies in East Asia have made energy efficiency and improvement in the environment very high priorities, and increased industrial power capacity can substantially reduce the burden on local utilities and governments. From a financial and structural risk perspective, industrial power projects can be less onerous than the larger, sell-to-the-grid projects. In addition, third-party energy management brings substantial benefits to the energy-intensive industries. However, industrial power development also dictates a different set of due diligence requirements in determining the economic attractiveness of particular projects.

  14. Prevalence of Giardia lamblia with or without diarrhea in South East, South East Asia and the Far East.

    PubMed

    Dib, Hassan H; Lu, Si Qi; Wen, Shao Fang

    2008-07-01

    This article is a review of the latest information on the prevalence of G. lamblia in South Asia, South East Asia and Far East, characterizing the current endemic situation within these regions. Around 33 published papers from 2002-2007 were collected on G. lamblia. The included countries were Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Republic of Korea, and China. Only five published papers were discarded because data was extracted before 2002-2007 or they are not included within our regions, emphasizing more on G. lamblia in animals, or performed at extensive molecular level. The prevalence of G. lamblia varied markedly between studies illustrating higher levels in the urban than in the rural areas, more among poor communities, slightly higher in males than in females with age range of 2-5-year-old children, and among university students, old-aged people, HIV-positive patients, and gastric carcinoma patients. Though G. lamblia is not a life-threatening parasite, nevertheless, it is still considered as the most common water-borne diarrhea-causing disease. It is important to understand the etiology, frequency, and consequences of acute diarrhea in children. Routine surveillance such as bi-annual follow-up treatments, treating G. duodenalis cysts and other protozoa oocysts detected in ground water sources, and continuous health education are the most preventive measures. PMID:18425689

  15. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices. Aubert et al introduce a novel technique of synthesizing composite nanomaterials and Cross and coworkers characterize Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films co-doped with Bi and Fe to enhance PZT capacitor ferroelectric properties. These articles are closely related to the global environmental load and energy issues that require solutions in modern ceramics technology. We hope that this focus issue will help advance not only ceramics-related but also other fields of materials science.

  16. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":

  17. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  18. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  19. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education

  20. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia. Situated on…

  1. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  2. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in

  3. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…

  4. The oldest Mahonia (Berberidaceae) fossil from East Asia and its biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Su, Tao; Lebereton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation of the biogeography of the genus Mahonia (Berberidaceae) is limited by the lack of fossil records in East Asia. Compressed fossil foliage, described here as Mahonia mioasiatica sp. nov., were collected from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan, Yunnan, southwest China. These specimens represent the oldest reliable fossil record of Mahonia in East Asia. This new fossil species shows a general similarity to Group Orientales and is most similar to the extant eastern Asian Mahonia conferta. Considering other fossil evidence of Mahonia, we propose a migration route of this genus to Asia over the North Atlantic Land Bridge rather than the Bering Land Bridge. Our results also suggest that North America, Europe and East Asia have been successive centers of diversity for the genus, as a consequence of diversification in Group Orientales potentially related to historical climate change. PMID:26691316

  5. Sustainability Issues of the Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific (AEESEAP) Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Nasrudin Abdul; Said, Suhana Mohd

    The Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific was established with the aim to improve the education of engineers and technologists in its member countries. This paper will give an overview of AEESEAP objectives and its current activities, coordinated by the current secretariat based in Malaysia. The main issue being dealt with throughout the existence of AEESEAP is the issue of sustainability of the association. This paper will highlight the objectives and current activities of AEESEAP, with regards to sustaining this association.

  6. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter temperature distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.

  7. Mobility, Formation and Development of the Academic Profession in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in East and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Horta, Hugo; Osawa, Aki

    2016-01-01

    The academic profession contributes to shaping the capacity and identity of higher education systems. In East and Southeast Asia, there is a need for further discussion on the regional identity characteristics of the academic profession to account for its multiple origins and national and international dimensions. Data from two large-scale…

  8. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Malcolm A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  9. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  10. Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yao; Wang, Hong-Kai; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia. PMID:25080928

  11. A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

  12. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East Asia. Our results also show that the active Tengchong volcano in SW China is related to the deep subduction of the Burma microplate down to the mantle transition zone and a BMW above the Burma slab. References: D. Zhao (2004) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. J. Huang, D. Zhao (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, B09305. D. Zhao et al. (2009) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 197-206.

  13. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

  14. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  15. Undernutrition among children in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2010-09-01

    Undernutrition remains a major public health problem among children living in Asia. Although the burden is maximal among poorer, rural and Indigenous communities, the problem affects the majority in many Asian countries, especially in South Asia. In order to prevent the pervasive consequences of undernutrition, strategies that address this burden are required. Successful implementation of strategies may be limited by the complex aetiology of undernutrition, including the political setting. Rising food insecurity because of climate change, land use for biofuel production and the recent global financial crisis threaten to exacerbate childhood malnutrition. In this review, we describe the burden of undernutrition among Asian children and discuss contributing factors and potential solutions. PMID:20854320

  16. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia would account for only about one-quarter, and NMVOC for one-third, of the levels of the baseline projection. Compared with previous projections, this study projects larger reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions by considering aggressive governmental plans and standards scheduled to be implemented in the next decade, and quantifies the significant effects of detailed progressive control measures on NMVOC emissions up until 2030.

  17. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up to 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 % and 11%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large scale deployment of FGD for China's power plants, and the promotion of high-efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25% and 15%, driven by the rapid increase in the emissions from China owing to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17% mainly due to the implementation of tight vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current legislation and current implementation status, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are estimated to increase by about one quarter by 2030 from the 2010 levels, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28%, 36%, 28%, and 15% respectively compared with the baseline case. The implementation of the "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures is expected to lead to another one third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one quarter reduction for SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. With the full implementation of maximum feasible reduction measures, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia are expected to account for only about one quarter and NMVOC for one third of the levels of the baseline projection. Compared with previous projections, this study projects larger reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions by considering aggressive govermental plans and standards scheduled to be implemented in the next decade, and quantifies the significant effects of detailed progressive control measures on NMVOC emissions up to 2030.

  18. Genetic History of Hepatitis C Virus in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Pybus, Oliver G.; Barnes, Eleanor; Taggart, Rachel; Lemey, Philippe; Markov, Peter V.; Rasachak, Bouachan; Syhavong, Bounkong; Phetsouvanah, Rattanaphone; Sheridan, Isabelle; Humphreys, Isla S.; Lu, Ling; Newton, Paul N.; Klenerman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV), which currently infects an estimated 3% of people worldwide, has been present in some human populations for several centuries, notably HCV genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa and genotype 6 in Southeast Asia. Here we use newly developed methods of sequence analysis to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of the epidemic and evolutionary history of HCV in Asia. Our analysis includes new HCV core (n = 16) and NS5B (n = 14) gene sequences, obtained from serum samples of jaundiced patients from Laos. These exceptionally diverse isolates were analyzed in conjunction with all available reference strains using phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent methods. We performed statistical tests of phylogeographic structure and applied a recently developed “relaxed molecular clock” approach to HCV for the first time, which indicated an unexpectedly high degree of rate variation. Our results reveal a >1,000-year-long development of genotype 6 in Asia, characterized by substantial phylogeographic structure and two distinct phases of epidemic history, before and during the 20th century. We conclude that HCV lineages representing preexisting and spatially restricted strains were involved in multiple, independent local epidemics during the 20th century. Our analysis explains the generation and maintenance of HCV diversity in Asia and could provide a template for further investigations of HCV spread in other regions. PMID:18971279

  19. Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project entitled…

  20. Scientific publications in anesthesiology journals from East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The scientific publications in anesthesiology research from East Asian authors have not been reported yet. The present study was designed to analyze the contribution of articles from East Asia to anesthesiology research. Articles published in 17 journals in anesthesiology originating from Japan, China, and South Korea from 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Web of Science. From 2000 to 2009, there were 3,076 articles published from East Asia. During this period, there were a notable decrease in publications from Japan and modest increases in publications from both China and South Korea. The average 5-year impact factor of the published articles was similar among the three regions, and China had the highest average number of citations to each article. Anesthesia & Analgesia published more articles than any other journal from all three regions. Our analysis showed that Japan was the most productive region in East Asia, but there was a notable decrease in publications from Japan in 2000-2009. The impact factor of the articles suggests similar levels of scholarship. Anesthesia & Analgesia was the most popular journal in East Asia. PMID:21212991

  1. A sub-decadal trend of diacids in atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Fu, P. Q.; Jung, J.

    2015-08-01

    The change of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we study a sub-decadal (2001-2008) trend of major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids) of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. Gosan site is influenced by the pollution-outflows from East Asia. The molecular distribution of diacids was characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids in each year. The seasonal variations of diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distribution and seasonal variations are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in East Asia over a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases of major diacids at the rate of 3.9-47.4 % year-1 particularly in April. The temporal variations of atmospheric tracer compounds (CO, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal) suggest that the increases of diacids are due to an enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by their chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends of diacids are opposite to the reported decreases of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in the recent years in East Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in East Asia could not decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. If the current rates of increases continue, the organic acid- and water-soluble fractions of SOA could increase significantly in the future atmosphere in East Asia.

  2. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and

  3. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

  4. Energetics and dynamics associated with two typical mobile trough pathways over East Asia in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Cheung, Hoffman Ho-Nam; Zhou, Wen

    2015-03-01

    Two dominant types of East Asian mobile trough (EAMT) are identified by a novel mobile trough detection algorithm. The two major EAMTs likely pass through to the north and the south of Lake Baikal. In this study, both of synoptic and planetary time scales influences on East Asia are studied. For synoptic scale, southern path of mobile trough shows a higher rate of intensification that of northern path. Southern path has stronger impact on Southeast Asia temperature fluctuation because of more southern pathway and stronger magnitude of wave train. But duration of fluctuation is shorter in southern due to the downstream development. For planetary scale, the northern path shows a large warm anomaly over Southeast Asia and a cold anomaly over Northeast Asia, which is associated with the northward shift of the jet stream. The southern path shows a cold anomaly over East Asia due to a northwesterly anomaly. The forcing of high frequency eddy on low frequency eddy is estimated in terms of momentum and energy. The reinforcement of high frequency eddy flux on low frequency variation can be observed in northern path, but not in southern path. The energy difference for two paths is also caused by the variations of barotropic and baroclinic conversion. The energy tendency of interaction between two frequency eddies is only responsible for sustention of energy anomaly over southwestern Japan.

  5. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

  6. Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Laina

    This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

  7. A Synthesis of Reviews of Research on Principal Leadership in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Hallinger, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesize findings from five systematic reviews of research on principal leadership in East Asia contained in this special issue. The goal is to identify commonalities as well as differences concerning both approaches to research and the enactment of school leadership within this rapidly developing and

  8. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  9. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  10. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Geoff; Benton, Susan; Duvall, James; Eltzroth, Diane; Hooyberg, Astrid; Keim, Marilee; Norris, Elizabeth; Smith, Peggy; Vogel, Kathy; Williams, Steven

    This volume contains 40 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across five themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, Change"; (4) Institutions, Power & Government"; and (5)…

  11. A Synthesis of Reviews of Research on Principal Leadership in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Hallinger, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesize findings from five systematic reviews of research on principal leadership in East Asia contained in this special issue. The goal is to identify commonalities as well as differences concerning both approaches to research and the enactment of school leadership within this rapidly developing and…

  12. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

  13. Globalisation and the Changing Nature of the State in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with

  14. Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market…

  15. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This

  16. Globalisation and the Changing Nature of the State in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with…

  17. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  18. Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate…

  19. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  20. Role of Women in Teachers' Organizations in South and South-East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    The role of women in teachers' organizations in South and South-East Asia was the subject of a workshop having two principal objectives: (1) a consideration of measures that can be taken by teachers' organizations to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and to secure for them human rights on the basis of equality with men; and (2)

  1. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beville, Francie; Boone, Mark; Chapman, Kelly; Crump, Claudia; Curtis, Lonnie; Erickson, Stacy; Kaiser-Polge, Tami; Klus, John A.; Luebbehusen, Mary Lou; Rea, Patrick S.; Ward, Mary E.

    This volume contains 23 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across six themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, and Change"; (4) "Aesthetics, Celebrations and Values"; (5)…

  2. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  3. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit

  4. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

  5. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeny, S. M., Ed.

    An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…

  6. Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market

  7. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for

  8. Learner Centered Higher Education in East Asia: Assessing the Effects on Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The global expansion of higher education has brought about more ambitious educational goals that require new approaches to curriculum, teaching, and learning. While higher education in East Asia is no exception to this trend, it has been observed that both teachers and learners in the region have adhered to a strong tradition of…

  9. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  10. Developing a Knowledge Base for Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership in educational reform has reached the status of a truism, and led to major changes in school leader recruitment, selection, training and appraisal. While similar policy trends are evident in East Asia, the empirical knowledge base underlying these measures is distorted and lacking in validation. This paper begins by…

  11. Promoting Learner Autonomy: Student Perceptions of Responsibilities in a Language Classroom in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Shien; Takagi, Akiko; Chu, Man-Ping

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of communicative language teaching in East Asia, the idea of learner autonomy has become a topic of discussion and a goal among language teachers. The idea of autonomy raises important questions that need to be further explored, particularly in terms of students taking responsibility for learning. While examining the English…

  12. Mapping the Terrain of Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain perspective on the extent to which the vision for knowledge production in East Asia set forth by Bajunid, Cheng, Hallinger, Walker, Dimmock and others almost 20 years ago has been fulfilled. The authors undertook an effort to map the terrain of knowledge production in educational leadership and…

  13. Review of rabies epidemiology and control in South, South East and East Asia: past, present and prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Tenzin; Ward, M P

    2012-11-01

    Rabies is a serious public health problem in Asia. It causes substantial animal welfare, economic and human health impacts, with approximately 39,000 human deaths each year. Domestic dogs are the main reservoir and source of rabies in Asia. Common constraints for the control of rabies in the countries of Asia include inadequate resources; lack of political commitment to control programs; lack of consensus on strategy; weak intersectoral coordination and inadequate management structure; insensitive surveillance systems; limited accessibility to modern rabies vaccine and supply problems; lack of public awareness and public cooperation; and the existence of myths and religious issues. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology of rabies in both human and animals in each South and South East Asian country, the past and current approaches to control and the prospect for rabies elimination. We conclude that defining the cost of rabies to society and communicating this to decisionmakers might be the key to achieving such an advance. PMID:23180493

  14. Inter-annual changes of Biomass Burning and Desert Dust and their impact over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONG, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols on air quality has been well documented in the last few decades, but the knowledge about their interactions with anthropogenic emission and their impacts on regional climate is very limited (IPCC, 2007). While East Asia is greatly affected by dust storms in spring from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (Huang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012), it also suffers from significant biomass burning emission from Southeast Asia during the same season. Observations from both surface monitoring and satellite data indicated that mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols may approach to coastal area of East Asia simultaneously, thus have a very unique impact on the local atmospheric environment and regional climate. In this study, we first investigated the inter-annual variations of biomass burning and dust aerosols emission for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010 to estimate the upper and lower limits and correlation with meteorology conditions, and then evaluate their impacts with a chemical transport system. Our preliminary results indicated that biomass burning has a strong correlation with precipitation over Southeast Asia, which could drive the emission varying from 542 Tg in 2008 to 945 Tg in 2010, according to FLAMBE emission inventory (Reid et al., 2009). Mineral dust also demonstrated a strong dependence on wind filed. These inter-annual/annual variations will also lead to different findings and impacts on air quality in East Asia. Reference: Huang, K., et al. (2010), Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115. IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, New York. Li, J., et al. (2012), Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in March 2010, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 7591-7607.

  15. ICT Experience in East Asia and Modelling for Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okur Dincsoy, Meltem

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable development in ICT (Information and Communication Technology) was observed in the past decades that it has an increasing impact on economic and social activities in the world. ICT have had a significant role in the economic growth for developed and developing countries. The countries have been very dynamic in recent years in East

  16. English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent…

  17. Prevalence of dementia in East Asia: a synthetic review of time trends

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to synthesise evidence on time trends of dementia prevalence in East Asian countries including Japan, China, South Korea and Taiwan and assess the impact of the societal changes on future prevalence. Method Relevant reviews and recent nationwide studies in East Asia were identified to investigate changes in prevalence of dementia over time taking into account the potential impact of methodological factors and study designs. Results The robust evidence that has been interpreted to suggest a substantial increasing trend over time is less compelling once fundamental differences in study methods and populations across individual surveys are considered. In Japan, longitudinal studies in small areas suggest the potential increase of prevalence after 2000. Increasing trends in China, South Korea and Taiwan over the last 2030 years are based on the literature review without adjustment for methodological differences. Economic development and huge societal changes alongside the rise of non-communicable disease in East Asia could lead to increasing prevalence of dementia in the future once those cohorts with high risk of dementia reached their older age. Conclusion Current evidence is not sufficient to suggest increasing trends of dementia prevalence in East Asia. Longitudinal studies with representative samples and stable methodology are needed to provide fundamental information of the epidemiology of dementia and identify important risk factors in East Asian societies. 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25963138

  18. Trade in labour services and migrant worker protection with special reference to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the migrant worker protection policy of the East Asian international labor market. The labor-exporting countries of East Asia provide an onerous proportion of low-skilled migrant workers to the region and are responding to the perceived edge of a policy of labor export. Conversely, the movement of highly skilled and professional workers is the result of globalization and internationalization of education, training and professions, rather than the result of explicit labor export of certain countries. In view of the need of international bilateral arrangements for the protection and facilitation of low-skilled workers, the labor-exporting countries have introduced a number of policies aimed at protecting and promoting the welfare of the overseas workers. Thus, various policy measures are suggested to advance the cause of migrant worker protection in East Asia. PMID:12295601

  19. Impact of the dominant large-scale teleconnections on winter temperature variability over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-07-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50°N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30°N-50°N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30°N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter temperature distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.

  20. Macrophysical and optical properties of clouds over East Asia measured by CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zengxin; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Li, Jun; Wang, Wei; Li, Chen; Min, Qilong

    2015-11-01

    The macrophysical and optical properties of clouds over East Asia (18N-54N, 73E-145E) from 1 March 2007 to 28 February 2015 are investigated using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization data. Data analysis determines the macrophysical properties, such as cloud fraction, cloud vertical structure, cloud top height (CTH), cloud base height, and cloud geometrical depth (CGD), as well as the optical properties of clouds. Statistical analysis shows that the annual cloud fractions of single-layer (SL), multilayer (ML), and total clouds over East Asia are 41.4 0.7%, 25.1 0.9%, and 66.5 1.6%, respectively, with a slight interannual variation. The maximum annual cloud fraction that appeared over the Sichuan Basin is mainly attributed to unique occlusive topographic features. Moreover, the annual vertical distribution of cloud occurrence frequency over East Asia presents a multipeak structure. Furthermore, at a height below 2 km, cloud frequency distribution exhibits a large peak over the south, north, northeast, eastern sea, and East Asia, a small peak over the northwest, and the smallest peak over Tibet, which is mainly ascribed to terrain topographies. For the average uppermost CTH and cloud fraction, the same seasonal characteristic is demonstrated; that is, CTH and cloud fraction are highest in summer and lowest in winter, except in the northwest. This seasonal characteristic mainly results from the East Asian summer monsoon circulation. Overall, the annual cloud optical depths (CODs) of SL, ML, and total cloud over East Asia are 0.98 0.02, 0.83 0.09, and 1.81 0.12, respectively. Moreover, the COD of each layer is mainly below 0.5 (52.3%), and the second peak of probability (10.4%) exists from 2.5 to 3.0. The two crests of probability are caused by clouds of different types. Overall, the annual cloud layer over East Asia mainly consists of cirrus (44.4%), which indicates that cirrus clouds play a leading role. Most geometrically thick clouds (CGD > 2 km) are cirrus and deep convective clouds. In general, annual CGD decreases with the increase in the number of ML cloud system layers, and CGD increases with the increase in altitude, whereas the COD of each layer exhibits a reverse trend.

  1. On mobility and fertility transitions in east and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between fertility and mobility is examined with reference to Zelinsky's [1971] mobility transition hypothesis. Five Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, China) at different stages of development and mobility transition are compared with respect to shifting sectoral patterns of migration and changing levels of fertility. National trends suggest that the development sequence proposed by Zelinsky on the basis of the European experience does not generally apply to Asia. In four out of five cases examined, fertility declined before substantial urbanization took place. Zelinsky's sequence of mobility change should be modified to fit the experience of developing countries, but the importance of the interrelations hip between fertility decline and mobility change remains PMID:12343909

  2. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur. PMID:12295213

  3. The Unmet Need of Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation in the Far East and South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yutao; Y.H.Lip, Gregory; Apostolakis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is high in both community‐ and hospital‐based studies in the Far East and South East Asia. Hypertension is the most common risk factor, but coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus are other important co‐morbidities in these countries. Anticoagulant therapy use was low, being 0.5%–28% in Malaysia, Singapore, and China. The reported rate of stroke related to AF was 13.0%–15.4% based on community studies in those countries, and was 3.1%–24.2% of stroke rate in hospital‐based cohorts. Better assessment of thromboembolic and bleeding risks is important. International guidelines now recommend the use of the CHA2DS2‐VASc score to identify the ‘‘truly low‐risk’’ AF patients, who do not need antithrombotic therapy, whilst those with ≥ 1 stroke risk factors can be offered oral anticoagulation. Aspirin is ineffective and may not be any safer than oral anticoagulants, especially in the elderly. It is anticipated that the availability of the new oral anticoagulant drugs would improve our efforts for stroke prevention in the Far East and South East Asia, especially where anticoagulation monitoring for warfarin is suboptimal. PMID:23610543

  4. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2015-10-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve. Limitations and future work are also discussed.

  5. Investigation on aerosol optical properties over East Asia: From LEO to GEO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C. H.; Park, M.; Park, R.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties (AOP) have been regarded as good proxy indicators of the levels of particulate air pollutants such as PM2.5 and PM10, and have also been widely used for estimating direct radiative forcing (DRF) by aerosols. Up to date, the AOP have been retrieved mainly from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites such as terra- and aqua-MODIS. However, the critical limitation of the AOP products from the LEO satellites is relatively long temporal resolution of one to several days. In order to overcome this critical limitation, the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite-retrieved data is begun to be used recently. Therefore, in this study, several topics related to the fore-mentioned issues are introduced: (i) current status of the AOP retrieval from the LEO satellites and the AOP calculations from chemistry-transfer model (CTM) simulations over East Asia; (ii) the uses of the AOP data for estimating particulate pollution and DRF by aerosols in East Asia; (iii) preliminary AOP data retrieved from a geostationary sensor (GOCI: Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) on a Korean GEO satellite (COMS: Communication Ocean Meteorology Satellite); and (iv) possible improvements of the GEO-retrieved AOP data, combining them with the AOP data calculated from the CTM simulations over East Asia via a data assimilation technique. Regarding the AOP data retrievals from the COMS-GOCI sensor, two Korean aerosol retrieval algorithms are also introduced briefly: (i) Yonsei algorithm and (ii) GSTAR (GIST Aerosol Retrieval) algorithm. It is also discussed that these researches are being carried out with long-term research goals, aiming at the future applications of the AOP data, which is expected to be available from the world-first Korean environmental GEO sensors (GEMS: Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Sensor and GOCI-2) scheduled to be launched in 2017 or 2018, to the investigations onto the particulate air pollution and the DRF estimation by aerosols over East Asia (as well as possibly over the entire Asia domain).

  6. Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

  7. Moving East: the Euro-Lupus Nephritis regimen in Asia.

    PubMed

    Houssiau, Frédéric A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of lupus nephritis is more evidenced-based than ever. Yet many areas of uncertainty persist. The article by Rathi et al. brings a piece to the puzzle by comparing, in a group of Indian patients, the Euro-Lupus low-dose i.v. cyclophosphamide regimen with mycophenolate mofetil. Although some caveats must be raised, the results suggest that, after crossing the Atlantic, the Euro-Lupus regimen may well be moving East. PMID:26759044

  8. Three new species of Annulipalpia (Trichoptera) from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, J.; Morse, J.

    2005-05-01

    A new species of Kisaura (Philopotamidae) and a new species of Psychomyia (Psychomyiidae) are described from Japan and a new species of Ceratopsyche (Hydropsychidae) is described from Far East Russia. The new species of Kisaura is closest to Kisaura aurascens (Martynov, 1934), but the inferior appendages are shaped differently. The new species of Psychomyia resembles Psychomyia minima (Martynov, 1910), but the shape of tergum X is radically different. The new species of Ceratopsyche looks rather like Ceratopsyche setensis (Iwata, 1927), except that tergum X and the lateral spines of the phallus are different.

  9. Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

  10. Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

  11. Climate change and food security in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Yuan; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Climate change causes serious food security risk for East Asian countries. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has recognized that the climate change will impact agriculture and all nations should prepare adaptations to the impacts on food security. This article reviews the context of adaptation rules and current policy development in East Asian region. The UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol have established specific rules for countries to develop national or regional adaptation policies and measurements. The current development of the ASEAN Strategic Plan on food security is inspiring, but the commitments to implementation by its members remain an issue of concern. We suggest that the UNFCCC enhances co-operation with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and other international organizations to further develop methodologies and technologies for all parties. Our findings suggest that agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors in terms of risks associated with climate change and distinct programmatic initiatives are necessary. It's imperative to promote co-operation among multilateral organizations, including the UNFCCC, FAO, World Health Organization, and others. PMID:19965364

  12. Colorectal cancer screening of the general population in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yasushi; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Li, Xiao-Bo; Wong, Martin C S; Chiu, Han-Mo; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Utsumi, Takahiro; Hattori, Santa; Sano, Wataru; Iwatate, Mineo; Chiu, Philip; Sung, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing, and CRC has been becoming the major cause of cancer deaths in Asian countries. Therefore, an organized screening program to reduce CRC incidence and mortality is currently implemented in each country. In the present review, we summarize the current status and future perspectives of CRC screening of the general population in East Asian and South-East Asian countries. The fecal occult blood test is widely used for CRC screening in these countries, and its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality has been demonstrated; however, the low participation rate in CRC screening programs is a problem to be solved in every country. Improvement in the public awareness of CRC and promotion of CRC screening by physicians will help to raise the participation rate and reduce the number of deaths caused by CRC. Regarding screening colonoscopy, several studies have recently demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. However, at present, CRC screening colonoscopy is not adopted as a primary population-based screening tool because of staffing constraints in relation to large population sizes, increased medical costs, and potential adverse events (e.g. perforation and drug-induced anaphylaxis). Further study is required to consider colonoscopy as CRC screening that is established in Western countries. PMID:26595883

  13. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO{sub 2} emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  14. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-04-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  15. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  16. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction. PMID:12307191

  17. [East Asia 1976-1977: a general view].

    PubMed

    Keeny, S M

    1978-01-01

    Most East Asian countries have national family planning programs combined with projects to improve nutrition and jobs in rural areas. The countries which have had a rapid industrial development, such as Taiwan or Singapore, have seen their birth rate decrease sharply during the past 20 years. In most countries the government discourages large families and promotes vasectomy and minilaparotomy; abortion has been legalized almost everywhere. Information through radio and television play an important role, but not quite as important as that of fieldworkers who go from home to home in areas not reached by mass media. Cost for these programs is heavily paid by the U.S., and all programs are evaluated in the country of origin. Results are very encouraging and sometimes excellent, as in the case of South Korea, where about 45% of women practice contraception, and fertility rate has decreased from 6.0 in 1960, to 3.5 in 1975. PMID:12261365

  18. Solar cycle modulation of the ENSO impact on the winter climate of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qun; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Wen

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how the East Asian winter climate response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) varies with the 11-year solar cycle. The results indicate that the ENSO and East Asian climate relationship is robust and significant during winters with low solar (LS) activity, with evident warming in the lower troposphere over East Asia, which can be closely linked to the decreased pressure gradient between the cold Eurasian continent and the warm Pacific. Moreover, during the LS and El Niño winters, there is a typical rainfall response in Southeast Asia, with wet conditions over South China and dry conditions over the Philippines, Borneo, Celebes, and Sulawesi, which can be explained by the anticyclone over the western North Pacific (WNP). However, during high solar activity winters, both the surface temperature and rainfall anomalies are much less closely associated with the ENSO. The possible mechanism for this solar modulation of the ENSO-related East Asian climate anomalies may be the change in the tropospheric circulation with the ENSO in both tropical and extratropical regions. Particularly, in the LS cases, an anomalous WNP anticyclone is intensified and a noticeable cyclone occupies northern Northeast Asia, resulting from the changing location and strength of the large-scale Walker circulation induced by the more pronounced sea surface temperature anomalies associated with the ENSO. Further investigation with long historic data confirms that the relationship between the ENSO and the East Asian winter climate anomalies depends on the phases of 11 year solar cycle, with enhanced East Asian climate variation during the LS winters.

  19. [Emerging viral infections in South East Asia and the Pacific region].

    PubMed

    Barboza, P; Tarantola, A; Lassel, L; Mollet, T; Quatresous, I; Paquet, C

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiology of several viral diseases underwent profound changes in South-East Asia and Oceania over the past decades. This was due to several factors, including the geographical distribution of vectors and the viruses they transmit; increasing traveling and trade; increasing ecological and demographic pressure. We reviewed the current state of knowledge based on published sources and available epidemiological data. The review was limited to potentially emerging viruses in Southeast Asia and the Pacific reported in human cases. Dengue, Chikungunya, and Japanese Encephalitis viruses have recurred on a yearly basis with a steady increase in these regions. Ross River and Barmah viruses now appear regularly in Australia, in an increasing number of cases. Nipah virus strikes regularly with limited but deadly epidemics in Southeast Asia. Finally, infections by lyssaviruses, Kunjin, Murray Valley, or Zika viruses were also reviewed. PMID:18771865

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

  1. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  2. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  3. Energy inefficiency in the Asia/Near East region and its environmental implications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The report assesses the current and projected energy situation and needs in the Asia/Near East region and describes the status of energy efficiency. It examines the environmental implications of energy supply and use, with specific focus on energy infrastructure and fossil fuel combustion. Energy efficiency activities and achievements are described for Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as for two other countries, Costa Rica and Singapore, which have recently implemented energy efficiency activities that could be replicated in Asia/Near East countries. In conclusion, the report recommends that, in addition to energy efficiency, complementary efforts need to be made to promote the use of cleaner fuels and encourage the incorporation of environmental considerations into all major energy decisions.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of photochemical ozone to its precursor emissions over East Asia by CMAQ-DDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; Kim, S.

    2011-12-01

    In the past three decades, anthropogenic emissions in East Asia have increased dramatically in parallel with the economic growth, and the trans-boundary air pollution arose as a concerning issue. For instance, high photochemical oxidant (over 120 ppbv) was observed at the remote clean island in Japan during 2007 springtime. In this event, many studies concluded that the high possibility of the impact of Asian-scale trans-boundary pollutants. To investigate the source-receptor relationships, modeling study is useful, however, if the chemical reaction involves the nonlinear response (e.g., ozone), to estimate its S-R relationships is quite difficult. The decoupled direct method (DDM) which was implemented in CMAQ ver. 4.7.1 is an efficient and accurate way of performing sensitivity analysis to model inputs. CMAQ-DDM has been extended to higher-order (HDDM) for gas-phase, and calculates first and second-order sensitivity coefficients representing the responsiveness of atmospheric chemical concentrations to perturbations in a model input or parameter (e.g., emission, reaction rate, initical condition, or boundary condition). This applications are well conducted in the U.S., whereas it is not fully examined in East Asia. In this study, we apply CMAQ-DDM technique for ozone and its precursor pollutants in East Asia. In the case of trans-boundary air pollution episode occurred on 7-9 May, 2007, the 1st order ozone sensitivity to the anthropogenic NOx emissions from China show the positive value in almost part over East Asia, namely represent the NOx-sensitive region, whereas in the large-point sources in China (e.g., Beijing and Shanghai), it shows the negative value due to the ozone titration by NO. We will also report more detailed region specified S-R analysis and cross-sensitivity analysis between NOx and VOC over China, Korea and Japan.

  5. Land response to atmosphere at different resolutions in the common land model over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeun; Lim, Yoon-Jin; Kang, Minseok; Choi, Minha

    2016-03-01

    Towards a better understanding of hydrological interactions between the land surface and atmosphere, land surface models are routinely used to simulate hydro-meteorological fluxes. However, there is a lack of observations available for model forcing, to estimate the hydro-meteorological fluxes in East Asia. In this study, Common Land Model (CLM) was used in offline-mode during the summer monsoon period of 2006 in East Asia, with different forcings from Asiaflux, Korea Land Data Assimilation System (KLDAS), and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), at point and regional scales, separately. The CLM results were compared with observations from Asiaflux sites. The estimated net radiation showed good agreement, with r =0.99 for the point scale and 0.85 for the regional scale. The estimated sensible and latent heat fluxes using Asiaflux and KLDAS data indicated reasonable agreement, with r = 0.70. The estimated soil moisture and soil temperature showed similar patterns to observations, although the estimated water fluxes using KLDAS showed larger discrepancies than those of Asiaflux because of scale mismatch. The spatial distribution of hydro-meteorological fluxes according to KLDAS for East Asia were compared to the CLM results with GLDAS, and the GLDAS provided online. The spatial distributions of CLM with KLDAS were analogous to CLM with GLDAS, and the standalone GLDAS data. The results indicate that KLDAS is a good potential source of high spatial resolution forcing data. Therefore, the KLDAS is a promising alternative product, capable of compensating for the lack of observations and low resolution grid data for East Asia.

  6. Study of atmospheric mercury budget in East Asia using STEM-Hg modeling system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Lin, Che-Jen; Carmichael, Gregory R; Streets, David G; Tang, Youhua; Woo, Jung-Hun; Shetty, Suraj K; Chu, Hsing-Wei; Ho, Thomas C; Friedli, Hans R; Feng, Xinbin

    2010-07-15

    East Asia is the largest source region of global anthropogenic mercury emissions, and contributes to atmospheric mercury concentration and deposition in other regions. Similarly, mercury from the global pool also plays a role in the chemical transport of mercury in East Asia. Annual simulations of atmospheric mercury in East Asia were performed using the STEM-Hg modeling system to study the mass budgets of mercury in the region. The model results showed strong seasonal variation in mercury concentration and deposition, with signals from large point sources. The annual mean concentrations for gaseous elemental mercury, reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury in central China and eastern coastal areas were 1.8 ng m(-3), 100 pg m(-3) and 150 pg m(-3), respectively. Boundary conditions had a strong influence on the simulated mercury concentration and deposition, contributing to 80% of the concentration and 70% of the deposition predicted by the model. The rest was caused by the regional emissions before they were transported out of the model domain. Using different oxidation rates reported for the Hg(0)-O(3) reaction (i.e., by Hall, 1995 vs. by Pal and Ariya, 2004) led to a 9% difference in the predicted mean concentration and a 40% difference in the predicted mean deposition. The estimated annual dry and wet deposition for East Asia in 2001 was in the range of 590-735 Mg and 482-696 Mg, respectively. The mercury mass outflow caused by the emissions in the domain was estimated to be 681-714 Mg yr(-1). This constituted 70% of the total mercury emission in the domain. The greatest outflow occurred in spring and early summer. PMID:20483447

  7. Impacts of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions on Climate Change in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, S.; Jung, Y.; Baek, H.; Cho, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate impact by anthropogenic drivers gives high concerns in climate change simulation. IPCC AR4 emphasized the role of aerosol on climate besides the GHGs due to its negative significant radiative forcing. We find that climate feedback of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia through direct and indirect (aerosol-cloud interaction) radiative process using HadGEM2-AO developed by the UK Met office. Due to the industrial revolution and population growth, total anthropogenic aerosol emissions have grown dramatically over East Asia; sulfate aerosol is the dominant component accounting for about 50% of total aerosol optical depth at 550nm (Figure 1). An increased amount of aerosols might increase the CCN number concentration and lead to more, but smaller, cloud droplets for fixed liquid water content. This increases the albedo of the cloud, resulting in enhance reflection and a cooling effect. And smaller drops require longer growth times to reach size at which they easily fall as precipitation. This effect called the cloud lifetime effect may enhance the cloud cover (Figure 2), with a persistent positive correlation between cloud cover and aerosol optical depth. Particularly, aerosols have an influence on the amount of cloud cover (SC, ST, and NS) through the interaction with precipitation efficiency of low level clouds. As a result of perturbations of East Asia aerosols from preindustrial to present day, a net radiative flux at the top of atmosphere is estimated to be -4 W/m2, with a regional mean surface cooling of 1.2 K. More detailed analysis will be shown at the conference. Fig. 1. (a) Total AOD distributions (b) Changes in decadal mean AOD over East Asia. Fig 2. Cloud cover distributions classified by ISCCP cloud types.

  8. Occurrence of and risk factors for Strongyloides stercoralis infection in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Vounatsou, Penelope; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The soil-transmitted nematode, Strongyloides stercoralis is one of the most-neglected of all neglected tropical diseases. It is globally distributed, favouring the humid, wet climates of the tropics and subtropics. Inadequate sanitary conditions promote the spread of S. stercoralis infection. In South-East Asia, many countries provide the ideal ecological and economic setting for high S. stercoralis infection rates. Yet, in most of these countries, little is known about the actual prevalence and distribution of S. stercoralis. One reason for this lack of knowledge pertains to the time- and resource-intensive diagnostic methods used to detect S. stercoralis infection. The Koga Agar culture method and the Baermann method are considered to be the best coprological diagnostic methods for field settings today. Both detect the parasite with high sensitivity. This sensitivity can be increased further by examining stool samples for several consecutive days, thereby increasing the chances of detecting low-intensity chronic infections. Diagnostic challenges, however, lead to the omission of S. stercoralis in studies of soil-transmitted helminths and few studies focus on S. stercoralis, specifically. These factors lead to an underreporting of the nematode's prevalence, not only in South-East Asia but worldwide. We have reviewed the scientific literature of the last 25 years and estimated country-wide prevalence rates for South-East Asia. We aim to summarise what is known today about the prevalence of S. stercoralis in South-East Asia, as well as to ascertain the risk factors and diagnostic methods most commonly applied. PMID:25795619

  9. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  10. Plate tectonic reconstruction of South and East Asia since 43 Ma using seismic tomographic constraints: role of the subducted ';East Asia Sea' (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V.

    2013-12-01

    Lithosphere that subducts at convergent plate boundaries provides a potentially decipherable plate tectonic record. In this study we use global seismic tomography to map subducted slabs in the upper and lower mantle under South and East Asia to constrain plate reconstructions. The mapped slabs include the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and Banda Sea, the Molucca Sea, Celebes Sea, the Philippine Sea and Eurasia, New Guinea and other lower mantle detached slabs. The mapped slabs were restored to the earth surface and used with Gplates software to constrain a globally-consistent, fully animated plate reconstruction of South and East Asia. Three principal slab elements dominate possible plate reconstructions: [1] The mapped Pacific slabs near the Izu-Bonin and the Marianas trenches form a subvertical slab curtain or wall extending down to 1500 km in the lower mantle. The ';slab curtain' geometry and restored slabs lengths indicate that the Pacific subduction zone has remained fixed within +/- 250 km of its present position since ~43 Ma. In contrast, the Tonga Pacific slab curtain records at least 1000 km trench rollback associated with expansion of back-arc basins. [2] West of the Pacific slab curtain, a set of flat slabs exist in the lower mantle and record a major 8000km by 2500-3000km ocean that existed at ~43 Ma. This now-subducted ocean, which we call the ';East Asian Sea', existed between the Ryukyu Asian margin and the Lord Howe hotspot, present-day eastern Australia, and fills a major gap in Cenozoic plate reconstructions between Indo-Australia, the Pacific Ocean and Asia. [3] An observed ';picture puzzle' fit between the restored edges of the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Indian Ocean slabs suggests that the Philippine Sea was once part of a larger Indo-Australian Ocean. Previous models of Philippine Sea plate motions are in conflict with the location of the East Asian Sea lithosphere. Using the mapped slab constraints, we propose the following 43 Ma to 0 plate tectonic reconstruction. At ~43 Ma a major plate reorganization occurred in South and East Asia marked by Indian Ocean Wharton ridge extinction, initiation of Pacific Ocean WNW motions and the rapid northward motion of the Australian plate. The Philippine Sea and Molucca Sea were clustered at the northern margin of Australia, northwest of New Guinea. During the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with Australia, accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. The East Asian Sea was subducted under the northward-moving Philippine Sea and Australia plates, and the expanding Melanesian and Shikoku-Parece Vela backarc basins. At ~20 to 25 Ma the Philippine Sea and Molucca Sea were fragmented from Indo-Australia and began to have a westward component of motion due to partial Pacific capture. Around 1-2 Ma the Philippine Sea was more fully captured by the Pacific and now has rapid Pacific-like northwestward motions.

  11. Modeling study of surface ozone source-receptor relationships in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Yang, Wenyi; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Huansheng; Hu, Bo; Li, Jianjun.; Sun, Yele.; Fu, Pingqing; Zhang, Yuqia

    2016-01-01

    Ozone source-receptor relationships over East Asia have been quantitatively investigated using a chemical transport model including an on-line tracer-tagged procedure, with a particular focus on the source regions of different daily ozone mixing ratios. Comparison with observations showed that the model reproduced surface ozone and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column densities. Long-range transport from outside East Asia contributed the greatest fraction to annual surface ozone over remote regions, the Korean peninsula, and Japan, reaching 50%-80% of total ozone. Self-contributions accounted for 5%-20% ozone in the Korean peninsula and Japan, whereas the contribution of trans-boundary transport from photochemical production in China was less than 5%-10%. At extra-high ozone levels, self-contributions reached 50%-60% in the Korean peninsula. Ozone source-receptor relationships showed high seasonal variability over East Asia. Significant transport was also found between sub-regions in China, which presents a great challenge to policy-makers because most current control strategies are confined to specific regions.

  12. Multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Stohl, A; Yokouchi, Y; Kim, J; Li, S; Saito, T; Park, S; Hu, J

    2015-04-01

    Trifluoromethane (CHF3, HFC-23), with a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of 12400, is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. HFC-23 emissions in East Asia, especially in China, are currently thought to represent the majority of global HFC-23 emissions. This study provides both a bottom-up emission inventory and the multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia during 2007-2012. The new bottom-up inventory yields improved simulated HFC-23 mixing ratios compared to previous bottom-up inventories. The top-down estimate uses inverse modeling to further improve the model-measurement agreement. Results show that China contributed 94-98% of all HFC-23 emissions in East Asia. Annual a posteriori emissions from China were around 6.3 Gg/yr during the period 2007-2010 after which they increased to 7.1 ± 0.7 Gg/yr in 2011 and 8.8 ± 0.8 Gg/yr in 2012. For the first time, this study also provides a top-down estimate of HFC-23/HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) coproduction ratios in non-CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) HCFC-22 production plants as well as in all HCFC-22 production plants in China. PMID:25785483

  13. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25-10 kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  14. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25–10 kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  15. Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive ‘species pumps’ particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10–17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region. PMID:23446524

  16. Initiation of East Asia monsoon failure at the climate transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Wonsun

    2015-05-01

    We have reconstructed decadally-resolved continuous sea surface temperature and seawater δ18O (hence salinity) records over the last 1300 yr from alkenone and planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratio analyses of the East Sea/Japan Sea marine sediments to investigate East Asia monsoon variability. Comparisons of the records with other paleoclimate records indicate a possible connection between changes in the mid-latitude East Asia monsoon and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) over this period. The results show that during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) when the PDO index was negative, East Asia was characterized by surface warming with a strengthened summer monsoon. Summer monsoon-related precipitation increased and pluvials possibly dominated in the region at that time. Onset of Asia monsoon failure and severe drought occurred at the end of the MCA and extended to the Little Ice Age (LIA) when the PDO became positive.

  17. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

    2014-05-01

    The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than precipitations for both mean and extreme. Near-term future projections for 2024-2049 from four available RCMs suggest that temperature and precipitation are expected to increase in both mean and extremes over East Asia.

  19. Observations of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, W.

    2013-05-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), brown carbon and mineral dust, typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we investigate the optical and radiative properties of light-absorbing aerosols from ground-based and aircraft measurements in East and South Asia within the framework of UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud-Asia (ABC-Asia) project and Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) campaign (December 2012 ~ February 2013). BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements and radiative forcing calculations were performed at four sites: Gosan (Korea), Anmyeon (Korea), Hanimaadhoo (Maldives) and Pyramid (Nepal). No significant seasonal variations of aerosol properties, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at Hanimaadhoo during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at Gosan and Anmyeon is higher than that in Hanimaadhoo due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at Pyramid is 0.14, which is two times great than that in Hanimaadhoo and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at Pyramid is the lowest among four sites. Throughout the unmanned aerial vehicle experiment in Jeju, Korea during August-September 2008, long-range transport of aerosols from Beijing, Shanghai and Marine plumes are sampled in aerosol layers up to 3-4 km above sea level. The diurnal mean solar heating rate, calculated from the observed solar fluxes in shortwave regime (0.3 to 2.8 μm), at 3 to 4 km altitudes for Beijing and marine plume conditions are about 1.0 and 0.75 K/day, respectively. On the other hand, BC concentration at Kathmandu during SusKat campaign is found to be maximum in the morning (09LST) as well as in the late evening (20LST). Around noon time lowest amount of BC is recorded. Increased vehicular movement and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to higher amount of BC. In addition the wind direction contributes to the variation in BC concentration.

  20. Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation of the East Asia and its chronological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Kissel, C.; Zheng, H. B.; Laj, C.; Deng, C. L.; Liu, Q. S.

    2012-04-01

    Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) bear great information on the geodynamo field of the Earth's interior and can be used for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale. In this study, we constructed PSV curve of rapidly deposited Holocene marine sequence (Core MD06-3040) from the mud sediments on the East China Sea (ECS) inner continental shelf, and then a composite PSV curve of East Asia was established. Results show that the dominant magnetic carriers are pseudo single domain to multidomain magnetites, with some contributions from hematite and iron sulfide. Paleomagnetic information could still be retrieved after diagenetic alteration. The Characteristic Remanent magnetization is well defined by a single magnetization component and Maximum Angular Deviations values lower than 5°, which allows a reliable paleomagnetic results to be obtained. PSV after principal component analysis of the core MD06-3040 exhibits seven inclination peaks, and four declination swings, respectively during the last 7500 years. Within dating errors, the PSV curves from the ECS are comparable to that obtained from lakes in Japan and south China, and also to that of historical data in Japan and archeological data in China. In our study, a PSV stack from East Asia was obtained from these sedimentary PSV records after revision of the ages by PSV comparison. This new PSV stack has great potentials for site correlations and relative dating for sediments in East Asia. Age models for all the sediment cores are base on radiocarbon dating. In East Asia, 14C ages of Biwa Lake are consistent with various chronological data from other regions in Japan. However, there is no precise reservoir age of the East China Sea continental shelf, which would result in some dating errors. During the PSV comparison, age adjustment for core MD06-3040 is about 100-350 years, which is possible the effects from old carbon over this region. In this case, the potential the reservoir age should be calculated, as (100-350) ± (50-100) years. The new age model for core MD06-3040 is also confirmed by a strong correlation of paleoclimate records between magnetic susceptibility and stalagmite from upper Yangtze River. This correlation shows the links between mainland and the open sea (source and sink of sediments), which could be helpful for further paleoclimate studies.

  1. MICS-Asia II: Modeling gaseous pollutants and evaluating an advanced modeling system over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Joshua S.; Jang, Carey J.; Streets, David G.; Li, Zuopan; Kwok, Roger; Park, Rokjin; Han, Zhiwei

    An advanced modeling system with a "one-atmosphere" perspective, Models-3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, driven by MM5/NCEP reanalysis data as the meteorology, and GEOS-Chem outputs as boundary values was applied to simulate the O 3, and other gaseous pollutants (SO 2 and NO 2) evolution among other atmospheric chemicals for July 2001. Comparisons had been made with other models in the MICS-II exercise for the same period. Statistics of both monthly and daily means show that the model skill is very good in reproducing O 3 and SO 2 with small to moderate RMSE. The model species capture the day-to-day and spatial variability of the observations. The same O 3 model concentrations that overpredict most of the EANET observations in the MICS-II study may have underpredicted ones from monitoring networks in Beijing area that is not included in this paper. Vertical O 3 profiles at 4 ozonesonde sites are well predicted in July 2001. In fact, our model is among the best of those MICS-II models within the 2-km surface layer. The meteorology near surface and lower troposphere is well reproduced. Compared to SO 2 and O 3, the NO 2 gas concentrations are simulated less well, but the correlation coefficient is still significant. The choice of reanalysis meteorological fields and different boundary conditions generated by different global models may result in diverse spatial patterns exhibited by MICS-II models and ours. Our spatial distributions of O 3 shows a high concentration patch covering Beijing, a moderate to high pattern across Korea and Japan Sea, and a low but extensive pattern enclosing southern China, Taiwan, and East Sea. Extension of the pattern to southern China coincides with the existence of pollution problems in Guangdong and Taiwan, but overprediction of O 3 over the region deserves further improvement by various factors. One of them can be the grid resolution to resolve the complex orography in or close to the ocean. Another factor can be the refinement of local land use data that changes the micro-meteorology in favor of more air pollution events.

  2. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  3. Velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath East Asia from Pn tomography and its dynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Suyun; Niu, Fenglin; Zhang, Guomin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the most tectonically active regions on Earth's surface due to the collision from the India plate and the suctions induced by the subduction of the Pacific and Philippine plates. To better understand the complicated deformation and active seismicity of the area, we conducted a Pn traveltime tomography to estimate the compressive wave speed of the uppermost mantle beneath <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We collected a total of 296,334 Pn arrivals recorded by 1354 stations from 27,777 earthquakes in a rectangular area from 60°E to 145°E in longitude, 15°N to 60°N in latitude. The data set was carefully integrated from three different catalogs after examining potential systematic biases in the catalogs. The inversion results revealed a large-scale velocity perturbation in the study area. Pn velocity in the region west to ~108°E is approximately 10% higher than that in the <span class="hlt">east</span>. In each region, stable blocks tend to have high Pn velocity while the boundary regions, which show a high level of seismicity and surface deformation, appear to have low Pn velocity. We further computed the Benioff strain rate in the two regions and found it correlates negatively with the averaged Pn velocity. Our observations here suggest that Pn velocity, which is predominantly determined by Moho temperature, is a good indicator of lithosphere strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23152818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23152818"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracing the origin of the <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23152818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6128K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6128K"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> through <span class="hlt">Asia</span>Flux and improved MODIS gross primary production data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Miae; Im, Jungho; Lee, Junghee; Shin, Minso; Lee, Sanggyun</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The accurate estimation of carbon fluxes over terrestrial ecosystems provides useful information in studying the global carbon cycle. Estimates of carbon fluxes such as gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) have been commonly used as indicators of the global carbon budgets. Eddy covariance (EC) flux towers are operating all over the world, networking each other. The towers provide temporally continuous measurements of carbon, water and energy over terrestrial ecosystems as being the best way to estimate ecosystem fluxes up to date. However, the EC flux towers only cover the scale of footprint, having difficulty in representing fluxes at the regional or continental scale. For upscaling flux tower data, satellite products that cover vast areas at high temporal resolution can be used. While many studies were conducted to estimate carbon fluxes from satellite products using process-based modeling and empirical modeling approaches, there are still great uncertainties in carbon flux estimation due to biases and errors associated with in-situ measurements, spatio-temporal discrepancy between satellite products and in-situ measurements, and relatively less accurate satellite products. In this paper, NEE and GPP were estimated using machine learning techniques including random forest, Cubist, and support vector regression. Various satellite products were used as independent variables such as land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, leaf area index, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, GPP, evapotranspiration, rainfall, normalized difference water index obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). However, MODIS GPP based on the light use efficiency (LUE) model has some uncertainties derived from input data used in this model such as coarse spatial resolution of the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) meteorological data, upstream data of MODIS land cover use, FPAR, LAI, and model parameters. MODIS GPP data was improved using enhanced input variables by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data with high spatial resolution instead of DAO data, reflecting topographic characteristics over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. GPP estimated using the enhanced input variables was compared with original MODIS GPP and in situ GPP to analyze the degree of improvements. Finally, improved GPP data were incorporated into the machine learning empirical models to estimate NEE. The spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP and NEE) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were also examined considering vegetation type and topography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22123276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22123276"><span id="translatedtitle">Swine influenza surveillance in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trevennec, Karen; Cowling, Benjamin J; Peyre, Marisa; Baudon, Eugénie; Martineau, Guy-Pierre; Roger, François</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are important pig- and poultry-producing areas, where the majority of production takes place on small-scale farms with low biosecurity levels. This systematic review synthesizes data on swine influenza virology, serology and epidemiology in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. A total of 77 research articles, literature reviews and conference papers were selected and analyzed from 510 references retrieved from PubMed and ISI Web of KnowledgeSM. The number of published articles increased in the last 3 years, which may be attributed to improvement in monitoring and/or a better promotion of surveillance data. Nevertheless, large inequalities in surveillance and research among countries are underlined. Virological results represent the largest part of published data, while the serological and epidemiological features of swine influenza in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> remain poorly described. The literature shows that there have been several emergences of swine influenza in the region, and also considerable evidence of multiple introductions of North American and avian-like European strains. Furthermore, several avian-origin strains are isolated from pigs, including H5 and H9 subtypes. However, their low seroprevalence in swine also shows that pigs remain poorly infected by these subtypes. We conclude that sero-epidemioligical investigations have been neglected, and that they may help to improve virological surveillance. Inter- and intra-continental surveillance of gene flows will benefit the region. Greater investment is needed in swine influenza surveillance, to improve our knowledge of circulating strains as well as the epidemiology and disease burden in the region. PMID:22123276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..318K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..318K"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of PM10 prediction in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using inverse modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koo, Youn-Seo; Choi, Dae-Ryun; Kwon, Hi-Yong; Jang, Young-Kee; Han, Jin-Seok</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Aerosols from anthropogenic emissions in industrialized region in China as well as dust emissions from southern Mongolia and northern China that transport along prevailing northwestern wind have a large influence on the air quality in Korea. The emission inventory in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region is an important factor in chemical transport modeling (CTM) for PM10 (particulate matters less than 10 ㎛ in aerodynamic diameter) forecasts and air quality management in Korea. Most previous studies showed that predictions of PM10 mass concentration by the CTM were underestimated when comparing with observational data. In order to fill the gap in discrepancies between observations and CTM predictions, the inverse Bayesian approach with Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension (CAMx) forward model was applied to obtain optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were first compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea for January and August 2008. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori PM10 emissions for anthropogenic and dust sources were generally under-predicted. The result from the inverse modeling indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were underestimated while dust emissions from desert and barren soil in southern Mongolia and northern China were overestimated. A priori PM10 emissions from northeastern China regions including Shenyang, Changchun, and Harbin were underestimated by about 300% (i.e., the ratio of a posteriori to a priori PM10 emission was a factor of about 3). The predictions of PM10 concentrations with a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modeling minimized the discrepancies in the model predictions by improving PM10 emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711567A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711567A"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> centered around the <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> centered around the <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..445L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..445L"><span id="translatedtitle">Past and future direct radiative forcing of nitrate aerosol in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jiandong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Nitrate as a rapidly increasing aerosol species in recent years affects the present climate and potentially has large implications on the future climate. In this study, the long-term direct radiative forcing (DRF) of nitrate aerosol is investigated using State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and the aerosol dataset simulated by a chemical transport model with focus on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The DRF due to other aerosols, especially sulfate, is also evaluated for comparisons. Although the chemical transport model underestimates the magnitudes of nitrate and sulfate aerosols when compared with Chinese site observations, some insights into the significances of nitrate climate effects still emerge. The present-day global annual mean all-sky DRF of nitrate is calculated to be -0.025 W m-2 relative to the preindustrial era, which is much weaker than -0.37 W m-2 for sulfate. However, nitrate DRF may become increasingly important in the future especially over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, given the expectation that decreasing trend in global sulfate continues while the projected nitrate maintains at the present level for a mid-range forcing scenario and even be a factor of two larger by the end of the 21st century for high emission scenarios. For example, the anthropogenic nitrate DRF of -2.0 W m-2 over eastern China could persist until the 2050s, and nitrate is projected to account for over 60 % of total anthropogenic aerosol DRF over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by 2100. In addition, we illustrate that the regional nitrate DRF and its seasonal variation are sensitive to meteorological parameters, in particular the relative humidity and cloud amount. It thus remains a need for climate models to include more realistically nitrate aerosol in projecting future climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp..294P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp..294P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of multiple regional climate models for summer climate extremes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Donghyun; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Hong, Song-You; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Kwon, Won-Tae</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In this study, five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> project (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) are evaluated in terms of their performances in simulating the climatology of summer extremes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and precipitation are analyzed using the generalized extreme value method. RCMs show systematic bias patterns in both seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is located along the coast, whereas a warm bias occurs in northern China. Overall, wet bias occurs in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, but with a substantial dry bias centered in South Korea. This dry bias appears to be related to the colder ocean surface around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front further south compared to observations. Taylor diagram analyses reveal that the models simulate temperature means more accurately compared to extremes because of the higher spatial correlation, whereas precipitation extremes are simulated better than their means because of the higher spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events can be captured more accurately by RCMs compared to the driving GCM despite poorer simulation of mean rainfall. Inter-RCM analysis indicates a close relationship between the means and extremes in terms of model skills, but it does not show a clear relationship between temperature and precipitation. Sub-regional analysis largely supports the mean-extreme skill relationship. Analyses of frequency and intensity distributions of daily data for three selected sub-regions suggest that overall shifts of temperature distribution and biases in moderate-heavy precipitations contribute importantly to the seasonal mean biases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOUC...14..585H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOUC...14..585H"><span id="translatedtitle">The different effects of sea surface temperature and aerosols on climate in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during spring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Haibo; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Xiuqun</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In this study, we used the NCAR CAM3.0 model to study the climate effects of both decadal global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) changing and the increasing aerosol concentration in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in boreal spring. In the decadal SST changing experiment, a prominent sea surface cyclone anomaly occurred west of the Northwest Pacific warming SST. The cyclone anomaly is conductive to anomalous rising motion and more rainfall over the Northwest Pacific and southeast coast areas of China, but less rainfall in central China. Caused by the only aerosol concentration increasing, the change of climate in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is totally different from that induced by the regime shift of SST around 1976/77 with the same model. The sulfate and black carbon aerosol concentrations were doubled respectively and synchronously in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (20-50N, 100-150E) to investigate the climate effects of these two major aerosol types in three experiments. The results show that, in all three aerosol concentration changing experiments, the rainfall during boreal spring increases in North China and decreases in central China. It's worth noting that in the DTWO experiment, the rainfall diminishes in central China while it increases in the north and southeast coast areas of China, which is similar to observations. From the vertical profile between 110E and 120E, it is found that sulfate and black carbon aerosols first change the temperature of lower troposphere owing to their direct radiative effect, and then induce secondary meridional circulation anomaly through the different dynamic mechanisms involved, and at last generate precipitation and surface temperature anomalous patterns mentioned above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2469P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2469P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of multiple regional climate models for summer climate extremes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Donghyun; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Hong, Song-You; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Kwon, Won-Tae</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study, five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> project (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) are evaluated in terms of their performances in simulating the climatology of summer extremes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and precipitation are analyzed using the generalized extreme value method. RCMs show systematic bias patterns in both seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is located along the coast, whereas a warm bias occurs in northern China. Overall, wet bias occurs in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, but with a substantial dry bias centered in South Korea. This dry bias appears to be related to the colder ocean surface around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front further south compared to observations. Taylor diagram analyses reveal that the models simulate temperature means more accurately compared to extremes because of the higher spatial correlation, whereas precipitation extremes are simulated better than their means because of the higher spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events can be captured more accurately by RCMs compared to the driving GCM despite poorer simulation of mean rainfall. Inter-RCM analysis indicates a close relationship between the means and extremes in terms of model skills, but it does not show a clear relationship between temperature and precipitation. Sub-regional analysis largely supports the mean-extreme skill relationship. Analyses of frequency and intensity distributions of daily data for three selected sub-regions suggest that overall shifts of temperature distribution and biases in moderate-heavy precipitations contribute importantly to the seasonal mean biases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2820001','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2820001"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded); CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya) by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and diploids indicates that triploids are not composed of a single independent lineage. The ancient origins and evolutionary uniqueness of the seven lineages warrant their conservation. An overall phylogenetic framework obtained from the present study will be of use for estimating the phylogenetic relationships of Carassius fishes on the Eurasian continent. PMID:20064277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC33A0716P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC33A0716P"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the Arctic Oscillation on the Characteristics of Cold Surges over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, T.; Ho, C.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The present study examines the phase-dependency of characteristics of the cold surge over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> with respect to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and their possible mechanisms. Two different phases of the AO are shown to influence on distinct properties of the cold surge. While the positive AO is relevant to upper-level shortwave train type of the cold surge, the negative AO is disposed to provoke cold surge occurrences by the blocking. For the blocking type related to the negative AO, the cold surge intensity, which is defined as amplitude of the Siberian high, day-to-day temperature drop, and temperature anomaly, is relatively stronger than that of the wave train type related to the positive AO. The wave train cold surge of which impact range is confined to inland of China passes quickly through <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> due to a weaker Siberian high and Aleutian low than normal ones, and the short duration. In the other hand, the well organized anticyclone-cyclone couplet with a high pressure over continental <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and a low pressure over Japan and lasting cold advection bring continuous cold weather to entire <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the blocking cold surge. Compared with climatology, during the negative AO, the passage frequency of the cold surge tracks is increased in Korea and Japan, with a decrease in China, namely, eastward shifting of the tracks, in contrast to insignificant pattern during the positive AO. Dynamical and theoretical interpretation suggests that atmospheric circulations associated with the negative AO provide suitable conditions for formation of the blocking near the northeastern Eurasia, so that the cold surge during the negative AO tends to be rather unusual blocking type than typical wave train one. Enhanced land-ocean thermal contrast and weak zonal mean zonal wind in a viewpoint of monthly mean during the negative AO make large-scale flow tend to have low-index equilibrium state which is favorable for the blocking formation. North-south dipole Z anomalies in monthly mean background flow also makes the isolated blocking form more easily through imposing on the dipole structure of the cold surge of the blocking type. For the positive AO phase, on the other hand, associated large-scale circulations are unfavorable for the development and persistence of the blocking, so that characteristics the cold surges seem to mimic those of representative shortwave train type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..335L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..335L"><span id="translatedtitle">Projections of summertime ozone concentration over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> under multiple IPCC SRES emission scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Jae-Bum; Cha, Jun-Seok; Hong, Sung-Chul; Choi, Jin-Young; Myoung, Ji-Su; Park, Rokjin J.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Ho, Changhoi; Han, Jin-Seok; Song, Chang-Keun</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We have developed the Integrated Climate and Air Quality Modeling System (ICAMS) through the one-way nesting of global-regional models to examine the changes in the surface ozone concentrations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> under future climate scenarios. Model simulations have been conducted for the present period of 1996-2005 to evaluate the performance of ICAMS. The simulated surface ozone concentrations reproduced the observed monthly mean concentrations at sites in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> with high R2 values (0.4-0.9), indicating a successful simulation to capture both spatial and temporal variability. We then performed several model simulations with the six IPCC SRES scenarios (A2, A1B, A1FI, A1T, B1, and B2) for the next three periods, 2016-2025 (the 2020s), 2046-2055 (the 2050s), and 2091-2100 (the 2090s). The model results show that the projected changes of the annual daily mean maximum eight-hour (DM8H) surface ozone concentrations in summertime for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are in the range of 2-8 ppb, -3 to 8 ppb, and -7 to 9 ppb for the 2020s, the 2050s, and the 2090s, respectively, and are primarily determined based on the emission changes of NOx and NMVOC. The maximum increases in the annual DM8H surface ozone and high-ozone events occur in the 2020s for all scenarios except for A2, implying that the air quality over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is likely to get worse in the near future period (the 2020s) than in the far future periods (the 2050s and the 2090s). The changes in the future environment based on IPCC SRES scenarios would also influence the change in the occurrences of high-concentrations events more greatly than that of the annual DM8H surface ozone concentrations. Sensitivity simulations show that the emissions increase is the key factor in determining future regional surface ozone concentrations in the case of a developing country, China, whereas a developed country, Japan would be influenced more greatly by effects of the regional climate change than the increase in emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..250G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..250G"><span id="translatedtitle">WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over <span class="hlt">East</span> China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Particulate matter of 10 μm or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40-50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2475965','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2475965"><span id="translatedtitle">An epidemiological study of oral and pharyngeal cancer in Central and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hirayama, Takeshi</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>The author has investigated the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancer in several different countries and localities in Central and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. From comparisons of the various countries and areas and from detailed case studies among oral-cancer groups and control groups, the author has obtained strong supportive evidence for the association of the disease with the habit of chewing tobacco. He has also found a less marked association with smoking, the drinking of alcohol, and vegetarian dietary customs. PMID:5295564</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2863Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2863Y"><span id="translatedtitle">The non-migrating Tides in the Middle Atmosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Observed by HRDI/UARS Data Set</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yonggang, P.; Zeyu, C.; Hongbin, C.; Zhenhui, W.</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper the long term mean characteristics of the zonal winds in the middle atmosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were studied by using the HRDI UARS measurements The investigation revealed the presence of considerable regional scale disturbances in the whole of the middle to upper atmosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> except the situations in mid-latitudes in summer In mid-latitudes very few zonal fluctuation can bee seen in the zonal winds from 55km to 115 km altitude range in the summer season however the winter mesospheric and lower thermospheric zonal winds are disturbed prominently in the zonal Furthermore in winter the tropical lower thermospheric zonal winds fluctuate significantly in zonal direction and this kind of the zonal disturbances extend downward to 55 km altitude the lower limit of the observation mode of the satellite instrument in summer According the correlative study results there is significant non-migrating tides in the thermosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> LSo that non-migrating tides controlled the disturbances in midlle and upper atmosphere over tropical region observed by the HRDI UARS data set and HRDI UARS data set have observed that these is significant non-migrating tides in midlle atmosphere over tropical region in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Key words Middle atmosphere <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Zonal winds HRDI UARS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13A3146L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13A3146L"><span id="translatedtitle">Wintertime temperature response to anthropogenic aerosols emissions over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in the 20th century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>La, N.; Boo, K. O.; Shim, S.; Lee, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Aerosol emission by the anthropogenic source has increased in the 20th century and the effects on climate have received much attention for understanding of historical climate change. Aerosols contribute to change solar radiation at the surface directly and indirectly enhance radiative effect through cloud properties changes, altering surface climate and large-scale atmospheric circulation as well. In <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, as anthropogenic emissions increased sharply in industrialized areas, many studies have shown the effect of aerosols on <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon related to changes in land sea thermal contrast, while studies on the wintertime climate response are few. Climatologically he <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian winter monsoon is controlled by the intensification of Siberian high and the deepening of Aleutian low which are attributed to higher <span class="hlt">east</span>-west surface pressure gradient and strong northerly wind. We are interested in the wintertime surface climate change affected by past aerosol emissions.This study uses historical simulations of seven ensemble members by the HadGEM2-AO developed by the UK Met Office. Contrasting with the historical runs, the fixed aerosol experiments are performed where aerosol emissions are held fixed at 1860 levels.As the emissions increase, simulations shows decrease in wintertime land surface temperature, increase in MSLP over the land and northerly wind speeds. In order to understand the circulation changes, we analyze direct and indirect aerosol influences and the results are presented. Acknowledgement: This research is supported by a project, "NIMR-2012-B-2(Development and Application of Methodology for Climate Change Prediction)".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..644A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..644A"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of boreal autumn SST anomalies over the South Pacific on boreal winter precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ao, Juan; Sun, Jianqi</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The possible mechanism behind the variability in the dipole pattern of boreal winter precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is analyzed in this study. The results show that the SST anomalies (SSTAs) over the South Pacific Ocean (SPO) in boreal autumn are closely related to the variability in the dipole pattern of boreal winter precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The physical link between the boreal autumn SPO SSTAs and the boreal winter <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian precipitation dipole pattern is shown to mainly be the seasonal persistence of the SPO SSTAs themselves. The seasonal persistence of the SPO SSTAs can memorize and transport the signal of the boreal autumn SSTAs to the following winter, and then stimulates a meridional teleconnection pattern from the SH to the NH, resulting in a meridional dipole pattern of atmospheric circulation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in boreal winter. As a major influencing factor, this dipole pattern of the atmospheric circulation can finally lead to the anomalous precipitation dipole pattern over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in boreal winter. These observed physical processes are further confirmed in this study through numerical simulation. The evidence from this study, showing the impact of the SPO SSTAs in boreal autumn, not only deepens our understanding of the variability in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian boreal winter precipitation, but also provides a potentially useful predictor for precipitation in the region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20441144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20441144"><span id="translatedtitle">Large emissions of perfluorocarbons in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> deduced from continuous atmospheric measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saito, Takuya; Yokouchi, Yoko; Stohl, Andreas; Taguchi, Shoichi; Mukai, Hitoshi</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The atmospheric mixing ratios of perfluorocarbons (PFCs), extremely potent greenhouse gases, have been continuously measured at two Japanese stations (Cape Ochiishi and Hateruma Island) since 2006, to infer their global and regional emissions. The baseline mixing ratios of the measured C(2)-C(4) PFCs [PFC-116 (C(2)F(6)), PFC-218 (C(3)F(8)), and PFC-318 (c-C(4)F(8))] showed slight annual increases of 1%-3%. Enhanced mixing ratios above baseline were occasionally observed at both sites in air masses that had passed over metropolitan regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, suggesting high PFC emissions from those regions. We applied transport models to these pollution events and an inversion technique to estimate national emissions. The results suggest that, among the studied regions (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan), China was the largest PFC emitter, accounting for more than half of the regional emissions, followed by Japan. The estimated total emissions of each PFC from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were 0.86 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-116, 0.31 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-218, and 0.56 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-318. They contributed greatly to global emissions as derived from the annual increases in the baseline mixing ratios, accounting for more than 75% of global PFC-218 and PFC-318 emissions and for approximately 40% of global PFC-116 emissions. PMID:20441144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23354135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23354135"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress in health-related millennium development goals in the WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Poonam Khetrapal</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Home to 25% of the world's population and bearing 30% of the Global disease burden, the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region [1] of the World Health Organization has an important role in the progress of global health. Three of the eight million development goal (MDG) goals that relate to health are MDG 4, 5, and 6. There is progress in all three goals within the countries of the region, although the progress varies across countries and even within countries. With concerted and accelerated efforts in some countries and certain specific areas, the region will achieve the targets of the three health MDGs. The key challenges are in sustainable scaling up of evidence-based interventions to improve maternal and child health and controlling communicable diseases. This will require continued focus and investments in strengthening health systems that provide individual and family centered comprehensive package of interventions with equitable reach and that which is provided free at the point of service delivery. Important lessons that have been learnt in implementing the MDG agenda in the past two decades will inform setting up of the post MDG global health agenda. This article provides a snap shot of progress thus far, key challenges and opportunities in WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region and lays down the way forward for the global health agenda post 2015. PMID:23354135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatGe...7..792R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatGe...7..792R"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreasing emissions of NOx relative to CO2 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> inferred from satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Schneising, O.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>At present, global CO2 emission inventories are mainly based on bottom-up estimates that rely, for example, on reported fossil fuel consumptions and fuel types. The associated uncertainties propagate into the CO2-to-NOx emission ratios that are used in pollution prediction and monitoring, as well as into biospheric carbon fluxes derived by inverse models. Here we analyse simultaneous and co-located satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY (ref. ; SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) of the column-average dry-air mole fraction of CO2 (refs , ) and NO2 (refs , , ) for the years 2003-2011 to provide a top-down estimate of trends in emissions and in the ratio between CO2 and NOx emissions. Our analysis shows that the CO2-to-NOx emission ratio has increased by 4.2 +/- 1.7% yr-1 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In this region, we find a large positive trend of CO2 emissions (9.8 +/- 1.7% yr-1), which we largely attribute to the growing Chinese economy. This trend exceeds the positive trend of NOx emissions (5.8 +/- 0.9% yr-1). Our findings suggest that the recently installed and renewed technology in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, such as power plants, transportation and so on, is cleaner in terms of NOx emissions than the old infrastructure, and roughly matches relative emission levels in North America and Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21109333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21109333"><span id="translatedtitle">210Pb deposition in the far <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: controlling factors of its spatial and temporal variations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirose, K; Kikawada, Y; Doi, T; Su, C-C; Yamamoto, M</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>In order to better understand the behavior of (210)Pb deposition in Far <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, comprehensive data of monthly (210)Pb deposition, which includes several time-series and spatial distribution data at 14 stations in Japan and 2 stations in Taiwan, were analyzed. Pb-210 deposition at most of the sites exhibited a typical seasonal change with higher values in winter and lower values in summer; especially, the greatest (210)Pb deposition in the world occurred in winter at sites beside the Japan Sea. The deposition behavior of (210)Pb in Far <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> differed between winter and summer. The meteorological phenomenon peculiar to winter of the Japan Sea side, i.e., formation of the Japan Sea convergence zone, might cause the high (210)Pb concentration in rainwater, as may heavy snowfall. The (210)Pb concentration in rainwater showed long-term variability, although this differed between winter and summer. This long-term variability may be related to climatological factors such as El Niño. PMID:21109333</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ACPD....7.7987Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ACPD....7.7987Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and evaluation of an operational SDS forecasting system for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: CUACE/DUST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, C. H.; Gong, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Niu, T.; Liu, H. L.; Zhao, T. L.; Yang, Y. Q.; Hou, Q.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>CUACE/Dust, an operational sand and dust storm (SDS) forecasting system for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, was developed at CMA (China Meteorological Administration) by integrating a meso-scale dust aerosol model with a 3DVar data assimilation system that uses both surface network observation data and dust intensity data retrieved from the Chinese Geostationary Satellite FY-2C. For spring 2006, CUACE/Dust successfully forecasted most of the 31 SDS episodes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. A detailed comparison of the modeling predictions for the 8-12 March episode with surface network observations and lidar measurements revealed a robust forecasting ability of the system. The time series of the forecasted dust concentrations for a number of representative stations for the whole spring 2006 were also evaluated against surface PM10 monitoring data, showing a very good agreement in terms of the SDS timing and magnitudes near source regions where dust aerosols dominate. For the entire domain forecasts in spring 2006 (1 March-31 May), a TS (thread score) system evaluated the performance of the system against all available observations and rendered an averaged TS value of 0.31 for 24 h forecasts, 0.23 for 48 h and 0.21 for 72 h forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850395','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850395"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen. PMID:25850395</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22642816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22642816"><span id="translatedtitle">Source contributions of sulfate aerosol over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> estimated by CMAQ-DDM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae</p> <p>2012-06-19</p> <p>We applied the decoupled direct method (DDM), a sensitivity analysis technique for computing sensitivities accurately and efficiently, to determine the source-receptor relationships of anthropogenic SO(2) emissions to sulfate aerosol over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We assessed source contributions from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> being transported to Oki Island downwind from China and Korea during two air pollution episodes that occurred in July 2005. The contribution from China, particularly that from central eastern China (CEC), was found to dominate the sulfate aerosols. To study these contributions in more detail, CEC was divided into three regions, and the contributions from each region were examined. Source contributions exhibited both temporal and vertical variability, largely due to transport patterns imposed by the Asian summer monsoon. Our results are consistent with backward trajectory analyses. We found that anthropogenic SO(2) emissions from China produce significant quantities of summertime sulfate aerosols downwind of source areas. We used a parametric scaling method for estimating anthropogenic SO(2) emissions in China. Using column amounts of SO(2) derived from satellite data, and relationships between the column amounts of SO(2) and anthropogenic emissions, 2009 emissions were diagnosed. The results showed that 2009 emissions of SO(2) from China were equivalent to 2004 levels. PMID:22642816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26499508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26499508"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogeographic breaks within Asian butternuts indicate the existence of a phytogeographic divide in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bai, Wei-Ning; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Da-Yong</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has been hypothesized to be subdivided into two distinct northern and southern areas, separated by a band of dry climate that was far more severe in the early Tertiary but still exists today. However, this biogeographic hypothesis has rarely been tested using a molecular phylogeographic approach. We genotyped 70 populations throughout the distributional range of Asian butternuts (Juglans section Cardiocaryon) using eight chloroplast DNA regions, one single-copy nuclear gene, and 17 nuclear microsatellite loci, supplemented with paleodistribution modeling of the major genetic clades. The genetic data consistently identified two clades, one northern, comprising Juglans mandshurica and Juglans ailantifolia, and one southern, comprising Juglans cathayensis. The two clades diverged through climate-induced vicariance of an ancestral northern range during the mid-Miocene and remained mostly separate thereafter, with geographical isolation of the Japanese Islands and refugial isolation or secondary contacts in the late Pleistocene producing further subdivision within the northern clade. But beyond all that, we also discovered a role of environmental adaptation in maintaining and/or reinforcing the north-south divergence. Asian butternuts offer a strong case for the existence of a biogeographic divide between the northern and southern parts of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the Neogene and into the Pleistocene. PMID:26499508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26068565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26068565"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region, 2003-2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-06-12</p> <p>In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles. PMID:26068565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2984215','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2984215"><span id="translatedtitle">Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia. PMID:20974952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979193"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in ChinaRegions on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Bai; Liu, Yu; Sun, Jiaren</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we examine the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoons and its precipitation processes by using the CAM3.0 model. It is demonstrated that sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China both have the effects to weaken <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoons in both summer and winter seasons. However, they certainly differ from each other in affecting vertical structures of temperature and atmospheric circulations. Their differences are expected because of their distinct optical properties, i.e., scattering vs. absorbing. Even for a single type of aerosol, its effects on temperature structures and atmospheric circulations are largely season-dependent. Applications of T-test on our results indicate that forcing from black carbon aerosols over China is relatively weak and limited. It is also evident from our results that the effects of synthetic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon together) on monsoons are not simply a linear summation between these two types of aerosols. Instead, they are determined by their integrated optical properties. Synthetic aerosols to a large degree resemble effects of sulfate aerosols. This implies a likely scattering property for the integration of black carbon and sulfate aerosols in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1572H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1572H"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional Climate Simulations of Summer Diurnal Rainfall Variations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Southeast China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, W.-R.; Chan, J. C. L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the simulations of summer (June-August) precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3), with emphasis on the diurnal variations of precipitation over Southeast China (PSEC) during the 1998-2002 summer seasons. The evaluation focuses on the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations in PSEC as proposed by previous observational studies. It is found that the diurnal variations of PSEC are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs). In particular, the Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption (GFC) produces reasonable diurnal variations of PSEC. Other CPSs such as the Emanuel scheme produces a weaker late-afternoon maximum of PSEC, and the Kuo scheme as well as the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption (GAS) is unable to simulate the occurrence of the late-afternoon maximum of PSEC. The simulations show that the adoption of the GFC scheme reproduces the large-scale land-sea breeze circulation and the moisture flux convergence that have been documented by previous studies as the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations of PSEC. This feature illustrates the importance of convective cloud feedback at the diurnal timescale in maintaining the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1522975G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1522975G"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>As the climate change occurred over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface temperature change using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT changes made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13D3210K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13D3210K"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of trend between aerosol optical depth and PM in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, S. H.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; KIM, M.; Jeong, U.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of major source region of aerosol emission. For decades, vast amount of aerosol, which is emitted and transported from emission region such as desert and industrialized area, has significant effect in the air quality and public health. Moreover, by scattering solar radiation and moderating cloud microphysical system, aerosol plays an important role in climate system. As the Korean peninsula is located in the downwind side of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the distribution of aerosol in this region is affected by continental outflow and local emission, This study shows the long-term trend and regional distribution of PM10 concentration over 28 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) sites and aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) at 550nm channel during the period from March 2011 to March 2014. Though AOD is a good indicator of PM10 concentration, there are some uncertainties in AOD caused largely by aerosol type, surface reflectance, and those in PM by relative humidity (RH), boundary layer height (BLH) and so on. In this study, retrieved AODs were compared with the observed PM10, and trends and correlations between AOD and PM10 have been calculated for different region and season over the Korean peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.2360H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.2360H"><span id="translatedtitle">Model study on acidifying wet deposition in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during wintertime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Zhiwei; Ueda, Hiromasa; Sakurai, Tatsuya</p> <p></p> <p>A regional air quality model (RAQM) has been developed and applied together with an aerosol model to investigate the states and characteristics of wet deposition in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in December 2001. Model simulation is performed with monthly based emission inventory [Streets, D.G., Bond, T.C., Carmichael, G.R., Fernandes, S.D., Fu, Q., He, D., Klimont, Z., Nelson, S. M., Tsai, N.Y., Wang, M.Q., Woo, J.-H., Yarber, K.F., 2003. An inventory of gaseous and primary emissions in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in the year 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D21), 8809] and meteorological fields derived from MM5. Model results are compared with extensive monitoring data including relevant gaseous species and ions in precipitation. The validation demonstrates that this model system is able to represent most of the major physical and chemical processes involved in acid deposition and reproduces concentrations reasonably well, within a factor of 2 of observations in general. The study shows that the regions with pH less than 4.5 are mainly located in southwestern China, parts of the Yangtze Delta, the Yellow Sea and the Korean peninsula, indicating wide regions of acid precipitation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in wintertime. Japan islands mainly exhibit pH values of 4.5-5.0, whereas over wide areas of northern China, pH values are relatively high (⩾5.0) due to neutralization by alkaline materials such as calcium-laden particles and ammonia, which are more abundant in northern China than that in southern China. While acid rain over most of China is still characterized by sulfur-induced type, considerable areas of eastern China and the western Pacific Rim are found to be more affected by nitric acid than sulfuric acid in acidification of precipitation, which is supposed to result from a combined effect of variations in photochemistry and emission, suggesting the increasing importance of NO x emission in these regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3118L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3118L"><span id="translatedtitle">Time scale of riverine sediment transfer in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: from source to sink</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chao; Yang, Shouye; Zhao, Jianxin; Bi, Lei</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>River on the earth surface is like the blood vessel for human body, which transports huge nutrients from the vast continent to the deep ocean. The knowledge of the river transit process leads to better understanding of the continent weathering and earth surface evolution. However, this process, particularly its timescale, is rarely studied due to the poor geological tracer. In this regard, our work aims to reconstruct the sediment transport time in Changjiang (Yangtze River) and Taiwan rivers by mean of "Comminution Age" based on 234U/238U in the lithogenic fraction. As the largest river in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Changjiang is characterized by "Large river/delta + wide shelf + huge input + slower sediment transfer + strong anthropogenic impact", while the Taiwan rivers are featured for "Mountainous river + narrow shelf + huge and rapid sediment transfer + extreme climate event". The distinct geological and topographical features in both river systems result in different sediment "source to sink" processes in terms of time scale. Our calculation shows that the sediment transport time, which is largely depended on basin topography and its weathering condition, in Changjiang basin is much longer (400 ky) than that in Taiwan river basin (120 ky). This work provides the first quantitative constraint on time scale of sediment source to sink process in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which probably sheds a new insight into weathering regime and sediment recycling in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and northwest Pacific. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment (YRWEF201305), Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology (MRE201402) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (41306040; 41225020).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.107..244P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.107..244P"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distributions of aerosol loadings and depositions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the year 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Soon-Ung</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Aerosol Modeling System (AMS) that is consisted of the Asian Dust Aerosol Model2 (ADAM2) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has been employed to document the geographical distributions of both the annual averaged Asian dust aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosols concentrations and their total depositions in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region for the year 2010. It is found that AMS simulates quite well the monitored PM10 concentration with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 9.2 μg m-3 and a normalized mean square error (NMSE) of 5.5% in South Korea and the RMSE of less than 33 μg m-3 with a NMSE of less than 7.8% at the monitoring sites in China. The annual mean surface (column integrated) aerosol concentrations in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region affect in a wide region as a complex mixture of the Asian dust (AD) aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosol (AA), more predominated by the AD aerosol in the Asian dust source region of northern China and Mongolia with the annual mean (column integrated) PM10 concentration of more than 200 μg m-3 (350 mg m-2). Whereas AA is dominated in the high pollutant emission regions of southern and eastern China and northern India with the annual mean surface (column integrated) concentration of more than 110 μg m-3 (140 mg m-2) in eastern China. On the other hand the mixed aerosols (AD + AA) are dominated in the downwind regions of the Yellow Sea, the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, the Korean peninsula, Japan, and the Northwest Pacific Ocean. It is also found that the annual total deposition of aerosols in the model domain is 4.9 × 108 t (3.7 × 108 t by AD aerosol and 1.2 × 108 t by AA), of which 66% (3.2 × 108 t) is found to be contributed by the dry deposition (3.1 × 108 t by AD aerosol and 1.3 × 107 t by AA) and 34% (1.7 × 108 t) by the wet deposition (1.0 × 108 t by AA and 6.6 × 107 t by AD aerosol), suggesting significant impacts of aerosols on environment and the terrestrial and marine eco-systems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3182K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3182K"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal increase of organic compounds in winter and spring atmospheric aerosols in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A rapid economic growth in China and other <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries may have changed molecular level organic composition of atmospheric aerosols in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Molecular level composition is required to better evaluate the roles of organic aersols on climate, air quality and public health. Diacids and oxoacids account for a significant fraction of atmospheric organic matter and their secondary sources are more important than their primary sources. Atmospheric aerosol samples (n = 698) were collected during 2001-2008 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were analyzed for saturated (C2-C10), unsaturated aliphatic (C4-C5), multifunctional (C3-C7) and aromatic (C8) diacids and oxoacids (C2-C9). According to monthly average concentration, oxalic acid (C2) is the most abundant followed by malonic acid (C3) and succinic acid (C4) in the homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C10) whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) is most abundant in the homologous series of oxoacids (C2-C9). The monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of saturated and multifunctional diacids and oxoacids showed the highest in spring (March-May). In contrast, those concentrations for unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic diacids were observed the highest in winter (December-February). The monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of all diacids and oxoacids showed the second peak in the autumn (September-November) while those concentrations were recorded lowest in summer (June-August). A steady increment or decrement was not found in the monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of diacids and oxoacids in any month. However, the curve fitting of those concentrations over the study period shows an incremental trend for major diacids and oxoacids in winter and spring. For example, the monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of all major diacids and oxoacids increased up to 3 times from 2001 to 2008 in winter and spring. This study for the first time demonstrates the decadal increase of organic aerosols in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and we discuss the bimodal seasonal variations and incremental trend of organic aerosols based on the annual behavior of ozone, carbon monoxide, and air mass transport pattern in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC53E..03X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC53E..03X"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Automatic Method of Urban Areas Mapping in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from LANDSAT Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>XU, R.; Jia, G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Cities, as places where human activities are concentrated, account for a small percent of global land cover but are frequently cited as the chief causes of, and solutions to, climate, biogeochemistry, and hydrology processes at local, regional, and global scales. Accompanying with uncontrolled economic growth, urban sprawl has been attributed to the accelerating integration of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> into the world economy and involved dramatic changes in its urban form and land use. To understand the impact of urban extent on biogeophysical processes, reliable mapping of built-up areas is particularly essential in eastern cities as a result of their characteristics of smaller patches, more fragile, and a lower fraction of the urban landscape which does not have natural than in the West. Segmentation of urban land from other land-cover types using remote sensing imagery can be done by standard classification processes as well as a logic rule calculation based on spectral indices and their derivations. Efforts to establish such a logic rule with no threshold for automatically mapping are highly worthwhile. Existing automatic methods are reviewed, and then a proposed approach is introduced including the calculation of the new index and the improved logic rule. Following this, existing automatic methods as well as the proposed approach are compared in a common context. Afterwards, the proposed approach is tested separately in cities of large, medium, and small scale in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> selected from different LANDSAT images. The results are promising as the approach can efficiently segment urban areas, even in the presence of more complex eastern cities. Key words: Urban extraction; Automatic Method; Logic Rule; LANDSAT images; <span class="hlt">East</span> AisaThe Proposed Approach of Extraction of Urban Built-up Areas in Guangzhou, China</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4352T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4352T"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for 2000-2011 estimated using an atmospheric Bayesian inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, R. L.; Stohl, A.; Zhou, L. X.; Dlugokencky, E.; Fukuyama, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Kim, S.-Y.; Lee, H.; Nisbet, E. G.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; White, J. W. C.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We present methane (CH4) emissions for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from a Bayesian inversion of CH4 mole fraction and stable isotope (δ13C-CH4) measurements. Emissions were estimated at monthly resolution from 2000 to 2011. A posteriori, the total emission for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> increased from 43 ± 4 to 59 ± 4 Tg yr-1 between 2000 and 2011, owing largely to the increase in emissions from China, from 39 ± 4 to 54 ± 4 Tg yr-1, while emissions in other <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries remained relatively stable. For China, South Korea, and Japan, the total emissions were smaller than the prior estimates (i.e., Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research 4.2 FT2010 for anthropogenic emissions) by an average of 29%, 20%, and 23%, respectively. For Mongolia, Taiwan, and North Korea, the total emission was less than 2 Tg yr-1 and was not significantly different from the prior. The largest reductions in emissions, compared to the prior, occurred in summer in regions important for rice agriculture suggesting that this source is overestimated in the prior. Furthermore, an analysis of the isotope data suggests that the prior underestimates emissions from landfills and ruminant animals for winter 2010 to spring 2011 (no data available for other times). The inversion also found a lower average emission trend for China, 1.2 Tg yr-1 compared to 2.8 Tg yr-1 in the prior. This trend was not constant, however, and increased significantly after 2005, up to 2.0 Tg yr-1. Overall, the changes in emissions from China explain up to 40% of the increase in global emissions in the 2000s.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031413"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiewi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong</p> <p>2011-11-14</p> <p>The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m-2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m-2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A34A..06Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A34A..06Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, M.; Han, X.; Liu, X.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W/m2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W/m2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.6576H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.6576H"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Xiaohong</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m -2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m -2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078676','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078676"><span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco control challenges in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37–53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23596197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10c4002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10c4002S"><span id="translatedtitle">A new urban landscape in <span class="hlt">East</span>-Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, 2000-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schneider, A.; Mertes, C. M.; Tatem, A. J.; Tan, B.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Graves, S. J.; Patel, N. N.; Horton, J. A.; Gaughan, A. E.; Rollo, J. T.; Schelly, I. H.; Stevens, F. R.; Dastur, A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span>-Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is currently one of the fastest urbanizing regions in the world, with countries such as China climbing from 20 to 50% urbanized in just a few decades. By 2050, these countries are projected to add 1 billion people, with 90% of that growth occurring in cities. This population shift parallels an equally astounding amount of built-up land expansion. However, spatially-and temporally-detailed information on regional-scale changes in urban land or population distribution do not exist; previous efforts have been either sample-based, focused on one country, or drawn conclusions from datasets with substantial temporal/spatial mismatch and variability in urban definitions. Using consistent methodology, satellite imagery and census data for >1000 agglomerations in the <span class="hlt">East</span>-Southeast Asian region, we show that urban land increased >22% between 2000 and 2010 (from 155 000 to 189 000 km2), an amount equivalent to the area of Taiwan, while urban populations climbed >31% (from 738 to 969 million). Although urban land expanded at unprecedented rates, urban populations grew more rapidly, resulting in increasing densities for the majority of urban agglomerations, including those in both more developed (Japan, South Korea) and industrializing nations (China, Vietnam, Indonesia). This result contrasts previous sample-based studies, which conclude that cities are universally declining in density. The patterns and rates of change uncovered by these datasets provide a unique record of the massive urban transition currently underway in <span class="hlt">East</span>-Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> that is impacting local-regional climate, pollution levels, water quality/availability, arable land, as well as the livelihoods and vulnerability of populations in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596197"><span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco control challenges in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23596197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ThApC.102..105C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ThApC.102..105C"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical model for seasonal prediction of tropical cyclone frequency in the mid-latitudes of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Ki-Seon; Kim, Do-Woo; Byun, Hi-Ryong</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>This study constructed a multiple linear regression model (MLRM) for the seasonal prediction of summer tropical cyclone (TC) frequency in the mid-latitudes of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and then analyzed its validity using large-scale environments. The 850-hPa geopotential heights of the preceding April in the open ocean <span class="hlt">east</span> of the Philippines and in the Bering Sea were used as independent variables. In the low-frequency years predicted by the MLRM, there was a larger amount of sea ice around the Sea of Okhotsk during the preceding spring and its cooling effect continued into the summer. In addition, topographic and geographic effects around the Sea of Okhotsk that results in the easy formation of cold air created an anomalous cold high over this region in the summer. As a result, the northerlies from an anomalous cold high around the Sea of Okhotsk caused cold surface air temperature anomalies in the mid-latitudes of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which played an important role in preventing a western Pacific subtropical high from advancing toward the mid-latitudes of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Eventually, these environments led to a reduced summer TC frequency in the mid-latitudes of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A51G0192S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A51G0192S"><span id="translatedtitle">Export of Atmospheric Mercury from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Observed at Various Monitoring Sites in Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sheu, G.; Lin, N.; Wang, J.; Lee, C.; Chang, S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is the major atmospheric mercury (Hg) source region in the world due to the excessive coal combustion, industrial emission, and biomass burning in this area. Nonetheless, studies concerning the export of atmospheric Hg from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are still limited. Accordingly, atmospheric Hg has been measured at various sites in Taiwan to study its temporal and spatial distribution, and the significance of long-range transport from the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian continent as well. Here we report the data collected in Fu-guei-jiao (121.97°E, 25.47°N, ~30 m a.s.l.), Mt. Bamboo (121.54°E, 25.19°N, 1025 m a.s.l.), and Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS; 120.87°E, 23.47°N, 2862 m a.s.l.) to discuss the atmospheric Hg export from the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian continent. Twenty-four hour-integrated total atmospheric Hg (THg) samples were manually collected in Fu-guei-jiao and Mt. Bamboo in 2007-2008 and quantified by dual amalgamation CVAFS. On the other hand, continuous measurements of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (PHg) at LABS began since April 13, 2006 using the Tekran 2537A/1130/1135 speciation system. Mean(±S.D.) THg concentrations were 2.09±0.71 and 1.86±0.50 ng m-3 for Fu-guei-jiao and Mt. Bamboo, respectively. At LABS between April 2006 and April 2009, the mean(±S.D.) concentrations of GEM, RGM and PHg were 1.77±0.54 ng m-3, 22.4±43.8 pg m-3 and 6.3±10.9 pg m-3, respectively. Evident seasonal distribution in THg/GEM concentrations was observed at all sites with higher values usually occurred between fall and spring when the air masses were mainly from the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian continent, indicating the influence of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian atmospheric Hg outflow. This also demonstrated that the atmospheric Hg export is occurring both in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere. Concentrations of PHg were usually low at LABS; however, elevated values were detected in spring when the Indochina Peninsula biomass burning plumes frequently affected the sampling site. This PHg enhancement showed the difference between atmospheric Hg emission from biomass burning (Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) and from coal burning/industrial activities (China). Unlike the THg/GEM and PHg that exhibited seasonal variation because of the direct influence of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian atmospheric Hg outflow, the source of RGM seemed to be the oxidation of GEM in the free troposphere and thus its seasonality depended primarily on the magnitude of the subsidence of air masses from higher elevation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24298975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24298975"><span id="translatedtitle">Source identification and apportionment of halogenated compounds observed at a remote site in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Mühle, Jens; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Jo, Chun Ok; Kim, Kyung-Ryul</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The sources of halogenated compounds in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> associated with stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change are relatively poorly understood. High-precision in situ measurements of 18 halogenated compounds and carbonyl sulfide (COS) made at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, from November 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed by a positive matrix factorization (PMF). Seven major industrial sources were identified from the enhanced concentrations of halogenated compounds observed at Gosan and corresponding concentration-based source contributions were also suggested: primary aluminum production explaining 37% of total concentration enhancements, solvent usage of which source apportionment is 25%, fugitive emissions from HCFC/HFC production with 11%, refrigerant replacements (9%), semiconductor/electronics industry (9%), foam blowing agents (6%), and fumigation (3%). Statistical trajectory analysis was applied to specify the potential emission regions for seven sources using back trajectories. Primary aluminum production, solvent usage and fugitive emission sources were mainly contributed by China. Semiconductor/electronics sources were dominantly located in Korea. Refrigerant replacement, fumigation and foam blowing agent sources were spread throughout <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries. The specified potential source regions are consistent with country-based consumptions and emission patterns, verifying the PMF analysis results. The industry-based emission sources of halogenated compounds identified in this study help improve our understanding of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries' industrial contributions to halogenated compound emissions. PMID:24298975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4102078','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4102078"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional precipitation variability in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21B0060W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21B0060W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of water. DEP imagery shows along the rim of the Tarim Basin three areas of concentrated point sources can be found: 1.) in the west the area that lies between the cities of Kashi, Shache, and Xakur, 2.) in the north the area located between the cities of Wensu, Xinhe, Qiman, to Awat, and 3.) in the <span class="hlt">east</span> the region stretching from Lop Nur northwest to Tikanlik and southeast to Miran. A remarkable result we found is the frequency of dust plume generation in the Turpan basin. Previous studies do not identify this basin as a major dust source area. With the high resolution of the DEP imagery we can identify the dust plumes that originate along the slopes of and at the foot of the Bogda Shan and Karlik mountains. Cross referencing the location of the point sources with an atlas and maps shows the point sources correlate to ephemeral streams, saltpans, and farmed land. Further discussion will be given on dust sources areas in other parts of China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Russia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4076X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4076X"><span id="translatedtitle">A Primary Study on Influence of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Monsoon to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xun, X.; Hu, Z.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Abastract Large amplitude stationary Rossby wave trains with wavelength which emerges from North Africa to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> along the west jet in the middle latitude areas. It has been identified in the mid-upper troposphere during summer based on the correlation analysis between Dynamic Plateau Monsoon Index (DPMI) and zonal velocity at 500-200hPa. The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau monsoon would influence the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoon by general circulation indirectly. It is show that an enhanced anticyclone is located in the area of the central and eastern Pacific in composite maps of four relatively strong summer DPMI years. The west Pacific subtropical high located westward and made the equatorial westerly and the cross-equatorial flow weaken. The South China Sea summer monsoon is weaker than normal. The south wind enhances over the south of Yangtze River and South China areas. The anomalous southwesterly flow in the northwest side of the west Pacific subtropical high dominates over the Yangtze River Valley. It is propitious to maintain the rain-belt and bring more rainfall there. A muffled anticyclone is located in the area of the central and eastern Pacific contrarily in composite maps of four relatively weak summer DPMI years contrastively. The west Pacific subtropical high moved eastward and makes the equatorial westerly and the cross-equatorial flow strengthen. The South China Sea summer monsoon is stronger than normal. The south wind enhances over the north of Yellow River and Northeast China areas. The anomalous southwesterly flow in the northwest side of the west Pacific subtropical high dominates over the Huang-Huai Valley. It is propitious to maintain rain-belt and bring more rainfall there. Key words: Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Monsoon; <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoon; General circulation Acknowledgments. This work was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB951701), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41175068 and 40875005) and the European Commission (Call FP7-ENV-2007-1, Grant nr. 212921) as part of the CEOP-AEGIS project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22089683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22089683"><span id="translatedtitle">Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio-cultural acceptance of tobacco use is still a major challenge in tobacco control efforts for the governments and stakeholders in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region. The myth that chewing tobacco is less harmful than smoking tobacco needs to be addressed with public awareness campaigns. Advocacy on the integration of tobacco control with poverty alleviation campaigns and development programs is urgently required. Law enforcement is a critical area to be strengthened and supported by WHO and the civil society organizations working in the area of tobacco control. PMID:22089683</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdAtS..23..375Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdAtS..23..375Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of the 100-hPa South Asian High and precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> with IPCC coupled GCMs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Ningfang; Yu, Yongqiang; Qian, Yongfu</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The South Asian High (SAH) and precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> simulated by 11 coupled GCMs associated with the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report are evaluated. The seasonal behavior of the SAH is presented for each model. Analyses of the results show that all models are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle of the SAH. Locations of the SAH center are also basically reproduced by these models. All models underestimate the intensity and the extension of coverage in summer. The anomalous SAH can be divided into <span class="hlt">east</span> and west modes according to its longitudinal position in summer on the interannual timescale, and the composite anomalies of the observed precipitation for these two modes tend to have opposite signs over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. However, only several coupled GCMs can simulate the relationship between rainfall and SAH similar to the observed one, which may be associated with the bias in simulation of the subtropical anticyclone over the West Pacific (SAWP) at 500 hPa. In fact, it is found that any coupled GCM, that can reproduce the reasonable summer mean state of SAWP and the southward (northward) withdrawal (extension) for the <span class="hlt">east</span> (west) mode of SAH as compared to the observed, will also simulate similar rainfall anomaly patterns for the <span class="hlt">east</span> and west SAH modes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Further analysis indicates that the observed variations in the SAH, SAWP and rainfall are closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial tropical Pacific. Particularly, some models cannot simulate the SAWP extending northward in the west mode and withdrawing southward in the <span class="hlt">east</span> mode, which may be related to weak major El Niño or La Niña events. The abilities of the coupled GCMs to simulate the SAWP and ENSO events are associated partly with their ability to reproduce the observed relationship between SAH and the rainfall anomaly over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11616201K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11616201K"><span id="translatedtitle">Emissions of black carbon in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> estimated from observations at a remote site in the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondo, Y.; Oshima, N.; Kajino, M.; Mikami, R.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Verma, R. L.; Kajii, Y.; Kato, S.; Takami, A.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, including China, is the largest source of anthropogenic black carbon (BC). In estimating the BC emissions from this region, it is advantageous to use BC mass concentrations measured at remote locations on the ocean appropriately distant from the large sources because of spatially uniform distributions through mixing during transport. We made continuous measurements of the BC mass concentration with an accuracy of about 10% at Cape Hedo on Okinawa Island, Japan, in the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, from February 2008 to May 2009, simultaneously with carbon monoxide (CO). The seasonal median BC concentrations at Hedo were highest (0.23-0.31 μg m-3 at standard temperature and pressure) in winter and spring when plumes from China, predominantly northern China north of 33°N, were often transported to the site. A three-dimensional chemical transport model is used to calculate the mass concentration of BC using the annual mean emission inventory of Zhang et al. (2009) for the base year 2006. The model results and the observed BC-CO correlation are used to exclude the BC data substantially influenced by wet deposition. The calculated BC mass concentrations agree with those observed to within about 30% in air strongly affected by emissions in China for winter and spring on average. We estimate the annually averaged BC emission flux over the whole of China to be 1.92 Tg yr-1 with an uncertainty of about 40%. This value is very close to the value of 1.81 Tg yr-1 estimated by Zhang et al. (2009). The overall uncertainty of 40% of the present estimate is a substantial improvement in the uncertainty (208%) of the bottom-up inventory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdAtS..32.1016Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdAtS..32.1016Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Causes of mid-Pliocene strengthened summer and weakened winter monsoons over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Dabang; Zhang, Zhongshi</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene warm period was the most recent geological period in Earth's history that featured long-term warming. Both geological evidence and model results indicate that <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer winds (EASWs) strengthened in monsoonal China, and that <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian winter winds (EAWWs) weakened in northern monsoonal China during this period, as compared to the pre-industrial period. However, the corresponding mechanisms are still unclear. In this paper, the results of a set of numerical simulations are reported to analyze the effects of changed boundary conditions on the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian monsoon climate, based on PRISM3 (Pliocene Research Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The model results showed that the combined changes of sea surface temperatures, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and ice sheet extent were necessary to generate an overall warm climate on a large scale, and that these factors exerted the greatest effects on the strengthening of EASWs in monsoonal China. The orographic change produced significant local warming and had the greatest effect on the weakening of EAWWs in northern monsoonal China in the mid-Pliocene. Thus, these two factors both had important but different effects on the monsoon change. In comparison, the effects of vegetational change on the strengthened EASWs and weakened EAWWs were relatively weak. The changed monsoon winds can be explained by a reorganization of the meridional temperature gradient and zonal thermal contrast. Moreover, the effect of orbital parameters cannot be ignored. Results showed that changes in orbital parameters could have markedly affected the EASWs and EAWWs, and caused significant short-term oscillations in the mid-Pliocene monsoon climate in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3509S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3509S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schnell, Jordan L.; Prather, Michael J.; Josse, Beatrice; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zeng, Guang; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The effect of future climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is evaluated using present-day (2000s) and future (2100s) hourly surface ozone simulated by four global models. Future climate follows RCP8.5, while methane and anthropogenic ozone precursors are fixed at year 2000 levels. Climate change shifts the seasonal surface ozone peak to earlier in the year and increases the amplitude of the annual cycle. Increases in mean summertime and high-percentile ozone are generally found in polluted environments, while decreases are found in clean environments. We propose that climate change augments the efficiency of precursor emissions to generate surface ozone in polluted regions, thus reducing precursor export to neighboring downwind locations. Even with constant biogenic emissions, climate change causes the largest ozone increases at high percentiles. In most cases, air quality extreme episodes become larger and contain higher ozone levels relative to the rest of the distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JATP...57.1503H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JATP...57.1503H"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar cycle variation of the total electron content around equatorial anomaly crest region in <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Yinn-Nien; Cheng, Kang</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>The monthly mean hourly values of total electron content data obtained at Lunping Observatory (geographic coordinates 25.00°N, 121.17°E; geomagnetic coordinates 14.3°N, 191.3°E) by using the ETS2 satellite beacon signal during the period from March 1977 to December 1990 have been used to analyze the solar cycle variations of total electron content (TEC) around equatorial anomaly crest region in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Positive, correlations were found between the 12 month running average of monthly mean TECs and sunspot numbers. By using the linear regression analysis method, the contour charts for real diurnal and seasonal variations of TEC at certain sunspot numbers were constructed and described. The diurnal variation of TEC was represented by the sum of its diurnal mean and first three harmonic components. The solar cycle variations of these components have also been discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17293355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17293355"><span id="translatedtitle">RCA/IAEA third external dosimetry intercomparisons in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, H; Yoshizawa, M; Murakami, H; Momose, T; Tsujimura, N; Kanai, K; Cruz-Suárez, R</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Several intercomparison exercises were organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or interregional basis. In <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region, a third phase of the intercomparison finished in mid 2004. It was organised within the frame of the Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) as a follow-up to previous exercises carried out during 1990-1992 and 1995-1996. The results of this intercomparison for the determination of operational quantities were satisfactory for all Member States. The laboratories demonstrated a good performance in quantities tested. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the RCA/IAEA intercomparison and the future of RCA activities in support of assessment of occupational exposure by organising intercomparison runs. PMID:17293355</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4837485','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4837485"><span id="translatedtitle">Transnational migration, changing care arrangements and left-behind children's responses in South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoang, Lan Anh; Lam, Theodora; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Graham, Elspeth</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recent increases in the volume of labour migration from South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> – and in particular the feminisation of these movements – suggest that millions of children are growing up in transnational families, separated from their migrant parents. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the study seeks to elucidate care arrangements for left-behind children and to understand the ways in which children respond to shifts in intimate family relations brought about by (re)configurations of their care. Our findings emphasise that children, through strategies of resistance, resilience and reworking, are conscious social actors and agents of their own development, albeit within constrained situations resulting from their parents’ migration. PMID:27134570</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8658C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8658C"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term trend and variability of soil moisture over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Shanjun; Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Ji, Fei; Guo, Ruixia</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The variability of soil moisture over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was analyzed using a long-term data set from the Global Land Data Assimilation System. Overall, a clear decreasing trend occurred over a period of 63 years, with pronounced drying over northeast China, north China, part of Mongolia, and Russia near lake Baikal. Statistical analyses show that decreasing precipitation and global warming have different effects on the decrease in soil moisture. The qualitative analysis and quantitative contributions illustrated that soil drying is driven primarily by decreasing precipitation and is enhanced almost twofold by increasing temperatures. As soil moisture decreases, the positive feedback between soil moisture and temperature may result in future water shortages. Following the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) and 4.5 (RCP4.5) simulation scenarios of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, the model-predicted soil moisture demonstrated a continuously decreasing trend during the 21st century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.2789K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.2789K"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of soil moisture on dust outbreaks in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Using satellite and assimilation data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Hyunglok; Choi, Minha</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study is the first assessment of the effects of soil moisture on dust outbreaks using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and global assimilation data on the sand regions across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The relationships among dust outbreaks, soil moisture, and wind speed were estimated using data sets of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Global Land Data Assimilation System collected over 11 years (2003-2013). The mean AOD exponentially decreased with increasing soil moisture under different wind speed conditions (average determination coefficient = 0.95). As the wind speed conditions became stronger, the probability of a dust outbreak became greatly affected by soil moisture. The threshold soil moisture for dust outbreaks increased with increasing wind speed and decreased with increasing dust-outbreak criteria of AOD. Our results have the capability to be applied to satellite-based dust-outbreak prediction and global-scale dust-emission studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12159608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12159608"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of the Gulf war on migration and remittances in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Addleton, J</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>The author discusses the impact of the 1990 Gulf war on the migrant worker populations in the region, with a focus on migration and remittances in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>. Both immediate and long-term effects are considered. "From the perspective of foreign migrant communities living in the Gulf...the war...was much more of a disaster for Arabs than for Asians....Arab migrant populations...were dramatically affected by the Gulf crisis. In contrast, the Asian migrant community was largely concentrated in Saudi Arabia and the [United Arab Emirates] and remained relatively less affected by the crisis. Subsequent polarization in the Arab world gives Asian labor-exporting countries an unexpected opportunity to increase their share of Gulf labor markets still further in the coming years." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12159608</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682665','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682665"><span id="translatedtitle">The burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region☆</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A.; Brown, Derek S.; Mercy, James A.; Dunne, Michael P.; Butchart, Alexander R.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region’s per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region’s GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6941P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6941P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of precipitation from reanalyses and satellite products in Australia and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peña Arancibia, J. L.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Precipitation estimates from reanalyses and satellite observations are routinely used as forcing in global and regional hydrologic models but their accuracy is rarely systematically evaluated. The discrepancies and biases of different precipitation outputs are important, casting potentially high uncertainty in the results from hydrological models and their applications. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, JRA-25 and NCEP-DOE) and three satellite precipitation estimates (TRMM 3B42V6, CMORPH and PERSIANN) as well as a simple ensemble mean of the products. Grid cells with reasonable gauge density from two high resolution gauge-only daily precipitation analyses for Australia (SILO) and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (APHRODITE) were used to evaluate daily time series for 2003-2007. We computed metrics of detection and agreement in daily precipitation. To account for differences in precipitation regime, results were stratified by rainfall seasonality and the geographical domain was divided into southern Australia (SAu), northern Australia (NAu) and south and <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SEA). Reanalyses showed higher detection performance, with best performers being ERA-Interim in SAu and NAu and JRA-25 in SEA, as well as when averaged over the three sub domains. The exception was the monsoon months in SEA; for which satellite estimates from TRMM and CMORPH showed slightly better performance. Over the three sub domains combined, the ensemble mean generally outperformed both reanalyses and satellite precipitation, with higher correlation coefficient, lower root mean square difference and closer agreement in terms of a rainfall intensity proxy (the ratio of monthly precipitation amount to total days with precipitation). The results of the simple ensemble mean show the value in the additional information captured from the (co)variance of the multiple input sources. This finding suggests that, depending on rainfall regime and/or location, a combination of selected reanalysis and satellite products may lead to better precipitation estimates and thus more accurate hydrological applications than any single method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540694"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could facilitate the understanding of biodiversity origin and maintenance in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:25540694</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20905842','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20905842"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in Spring 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Toby Primbs; Staci Simonich; David Schmedding; Glenn Wilson; Dan Jaffe; Akinori Takami; Shungo Kato; Shiro Hatakeyama; Yoshizumi Kajii</p> <p>2007-05-15</p> <p>To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, high-volume air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan between 22 March and 2 May 2004. Contributions from different source regions (China, Japan, the Koreas, Russia, and ocean/local) were estimated by use of source region impact factors (SRIFs). Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current-use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Chlordanes showed a technical mixture profile and similar concentrations regardless of source region. {alpha}/{gamma} HCH and trans/cis chlordane ratios did not vary significantly with different source regions and had regional averages of 2.5 {+-} 1.0 and 1.2 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Particulate-phase PAH concentrations were significantly correlated (p value {lt} 0.05) with other incomplete combustion byproduct concentrations, including elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}), CO, NOx{asterisk}, black carbon, submicrometer aerosols, and SO{sub 2}. By use of measured PAH, CO, and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of six carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs was estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and 778-1728 metric tons/year for China, respectively. These results confirm that <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs. 39 refs., 3 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25757367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25757367"><span id="translatedtitle">The burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20553069','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20553069"><span id="translatedtitle">Cancer epidemiology in mainland South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> - past, present and future.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, Malcolm A; Attasara, Pattarawin; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Le, Tran Ngoan; Nguyen, Thi Hoai Nga; Raingsey, Prak Piseth; Sriamporn, Supannee; Sriplung, Hutcha; Srivanatanakul, Petcharin; Bui, Duc Tung; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sobue, Tomotaka</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The countries of mainland South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Viet Nam, share a long history of interactions and many cultural similarities, as well as geographical contiguity. They therefore can be usefully examined as a group when considering measures for control of cancer and other non-communicable diseases. Liver cancer is consistently found at higher incidence than most other parts of <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with lung cancer as the other most important neoplasm in males. In females cervical and breast cancer about equally predominate, throughout. However, there are also major differences, particularly with regard to stomach and nasopharyngeal cancer, only found at relatively high incidence in Viet Nam. The present review was conducted to gather together registry data on cancer prevalence and epidemiological findings cited in PubMed in order to obtain as comprehensive picture as possible of the present status. It is hoped that future cooperation across the region will facilitate development of coordinated cancer control programs to reduce the burden. PMID:20553069</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..359Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..359Z"><span id="translatedtitle">How recent climate change influences water use efficiency in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Fangmin; Ju, Weimin; Shen, Shuanghe; Wang, Shaoqiang; Yu, Guirui; Han, Shijie</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity to evapotranspiration, is an important indicator of the trade-off between water loss and carbon gain. We used a biophysical process-based model to examine the relative importance of climate-induced changes in meteorological factors and leaf area index (LAI) on the changes in WUE in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Validation showed that our simulation could capture the magnitudes and variations of WUE at 18 flux sites in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Regional results indicated that the highest WUE occurred in boreal forests at high latitudes and the lowest WUE in desert areas of China. Changes in meteorological factors negatively affected WUE in the northwestern, northern, and eastern study regions. Changes in LAI had determinant impacts on changes in WUE in most areas except for those with sparse or low-density vegetation (e.g., western interior China, southeast island countries) where meteorological factors dominated. We conclude that, aside from the impact of meteorological factors on WUE, climate-induced changes in LAI may play a prominent role in regulating WUE changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22++OR+%22+south+korea%22+&pg=5&id=EJ1067934','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22++OR+%22+south+korea%22+&pg=5&id=EJ1067934"><span id="translatedtitle">English Language Education among Young Learners in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Butler, Yuko Goto</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082647.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082647.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher Education and Development in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hunter, Guy</p> <p></p> <p>This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082627.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082627.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher Education and Development in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Noss, Richard</p> <p></p> <p>This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Policy+AND+Educational+AND+Reform+AND+Educational&pg=3&id=EJ1021673','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Policy+AND+Educational+AND+Reform+AND+Educational&pg=3&id=EJ1021673"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503954.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503954.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Policy Coherence towards <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=qualitative+AND+analysis&pg=2&id=EJ986242','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=qualitative+AND+analysis&pg=2&id=EJ986242"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near <span class="hlt">East</span> South <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region: A Qualitative Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near <span class="hlt">East</span> South <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cost+AND+counting&pg=7&id=ED415134','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cost+AND+counting&pg=7&id=ED415134"><span id="translatedtitle">Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Directions in Development Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bray, Mark</p> <p></p> <p>This collaborative report focuses on nine countries in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. While acknowledging that these countries share some common features, the report also highlights each country's particular characteristics and the implications of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cambodia+AND+country+AND+report&pg=4&id=ED415134','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cambodia+AND+country+AND+report&pg=4&id=ED415134"><span id="translatedtitle">Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Directions in Development Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bray, Mark</p> <p></p> <p>This collaborative report focuses on nine countries in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. While acknowledging that these countries share some common features, the report also highlights each country's particular characteristics and the implications of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=english+AND+methodologies&pg=4&id=EJ1067934','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=english+AND+methodologies&pg=4&id=EJ1067934"><span id="translatedtitle">English Language Education among Young Learners in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Butler, Yuko Goto</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70147555','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70147555"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and North America by wild birds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9517C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9517C"><span id="translatedtitle">Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in 2030</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sumatra&id=ED446161','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sumatra&id=ED446161"><span id="translatedtitle">Endangered Peoples of Southeast & <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie E.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thailand&id=EJ1021673','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thailand&id=EJ1021673"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sabah+AND+culture&id=ED446161','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sabah+AND+culture&id=ED446161"><span id="translatedtitle">Endangered Peoples of Southeast & <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie E.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.9259C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.9259C"><span id="translatedtitle">Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in 2030</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26211507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26211507"><span id="translatedtitle">South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The management of acne in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use. PMID:26211507</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31K..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31K..03K"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of the Lidar Ratio Determined from Lidar and Sky Radiometer Measurements in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Yoon, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We present aerosol lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio; the ratio between optical extinction and backscatter), which is an important parameter used in the determination of the aerosol extinction profiles and subsequently the aerosol optical depth (AOD), determined by combining simultaneous elastic-backscatter lidar and sky radiometer measurements in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In this study, sky radiometer-derived AOD is used as a constraint and the lidar ratio is calculated when the discrepancy of AOD between lidar and sky radiometer is less than 0.5%. The annual mean lidar ratio (with standard deviation) at 532 nm calculated from 4-year measurements of elastic backscatter lidar and sky radiometer in Seoul, Korea, is found to be 61.7×16.5 sr, and weak seasonal variations are noted with a maximum in summer (68.1×16.8 sr) and a minimum in winter (57.2×17.9 sr). The lidar ratios for clean, dust, and polluted conditions are estimated to be 45.0×9.5 sr, 51.7×13.7 sr, and 62.2×13.2 sr, respectively. While the lidar ratio for the polluted condition is appears to be consistent with previous studies (50-70), clean and dust conditions tend to have larger values, compared to previous estimates (clean: 30-40, dust: 40-50). We also calcualte the lidar ratio from simultaneous observations of ground-based lidar and sky radiometer at six locations (Seoul, Gosan, Fukue, Osaka, Chiba, and Tsukuba) during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) - NE <span class="hlt">Asia</span> 2012 campaign. The mean lidar ratios are estimated to be 60~70 sr. During the dust event on 27-29 April 2013, the lidar ratio is decreased to 50~60 sr, which is consistent with other previous studies in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (e.g., Catrall et al., JGR, 2005; Liu et al., App. Opt., 2002; Murayama et al., JGR, 2003). Detailed results will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3031002','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3031002"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical Characteristics and Etiology of Travelers' Diarrhea among Korean Travelers Visiting South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ahn, Ji Yong; Chang, Kyu-Jin; You, Myung Hwan; Chai, Jin Sung; Kang, Young A; Kim, Seong-Han; Jeoung, Hyesook; Cheon, Doosung; Jeoung, Ahyong; Choi, Eun Suk</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The morbidity of travelers' diarrhea (TD) is still high. This study examined the incidence of common pathogens and characteristics of TD among Korean travelers who visited South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries. We performed a prospective study involving 479 Korean travelers with diarrheal disease from February 2009 to April 2009 and stool samples were examined and questionnaire surveys were done after arrival. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was found in 36.0% of TD cases, as were the following: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in 27.0%, Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 13.1%, and Norovirus in 11.5%. The detected rate of classic TD was higher in men (P = 0.007), in patients who had a shorter duration trip (P = 0.023) and in patients who drank more than 1 liter of water per day (P = 0.037). Positive stool culture rates were higher in men (P = 0.005), in hospitalized patients (P = 0.013). and in those who consumed impure water or raw foods (P = 0.033). A higher severity of disease corresponded to a significantly higher culture positivity rate (P = 0.029). We should consider the possibility of other pathogens in addition to ETEC in patients with TD who visit South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Travelers need to educate about risk factors associated with TD. PMID:21286009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22888982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22888982"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative evaluation of the glycaemic potential of commercial breads consumed in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ranawana, Viren; Henry, C Jeya K</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Bread has become a widely consumed staple food in South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. However, there is very little data on the glycaemic potential of local commercial breads. The objective of this study was to comparatively assess the glycaemic potential of some commonly consumed commercial breads using a validated in vitro model. Sixteen types of breads representing the most popular brands and types were evaluated. The results showed that white and enriched white breads had a greater glycaemic potential than wholemeal breads (rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content >450 mg of glucose/g of sample). The lowest glycaemic potential was observed for wholegrain breads (RDS content < 375 mg of glucose/g of sample). The glycaemic impact of some specialty breads such as pandan bread, milk bread and corn loaf was also examined. Whist the data show that South-<span class="hlt">east</span> Asian breads have notably differential effects on glycaemia, it highlights the need to formulate Asian dietary guidelines for bread which will enable better food choice and glycaemic control. PMID:22888982</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23830970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23830970"><span id="translatedtitle">Compulsory drug detention in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: evolving government, UN and donor responses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in <span class="hlt">East</span> and South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21286009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21286009"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical characteristics and etiology of travelers' diarrhea among Korean travelers visiting South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahn, Ji Yong; Chung, Jin-Won; Chang, Kyu-Jin; You, Myung Hwan; Chai, Jin Sung; Kang, Young A; Kim, Seong-Han; Jeoung, Hyesook; Cheon, Doosung; Jeoung, Ahyong; Choi, Eun Suk</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The morbidity of travelers' diarrhea (TD) is still high. This study examined the incidence of common pathogens and characteristics of TD among Korean travelers who visited South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries. We performed a prospective study involving 479 Korean travelers with diarrheal disease from February 2009 to April 2009 and stool samples were examined and questionnaire surveys were done after arrival. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was found in 36.0% of TD cases, as were the following: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in 27.0%, Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 13.1%, and Norovirus in 11.5%. The detected rate of classic TD was higher in men (P = 0.007), in patients who had a shorter duration trip (P = 0.023) and in patients who drank more than 1 liter of water per day (P = 0.037). Positive stool culture rates were higher in men (P = 0.005), in hospitalized patients (P = 0.013). and in those who consumed impure water or raw foods (P = 0.033). A higher severity of disease corresponded to a significantly higher culture positivity rate (P = 0.029). We should consider the possibility of other pathogens in addition to ETEC in patients with TD who visit South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Travelers need to educate about risk factors associated with TD. PMID:21286009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A12B..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A12B..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.1625H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.1625H"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Southeast China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfall—the moisture flux convergence—over Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..70..204I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..70..204I"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal source contributions of tropospheric ozone over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on CMAQ-HDDM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Determining the source contributions of tropospheric ozone concentration is an important issue for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, due to the dramatic and rapid increase in emissions of atmospheric pollutants. To achieve this, the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM), a technique for efficient calculation of sensitivities, was applied in this study. Tropospheric ozone concentrations at observation sites located in remote areas of Japan were well-reproduced by Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations, and exhibited a maximum peak in spring, a relatively small peak in autumn and a summer minimum. This seasonal pattern is a reflection of long-range transport and chemical processes, coupled with continental-oceanic air mass exchanges forced by the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian monsoon. For the HDDM simulation, we focused on episodic pollution events during each season of 2007 to clarify the seasonal characteristics, and then assessed source contributions paying attention to both precursor emissions (NOx and VOC) and source regions (China, central eastern China, Korea, and Japan). An ozone-sensitive regime (NOx- or VOC-sensitive regime) was also determined based on the HDDM results. This suggested a regime over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> that was NOx sensitive in summer, VOC sensitive in winter, and either NOx or VOC sensitive during spring and autumn. At observation sites in remote areas of Japan, by separating the precursor contribution into NOx and VOC components of ozone production, it was found that the contribution of NOx emissions was larger than that of VOC emissions in spring, autumn, and especially summer, therefore, a reduction in NOx emissions could reduce the severity of episodes of tropospheric ozone pollution in downwind areas. Due to the strong VOC-sensitive conditions in winter, NOx emissions enabled a reduction in surface ozone concentrations. In terms of the contributions attributed to source regions, the source contribution of China was relatively high during spring, but local-scale photochemical build-up was dominant during summer and autumn. It was also revealed that central eastern China (CEC), characterized by densely populated and industrialized regions, was the most significant source of Chinese source contributions in summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T42B..08W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T42B..08W"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic tomographic constraints on plate tectonic reconstructions of the Philippine Sea plate near <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Philippine Sea and Pacific plates play a key tectonic role at the edge of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with similar present-day absolute motions. The Philippine Sea slab dips northward under the Eurasian continent at the Ryukyu Trench & Nankai Trough. At Taiwan and south along the Manila Trench, the subduction polarity is flipped and the Eurasia-South China Sea slab dips eastward beneath the Philippine Sea plate. Cenozoic plate tectonic reconstructions of the Philippine Sea plate have been primarily constrained by paleomagnetic data and the seafloor spreading record. These indicate large northward motions from equatorial regions through the Cenozoic and significant Oligo-Miocene plate rotations, respectively, very different from present-day plate motions. In this study seismic tomographic data are used to add the significant constraint of subducted slab geometries and seismic velocities. Detailed 3D geometries of subducted slabs were mapped with GoCad software using the MITP08 seismic tomography dataset (Li et al., 2008), Benioff zone seismicities, and published local tomography. The slabs were then unfolded using GoCad and imported into GPlates reconstruction software to test current plate tectonic reconstructions of the Philippine Sea plate near <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. New constraints are provided by the geometries of the mapped slab edges, which indicate inconsistent plate overlaps and voids when applied to existing plate models. These data therefore provide significant constraints for improved models. The unfolded Eurasian-South China Sea slab is ~500 km long and has a N-S oriented edge parallel to transforms of the South China Sea. Velocity images reveal the locations of continent-ocean boundaries at the north and south ends of the Eurasian slab. At Taiwan, the unfolded Philippine Sea plate slab is ~850 km long and also has a N-S edge. These slab geometries imply that present-day <span class="hlt">east</span>-dipping subduction along the Manila Trench began at a N-S transform-parallel zone between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. Assuming present-day rates, the slab lengths imply that the fast Pacific-like NW motion of the Philippine Sea plate would have changed from its earlier northward motion no earlier than ~7 Ma. However earlier activation of the Manila Trench is likely given geologic constraints and require a slower speed-up to the present Pacific-like motions of the Philippine Sea plate. Further major constraints on earlier motion are provided by several detached slabs under the South China Sea and the West Philippine basin, by slabs of the southern Philippines and Molucca Sea, and by the larger Pacific and Indian Ocean slabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.111..437Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.111..437Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in <span class="hlt">East</span> China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in <span class="hlt">East</span> China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer" of 1816 in Europe and North America and led to coldness and famines in the Chinese province Yunnan, depends crucially on the ENSO state of the coupled model. A comparison with reconstructed El Niño events shows a moderate cool climate with wet (in the south) and extreme dry anomalies (in the north) persisting for several years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A31A0009L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A31A0009L"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential Vorticity Perspective on the Stratospheric Origin of Cold Surge in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, G.; Kim, B.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Traditionally, the coupling between the troposphere and the stratosphere has been considered as one-way influence of the troposphere on the stratosphere, with the troposphere being regarded as a source of Rossby waves and gravity waves, which propagate upward into the stratosphere. However, observational and modelling evidence is now strong that the stratosphere may play an active role in the tropospheric circulation leading to changes in the troposphere. Jeong et al. (2006) found a precursory signal in the stratosphere prior to the cold surge occurrence in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Over northern Eurasia, about one week before the cold surge occurrence, strong stratospheric negative potential vorticity and rising of geopotential height are observed. From this, we hypothesized the upper-level signal is really linked to the amplification of Siberian High through the deep penetrating circulation anomalies of stratospheric PV. To prove this, we separated entire PV anomaly into two pieces which are above and below the tropopause and examined the balanced circulation of each piece. Piecewise PV inversion technique introduced by Davis (1994) has been used for the calculation. From the inversion results, we could successfully verify that the Siberian High amplification largely depends on the circulation anomaly originating from stratospheric PV. <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian cold surge is accompanied by the upper tropospheric short-wave trough over Lake Baikal that grows as propagating toward <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. However, the processes causing the upstream development of the upper-level trough are not clear. Given the reliable stratospheric influence, therefore, it is worth inquiring the subsequent cold surge event after the amplification of Siberian High. For this purpose, I constructed a simple model which has an embedded life cycle of artificial Siberian High. The model is designed to be relaxed toward radiative equilibrium temperature of northern Hemisphere Winter (perpetual winter run). Several diabatic heating anomalies are also prescribed over Tropical ocean to obtain realistic model climatology. The repeated life cycle of Siberian High was simply controlled by periodic diabatic cooling over Siberia. From the result, the organized baroclinic eddies started to appear downstream of Siberia when the Siberia is sufficiently cold due to the local baroclinic instability. The increase of Eady growth rate and downstream sequence of wave activity vector supports this fact. The links revealed in this study may also offer scope for improving the skill of extended-range tropospheric forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215694Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215694Z"><span id="translatedtitle">February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far <span class="hlt">east</span> coasts of Russia at North <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from Petropavlosk (Kamchatka), Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir), Kurilsk (Iturup, coast of the Okhotsk sea), Malokurilskoe (Shikotan), Korsakov, Kholmsk and Aniva Bay (Sakhalin). These records and also other offshore DART records are analyzed and used for comparison of the modeling results with offshore and nearshore records. The transmission of tsunami waves through Sakhalin and Kuril straits and their propagation to nearby coasts are investigated. The spectral analysis of records in settlements of Sakhalin and Kurile Islands are investigated. The performance and capabilities of NAMI DANCE is also presented together with comparisons between the model, observations and discussions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S14C..06Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S14C..06Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic imaging of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, D.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and mantle down to 1200 km depth under Western Pacific to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Zhao, 2004, 2007; Huang and Zhao, 2006). A large number of arrival times of P, pP, PP and PcP waves recorded by many seismic stations in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are used in the tomographic inversions. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to 670-km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under eastern China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topographic boundary in <span class="hlt">East</span> China. Although there are some discrepancies between the topographic boundary and the western edge of the stagnant slab, both of them are located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The entire Pacific slab is stagnant in the mantle transition zone under Northeast China (53-37 degree north latitude). Under 37-28 degree north latitude, however, some of the slab materials are visible below the 670-km discontinuity, though most of the slab materials are still in the transition zone, suggesting that part of the slab materials have started to drop down to the lower mantle. Under the Mariana arc, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. It is also visible that the Philippine Sea slab has subducted down to the mantle transition zone depth under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region (Abdelwahed and Zhao, 2007). There are three active intraplate volcanoes in China. The Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes in Northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab, suggesting that the two active volcanoes are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcanoes associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific slab and its stagnancy in the transition zone as well as corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The active Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is related to the eastward subduction of the Burma microplate. References: D. Zhao (2004) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. D. Zhao (2007) Gondwana Research 12, 335-355. J. Huang, D. Zhao (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, B09305.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP12A..04P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP12A..04P"><span id="translatedtitle">Fossil molecules reveal decoupled warming and monsoon precipitation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> over the last deglaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peterse, F.; Prins, M. A.; Beets, C. J.; Troelstra, S. R.; Zheng, H.; Gu, Z.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Our understanding of past continental climate in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is mainly based on loess-paleosol sequences and summer monsoon precipitation reconstructions based on oxygen isotopes (δ18O) of stalagmites from several Chinese caves. They show that the intensity of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) precipitation generally follows Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. However, not much is known about the magnitude and timing of deglacial warming on the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian continent. We here present an absolute continental air temperature record for this region, using the novel Methylation of Branched Tetraethers/Cyclisation of Branched Tetraethers (MBT/CBT) proxy [1], based on the distribution of fossil membrane lipids of soil bacteria, in a loess-paleosol sequence from the Mangshan loess plateau. Our continuous, high resolution temperature record covers the last 34,000 years, and shows that air temperatures varied in phase with NH summer insolation. The onset of deglacial warming at ~17.5 kyr BP is parallel in timing with known continental records from e.g. Antarctica, Africa and South America. Strikingly, comparison of the MBT/CBT-derived temperature record with other loess-paleosol proxy records and stalagmite δ18O records shows that the strengthening of EASM precipitation lagged that of deglacial warming by ca. 2 kyrs. Moreover, soil formation in the loess deposits, caused by substantial increases in summer monsoon precipitation, only started around 12 kyr BP (>5 kyrs lag). Our results thus show that the intensification of EASM precipitation unambiguously lagged deglacial warming and NH summer insolation. We are currently analysing n-alkane distributions throughout the same loess-paleosol sequence to see how the vegetation responded on the difference in timing between atmospheric warming and the intensification of the summer monsoon during the last deglaciation. Reference: [1] Weijers et al., 2007, GCA 71, 703-713.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.4779F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.4779F"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> determined by inverse modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> increased rapidly from 2404 ± 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the total <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China and from South Korea increased, while emissions from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1321003F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1321003F"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> determined by inverse modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> increased rapidly from 2437 ± 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the total <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per-capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China increased rapidly and emissions from South Korea increased slightly, while emissions from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011E%26PSL.301..256P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011E%26PSL.301..256P"><span id="translatedtitle">Decoupled warming and monsoon precipitation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> over the last deglaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peterse, Francien; Prins, Maarten A.; Beets, Christiaan J.; Troelstra, Simon R.; Zheng, Hongbo; Gu, Zhaoyan; Schouten, Stefan; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Our understanding of the continental climate development in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is mainly based on loess-paleosol sequences and summer monsoon precipitation reconstructions based on oxygen isotopes (δ18O) of stalagmites from several Chinese caves. Based on these records, it is thought that <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) precipitation generally follows Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. However, not much is known about the magnitude and timing of deglacial warming on the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian continent. In this study we reconstruct continental air temperatures for central China covering the last 34,000 yr, based on the distribution of fossil branched tetraether membrane lipids of soil bacteria in a loess-paleosol sequence from the Mangshan loess plateau. The results indicate that air temperature varied in phase with NH summer insolation, and that the onset of deglacial warming at ~ 19 kyr BP is parallel in timing with other continental records from e.g. Antarctica, southern Africa and South-America. The air temperature increased from ~ 15 °C at the onset of the warming to a maximum of ~ 27 °C in the early Holocene (~ 12 kyr BP), in agreement with the temperature increase inferred from e.g. pollen and phytolith data, and permafrost limits in central China. Comparison of the tetraether membrane lipid-derived temperature record with loess-paleosol proxy records and stalagmite δ18O records shows that the strengthening of EASM precipitation lagged that of deglacial warming by ca. 3 kyr. Moreover, intense soil formation in the loess deposits, caused by substantial increases in summer monsoon precipitation, only started around 12 kyr BP (ca. 7 kyr lag). Our results thus show that the intensification of EASM precipitation unambiguously lagged deglacial warming and NH summer insolation, and may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling ice age terminations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..11910410P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..11910410P"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of aerosol absorption in driving clear-sky solar dimming over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Persad, Geeta G.; Ming, Yi; Ramaswamy, V.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Surface-based observations indicate a significant decreasing trend in clear-sky downward surface solar radiation (SSR) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> since the 1960s. This "dimming" is thought to be driven by the region's long-term increase in aerosol emissions, but little work has been done to quantify the underlying physical mechanisms or the contribution from aerosol absorption within the atmospheric column. Given the distinct climate impacts that absorption-driven dimming may produce, this constitutes an important, but thus far rather neglected, line of inquiry. We examine experiments conducted in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's atmospheric general circulation models, AM2.1 and AM3, in order to analyze the model-simulated <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian clear-sky SSR trends. We also use the models' stand-alone radiation module to examine the contribution from various aerosol characteristics in the two models (such as burden, mixing state, hygroscopicity, and seasonal distribution) to the trends. Both models produce trends in clear-sky SSR that are comparable to that observed but via disparate mechanisms. Despite their different aerosol characteristics, the models produce nearly identical increases in aerosol absorption since the 1960s, constituting as much as half of the modeled clear-sky dimming. This is due to a compensation between the differences in aerosol column burden and mixing state assumed in the two models, i.e., plausible clear-sky SSR simulations can be achieved via drastically different aerosol parameterizations. Our novel results indicate that trends in aerosol absorption drive a large portion of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian clear-sky solar dimming in the models presented here and for the time periods analyzed and that mechanistic analysis of the factors involved in aerosol absorption is an important diagnostic in evaluating modeled clear-sky solar dimming trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1317519M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1317519M"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> observed from space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for <span class="hlt">East</span> Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....1312003M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....1312003M"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> observed from space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for <span class="hlt">East</span> Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616345S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616345S"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the <span class="hlt">East</span> European Craton, in the <span class="hlt">east</span>, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and <span class="hlt">east</span> of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic) stretching, rifting and postrift subsidence were widely shown with the formation of oil and gas sedimentary basins with a thick sedimentary cover (West Siberian, Turan, Caspian, Middle Amur, Songliao), large igneous provinces (South Urals, West and <span class="hlt">East</span> Siberian, Central Kazakhstan, Trans-Baikal, etc.) and rift systems (Mongol-Transbaikal, Baikal, etc.). The aim of further research under the existing joint projects should be identifying and tracing the boundaries of the Arctic-Asian mobile belt, study and correlation of geological complexes-indicators of major tectonic events, reconstruction of the history of the accretionary belt with superimposed oil and gas bearing sedimentary basins as a tectonic structure of the global level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21B0055I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21B0055I"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport and deposition of PAHs in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using Regional Emission Inventory in <span class="hlt">ASia</span> and Regional Air Quality Model for POP version</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Inomata, Y.; Kajino, M.; Keiichi, S.; Ohara, T.; Kurokawa, J.; Hiromasa, U.; Tang, N.; Hayakawa, K.; Tsuyoshi, O.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We developed a new emission inventory for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (9PAHs; fluorene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) in <span class="hlt">ASia</span> (Regional Emission inventory in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for POP version, REAS-POP) at 0.5x0.5 grid for the period from 2000 to 2005. By using the REAS-POP, spatial distributions of PAHs in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were simulated by Regional Air Quality Model for POP version (RAQM-POP). In REAS-POP, estimated annual emission of 9PAHs in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was increased from 7.61 Gg yr-1 in 2000 to 10.79 Gg yr-1 in 2005. The China is the dominant PAHs emission country in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during this period. Area where considerable high emissions as well as rapid increase rate was found in the northern central region, North China Plain, Guizhou, Sichuan Basin, and North <span class="hlt">East</span> in China. The contribution from various sources for PAHs emission was different by each country. In the developing country (China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mongolia, and Russia), dominant sources of PAHs were domestic coal, domestic biofuel, and other transformation of coal including cokes production, although contribution from open biomass burning was relatively large in Russia and Mongol. In Japan and Taiwan, the road traffic source was identified as the major source for the 9PAHs emissions. At Beijing, China, simulated PAHs concentrations were quantitatively agreed with the measured concentrations during the period from 8 March to 26 May, 2005. In the case of Wajima, coastal site of the Sea of Japan in Japan, it was observed clear seasonal variation with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer in 2005. The measured seasonal variations were also simulated well. Results with analysis by model simulation revealed that higher concentrations in winter were due to the high emission in China in winter and long-range transport from the Asian continent toward the Japanese islands. In summer, the lower concentrations result in lower emission in China and prevent of long-range transport of PAHs under the Pacific high. The geographical distributions of PAHs emission and concentration suggest that seasonal variation of PAHs concentrations observed at Wajima were strongly controlled by emission strength and meteorological conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4707494','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4707494"><span id="translatedtitle">A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S.; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> today is a result of extinction. PMID:26750105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26750105','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26750105"><span id="translatedtitle">A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> today is a result of extinction. PMID:26750105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AdAtS..22...39J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AdAtS..22...39J"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible impacts of the Arctic oscillation on the interdecadal variation of summer monsoon rainfall in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jianhua, Ju; Junmei, Lü; Jie, Cao; Juzhang, Ren</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The influences of the wintertime AO (Arctic Oscillation) on the interdecadal variation of summer monsoon rainfall in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were examined. An interdecadal abrupt change was found by the end of the 1970s in the variation of the AO index and the leading principal component time series of the summer rainfall in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The rainfall anomaly changed from below normal to above normal in central China, the southern part of northeastern China and the Korean peninsula around 1978. However, the opposite interdecadal variation was found in the rainfall anomaly in North China and South China. The interdecadal variation of summer rainfall is associated with the weakening of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer monsoon circulation. It is indicated that the interdecadal variation of the AO exerts an influence on the weakening of the monsoon circulation. The recent trend in the AO toward its high-index polarity during the past two decades plays important roles in the land-sea contrast anomalies and wintertime precipitation anomaly. The mid- and high-latitude regions of the Asian continent are warming, while the low-latitude regions are cooling in winter and spring along with the AO entering its high-index polarity after the late 1970s. In the meantime, the precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau and South China is excessive, implying an increase of soil moisture. The cooling tendency of the land in the southern part of <span class="hlt">Asia</span> will persist until summer because of the memory of soil moisture. So the warming of the Asian continent is relatively slow in summer. Moreover, the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, which are located southward and eastward of the Asian land, are warming from winter to summer. This suggests that the contrast between the land and sea is decreased in summer. The interdecadal decrease of the land-sea heat contrast finally leads to the weakening of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer monsoon circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4369734','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4369734"><span id="translatedtitle">Assembly of forest communities across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> – insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Jin, Guangze; Sang, Weiguo; Lu, Zhijun; Wang, Xihua; Li, Xiankun; Li, Buhang; Sun, Ifang; Ma, Keping; Svenning, Jens-Christian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present the first study applying this approach to forest tree communities across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, focusing on community phylogenetic structure and using data from a global network of tropical, subtropical and temperate forest plots. We found that Net Relatedness Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI) values were generally lower with geographically broad species pools (global and Asian species pools) than with an <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool, except that global species pool produced higher NTI than the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool. The lower NRI for the global relative to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool may indicate an important role of intercontinental migration during the Neogene and Quaternary and climatic conservatism in shaping the deeper phylogenetic structure of tree communities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In contrast, higher NTI for the global relative to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool is consistent with recent localized diversification determining the shallow phylogenetic structure. PMID:25797420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25797420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25797420"><span id="translatedtitle">Assembly of forest communities across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>--insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Jin, Guangze; Sang, Weiguo; Lu, Zhijun; Wang, Xihua; Li, Xiankun; Li, Buhang; Sun, Ifang; Ma, Keping; Svenning, Jens-Christian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present the first study applying this approach to forest tree communities across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, focusing on community phylogenetic structure and using data from a global network of tropical, subtropical and temperate forest plots. We found that Net Relatedness Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI) values were generally lower with geographically broad species pools (global and Asian species pools) than with an <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool, except that global species pool produced higher NTI than the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool. The lower NRI for the global relative to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool may indicate an important role of intercontinental migration during the Neogene and Quaternary and climatic conservatism in shaping the deeper phylogenetic structure of tree communities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In contrast, higher NTI for the global relative to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian species pool is consistent with recent localized diversification determining the shallow phylogenetic structure. PMID:25797420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19236929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19236929"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogeography of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Pleistocene isolation, population expansion and secondary contact.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Jiawu; Chan, Tin-Yam; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>We examined the impact of Pleistocene glacial cycles on geographical distribution and genetic structure of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using sequence variation of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and cytochrome b gene segments. Phylogenies revealed four distinct but shallow structured lineages in Eriocheir s. s. Three lineages dominated the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea-Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan and the South China Sea on the margins of the region, and one lineage occurred on Okinawa Island. This geographical distribution represents a general phylogeographic pattern in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which is closely associated with the fluctuations of marginal seas and islands during the Pleistocene. The four lineages are estimated to have diverged during the mid-Pleistocene. Demographic expansions were observed in each lineage, starting within the second-to-latest interglacial period in the marginal sea lineages ( approximately 70-130ka) and within the last glacial period in the Okinawa lineage ( approximately 25-80ka). Expansions have probably taken place northward along the coast of the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea-Yellow Sea, following the rise of sea levels. Centered on the southern Korean Peninsula, expansions have likely occurred northward along the west coast and eastward along the south coast of the Sea of Japan. Each marginal sea has served as a single refugium during glacial periods. Two secondary contact regions were identified, one of the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea-Yellow Sea and South China Sea lineages, and another of the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea-Yellow Sea and Sea of Japan lineages. Phylogeography of Eriocheir s. s. provides insights into the evolutionary history and mechanism for generating biodiversity in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:19236929</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24440320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24440320"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergence and diversity of begomoviruses infecting solanaceous crops in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kenyon, Lawrence; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Shih, Su-Ling; Lee, Li-Mei</p> <p>2014-06-24</p> <p>Over the past three decades diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) have emerged to be important constraints to the production of solanaceous crops, particularly tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and peppers (Capsicum spp.), in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The most studied of these is Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which has spread to many other areas from its likely origin in the Mediterranean basin region. The virus is usually associated with the polyphagous and virus-vectoring-efficient B-biotype of its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). However, in Southeast and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, a wide variety of distinct local begomovirus species have been identified from tomato and pepper crops over this period, and TYLCV was detected in Japan only in about 1996, China in 2006 and Korea in 2008, despite B-biotype whiteflies being present in several of the countries of the region since at least the early 1990s. Continental Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> appears to be a major center of diversity for begomoviruses and some species may have spread across the region; Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Myanmar region into southern China and is now displacing the local tomato-infecting species in Taiwan, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLCKaV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Vietnam region to Java, Indonesia. Since many of the native tomato- or pepper-infecting begomoviruses and associated satellite DNAs have also been detected in local weed species, it seems likely that their ancestors originated in these weed hosts, but with the expansion and intensification of tomato and pepper production in the region, there was selection for recombinant or mutant forms with greater virulence on tomato and/or pepper. Expansion and intensification of these crops may also have resulted in increased populations of local, and if present, B- or Q-biotype whiteflies, aiding the increase and spread of local begomovirus species. PMID:24440320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12184826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12184826"><span id="translatedtitle">A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Müller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy. PMID:12184826</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.169..377Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.169..377Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm over <span class="hlt">East</span>/Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> on the ENSO time scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Tie; Di, Yuelun; Qie, Kai</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm on the ENSO time scales over <span class="hlt">East</span>/Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was investigated by using 17-year (1995-2011) lightning data from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), and 14-year (1998-2011) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) precipitation feature data. In addition, ERA-Interim reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used to present related environmental characteristics. It was found that the response of lightning flash to ENSO events shows remarkable seasonal and regional variations. The regions of positive (negative) lightning anomaly are mainly located at both sides of 5°-20°N (5°-15°N) in El Niño (La Niña) spring and winter, and located north of the equator in summer and autumn. There is a significantly positive correlation between lightning anomaly and the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) over both <span class="hlt">East</span> China and Indonesia during El Niño episodes, but no obvious correlation during La Niña episodes. The positive thunderstorm anomalies during El Niño periods are dispersed. The distribution of thunderstorm anomalies in La Niña summer and autumn is almost opposite to that in spring and winter. The correlation between thunderstorm anomaly and ONI is better over <span class="hlt">East</span> China than that over Indonesia. In general, lightning variation follows thunderstorm intensity (number) variation over <span class="hlt">East</span> China during El Niño (La Niña) episodes, and follows a combination of thunderstorm intensity and number variations over Indonesia on ENSO time scales. During ENSO time scales, variations of surface wind can be considered as one of the key factors to LAs. More lightning flashes present in the regions where warm moist flows intersection, and less in the regions where surface wind changes slightly or diverges. Dramatic lightning increases also occur with higher values of convective available potential energy (CAPE). In addition, higher (lower) 850 hPa relative humidity generally follows with more (less) lightning flashes, which is more obvious during El Niño episodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172032"><span id="translatedtitle">Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of Clintoniaudensis Trautv. & Mey. (Liliaceae) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yi-Ling; Li, Xin; Guo, Jing; Guo, Zhi-Gang; Li, Si-Feng; Zhao, Gui-Fang</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report the phylogeographic history of Clintoniaudensis Trautv. & Mey. (Liliaceae) inferred from two types of chloroplast DNA markers, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequences. Eighty samples were collected from 20 natural populations, 19 located in China and one in Japan, across the entire range of the species in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. High genetic diversity (h(T)(PCR-RFLP)=0.972, h(T)(sequencing)=0.874) and significant differentiation (N(ST)(PCR-RFLP)=0.893, N(ST)(sequencing)=0.988 and G(ST)(PCR-RFLP)=0.777, G(ST)(sequencing)=0.978) were detected at the species level. These findings are consistent with a scenario of clonal reproduction and locally restricted gene exchange. The level of diversity of tetraploid populations was slightly greater than that of diploid populations. Significant molecular variation was found between tetraploids and diploids. Tetraploids may be autopolyploids and may have formed repeatedly in different locations. At least three regions of origin could be recognized. Twenty-six distinct haplotypes were identified. Haplotype frequency distributions were strongly skewed, with most haplotypes (n=25) represented by only one sample each and thus restricted to a single population. Non-overlapping distributions of cpDNA haplotypes and strong genetic differentiation among populations and/or different ploid level were consistent with the findings of a nested clade analysis, which inferred long-distance colonization as the major process influencing the spatial haplotype distribution of this species. Nested clade analysis showed that the 26 haplotypes formed two 3-step, four 2-step and eleven 1-step clades, with twelve clades showing significant geographical associations. Higher N(ST) than G(ST) (P<0.05) suggested a distinct phylogeographical pattern. Based on mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests, we found no evidence of population expansion in the species. Our analyses indicate that the history of C.udensis involved both long-distance migration and the tectonic events of Mountains in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:20172032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010539','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010539"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> During BASE-<span class="hlt">ASIA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SE <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-<span class="hlt">ASIA</span>). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1509L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1509L"><span id="translatedtitle">Tsunami hazard and exposure in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the southern Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lvholt, F.; Harbitz, C. B.; Glimsdal, S.; Zamora, N.; Kuehn, D.; Bungum, H.; Smebye, H.; Yetman, G.; Nadim, F.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami has led to an increased awareness of tsunamis on a global level, and in particular in the South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian region. Emphasis has been on awareness as well as establishing warning system, and to a less degree on tsunami hazard and risk mapping. Notwithstanding, there is a need for quantifying the hazard and risk on a regional basis as an instrument for decision makers on national and regional scales. As such, this study is a first attempt to establish the tsunami hazard and risk for the whole South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the South Pacific. Previous tsunami hazard studies have been been limited to detailed, site-specific or regional studies. Because of the large geographical extent of the study area, the method for quantifying the tsunami hazard has been scenario based, focusing on overall trends rather than details. For this purpose, a simplified method for estimating the run-up over large regions based on a database of fine grid 2D linear simulations have been developed and tested against sophisticated run-up models. Results of the study are a first-pass assessment of the tsunami hazard and population exposure based on today's knowledge. The study considered the tsunamis caused by large earthquakes only, as these events will often contribute more to the risk than the smaller events. The tsunami events in this study have a probability of occurrence of 10% in 50 years. Finally, we find that about 10 million people are exposed to tsunamis within the study region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26350937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26350937"><span id="translatedtitle">The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as "FODMAPs" and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food com - monly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes. PMID:26350937</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4622128','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4622128"><span id="translatedtitle">The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as “FODMAPs” and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food commonly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes. PMID:26350937</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.2469P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.2469P"><span id="translatedtitle">A new dynamical index for classification of cold surge types over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Tae-Won; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Heo, Jin-Woo; Deng, Yi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The cold surges over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> can be classified into wave-train type and blocking type according to their dynamic origins. In the present study, two dynamic indices are proposed to objectively identify cold surge types using potential temperature ( θ) on the dynamic tropopause at 2-potential vorticity units (2-PVU) surface. The two indices are designed to represent primary characteristics of the two types of cold surge. The wave-train index ( WI) is defined as a difference of anomalous θ on the 2-PVU surface between the western North Pacific and northeast China, which captures a southward (northward) intrusion of cold (warm) air mass related to the trough-ridge pattern. The blocking index ( BI) is defined as a difference of anomalous θ between the subarctic region and northeast China, which indicates air mass overturning related to a reversal of the usual meridional θ gradient commonly observed in the occurrence of blocking type cold surge. Composite analyses based on the distribution of the WI and BI clearly demonstrate the dynamic evolutions of corresponding cold surge types. The wave-train cold surge is associated with a southeastward expansion of the Siberian High and northerly wind near surface, which is caused by growing baroclinic waves. During the blocking cold surge, a geopotential height dipole indicating the subarctic blocking and deepening of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian coastal trough induces a southward expansion of the Siberian High and northeasterly wind. Compared to the wave-train type, the blocking cold surge exhibits a longer duration and stronger intensity. In the new framework of these dynamic indices, we can detect a third type of cold surge when both the wave-train and the blocking occur together. In addition, we can exclude the events that do not have the essential features of the upper tropospheric disturbances or the subarctic anticyclonic circulation, which are responsible for cold surge occurrence, using the new indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43C..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43C..08H"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Recent destructive earthquakes in <span class="hlt">East-Asia</span> claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26400596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26400596"><span id="translatedtitle">Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Union Office.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Berger, S Dar; Chadha, S S; Singh, R J; Lal, P; Tonsing, J; Harries, A D</p> <p>2015-03-21</p> <p>In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012-both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere. PMID:26400596</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000779"><span id="translatedtitle">Drivers for animal welfare policies in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the Far <span class="hlt">East</span> and Oceania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the Far <span class="hlt">East</span> and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements. PMID:25000779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20624537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20624537"><span id="translatedtitle">Helminth infections of the central nervous system occurring in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Far <span class="hlt">East</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jrg</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Although helminth infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare, their public health implications must not be neglected. Indeed, several helminth species can cause cerebrospinal infections, especially if humans serve as intermediate or non-permissive host. The diagnosis of cerebrospinal helminthiases is difficult, and the detection of parasites in cerebrospinal fluid is rarely successful. Cerebrospinal helminth infections therefore often remain undetected, and hence prognosis is poor. Increases in tourism and population movements are risk factors for cerebrospinal helminthiases and infections pose particular challenges to clinicians in non-endemic areas. In this review, we focus primarily on food-borne helminthiases that are endemic and often emerging in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Far <span class="hlt">East</span>, namely angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, sparganosis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis. Additionally, we discuss neuroschistosomiasis, a disease that is transmitted through human-water contact. For each disease, we describe the pathogen, its transmission route and possible mechanisms for entering the CNS. We also summarise common signs and symptoms, challenges and opportunities for diagnosis, treatment, clinical management, geographical distribution and epidemiology. The adoption of a comprehensive set of diagnostic criteria for different cerebrospinal helminthiases is proposed, including epidemiological history, typical signs and symptoms, neuroimaging and laboratory findings. Finally, risk factors, and research needs for enhanced patient management and population-based control measures are discussed. PMID:20624537</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChJOL..30.1105S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChJOL..30.1105S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of spectral nudging on the 2010 <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer monsoon using WRF model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shan, Haixia; Guan, Yuping; Huang, Jianping</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The performance of spectral nudging in an investigation of the 2010 <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer monsoon was assessed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, forced by 1-degree NCEP Global Final Analysis (FNL). Two pairs of experiments were made, spectral nudging (SP) and non-spectral nudging (NOSP), with five members in each group. The members were distinguished by different initial times, and the analysis was based on the ensemble mean of the two simulation pairs. The SP was able to constrain error growth in large-scale circulation in upper-level, during simulation, and generate realistic regional scale patterns. The main focus was the model ability to simulate precipitation. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 product was used for precipitation verification. Mean precipitation magnitude was generally overestimated by WRF. Nevertheless, SP simulations suppressed overestimation relative to the NOSP experiments. Compared to TRMM, SP also improved model simulation of precipitation in spatial and temporal distributions, with the ability to reproduce movement of rainbands. However, extreme precipitation events were suppressed in the SP simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1100..388K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1100..388K"><span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from a Geostationary Satellite, MTSAT-1R</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Yoon, Jong Min</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval from satellite remote sensing is essential to understand aerosol influence on earth climate system. An algorithm to retrieve AOD from geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite allows us to monitor sources, sinks and transport of aerosols in higher temporal resolution. In this study, using 30-day visible channel data from the Multi-Functional Transport Satellite-1 Replacement (MTSAT-1R) to estimate surface reflectance and DIScrete Ordinate Radiative (DISORT) model (6 S) to calculate look up tables (LUT), AODs are retrieved at 0.55 μm over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The retrieved results are compared with the values of AERONET and MODIS. The calculated correlation coefficient(R) during March 2006 with AERONET showed 0.85 at Anmyon and 0.40 at Shirahama. The R for MODIS ranged from 0.2 to 0.96. This algorithm has relatively larger retrieval error than other multiple-channel algorithm due to the limitation in characterizing surface reflectance and aerosol property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9141310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9141310"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical physics is alive and well and growing in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ng, K; Pirabul, R; Peralta, A; Soejoko, D</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>In recent years there has been a significant economic growth in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, along with it a concurrent development of medical physics. The status of four countries--Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines and Indonesia are presented. Medical physicists in these countries have been experiencing the usual problems of lack of recognition, low salaries, and insufficient facilities for education and training opportunities. However the situation has improved recently through the initiative of local enthusiastic medical physicists who have started MS graduate programs in medical physics and begun organizing professional activities to raise the profile of medical physics. The tremendous support and catalytic roles of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and international organizations such as International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) have been instrumental in achieving progress. Contributions by these organizations include co-sponsorship of workshops and conferences, travel grants, medical physics libraries programs, and providing experts and educators. The demand for medical physicists is expected to rise in tandem with the increased emphasis on innovative technology for health care, stringent governmental regulation, and acceptance by the medical community of the important role of medical physicists. PMID:9141310</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4171880','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4171880"><span id="translatedtitle">Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Descriptive situational assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kesavadev, Jothydev; Sadikot, Shaukat M.; Saboo, Banshi; Shrestha, Dina; Jawad, Fatema; Azad, Kishwar; Wijesuriya, Mahendra Arunashanthi; Latt, Tint Swe; Kalra, Sanjay</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions. PMID:25285274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21426534','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21426534"><span id="translatedtitle">Perspectives on Australian animal health aid projects in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Windsor, P A</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Future food security poses many challenges and with increasing prosperity and demand for meat, the emerging but largely unregulated trade in livestock and their products from developing countries in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and particularly the Mekong region, pose enormous risks of transboundary disease epidemics. However this is a challenge that should be met as substantial improvements in large ruminant production through appropriate knowledge-based interventions can potentially move the largely rural smallholder populations of Lao PDR and Cambodia from subsistence to a productivity focus, offering a new pathway for poverty alleviation. Large development projects have been implemented in the Mekong region to facilitate this process and research is needed to define problems, identify and test solutions, and then suggest the most appropriate delivery mechanisms for promulgating the interventions that are most sustainable. Animal health aid projects are needed to improve livestock productivity, minimize risk to trade and human health and enhance the capacities of countries where there are significant gaps in the provision of veterinary services. Improving large ruminant production, particularly through forages technology and infectious disease risk management including village-level biosecurity, provides a potential driver of foot and mouth disease (FMD) control and eventual eradication in the region. A perspective on issues involved in Australian aid projects addressing regional animal health research and development and a checklist of strategies to consider when designing and managing such projects is provided. PMID:21426534</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3238047','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3238047"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anichtchenko, Alexander</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> and Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3179628','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3179628"><span id="translatedtitle">The conservation value of South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626648','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626648"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for action planning and surveillance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stillman, F; Hoang, M; Linton, R; Ritthiphakdee, B; Trochim, W</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and (3) building capacity to improve tobacco control planning in the participating countries. Design: A structured conceptualisation methodology known as concept mapping was used. The process included brainstorming, sorting and rating of statements describing industry activities. Statistical analyses used multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Interpretation of the maps was participatory, using regional tobacco control researchers, practitioners, and policy makers during a face to face meeting. Participants: 31 participants in this study come from the four countries represented in the project along with six people from the Johns Hopkins Blomberg School of Public Health. Conclusions: The map shows eight clusters of industry activities within the four countries. These were arranged into four general sectors: economics, politics, public relations and deception. For project design purposes, the map indicates areas of importance and feasibility for monitoring tobacco industry activities and serves as a basis for an initial discussion about action planning. Furthermore, the development of the map used a consensus building process across different stakeholders or stakeholder agencies and is critical when developing regional, cross border strategies for tracking and surveillance. PMID:18218787</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001625"><span id="translatedtitle">New Sources for Comparative Social Science: Historical Population Panel Data From <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Hao; Campbell, Cameron; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Comparison and comparability lie at the heart of any comparative social science. Still, precise comparison is virtually impossible without using similar methods and similar data. In recent decades, social demographers, historians, and economic historians have compiled and made available a large number of micro-level data sets of historical populations for North America and Europe. Studies using these data have already made important contributions to many academic disciplines. In a similar spirit, we introduce five new micro-level historical panel data sets from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, including the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset-Liaoning (CMGPD-LN) 1749-1909, the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset-Shuangcheng (CMGPD-SC) 1866-1913, the Japanese Ninbetsu-Aratame-Cho Population Register Database-Shimomoriya and Niita (NAC-SN) 1716-1870, the Korea Multi-Generational Panel Dataset-Tansung (KMGPD-TS) 1678-1888, and the Colonial Taiwan Household Registration Database (CTHRD) 1906-1945. These data sets in total contain more than 3.7 million linked observations of 610,000 individuals and are the first such Asian data to be made available online or by application. We discuss the key features and historical institutions that originally collected these data; the subsequent processes by which the data were reconstructed into individual-level panels; their particular data limitations and strengths; and their potential for comparative social scientific research. PMID:26001625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005405','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005405"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined Dust Detection Algorithm by Using MODIS Infrared Channels over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Lee, Sukjo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seok; Ou, Steve</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A new dust detection algorithm is developed by combining the results of multiple dust detectionmethods using IR channels onboard the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) between two wavelength channels has been used widely in previous dust detection methods. However, BTDmethods have limitations in identifying the offset values of the BTDto discriminate clear-sky areas. The current algorithm overcomes the disadvantages of previous dust detection methods by considering the Brightness Temperature Ratio (BTR) values of the dual wavelength channels with 30-day composite, the optical properties of the dust particles, the variability of surface properties, and the cloud contamination. Therefore, the current algorithm shows improvements in detecting the dust loaded region over land during daytime. Finally, the confidence index of the current dust algorithm is shown in 10 × 10 pixels of the MODIS observations. From January to June, 2006, the results of the current algorithm are within 64 to 81% of those found using the fine mode fraction (FMF) and aerosol index (AI) from the MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The agreement between the results of the current algorithm and the OMI AI over the non-polluted land also ranges from 60 to 67% to avoid errors due to the anthropogenic aerosol. In addition, the developed algorithm shows statistically significant results at four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4789298','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4789298"><span id="translatedtitle">New Sources for Comparative Social Science: Historical Population Panel Data From <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dong, Hao; Campbell, Cameron; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Comparison and comparability lie at the heart of any comparative social science. Still, precise comparison is virtually impossible without using similar methods and similar data. In recent decades, social demographers, historians, and economic historians have compiled and made available a large number of micro-level data sets of historical populations for North America and Europe. Studies using these data have already made important contributions to many academic disciplines. In a similar spirit, we introduce five new microlevel historical panel data sets from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, including the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset–Liaoning (CMGPD-LN) 1749–1909, the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset– Shuangcheng (CMGPD-SC) 1866–1913, the Japanese Ninbetsu-Aratame-Cho Population Register Database–Shimomoriya and Niita (NAC-SN) 1716–1870, the Korea Multi-Generational Panel Dataset–Tansung (KMGPD-TS) 1678–1888, and the Colonial Taiwan Household Registration Database (CTHRD) 1906–1945. These data sets in total contain more than 3.7 million linked observations of 610,000 individuals and are the first such Asian data to be made available online or by application. We discuss the key features and historical institutions that originally collected these data; the subsequent processes by which the data were reconstructed into individual-level panels; their particular data limitations and strengths; and their potential for comparative social scientific research. PMID:26001625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484744','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484744"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Eastern Mediterranean regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n = 49 studies), mortality (n = 28), nutrition (n = 24), and infectious diseases (n = 33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n = 56 studies), socioeconomic (n = 50) and biological sampling (n = 25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358511"><span id="translatedtitle">Global perspectives on animal welfare: <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the Far <span class="hlt">East</span>, and Oceania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rahman, S A; Walker, L; Ricketts, W</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the Far <span class="hlt">East</span>, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have taken initiatives to establish Animal Welfare Boards and enact laws for the prevention of cruelty to animals, but their efforts are far too limited to be of any significance and financial constraints and lack of personnel inhibit the implementation of the laws that do exist. In New Zealand and Australia, legislation and strong consultation procedures at governmental and community level strive to regulate and improve the welfare of animals in all spheres, but in other Oceanic countries there is a need for both an update in, or establishment of, legislation covering animal welfare. Limited progress has been made due to the status of the Veterinary Services and a lack of resources. Although some public and educational awareness programmes are carried out, increasing exposure to international media and attitudes of visiting tourists suggest that further awareness work needs to be undertaken. To address the problems of animal welfare in developing countries, it would be inappropriate to adopt the international standards that are implemented in the developed countries. Each developing country should evolve its own standards based on its own individual priorities. PMID:16358511</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692695','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692695"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Douglas, I</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11c4021G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11c4021G"><span id="translatedtitle">Age and climate contribution to observed forest carbon sinks in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Shan; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Donghai; Li, Zheng; Wu, Hao; Du, Ling; Luo, Hui</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The observed forest carbon sink, i.e. positive net ecosystem productivity (NEP), in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> reported by the eddy covariance flux tower network is an integrated result of forests themselves (e.g. age) and abiotic factors such as climate. However the relative contribution of climate alone to that sink is highly uncertain and has been in debate. In this study we de-trended a primary effect of forest age on carbon sinks by a statistical regression model between NEP and forest ages. Then, modeled residual NEP was regressed against climate factors again so that its relative contribution could be evaluated appropriately in the region. The analysis for data from the 2000s showed that forest age appeared to be the primary impact factor on the carbon sink of the region (R 2 = 0.347), and the mean annual temperature (MAT) was the second (R 2 = 0.23), while the mean annual precipitation effect might not be as apparent as MAT. Particularly for forests in China, climate might contribute to about 31.7% of the total NEP of 0.540 Pg C yr-1. Given that forests in China are relatively young under current climate conditions, we predicted that they would be capable of atmospheric carbon sequestration in the near future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..382G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..382G"><span id="translatedtitle">The analysis of anthropogenic factors in regional temperature change over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Guo, Ruixia</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this study, the variability of surface air temperature (SAT) over different types of regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are studied by using observation data from 1980-2012 under fast developing in economic. We found that the warming trends of the semi-arid regions are higher than other lands, which have increased 2.42°C as compared to the global annual mean temperature increase of 1.13°C over land. To investigate the causes of Enhanced Semi-Arid Warming (ESAW), we used an advanced dynamic-adjusted method proposed by Wallace et al. (2012) to analyse the adjusted temperature change. Our results point that the aerosol maybe takes the main role in adjusted temperature, especially in cold season. The anthropogenic-warming peak over semi-arid region plays the main role in the ESAW. Such anthropogenic-warming peak may be related to the long wave radiation change induced by aerosol in the air or the reduction of snow cover due to black carbon (BC) emission by fuels for winter residential heating. Besides the impact of aerosol over semi-arid region, the agricultural mulch creation, wind farms and other types of human activities may also make attribution to local SAT changes that need to be further studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.8674S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.8674S"><span id="translatedtitle">Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian domain containing 164 × 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 ± 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE <span class="hlt">Asia</span> field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G.G., Woo, J.-H., Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., 2007a. Top-down estimate of mercury emissions in China using four-dimensional variational data assimilation. Atmospheric Environment 41, 2804-2819) in China for the year 2001. The estimated natural emission helps explain the gap between the anthropogenic emission estimates based on activity data (e.g., Pacyna, J.M., Pacyna, E., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S., 2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4048-4063; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) and the emission inferred from field observations (e.g., Jaffe, D., Prestbo, E., Swartzendruber, P., Weiss-Penzias, P., Kato, S., Takami, A., Hatakeyama, S., Kajii, Y., 2005. Export of atmospheric mercury from <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Atmospheric Environment 39, 3029-3038; Weiss-Penzias, P., Jaffe, D., Swartzendruber, P., Hafner, W., Chand, D., Prestbo, E., 2007. Quantifying Asian and biomass burning sources of mercury using the Hg/CO ratio in pollution plumes observed at the Mount Bachelor observatory. Atmospheric Environment 41, 4366-4379) in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26531250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26531250"><span id="translatedtitle">Importance of demographic history for phylogeographic inference on the arctic-alpine plant Phyllodoce caerulea in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ikeda, H; Sakaguchi, S; Yakubov, V; Barkalov, V; Setoguchi, H</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Arctic-alpine plants have enormous ranges in the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogeographic studies have provided insights into their glacial survival as well as their postglacial colonization history. However, our understanding of the population dynamics of disjunct alpine populations in temperate regions remains limited. During Pleistocene cold periods, alpine populations of arctic-alpine species in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were either connected to an ice-free Beringia refugium or they persisted with prolonged isolation after their establishment. To estimate which of these scenarios is more likely, we elucidated the genetic structure of Phyllodoce caerulea (Ericaceae) in Beringia and northern Japan, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Sequence variation in multiple nuclear loci revealed that P. caerulea can be distinguished into northern and southern groups. A demographic analysis demonstrated that the north-south divergence did not predate the last glacial period and detected introgression from Phyllodoce aleutica, relative widely distributed in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, exclusively into the southern group. Therefore, although there has been genetic divergence between northern Japan and Beringia in P. caerulea, the divergence is unlikely to have resulted from their prolonged geographic separation throughout several cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Instead, our study suggests that the introgression contributed to the genetic divergence of P. caerulea and that the range of P. caerulea was plausibly connected between northern Japan and Beringia during the last glacial period. Overall, our study not only provides a biogeographic insight into alpine populations of arctic-alpine plants in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> but also emphasizes the importance of careful interpretation of genetic structure for inferring phylogeographic history. PMID:26531250</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13B3151O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13B3151O"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical transport and removal of black carbon over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Moteki, N.; Matsui, H.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted at 0-9 km in altitude over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in March-April 2009 to investigate transport and removal processes of aerosols, their physical and chemical properties, and cloud microphysical properties in Asian outflow. In this study, mechanisms of vertical transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols and their three-dimensional transport pathways over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in spring were examined through numerical simulations for the A-FORCE campaign using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The simulations reproduced the spatial distributions of mass concentration of BC and its transport efficiency observed by the A-FORCE campaign reasonably well, including its vertical and latitudinal gradients and dependency on precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during the transport. During the A-FORCE period, two types of pronounced upward BC mass fluxes from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the free troposphere (FT) were found over northeastern and inland-southern China. Over northeastern China, cyclones with modest precipitation were the primary uplifting mechanism of BC. Over inland-southern China, both cumulus convection and orographic uplifting along the slopes of the Tibetan Plateau played important roles in the upward transport of BC, despite its efficient wet deposition due to a large amount of precipitation supported by an abundant moisture supply by the low-level southerlies. In addition to the midlatitude (35-45°N) eastward outflow within the PBL (21% BC removal by precipitation during transport), the uplifting of BC over northeastern and inland-southern China and the subsequent BC transport by the midlatitude lower tropospheric (50% BC removal) and subtropical (25-35°N) midtropospheric westerlies (67% BC removal), respectively, provided the major transport pathways for BC export from continental <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to the Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...A52C08W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...A52C08W"><span id="translatedtitle">Alkalization of yellow sand and its long-term effects on acid rain in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Observed Evidence and Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Z.; Uno, I.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>Acid rain has been one of the serious environmental problems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the rapid industrialization in the last two decades. The contour line of pH value less than 5 has come up to the Yellow River region (35 deg N) from the southern China bounded by the Yangtze River (25 deg N) during these ten years. The objective of EANET ( Acid Deposition Moniroring Network in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) is to create a common understanding of the state of the acid deposition problems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. There are 38 monitoring sites for wet deposition monitoring and data was collected since January 1999. The analysis of datasets in 1999 shows that aerosol has alkalization effects on pH of rain, especially in spring. An Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS) was used to investigate the neutralization of acid rain by the yellow-sand in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The AQPMS includes all the major processes such as emission, advection, diffusion, chemistry, dry deposition, wet deposition and micro-physical processes. A new deflation module for the dust uptake is designed to estimate the dust loading (Wang et. al.,2000). The gas-phase chemical reaction scheme is a slightly modified version of the CBM-IV. Changes in trace species concentrations due to chemical reactions of soluble and reactive gases in in-cloud and below-cloud droplets are computed using a box aqueous chemical model. Numerical simulation was performed for two cases, that is, with and without the neutralization effects of Kosa in 1999. The predicted pH values and sulfate- and nitrate-ion levels of precipitation, together with the surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants, were compared with measured datasets of EANET and a reasonable agreement was obtained. The simulation results of 1999 exhibited a strong neutralization of the precipitation by the yellow-sand in the spring. The aerosol has alkalization effects on pH of rain, which reduces the H+ of rain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2258183','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2258183"><span id="translatedtitle">Population phylogenomic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in wild boars and domestic pigs revealed multiple domestication events in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Gui-Sheng; Yao, Yong-Gang; Qu, Kai-Xing; Ding, Zhao-Li; Li, Hui; Palanichamy, Malliya G; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Li, Ning; Chen, Yao-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background Previously reported evidence indicates that pigs were independently domesticated in multiple places throughout the world. However, a detailed picture of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has not yet been reported. Results Population phylogenomic analysis was conducted in domestic pigs and wild boars by screening the haplogroup-specific mutation motifs inferred from a phylogenetic tree of pig complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. All domestic pigs are clustered into single clade D (which contains subclades D1, D2, D3, and D4), with wild boars from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> being interspersed. Three haplogroups within D1 are dominant in the Mekong region (D1a2 and D1b) and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River (D1a1a), and may represent independent founders of domestic pigs. None of the domestic pig samples from North <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the Yellow River region, and the upstream region of the Yangtze River share the same haplogroup status with the local wild boars. The limited regional distributions of haplogroups D1 (including its subhaplogroups), D2, D3, and D4 in domestic pigs suggest at least two different in situ domestication events. Conclusion The use of fine-grained mtDNA phylogenomic analysis of wild boars and domestic pigs is a powerful tool with which to discern the origin of domestic pigs. Our findings show that pig domestication in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> mainly occurred in the Mekong region and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River. PMID:18021448</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41F..07W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41F..07W"><span id="translatedtitle">Cenozoic <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> plate tectonic reconstructions using constraints of mapped and unfolded slabs from mantle seismic tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Subducted slabs were mapped in the mantle under <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using MITP08 global seismic tomography (Li et al., 2008), Benioff zone seismicities and published local tomography. 3D gridded slab surfaces were constructed by manually picking and correlating the midpoint of fast seismic anomalies along variable cross-section orientations. The mapped slabs were structurally 'unfolded' and restored to the spherical Earth surface to assess their pre-subduction geometries. Gplates software was used to constrain plate tectonic reconstructions using the unfolded slabs. The unfolded SE <span class="hlt">Asia</span> upper mantle slabs reveal a 'picture puzzle' fit along their edges that suggests a larger NE Indo-Australian ocean once existed that included the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea. Deeper lower mantle detached slabs indicate an early to mid-Cenozoic '<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Sea' between <span class="hlt">east</span> Sundaland and the Pacific that stretched from the Ryukyu Islands north of present-day Taiwan southward to Sulawesi. The unfolded slab constraints produced gap and overlap incompatibilities when used in published plate tectonic reconstructions. Here a plate tectonic reconstruction incorporating the unfolded slab constraints is proposed that has the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea clustered at the northern margin of Australia during the early Cenozoic. At the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with 'Australia-like' plate motions and overrode the '<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Sea'. Plate motions were accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. Between 25 to 15 Ma the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea plates were fragmented from the greater Indo-Australian ocean. The Philippine Sea was captured by the Pacific plate and now has Pacific-like westward motions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1428019D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1428019D"><span id="translatedtitle">Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, K.; Liu, J.; Ding, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, T. L.; Shi, J.; Han, Y.; Wang, H.; Jiang, F.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has experienced rapid development with increasing CO emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> can have great implications on regional air quality. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. High CO abundances of 300-550 ppbv were observed in MOZAIC data in the free troposphere during these episodes. These are among the highest CO abundances documented at these altitudes. Correspondingly, elevated CO was shown in MOPITT daytime data in the middle to upper troposphere in the 2003 case, mostly in the lower to middle troposphere in the 2004 case, and in the upper troposphere in the 2005 case. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases. In the 2003 case, CO from large forest fires near Lake Baikal dominated the elevated CO, which had been rapidly transported upward by a~frontal system from the fire plumes. In the 2004 case, anthropogenic CO from the North China Plain experienced frontal lifting and mostly reached ~ 700 hPa near the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, while CO from biomass burning from Indochina experienced orographic lifting, leeside-trough induced convection, and frontal lifting through two separate transport pathways, leading to two distinct CO enhancements around 700 hPa and 300 hPa. In the 2005 case, high CO of ~ 300 ppbv, observed in the MOZAIC data around 350 hPa, originated from the anthropogenic source over the vicinity of the Sichuan basin and biomass burning from Indochina, after convection and strong frontal lifting. These cases show that topography affects vertical transport of CO in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> via different ways, including orographic uplifting over the Hengduan Mountains, assisting frontal lifting in the North China Plain, and facilitating convection in the Sichuan basin. In particular, topography-induced leeside troughs over Indochina lead to strong convection that assisted CO uplifting to the upper troposphere. This study shows that the new daytime MOPITT near-infrared (NIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) data (version 5 or above) have enhanced vertical sensitivity and may help qualitative diagnosis of vertical transport processes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A13C0232L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A13C0232L"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary results from measurement of methane at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea for understanding emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, E.; Kim, J.; Ahn, K.; Park, M.; Kim, K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Importance of methane (CH4) to the global biogeochemical cycle and climate change has been well documented, and while the total global methane emissions are relatively well known, the strength of each source component and their trends are not, due to the varied biological and anthropogenic sources of emissions. This is especially true in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, where strong expected emissions of CH4 from fossil fuel mining and burning as well as rice agriculture remain less understood. In this study, we present atmospheric measurements of methane and preliminary analysis of the results. Measurement site for this study is at Gosan, a remote background site located on Jeju Island, Korea. Due to its central location in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, monitoring of both background and pollution from the surrounding regions is possible, thus ideal for monitoring methane emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. To facilitate high-quality continuous measurements, an automated measurement system with a GC-FID has been created and tested at Seoul National University. Identification of the dominant CH4 emission sources could be better understood by analyzing correlation with other anthropogenically and biogenically emitted compounds such as CO (important indicator for fossil fuel burning) and chlorinated compounds (emitted from biomass burning and the use of coal). Advanced air mass transport modeling will also be used to analyze different emission patterns by region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdAtS..32..287K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdAtS..32..287K"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the biospheric contribution to surface atmospheric CO2 concentrations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> with a regional chemical transport model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kou, Xingxia; Zhang, Meigen; Peng, Zhen; Wang, Yinghong</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>A regional chemical transport model, RAMS-CMAQ, was employed to assess the impacts of biosphere-atmosphere C2 exchange on seasonal variations in atmospheric C2 concentrations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Simulated C2 concentrations were compared with observations at 12 surface stations and the comparison showed they were generally in good agreement. Both observations and simulations suggested that surface C2 over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> features a summertime trough due to biospheric absorption, while in some urban areas surface C2 has a distinct summer peak, which could be attributed to the strong impact from anthropogenic emissions. Analysis of the model results indicated that biospheric fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions are comparably important in shaping spatial distributions of C2 near the surface over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Biospheric flux plays an important role in the prevailing spatial pattern of C2 enhancement and reduction on the synoptic scale due to the strong seasonality of biospheric C2 flux. The elevation of C2 levels by the biosphere during winter was found to be larger than 5 ppm in North China and Southeast China, and during summertime a significant depletion (? 7 ppm) occurred in most areas, except for the Indo-China Peninsula where positive bioflux values were found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy..tmp..297X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy..tmp..297X"><span id="translatedtitle">Peak-summer <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The interannual variation of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast prediction skill represented by domain-averaged temporal correlation coefficient is 0.44, which is twice higher than the skill of the current dynamical hindcast, suggesting that the dynamical models have large rooms to improve. The maximum potential attainable prediction skills for the peak summer SEA rainfall is also estimated and discussed by using the PMA. High predictability regions are found over several climatological rainfall centers like Indo-China peninsula, southern coast of China, southeastern SCS, and Philippine Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..754W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..754W"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whitehead, James; Gallagher, Martin; Robinson, Niall; Gabey, Andrew; Dorsey, James; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Ryder, James; Nemitz, Eiko; Davies, Fay</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Atmospheric aerosol measurements over tropical rainforests are important in order to understand their sources and sinks, and hence the rainforests' influence on local and regional climate. To date, there have been no published studies in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which, compared to the African and South American continents, represents a unique mixture of tropical seas and islands. Aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-<span class="hlt">east</span> Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Ultrafine particle fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to entrainment of particles into the growing mixed layer. In-canopy measurements were conducted at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1 - 20 µm) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. Number concentrations in this size range in the canopy understory correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5 - 1.0 µm) between above and below canopy showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites, which varied according to time of day. This lag time was shortest during the middle of the day by a significant margin. This was not observed for coarse mode (> 1.0 µm) aerosols. Further evidence of daytime coupling between above and below canopy in terms of aerosol measurements is implied by comparison of measurements from an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at the GAW tower and simultaneous bag sampling at the in-canopy site, subsequently analysed with the AMS. The transport of particles through the canopy, and fluxes above canopy, will be discussed in terms of mechanisms and diurnal variation, and the results of this study will be examined in order to build up a picture of the dynamics of aerosols above and within the rainforest canopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A31B3025C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A31B3025C"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of PM forecasting model using Lidar and satellite data over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>CHOI, S. Y.; Koo, Y. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> Asian economies have experienced rapid growth over three decades, and the region is one of the world's most populated places. Asian dust and anthropogenic aerosols are considerable over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. They are frequently transported to Korea during the late winter and spring. Trans-boundary dust is transported either as isolated or mixed with anthropogenic aerosols. Consequently, Asian dust and atmospheric aerosols have become an emerging issue resulting in high particulate matter (PM) episode in Korea. The PM forecasting model which has been developed and opened to public since 2007 is an effective tool to protect the public health by detecting the PM episode event and notifying it to the public in advance. Validation of forecasting models using measurements such as surface observations is necessary to assess their reliability, but they are not able to detect spatial and vertical distribution. Vertical profile is crucial to understand the long-range transport of PM. In this study, long-range transports of aerosols were investigated by a integrated analysis of ground-based / space-borne Lidar observations and a numerical forecasting model for the PM episode in 2013. The numerical forecasting using the CMAQ model (Community Multiscale Air Quality) was compared with LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) which is located in Seoul National University (37.46°N, 126.95°E) and CALIOP onboard CALIPSO satellite. Vertical profiles of CALIOP which are the Attenuated backscatter coefficient(532nm), the Depolarization ratio (532nm) and Ratio of attenuated backscatter coefficients (1064nm/532nm) were compared with those calculated from CMAQ output. Altitudinal distribution of extinction coefficient from CMAQ was also compared with vertical distribution of LIDAR extinction coefficient at Seoul. Results showed that long-range transports of aerosols originated from China to Korea were observed by the CALIOP and the CMAQ model could depict the long-range transport of PM to identify the PM episode in Korea. Further details of model comparisons and meteorological and chemical characteristics during the haze event will be discussed in the presentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRD..108.8789K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRD..108.8789K"><span id="translatedtitle">Export of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen and sulfur compounds from the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region in spring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Takegawa, N.; Masui, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ko, M. W.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Flocke, F.; Weber, R. J.; Thornton, D. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Vay, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Streets, D. G.; Eisele, F. L.; Sandholm, S. T.; Singh, H. B.; Talbot, R. W.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Measurements of gaseous and particulate reactive nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as other chemical species, were made using the P-3B and DC-8 aircraft over the western Pacific during the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment, conducted between February and April 2001. These measurements provide a good opportunity to study the extent to which anthropogenic NOx and SO2 emitted over the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries remain as NOy and SOx (=SO2 + nssSO42-) in the form of gas or fine particles when an air mass is transported into the western Pacific region. In this paper a method to estimate transport efficiencies, ɛ(NOy) and ɛ(SOx), in an air mass that has experienced multiple injection, mixing, and loss processes is described. In this analysis, CO and CO2 are used as passive tracers of transport, and the emission inventories of CO, CO2, NOx, and SO2 over the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region are used. Results from the P-3B presented in this study indicate that 20-40% and 15% of NOx emitted over the northeastern part of China remained as NOy over the western Pacific in the boundary layer (BL) and free troposphere (FT), respectively. In the FT, PAN is found to have been the dominant form of NOy, while only 0.5% of emitted NOx remained as NOx. The transport efficiency of SOx is estimated to have been 25-45% and 15-20% in the BL and FT, respectively. Median values of the nssSO42-/SOx ratio are 0.4-0.6 both in the BL and FT, however large variability is found in the FT. These results are generally consistent with those derived using DC-8 data. The results obtained in this study indicate that more than half of NOy and SOx were lost over the continent and that the vertical transport from the BL to FT further reduced their amounts by a factor of 2, likely due to wet removal. Budgets of NOy and SOx were also studied for air masses, which we sampled during TRACE-P and the flux out from the continent in these cases is estimated to be 20% of the emissions. Flux in the BL and FT is found to have a similar contribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11624306T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11624306T"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.; Baker, David; Conway, Thomas J.; Chung, Y. S.; Gregg, Jay; Miller, John B.; Southon, John R.; Zhou, Ling-Xi</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Flask samples from two sites in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff, derived from Δ14CO2observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO2ff when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO2ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO2ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement. Carbon monoxide (CO) correlates strongly with CO2ff. The SDZ and TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO: CO2ff ratios (RCO:CO2ff) of 47 ± 2 and 44 ± 3 ppb/ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low RCO:CO2ffof 13 ± 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than bottom-up inventories, but consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We compare our CO2ff observations with modeled CO2ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model convolved with a bottom-up CO2ff emission inventories. The modeled annual mean CO2ff mole fractions are consistent with our observations when the model inventory includes the reported 63% increase in Chinese emissions from 2004 to 2010, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat is unable to replicate the observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2235893','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2235893"><span id="translatedtitle">A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Plançon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. Methods and Findings With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to ∼ 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. Conclusions An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation. International cross-disciplinary collaborations may be appropriate in the investigation of other serious counterfeit medicine public health problems elsewhere, but strengthening of international collaborations and forensic and drug regulatory authority capacity will be required. PMID:18271620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.6247G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.6247G"><span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of simulated particulate sulfate over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> through global model intercomparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goto, Daisuke; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Dai, Tie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Kajino, Mizuo; Matsui, Hitoshi; Takami, Akinori; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Ohara, Toshimasa</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Sulfate aerosols simulated by an aerosol module coupled to the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) at a spatial resolution (220 km) widely used by global climate models were evaluated by a comparison with in situ observations and the same aerosol module coupled to the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for January, April, July, and October 2006. The results indicated that a horizontal gradient of sulfate from the source over China to the outflow over Korea-Japan was present in both the simulations and the observations. At the observation sites, the correlation coefficients of the sulfate concentrations between the simulations and the observations were high (NICAM: 0.49-0.89, MIROC: 0.61-0.77), whereas the simulated sulfate concentrations were lower than those obtained by the observation with the normalized mean bias of NICAM being -68 to -54% (all), -77 to -63% (source), and -67 to -30% (outflow) and that of MIROC being -61 to -28% (all), -77 to -63% (source), and -60 to +2% (outflow). Both NICAM and MIROC strongly underpredict surface SO2 over China source regions and Korea-Japan outflow regions, but the MIROC SO2 is much higher than NICAM SO2 over both regions. These differences between the models were mainly explained by differences in the sulfate formation within clouds and the dry deposition of SO2. These results indicated that the uncertainty of the meteorological and cloud fields as well as the vertical transport patterns between the different host climate models has a substantial impact on the simulated sulfate distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121..382Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121..382Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of OMI near-UV aerosol optical depth over Central and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wenhao; Gu, Xingfa; Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Zheng, Fengjie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Several essential improvements have been made in recent Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) near-ultraviolet (UV) aerosol retrieval algorithm version (OMAERUV version 1.4.2), but few regional validations for its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product are conducted. This paper assessed the OMAERUV AOD product over Central and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The OMAERUV Level 2.0 AOD product was compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Level 2.0 direct Sun AOD measurement over 10 years (2005-2014) at 27 selected AERONET sites. A combined comparison of OMAERUV-AERONET AOD at 25 (2) sites was carried out and yielded correlation coefficient (ρ) of 0.63 (0.77), slope of 0.53 (0.57), y intercept of 0.18 (0.13), and 50.71% (57.24%) OMAERUV AOD fall within the expected uncertainty boundary (larger by 0.1 or ±30%) at 380 nm (440 nm). The more accurate (ρ > 0.70) OMAERUV retrievals are reported over eastern and northern China and South Korea. The two primary reasons for the underestimation of OMAERUV AOD over China are as follows: (1) the use of single-channel (388 nm) retrieval method retrieves scattering AOD and not total AOD, and (2) the spectral dependence of the imaginary part of the refractive index in the near-UV region assumed in the algorithm may not be representative of aerosols found over China. The comparisons for three predominant aerosol types indicate that smoke aerosol exhibits the best performance, followed by dust and nonabsorbing aerosol. It is consistent with the characteristic of near-UV wavelength that it is more sensitive to absorbent particles. The comprehensive yearly (2005-2014) comparison at 25 sites and comparison between two periods (2005-2006 and 2009-2014) at selected four sites show no discernible decrease of temporal trend, which indicates that the OMAERUV algorithm successfully maintains its quality of aerosol product despite post-2008 row anomaly instrument problem.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B23A0369M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B23A0369M"><span id="translatedtitle">Acupunctural Afforestation for Desertification Mitigation over Semi-Arid Regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myoung, B.; Choi, Y.; Park, S. K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Desertification over the arid/semi-arid regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and dust transports from the regions have been serious concerns for the societies not only in adjacent Asian countries but also in the western US. One of the strategies for desertification mitigation is tree planting over the semi-arid areas. However, unless the newly planted vegetation changes the feedback characteristics between land-surface and the atmosphere, the impact is not profound and effective for a long time. Here we show afforestation effects on the coupling strength between the land-surface and atmosphere, measured by the monthly anomalies of precipitation and evapotranspiration. The coupling strength is an important parameter to diagnose the aridity of a region since the stronger coupling strength is indicative of the higher vulnerability of the local climate to droughts. Simulations of a regional vegetation-climate coupled model reveal that afforestation substantially modulates local coupling strength mainly through controlling variability of evapotranspiration. The coupling strength decreases most significantly with an increase of unit vegetation fraction over the northern and central China including Manchurian Plains and highly populated areas of Beijing and Tianjin. The coupling characteristics of these regions are expected to reduce the occurrence of extreme weather events such as droughts by alleviating positive responses of the surface to precipitation deficit. Therefore, afforestation concentrated on these regions, which is called "acupunctural afforestation", may most effectively contribute to desertification mitigation than other regions by attenuating mechanisms maintaining warm season droughts. This study suggests that our attention should be paid to understanding the coupling strength between land and the atmosphere for desertification mitigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS23D1247C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS23D1247C"><span id="translatedtitle">Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17066428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17066428"><span id="translatedtitle">Health systems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: what can developing countries learn from Japan and the Asian Tigers?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wagstaff, Adam</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The health systems of Japan and the Asian Tigers (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan), and the recent reforms to them, provide many potentially valuable lessons to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s developing countries. All five systems have managed to keep a check on health spending despite their different approaches to financing and delivery. These differences are reflected in the progressivity of health finance, but the precise degree of progressivity of individual sources and the extent to which households are vulnerable to catastrophic health payments depend on the design features of the system - the height of any ceilings on social insurance contributions, the fraction of health spending covered by the benefit package, the extent to which the poor face reduced copayments, whether there are caps on copayments, and so on. On the delivery side, too, Japan and the Tigers offer some interesting lessons. Singapore's experience with corporatizing public hospitals - rapid cost and price inflation, a race for the best technology, and so on - illustrates the difficulties of corporatization. Korea's experience with a narrow benefit package illustrates the danger of providers shifting demand from insured services with regulated prices to uninsured services with unregulated prices. Japan, in its approach to rate setting for insured services, has managed to combine careful cost control with fine-tuning of profit margins on different types of care. Experiences with DRGs in Korea and Taiwan point to cost-savings but also to possible knock-on effects on service volume and total health spending. Korea and Taiwan both offer important lessons for the separation of prescribing and dispensing, including the risks of compensation costs outweighing the cost savings caused by more 'rational' prescribing, and cost-savings never being realized because of other concessions to providers, such as allowing them to have onsite pharmacists. PMID:17066428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934707"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in <span class="hlt">East</span> Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in <span class="hlt">East</span> Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4775023','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4775023"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in <span class="hlt">East</span> Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in <span class="hlt">East</span> Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3355188','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3355188"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Knowledge Fusion to Analyze Avian Influenza H5N1 in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ge, Erjia; Haining, Robert; Li, Chi Pang; Yu, Zuguo; Waye, Miu Yee; Chu, Ka Hou; Leung, Yee</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, a disease associated with high rates of mortality in infected human populations, poses a serious threat to public health in many parts of the world. This article reports findings from a study aimed at improving our understanding of the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza, H5N1, risk in <span class="hlt">East</span>-Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> where the disease is both persistent and devastating. Though many disciplines have made important contributions to our understanding of H5N1, it remains a challenge to integrate knowledge from different disciplines. This study applies genetic analysis that identifies the evolution of the H5N1 virus in space and time, epidemiological analysis that determines socio-ecological factors associated with H5N1 occurrence, and statistical analysis that identifies outbreak clusters, and then applies a methodology to formally integrate the findings of the three sets of methodologies. The present study is novel in two respects. First it makes the initiative attempt to use genetic sequences and space-time data to create a space-time phylogenetic tree to estimate and map the virus' ability to spread. Second, by integrating the results we are able to generate insights into the space-time occurrence and spread of H5N1 that we believe have a higher level of corroboration than is possible when analysis is based on only one methodology. Our research identifies links between the occurrence of H5N1 by area and a set of socio-ecological factors including altitude, population density, poultry density, and the shortest path distances to inland water, coastlines, migrating routes, railways, and roads. This study seeks to lay a solid foundation for the interdisciplinary study of this and other influenza outbreaks. It will provide substantive information for containing H5N1 outbreaks. PMID:22615729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4525361','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4525361"><span id="translatedtitle">Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Union Office</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Satyanarayana, S.; Berger, S. Dar; Chadha, S. S.; Singh, R. J.; Lal, P.; Tonsing, J.; Harries, A. D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012—both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere. PMID:26400596</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.1652J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.1652J"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of model resolution on the simulation of diurnal variations of precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Emilia Kyung; Choi, In-Jin; Kim, So-Young; Han, Ji-Young</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The impact of model resolution on the simulation of diurnal variations of precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the summer monsoon period of 2006 is investigated by conducting a suite of ensemble simulations of three different cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS), which are Kain-Fritsch, Kain-Fritsch with a modified trigger function, and Simplified Arakawa-Schubert, and the convection-permitting (CP) setting with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The horizontal resolutions of 50 km, 27 km, and 9 km are applied for each different representation of convection process. Model simulations as a whole are able to mimic the diurnal and semidiurnal cycles with 24 h and 12 h peaks in the morning and the afternoon. However, the simulated afternoon peaks over land are earlier in the CPS runs, while delayed in the CP runs, compared to those observed. The increase of resolution improves the phase and amplitude of diurnal variations in the CP runs due to the explicit representation of the realistic cloud system. In addition, the contribution of nonconvective precipitation from the microphysical process significantly improves the phase of diurnal variations in the CPS runs, especially the afternoon peak over land. The KFtr scheme outperforms other schemes in reproducing the diurnal variations due to the relatively dominant role of nonconvective precipitation. Phase does not change with increasing resolution in the diurnal variations of convective precipitation. Only the modification of the convection scheme, such as the alternative trigger function in the KFtr scheme distinguished from the KF scheme, can make fundamental changes in phase of diurnal variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3003Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3003Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Simulation of Dust Aerosol and Its Future Changes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by a RCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Dongfeng; Gao, Xuejie; Zakey, Ashraf; Giorgi, Filippo; Solmon, Fabien</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The ICTP regional climate model coupled with a dust aerosol model (RegCM3-dust) is employed to simulate dust production, its climatic effects, and the futures changes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Firstly, two sets of experiments are completed with the high resolution global model output data from the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC3.2_hires), one for current (1991-2000), the other for future (2091-2100, following the A1B scenario) climate and dust aerosol. Simulated current climates by both MIROC3.2_hires and RegCM3-dust model are inter-compared and evaluated against observations, while the results of climate change (future-current) from above two models are analyzed also. Simulated dust aerosols by RegCM3-dust are compared with the satellite data and the changes of dust aerosols are predicted. Then, another two experiments with the radiative effects of dust aerosols for different periods are conducted. The modeled dust aerosols climate effect and its regional feedbacks are assessed. Our main conclusions are as follows: Both MIROC3.2_hires and RegCM3-dust can reproduce well the atmospheric circulation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The simulated multi-years mean surface air temperature is colder/warmer than observations in the range of 1-2°C by MIROC3.2_hires/ RegCM3-dust. The lesser bias can be found in RegCM3-dust simulation for JJA, while in MIROC3.2_hires for DJF, the RegCM3-dust shows a cold bias over region. Both models overestimate the precipitation in the northern part of the model domain and show a bias of ±25% in the most southern part of model domain. The main inadequacy of models is an underestimate of precipitation over Southeast China in winter. In general, no obvious improvements are shown in RegCM3-dust compared to MIROC3.2_hires. The pattern of changes (future-current) in surface air temperature by RegCM3-dust is similar to MIROC3.2_hires, characterized with a larger increase in northern part than in southern part and the maximum rise is found in winter. The differences between MIROC3.2_hires and RegCM3-dust are found in the areas covered by snow, where the temperature rise by MIROC3.2_hires is much higher than by RegCM3-dust. The multi-years mean precipitations increase over most simulation region by MIROC3.2_hires, while decrease over Northeast China and the lower-middle reaches of Yangtze River by RegCM3-dust, due to the decrease in JJA and SON. The mean precipitations over Tibet Plateau in snow covered seasons increase by MIROC3.2_hires and decrease by RegCM3-dust. The seasonally averaged comparisons of simulated AOD and DI to observations show that the RegCM3-dust has the ability of reproduce the averaged seasonal spatial and temporal distribution of dust aerosol over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by the MIROC3.2_hires driven. The modeled dust emission and load are rational also. However, the same model deficiency is found compared to NCEP driven experiments. The dust emission decreases over the snow free areas and increases over the areas covered by snow in the future. An increase of the multi-years mean dust emission by 2% is shown over the domain, with the increase from December to March due to the decrease of snow amount and reduction from April to November because of the decreased wind speeds. The projected frequencies of high dust emission show the same identities. The multi-years mean dust load increases by 14%, while a little decreases in MAM and August. The distribution of the surface and TOA radiative forcing from dust aerosol in both current and future run are in agreement with that in NCEP- driven simulation. The surface cooling with a little more cooler in the future run can be found. Unsystematic precipitation change is shown, with the only exception over the Taklimakan Desert, where precipitation increases in both current and future run. The dust radiative forcing induces a negative feedback mechanism on dust emission and dust load, the differences of this feedback between the current and future run are related to the value of dust emission and dust load themselves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2759T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2759T"><span id="translatedtitle">The zonal movement of the Indian-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon interface in relation to the land-sea thermal contrast anomaly over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tao, Yun; Cao, Jie; Lan, Guangdong; Su, Qin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Based on atmospheric circulation reanalysis, global gridded precipitation, and outgoing longwave radiation datasets, this study reveals the physical process through which the land-sea thermal contrast over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> interrelates with the variability of the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon (IIE). The results indicate that the release of latent heating exerted by the low-frequency variability of anomalous land-sea thermal contrast is one of the most important physical processes correlating with the zonal movement of the IIE, in which the release of latent heating over eastern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> makes the greatest contribution. When a lower apparent moisture sink occurs over the South China Sea but a higher one over southern China, an anomalously positive land-sea thermal contrast is formed. An anomalous convergent zone in relation to the positive land-sea thermal contrast, located in the eastern part of the IIE, will favor the IIE to move more eastward than normal, and vice versa. An anomalous divergent zone located in the eastern part of the IIE will benefit the IIE to shift more westward than normal. Experiments using a linear baroclinic model confirm the physical processes revealed by the observational analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3372A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3372A"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Economy of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-<span class="hlt">east</span> of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..162K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..162K"><span id="translatedtitle">How well do climate models simulate atmospheric teleconnctions over the North Pacific and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> associated with ENSO?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Sunyong; Son, Hye-Young; Kug, Jong-Seong</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>During the El Niño and La Niña mature phase, atmospheric teleconnections over the North Pacific and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> vary considerably on sub-seasonal time scales, and are strongly phase-locked to the sub-seasonal evolution. In this study, we investigate how well climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulate the sub-seasonal evolution of teleconnections over the North Pacific and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the observations, there is a prominent anticyclone anomaly over the Kuroshio extension region (i.e. Kuroshio anticyclone), which significantly affects <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian climate in the early winter (November-December) of El Niño years. However, in January, the Kuroshio anticyclone suddenly disappears, and a cyclonic flow dominates over the North Pacific. It is found here that the CMIP5 models simulate the overall extratropical teleconnection patterns, but they fail to reproduce some of these sub-seasonally-varying features in atmospheric circulation. For example, the models tend to simulate a weaker Kuroshio anticyclone in the early winter during El Niño phases, and fail to capture the abrupt decay of the Kuroshio anticyclone in the late winter. We demonstrate here that these systematic errors in ENSO teleconnection can be explained by systematic errors in tropical precipitation associated with ENSO. That is, negative precipitation anomalies over the western North Pacific (WNP) are too weak in the models compared to that in the observations, and their amplitude tends to be strengthened from December to the following January, while they are weakened in the observations. In addition, analyses on the inter-model diversity strongly support that relative magnitudes of WNP and central Pacific precipitation anomalies are critical for determining sub-seasonal evolution of ENSO teleconnections over the North Pacific and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8203R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8203R"><span id="translatedtitle">Asthenospheric counterflows beneath the moving lithosphere of Central and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in the past 90 Ma: volcanic and tomographic evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasskazov, Sergei; Chuvashova, Irina; Kozhevnikov, Vladimir</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Asthenospheric counterflows, accompanied motions of the lithosphere in Central and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, are defined on basis of spatial-temporal activity of mantle sources [Rasskazov et al., 2012; Rasskazov, Chuvashova, 2013; Chuvashova, Rasskazov, 2014] and the tomographic model of the Rayleigh wave group velocities [Kozhevnikov et al., 2014]. The opposite fluxes are defined relative to centers of convective instability (low-velocity anomalies), expressed by thinning of the mantle transition layer under Southwestern Gobi (44 °N, 95 °E) and Northern Baikal (52 °N, 108 °E). Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic fields in Southern Gobi are shifted eastwards relative to the former anomaly over 600 km with the opposite sub-lithospheric flux at depths of 150-300 km. Likewise, the Late Tertiary Vitim volcanic field is shifted relative to the latter anomaly over 100-200 km. We suggest that the Gobi and Baikal asthenospheric counterflows contributed to the rollback mechanism of downgoing slab material from the Pacific under the eastern margin of <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in the Cretaceous-Paleogene and Early-Middle Miocene. The <span class="hlt">east</span>-west Gobi reverse flux, caused by differential block motions in front of the Indo-Asian convergence, resulted in the oblique Honshu-Korean flexure of the Pacific slab that propagated beneath the continental margin, while the Japan Sea was quickly opening at about 15 Ma. The Baikal N60°W reverse flux, originated due to oncoming traffic between Eurasia and the Pacific plate, entailed the formation of the Baikal Rift Zone and direct Hokkaido Amur slab flexure [Rasskazov et al., 2004]. The study is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant 14-05-31328). References Chuvashova I.S., Rasskazov S.V. Magmatic sources in the mantle of the evolving Earth. Irkutsk: Publishing House of the Irkutsk State University, 2014. 310 p. (in Russian) Kozhevnikov V.M., Seredkina A.I., Solovei O.A. 3D mantle structure of Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion. Russian Geol. Geophys. 2014. V. 55, N 10. P. 1564-1575. Rasskazov S., Taniguchi H., Goto A., Litasov K. Magmatic expression of plate subduction beneath <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in the Mesozoic through Cenozoic // Northeast Asian Studies. 2004. V. 9. P. 179-219. Rasskazov S.V., Chuvashova I.S., Yasnygina T.A., Fefelov N.N., Saranina E.V. Potassic and potassic-sodic volcanic series in the Cenozoic of <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Novosibirsk, Academic Publishing House "GEO", 2012. 351 p. (in Russian) Rasskazov S.V., Chuvashova I.S. The latest mantle geodynamics of Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Irkutsk: Publishing House of the Irkutsk State University, 2013. 308 p. (in Russian)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1314037I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1314037I"><span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of the CMAQ reproducibility of satellite tropospheric NO2 column observations at different local times over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irie, H.; Yamaji, K.; Ikeda, K.; Uno, I.; Itahashi, S.; Ohara, T.; Kurokawa, J.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Despite the importance of the role of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in tropospheric chemistry, the causes leading to the discrepancy between satellite-derived and modeled tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> remain unclear. Here the reproducibility of satellite tropospheric NO2 VCD data by a regional chemical transport model (CMAQ) with the Regional Emission inventory in <span class="hlt">ASia</span> (REAS) Version 2 is evaluated from the viewpoint of the diurnal variation of tropospheric NO2 VCDs, where satellite observations at different local times (SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, OMI/Aura, and GOME-2/Metop-A) are utilized considering literature validation results. As a case study, we concentrate on June and December 2007 for a detailed evaluation based on various sensitivity simulations, for example with different spatial resolutions (80, 40, 20, and 10 km) for CMAQ. For June, CMAQ generally reproduces absolute values of satellite NO2 VCDs and their diurnal variations over all 12 selected diagnostic regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In contrast, a difficulty arises in interpreting the significant disagreement between satellite and CMAQ values over most of the diagnostic regions in December. The disagreement cannot be explained by any of the sensitivity simulations performed in this study. To address this, more investigations, including further efforts for satellite validations in wintertime, are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23A0174I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23A0174I"><span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of the CMAQ reproducibility of satellite tropospheric NO2 column observations at different local times over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irie, H.; Yamaji, K.; Ikeda, K.; Uno, I.; Itahashi, S.; Ohara, T.; Kurokawa, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Despite the importance of the role of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in tropospheric chemistry, the causes leading to the discrepancy between satellite-derived and modeled tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> remain unclear. Here the reproducibility of satellite tropospheric NO2 VCD data by a regional chemical transport model (CMAQ) with the Regional Emission inventory in <span class="hlt">ASia</span> (REAS) Version 2 is evaluated from the viewpoint of the diurnal variation of tropospheric NO2 VCDs, where satellite observations at different local times (SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, OMI/Aura, and GOME-2/Metop-A) are utilized. As a case study, we concentrate on June 2007 for a detailed evaluation based on various sensitivity simulations from the aspects of emission and spatial resolution. Within uncertainty in satellite data, CMAQ generally reproduces absolute values of monthly-mean satellite NO2 VCDs over most of 12 selected diagnostic regions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Reconsideration of literature satellite bias estimates brings the satellite-derived NO2 diurnal variation pattern closer to that of CMAQ. The diurnal variation pattern is insensitive to any sensitivity simulations conducted in this study. Improving the model horizontal resolution tends to show better agreement with satellite data in AM but not in PM in China. Compared to satellite data, CMAQ shows a weak NO2 diurnal variation in daytime over China. Our findings support the need for detailed evaluation of chemical processes in CMAQ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46....1C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46....1C"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible influence of western North Pacific monsoon on TC activity in mid-latitudes of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study analyzed the correlation between tropical cyclone (TC) frequency and the Western North Pacific monsoon index (WNPMI), which have both been influential in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s mid-latitude regions during the summer season over the past 37 years (1977-2013). A high positive correlation existed between these two variables, which was not reduced even if El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years were excluded. To determine the cause of this positive correlation, the highest (positive WNPMI phase) and lowest WNPMIs (negative WNPMI phase) during a nine-year period were selected to analyze the mean difference between them, excluding ENSO years. In the positive WNPMI phase, TCs were mainly generated in the eastern seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea and moving northward toward Korea and Japan. In the negative phase, TCs were mainly generated in the western seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the South China Sea and moving westward toward China's southern regions. Therefore, TC intensity in the positive phase was stronger due to the acquisition of sufficient energy from the sea while moving a long distance up to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s mid-latitude. Additionally, TCs occurred more in the positive phase. Regarding the difference of the two phases between the 850 and 500-hPa streamlines, anomalous cyclones were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, whereas anomalous anticyclones were strengthened in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s mid-latitude regions. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s mid-latitude regions, which played a role in the anomalous steering flows that moved TCs into these regions. Furthermore, due to the anomalous cyclones that developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, more TCs could be generated in the positive phase. Both the lower and upper tropospheric layers had warm anomalies in most regions of the Western North Pacific, while relative humidity in the middle tropospheric layer showed a positive anomaly in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, which provided a better environment to strengthen TC intensity in the positive WNPMI phase. Furthermore, a negative anomaly was manifested not only in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, but also in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s mid-latitude regions, with 200-850-hPa vertical wind shear, while a warm sea surface temperature anomaly was shown in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s mid-latitude seas, which further strengthened TC intensity in the positive phase. The analysis on the global-scale atmospheric circulations showed that converged air in the lower layer of the subtropical western Pacific during the positive phase diverged in the upper layer, which moved westward and converged in the upper layer of the equatorial Indian Ocean and then diverged in its lower layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624184"><span id="translatedtitle">A revision of the genus Belciana Walker, 1862 with description of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Pantheinae) from <span class="hlt">East</span> and South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Revision of Pantheinae, contribution XII.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Behounek, G; Han, H L; Kononenko, V S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Oriental Pantheinae genus Belciana Walker, 1862 is revised. Three new species, B. hreblayi sp. n., B. sulawesiana sp. n., B. pinratanai sp. n., from Taiwan, Indonesia and Thailand, are described. Five new combinations in the genus Diphteroides Bethune-Baker, 1906 are proposed: Diphteroides caerulea (Hampson, 1926) comb. n., D. habroscia (Prout, 1924) comb. n., D. patricolor (Prout, 1924) comb. n., D. serrata Bethune-Baker, 1906, D. subserrata (Prout, 1924) comb. n. and D. sophronia (Prout, 1924) comb. n. The extensive diagnoses of known species of Belciana are given. The imagines, male and female genitalia are illustrated. The checklist of the genus Belciana in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is presented. PMID:26624184</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2427861','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2427861"><span id="translatedtitle">Immunological surveys of arbovirus infections in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with special reference to dengue, chikungunya, and Kyasanur Forest disease*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rao, T. Ramachandra</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Serological surveys have been widely used in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to determine the presence and activity of arboviruses. The haemagglutination-inhibition test has been most frequently employed but complement-fixation and neutralization tests have also been used in some investigations. Although virus isolations provide the most conclusive evidence, they can be carried out in a few specialized centres only, and serological surveys are very important for studying the distribution of arboviruses. The surveys have shown that group B arboviruses (principally all four types of dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile) are widely prevalent. Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are more widespread than West Nile virus, which was not known previously to extend <span class="hlt">east</span> of India although recent survyes have shown that its range extends to Burma. Japanese encephalitis is frequent in most of South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> but in India is found mainly in eastern and south-eastern parts of the country. Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) and Langat viruses are the only tick-borne group B arboviruses definitely known to occur in the region, the former in India, the latter in Malaysia. KFD virus has been isolated only from a small focus in Mysore, although human and animal sera containing neutralizing antibodies to this virus have been found sporadically in widely scattered areas. Among the group A arboviruses, chikungunya and Sindbis have been detected in serological surveys, but the former has not yet been found in Malaysia. PMID:4400821</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.114..750D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.114..750D"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous continental convergence and intracontinental orogenesis in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: A synthesis of the Yanshan Revolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Fuqin; Cui, Jianjun; Chen, Xuanhua; Zhang, Shuanhong; Miao, Laicheng; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Wei; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Shiqi; Li, Hailong</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The basic tectonic framework of continental <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was produced by a series of nearly contemporaneous orogenic events in the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Commonly, the Late Mesozoic orogenic processes were characterized by continent-continent collision, large-scale thrusting, strike-slip faulting and intense crustal shortening, crustal thickening, regional anatexis and metamorphism, followed by large-scale lithospheric extension, rifting and magmatism. To better understand the geological processes, this paper reviews and synthesizes existing multi-disciplinary geologic data related to sedimentation, tectonics, magmatism, metamorphism and geochemistry, and proposes a two-stage tectono-thermal evolutionary history of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (ca. 170-120 Ma). In the first stage, three orogenic belts along the continental margins were formed coevally at ca. 170-135 Ma, i.e., the north Mongol-Okhotsk orogen, the <span class="hlt">east</span> paleo-Pacific coastal orogen, and the west Bangong-Nujiang orogen. Tectonism related to the coastal orogen caused extensive intracontinental folding and thrusting that resulted in a depositional hiatus in the Late Jurassic, as well as crustal anatexis that generated syn-kinematic granites, adakites and migmatites. The lithosphere of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian continent was thickened, reaching a maximum during the latest Jurassic or the earliest Cretaceous. In the second stage (ca. 135-120 Ma), delamination of the thickened lithosphere resulted in a remarkable (>120 km) lithospheric thinning and the development of mantle-derived magmatism, mineralization, metamorphic core complexes and rift basins. The Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous subduction of oceanic plates (paleo-Pacific, meso-Tethys, and Mongol-Okhotsk) and continent-continent collision (e.g. Lhasa and Qiangtang) along the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian continental margins produced broad coastal and intracontinental orogens. These significant tectonic activities, marked by widespread intracontinental orogeny and continental reconstruction, are commonly termed the Yanshan Revolution (Movement) in the Chinese literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1168914','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1168914"><span id="translatedtitle">Volatility basis-set approach simulation of organic aerosol formation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: implications for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction and controllable amounts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kanaya, Y.; Takigawa, M.</p> <p>2014-09-16</p> <p>Organic aerosol (OA) simulations using the volatility basis-set approach were made for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and its outflow region. Model simulations were evaluated through comparisons with OA measured by aerosol mass spectrometers in and around Tokyo (at Komaba and Kisai in summer 2003 and 2004) and over the outflow region in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (at Fukue and Hedo in spring 2009). The simulations with aging processes of organic vapors reasonably well reproduced mass concentrations, temporal variations, and formation efficiency of observed OA at all sites. As OA mass was severely underestimated in the simulations without the aging processes, the oxidations of organic vapors are essential for reasonable OA simulations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. By considering the aging processes, simulated OA concentrations considerably increased from 0.24 to 1.28 µg m-3 in the boundary layer over the whole of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. OA formed from the interaction of anthropogenic and biogenic sources was also enhanced by the aging processes. The fraction of controllable OA was estimated to be 87 % of total OA over the whole of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, showing that most of the OA in our simulations formed anthropogenically (controllable). A large portion of biogenic secondary OA (78 % of biogenic secondary OA) formed through the influence of anthropogenic sources. The high fraction of controllable OA in our simulations is likely because anthropogenic emissions are dominant over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and OA formation is enhanced by anthropogenic sources and their aging processes. Both the amounts (from 0.18 to 1.12 µg m-3) and the fraction (from 75 % to 87 %) of controllable OA were increased by aging processes of organic vapors over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4053516','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4053516"><span id="translatedtitle">Virtual vs. physical spaces: which facilitates greater HIV risk taking among men who have sex with men in <span class="hlt">East</span> and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wei, Chongyi; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Koe, Stuart</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Increasing use of the Internet to seek sex partners is accompanied by rising HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in <span class="hlt">East</span> and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We examined whether the Internet facilitates greater HIV risk taking among MSM in the region. A cross-sectional sample of 9,367 MSM was recruited via the Internet in 2010. We compared socio-demographic and HIV-related behavioral characteristics among MSM who met sex partners on the Internet only, who met sex partners offline only, and who met sex partners through both. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates that were associated with differences in where participants met their male sex partners. Compared to MSM who met partners offline only, those who met partners online only were less likely to have multiple male sex partners, have paid for sex, have consumed recreational drugs, and have used alcohol before sex. MSM who met partners both online and offline appeared to be the riskiest group that they were more likely to have multiple male sex partners, have engaged in UIAI, and have consumed alcohol before sex. These findings suggest that social networking websites alone do not facilitate greater HIV risk taking among MSM. Rather, they provide additional venues for MSM who already engage in HIV-related high risk behaviors to seek sex partners. The Internet offers incredible opportunities to reach large numbers of MSM in <span class="hlt">East</span> and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for HIV prevention and research. Web-based outreach and prevention activities are needed to reach these men. In addition, mobile and application-based interventions should also be developed and disseminated. PMID:24077974</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A21G0188Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A21G0188Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare simulated precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) from 1980 to 2007 under different cumulus parameterization schemes with the observed data. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of precipitation and SAT, but that the model overestimates precipitation with the rainfall center moving northwestward and underestimates SAT for annual simulations. Annual, interannual variations and the anomalies in precipitation and SAT for different climate subregions are well captured by the model. Therefore, RIEMS2.0 shows good stability and does well in simulating the long-term climate and climate changes in China. Further analysis on RIEMS2.0’s performance in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> shows that the model can reproduce the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoon system, as well the rain belt movement. Simulated results and observed data for the monthly mean precipitation and SAT correlate well. There is nice consistency for the anomalies between the simulation and observation. RIEMS2.0 can disclose regional climate characteristics in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in a certain degree.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1167624','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1167624"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei</p> <p>2014-10-12</p> <p>Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30μg/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22°N and 95 to 107°E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is our major concern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24007643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24007643"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple introductions of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses into <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in 2010-2011.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valdazo-González, Begoña; Timina, Anna; Scherbakov, Alexey; Abdul-Hamid, Nor Faizah; Knowles, Nick J; King, Donald P</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. Sporadic introductions of this virus into FMD-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. In 2010 and 2011, incursions of the FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, caused extensive outbreaks across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In this study, 12 full genome FMDV sequences for representative samples collected from the People's Republic of China (PR China) including the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Republic of Korea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and The Russian Federation were generated and compared with additional contemporary sequences from viruses within this lineage. These complete genomes were 8119 to 8193 nucleotides in length and differed at 1181 sites, sharing a nucleotide identity ≥ 91.0% and an amino acid identity ≥ 96.6%. An unexpected deletion of 70 nucleotides within the 5'-untranslated region which resulted in a shorter predicted RNA stem-loop for the S-fragment was revealed in two sequences from PR China and Hong Kong SAR and five additional related samples from the region. Statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provide evidence that these outbreaks in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were generated by two independent introductions of the O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage sometime between August 2008 and March 2010. The rapid emergence of these viruses from Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> highlights the importance of adopting approaches to closely monitor the spread of this lineage that now poses a threat to livestock industries in other regions. PMID:24007643</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3848691','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3848691"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple introductions of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses into <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in 2010–2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. Sporadic introductions of this virus into FMD-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. In 2010 and 2011, incursions of the FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, caused extensive outbreaks across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In this study, 12 full genome FMDV sequences for representative samples collected from the People’s Republic of China (PR China) including the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Republic of Korea, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and The Russian Federation were generated and compared with additional contemporary sequences from viruses within this lineage. These complete genomes were 8119 to 8193 nucleotides in length and differed at 1181 sites, sharing a nucleotide identity ≥ 91.0% and an amino acid identity ≥ 96.6%. An unexpected deletion of 70 nucleotides within the 5′-untranslated region which resulted in a shorter predicted RNA stem-loop for the S-fragment was revealed in two sequences from PR China and Hong Kong SAR and five additional related samples from the region. Statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provide evidence that these outbreaks in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were generated by two independent introductions of the O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage sometime between August 2008 and March 2010. The rapid emergence of these viruses from Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> highlights the importance of adopting approaches to closely monitor the spread of this lineage that now poses a threat to livestock industries in other regions. PMID:24007643</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51D..04T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51D..04T"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turnbull, J. C.; Tans, P. P.; Lehman, S. J.; Baker, D. F.; Conway, T. J.; Chung, Y. S.; Gregg, J.; Miller, J. B.; Southon, J. R.; Zhou, L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Flask samples from two sites in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Republic of Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, People's Republic of China (SDZ), were measured for a suite of trace gases and isotopes, including CO2, CO and Δ14CO2. We use the Δ14CO2 measurements to quantify the contribution of recently added fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in each sample. Our five-year record from TAP, on the western edge of Korea, shows high pollution events when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples at this site, however, reflect air masses from further afield in Northeastern China and typically have lower CO2ff values. SDZ is about 100km northeast of Beijing, and our small set of samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO2ff. Biospheric CO2 also contributes substantially to variability in total CO2 at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement over background. Carbon monoxide (CO) is also elevated, and correlates strongly with CO2ff. The SDZ samples, and the TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO to CO2ff emission ratios (RCO:CO2ff) of 47±2 and 44±3 ppb/ppm respectively, in agreement with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and consistent with other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct datasets, ascribed to air sourced from either South Korea or North Korea. The South Korea samples are characterized by high CO2ff values and low RCO:CO2ff of 13±3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than two available bottom-up inventory estimates, but quite consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We also compare our CO2ff observations with modeled CO2ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model, convolved with a bottom-up CO2ff emission inventory which includes the reported increase in Chinese emissions of 63% from 2004 to 2010. At SDZ, the model replicates the observations quite well. At TAP, the model performs well on an annual basis, although it is unable to capture the variability on individual days. The modeled time trend is consistent with our observations, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat at 2004 levels is unable to replicate the observed CO2ff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714780H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714780H"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of anthropogenic forcing on regional climate simulation for CORDEX-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Song Yee; Kang, Hyun Suk; Hyun, Yu Kyung</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Impacts of greenhouse gas and aerosol on climate change are crucial, so that it is trivial for CMIP models to consider anthropogenic forcing for current climate simulations and future projection as well. Meanwhile, for regional climate models, it is still ambiguous if those forcings are duplicated or not, since the large-scale information is provided from the GCM models through the lateral boundary condition. To answer this question, four experiments using the HadGEM3-RA were conducted within the CORDEX framework for the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> domain, which are defined as FIXF (Fixed forcing experiment), GHGS (Greenhouse gases forcing only on the FIXF), AERO (Aerosol forcing only on the FIXF), and ALL (Both forcings on the FIXF) experiments. All experiments were driven by the same GCM forcing, i.e., HadGEM2-AO. Simulation results for the current (27 years for 1979-2005) and future (30 years for 2071-2100) climate were analyzed. FIXF experiment simulated significant cold biases near the northwestern China and Mongolia. Compared to results from the FIXF, those from the ALL and AERO were better, particularly for the temperature in northwestern China and for the precipitation in southern China, Indonesia and northwestern Pacific. Reduced cold bias in northwestern China is highly associated with the aerosol forcing, and marginally associated with the greenhouse gases forcing. As a result, temperature simulated by ALL experiment shows less bias than any other experiments. In the future, surface air temperature was projected stronger in ALL than FIXF experiment in late 21st century. Especially, based on the future projection from the ALL experiment, increase in domain-averaged surface air temperature is about 3.0oC (4.2oC) under the RCP 4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. In future change of precipitation, regardless of forcing experiments, annual mean precipitation over maritime continent and northwestern Pacific are expected to increase. And percent change in annual mean precipitation of ALL experiment is 8.2 % and 17.4% for RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC13A0701H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC13A0701H"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of the thermal environment evolution from subsurface temperature distribution in large cities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamamoto, H.; Goto, S.; Vuthy, M.; Nishijima, J.; Yamano, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Miyakoshi, A.; Hachinohe, S.; Sasaka, K.; Shiraishi, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Temperature changes at the ground surface propagate into the underground and disturb the subsurface temperature structure. Analyzing disturbances in the subsurface temperature structure, we can reconstruct the past ground surface temperature (GST) change, which is closely related to the past surface air temperature change. This method can be applied to studies of thermal environment evolution in urban areas such as the development of “heat islands”. As part of an international multidisciplinary research project “Human Impacts on Urban Subsurface Environments”, we have been investigating GST histories in and around several large cities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, including Bangkok and Tokyo. We have also started a study on the subsurface thermal environment in Saitama prefecture, located on the north of Tokyo, as a research project of CESS (Center for Environmental Science in Saitama). The eastern part of Saitama prefecture is densely populated and considered to be a part of Tokyo Metropolitan area. In this presentation, we show the results of GST history reconstruction in the both areas. In Bangkok area, we conducted measurements of temperature profiles in groundwater monitoring wells at 45 sites in 2004, 2006, and 2008. In Saitama, we measured temperature profiles at 15 sites in 2009. We examined the shapes of the temperature profiles and selected ones that are not significantly disturbed by groundwater flow. Reconstruction of GST history for the last several hundred years was made at six sites in the Bangkok area and at two sites in the Saitama area. We used a multi-layer model that allows layers with different thermal properties, determining layer boundaries based on lithology of the formations around the wells. All of the reconstructed GST histories show surface warming in the last century. In the Bangkok area, the amount of the temperature increase ranges from 0.4 to 2.6 K and is larger in the city than in the area to the west of Bangkok and in the northern rural area. This tendency may reflect difference in the degree of urbanization or human activities. In the Saitama area, the GST increased by more than 2.5 K at both of the two sites, which are located in the densely populated part. The two sites in Saitama and the site at the center of Bangkok all show large GST increase, whereas the onset time of warming appears to be different among the three sites. These results should be combined with other information on development of the two large cities to investigate the main cause of the surface warming, e.g., increase in the surface air temperature and land use change. We also estimated the amount of heat stored in the subsurface after 1900 based on the reconstructed GST histories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdAtS..32.1481Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdAtS..32.1481Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite measurements of the Madden-Julian oscillation in wintertime stratospheric ozone over the Tibetan Plateau and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yuli; Liu, Yi; Liu, Chuanxi; Sofieva, V. F.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We investigate the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) signal in wintertime stratospheric ozone over the Tibetan Plateau and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using the harmonized dataset of satellite ozone profiles. Two different MJO indices—the all-season Real-Time multivariate MJO index (RMM) and outgoing longwave radiation-based MJO index (OMI)—are used to compare the MJO-related ozone anomalies. The results show that there are pronounced eastward-propagating MJO-related stratospheric ozone anomalies (mainly within 20-200 hPa) over the subtropics. The negative stratospheric ozone anomalies are over the Tibetan Plateau and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in MJO phases 4-7, when MJO-related tropical deep convective anomalies move from the equatorial Indian Ocean towards the western Pacific Ocean. Compared with the results based on RMM, the MJO-related stratospheric column ozone anomalies based on OMI are stronger and one phase ahead. Further analysis suggests that different sampling errors, observation principles and retrieval algorithms may be responsible for the discrepancies among different satellite measurements. The MJO-related stratospheric ozone anomalies can be attributed to the MJO-related circulation anomalies, i.e., the uplifted tropopause and the northward shifted westerly jet in the upper troposphere. Compared to the result based on RMM, the upper tropospheric westerly jet may play a less important role in generating the stratospheric column ozone anomalies based on OMI. Our study indicates that the circulation-based MJO index (RMM) can better characterize the MJO-related anomalies in tropopause pressure and thus the MJO influence on atmospheric trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, especially over subtropical <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11813175O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11813175O"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical transport mechanisms of black carbon over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Moteki, N.; Matsui, H.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>of vertical transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols and their three-dimensional transport pathways over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in spring were examined through numerical simulations for the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign in March-April 2009 using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The simulations reproduced the spatial distributions of mass concentration of BC and its transport efficiency observed by the A-FORCE campaign reasonably well, including its vertical and latitudinal gradients and dependency on precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during the transport. During the A-FORCE period, two types of pronounced upward BC mass fluxes from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the free troposphere were found over northeastern and inland-southern China. Over northeastern China, cyclones with modest precipitation were the primary uplifting mechanism of BC. Over inland-southern China, both cumulus convection and orographic uplifting along the slopes of the Tibetan Plateau played important roles in the upward transport of BC, despite its efficient wet deposition due to a large amount of precipitation supported by an abundant moisture supply by the low-level southerlies. In addition to the midlatitude (35-45°N) eastward outflow within the PBL (21% BC removal by precipitation during transport), the uplifting of BC over northeastern and inland-southern China and the subsequent BC transport by the midlatitude lower tropospheric (50% BC removal) and subtropical (25-35°N) midtropospheric westerlies (67% BC removal), respectively, provided the major transport pathways for BC export from continental <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to the Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20428388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20428388"><span id="translatedtitle">Elimination of neglected tropical diseases in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region of the World Health Organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Narain, Jai P; Dash, A P; Parnell, B; Bhattacharya, S K; Barua, S; Bhatia, R; Savioli, L</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which affect the very poor, pose a major public health problem in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Although more than a dozen NTDs affect the region, over the past five years four of them in particular - leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and yaws - have been targeted for elimination. These four were selected for a number of reasons. First, they affect the WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region disproportionately. For example, every year around 67% of all new leprosy cases and 60% of all new cases of visceral leishmaniasis worldwide occur in countries of the region, where as many as 850 million inhabitants are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. In addition, several epidemiological, technological and historical factors that are unique to the region make each of these four diseases amenable to elimination. Safe and effective tools and interventions to achieve these targets are available and concerted efforts to scale them up, singly or in an integrated manner, are likely to lead to success. The World Health Assembly and the WHO Regional Committee, through a series of resolutions, have already expressed regional and global commitments for the elimination of these diseases as public health problems. Such action is expected to have a quick and dramatic impact on poverty reduction and to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. This paper reviews the policy rationale for disease control in the WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region, the progress made so far, the lessons learnt along the way, and the remaining challenges and opportunities. PMID:20428388</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25847454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25847454"><span id="translatedtitle">Reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations together drove species diversification of slipper orchids (Paphiopedilum) in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Yan-Yan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> covers four of the world's biodiversity hotspots, showing high species diversity and endemism. Owing to the successive expansion and contraction of distribution and the fragmentation by geographical barriers, the tropical flora greatly diversified in this region during the Tertiary, but the evolutionary tempo and mode of species diversity remain poorly investigated. Paphiopedilum, the largest genus of slipper orchids comprising nearly 100 species, is mainly distributed in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, providing an ideal system for exploring how plant species diversity was shaped in this region. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of this genus with eight cpDNA regions and four low-copy nuclear genes. Discordance between gene trees and network analysis indicates that reticulate evolution occurred in the genus. Ancestral area reconstruction suggests that vicariance and long-distance dispersal together led to its current distribution. Diversification rate variation was detected and strongly correlated with the species diversity in subg. Paphiopedilum (~80 species). The shift of speciation rate in subg. Paphiopedilum was coincident with sea-level fluctuations in the late Cenozoic, which could have provided ecological opportunities for speciation and created bridges or barriers for gene flow. Moreover, some other factors (e.g. sympatric distribution, incomplete reproductive barriers and clonal propagation) might also be advantageous for the formation and reproduction of hybrid species. In conclusion, our study suggests that the interplay of reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations has promoted the diversification of the genus Paphiopedilum and sheds light into the evolution of Orchidaceae and the historical processes of plant species diversification in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:25847454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25661947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25661947"><span id="translatedtitle">Two new genera and one new species of Pantheinae from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Pantheinae). Revision of Pantheinae, contribution XI.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Behounek, G; Han, H L; Kononenko, V S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Two new genera, Pantheaforma gen. n. (Type-species Pantheaforma ihlei sp. n.) and Chrisotea gen. n. (Type-species Trichosea zhangi Chen, 1990) from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and a new species Pantheaforma ihlei sp. n. from Thailand and Myanmar are described. New combination Chrisotea zhangi (Chen, 1990), comb. n. is proposed. New taxa are illustrated with imagines in colour and male and female genitalia. The little-known species Pantheana yangzisherpana Hreblay, 1998, formerly only known from Nepal is reported for China for the first time.  PMID:25661947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdOT....2..345T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdOT....2..345T"><span id="translatedtitle">State of photonics-related industry in Japan: Digital economy is creating a deep integration in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tatsuno, Kimio</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Future challenges and problems of Japanese photonics-related industries are discussed by analyzing the statistics of domestic photonics production trend in Japan from the aspects of offshoring and deep integration taking place in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> due to the growing of the global digital economy. Mobile phone, digital camera, semiconductor stepper, and fiber to the X. X is home, buildings, factories, shops, government (FTTX) are case studied, and the utilization of the information and communication technology (ICT), together with a free trade policy, is expected for the future challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510093F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510093F"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> between 1980 and 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone-vegetation sensitivity studies to date have been conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492038','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492038"><span id="translatedtitle">The 12th International <span class="hlt">Symposium</span> on Spermatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aitken, R John; Cummins, Jim M; Nixon, Brett</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The 12th International <span class="hlt">Symposium</span> of Spermatology continued the excellent tradition of this meeting since its inception in 1969 when the first <span class="hlt">Symposium</span> was held in Italy under the Chairmanship of Professor Baccio Baccetti. This unique <span class="hlt">Symposium</span> is held every 4 years and serves as a beacon for sperm cell biologists from all over the world, regardless of which species, animal or plant, they are working on. This willingness to embrace the fundamental biology of this distinctive cell type without species limitations is one of the hallmarks of this <span class="hlt">Symposium</span>. For sperm biologists – it is our Olympics. The meeting in Newcastle, NSW brought together around 300 biologists from more than 22 different countries covering North and South America, Africa, Europe, <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Australia. Given the considerable distances and high cost involved in travelling to the <span class="hlt">East</span> Coast of NSW, this was an outstanding outcome. The <span class="hlt">Symposium</span> featured a series of 31 plenary lectures culminating in the prestigious Thaddeus Mann Memorial Lecture, which was delivered with typical grace and brilliance by Professor Masaru Okabe. PMID:25994646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45..493L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45..493L"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-week prediction of South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> rainfall variability during boreal summer in CFSv2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ren-Feng; Wang, Wanqiu</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In this paper we analyze the multi-week prediction bias and skill from the National Centers for Environment Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) based on its hindcasts for 1999-2012. The analyses focus on the prediction of the rainfall variability over South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during boreal warm seasons and the dependence of the prediction on the activity of intrasesaonal leading modes. It is shown that the prediction skill measured by anomaly correlation is comparable between the total anomalies and intraseasonal anomalies during the first 2 weeks. After week 2, the prediction skill drops substantially and the skill for total anomalies is largely from the prediction for the interannual variability. Moreover, the forecast skill tends to be higher when the amplitude of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation (BSISO) is larger, especially for the BSISO. It is noted that the prediction skill over South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> depends on the phase of the BSISO. One deficiency in the CFSv2 is that the northward propagation of the forecast BSISO is generally slower than the observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1513777G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1513777G"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming in the cold season over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Yu, H.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>As climate change has occurred over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> since the 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the observed warming in past decades. In this study, we investigate regional surface temperature change during the boreal cold season using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT contribute 44 and 56 % to the SAT over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). Radiatively forced SAT changes have made a major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between the so-called "global warming hiatus" and regional enhanced warming is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4435967','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4435967"><span id="translatedtitle">Off to a good start: A comparative study of changes in men's first job prospects in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yu, Wei-hsin; Chiu, Chi-Tsun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Research on young adults’ transition to the labor market rarely investigates how nation-level institutional arrangements shape changes over time. In particular, a systematic comparison of shifts in young adults’ job opportunities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is virtually absent. Using comparable data from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, we examine cohort differences in the timing, quality, and stability of men's first jobs. The results indicate overall declines in first occupational attainment for men in all three countries, but the main driving force for the decrease in Japan differs from that in Korea and Taiwan. Whereas macroeconomic pressure fully explains the decline in Japanese men's first occupational attainment, educational expansion accounts for a considerable part of the declines for men in Korea and Taiwan. Moreover, educational expansion has eroded better-educated men's advantages in speedily transitioning from school to work in Taiwan, but it has not had a similar effect on Japanese men. We argue that Japan's employment system, coupled with a fair amount of institutional ties between schools and firms, has shielded young men from the pressure of educational expansion, making the trends about their early-career outcomes different from those of their counterparts in Korea and Taiwan. The different degrees to which firm internal labor markets have been adopted in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also explain how increasing macroeconomic pressure has different impacts on men's first job stability in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:25999637</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203..707L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203..707L"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper-mantle shear-wave structure under <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from Automated Multimode Inversion of waveforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Legendre, C. P.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Q.-F.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We present a new Sv-velocity model of the upper mantle under <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> constrained by the inversion of seismic waveforms recorded by broad-band stations. Seismograms from earthquakes occurred between 1977 and 2012 are collected from about 4786 permanent and temporary stations in the region whenever and wherever available. Automated Multimode Inversion of surface and multiple-S waveforms is applied to extract structural information from the seismograms, in the form of linear equations with uncorrelated uncertainties. The equations are then solved for the seismic velocity perturbations in the crust and upper mantle with respect to a three-dimensional (3-D) reference model and a realistic crust. Major features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are identified in the resulting model. At lithospheric depth, low velocities can be seen beneath Tibet, whereas high velocities are found beneath cratonic regions, such as the Siberian, North China, Yangtze,) Tarim, and Dharwarand cratons. A number of microplates are mapped and the interaction with neighbouring plates is discussed. Slabs from the Pacific and Indian Oceans can be seen in the upper mantle. Passive marginal basins and subduction zones are also properly resolved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.4389W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.4389W"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Observations and model results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Uno, Itsushi</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December 1998 to 31 December 1999. Wet deposition monitoring data at 17 sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in addition to State Environmental Protection Agency data were used to evaluate the model, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Observed evidence clearly shows that in northern China acid deposition is heavily influenced and buffered by natural soil dust from desert and semiarid areas. The observed mean rainwater pH value in northern China is the highest, between 6.0 and 7.2, while in southern China, where many areas severely impacted by acid precipitation are located, the pH value is much lower, between 3.5 and 5. In Japan the mean pH value is 4.7, significantly higher than that in southern China, while in South Korea the pH value is intermediate between those in northern China and Japan. The model is capable of reproducing this geographical distribution of rainwater pH over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The simulation results for 1999 demonstrated strong neutralization of precipitation by soil aerosols over northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and the distribution pattern of acid rain was also altered. The annual mean pH values in northern China and Korea show a remarkable increase of 0.8-2.5, while the increase in mean pH values over southern China and Japan are less than 0.1. The neutralization effects vary by season, with the greatest influence in spring, when pH values increased by 0.1-0.4 in Japan, 0.5-1.5 in Korea, and more than 2 in northern China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22586952','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22586952"><span id="translatedtitle">[Characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem primary productivity in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on remote sensing and process-based model].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Fang-Min; Ju, Wei-Min; Chen, Jing-Ming; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Gui-Rui; Han, Shi-Jie</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Based on the bi-linearly interpolated meteorological reanalysis data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA and by using the leaf area index data derived from the GIMMS NDVI to run the process-based Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model, this paper simulated and analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the terrestrial ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in 2000-2005. Before regional simulating and calculating, the observation GPP data of different terrestrial ecosystem in 15 experimental stations of <span class="hlt">Asia</span>Flux network and the inventory measurements of NPP at 1300 sampling sites were applied to validate the BEPS GPP and NPP. The results showed that BEPS could well simulate the changes in GPP and NPP of different terrestrial ecosystems, with the R2 ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.2 to 1.2 g C x m(-2) x d(-1). The simulated values by BEPS could explain 78% of the changes in annual NPP, and the RMSE was 118 g C x m(-2) x a(-1). In 2000-2005, the averaged total GPP and total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were 21.7 and 10.5 Pg C x a(-1), respectively, and the GPP and NPP exhibited similar spatial and temporal variation patterns. During the six years, the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems varied from 10.2 to 10.7 Pg C x a(-1), with a coefficient of variation being 2. 2%. High NPP (above 1000 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the southeast island countries, while low NPP (below 30 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the desert area of Northwest China. The spatial patterns of NPP were mainly attributed to the differences in the climatic variables across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The NPP per capita also varied greatly among different countries, which was the highest (70217 kg C x a(-1)) in Mongolia, far higher than that (1921 kg C x a(-1)) in China, and the lowest (757 kg C x a(-1)) in India. PMID:22586952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc..98...26Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc..98...26Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Dapeng</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We review recent findings on the causal mechanism of the great 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and related issues on seismic structure and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. High-resolution tomography revealed significant lateral heterogeneities in the interplate megathrust zone beneath the Tohoku, South Kuril and Southwest Japan forearc regions. Large megathrust earthquakes since 1900 generally occurred in or around high-velocity (high-V) patches in the megathrust zone, which may reflect asperities resulting from subducted seamounts, oceanic ridges and other topographic highs on the Pacific seafloor. In contrast, low-velocity (low-V) patches in the megathrust zone may contain more sediments and fluids, where the subducting oceanic plate and the overlying continental plate are less coupled or even decoupled. The nucleation of large crustal earthquakes in the Japan Islands, including the 11 April 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) in SE Tohoku, is affected by arc magma and fluids resulting from slab dehydration. The Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to 430-460 km depth under <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, Tsushima Strait and Japan Sea. A window in the aseismic Philippine Sea slab is detected, which may be caused by splitting of weak parts of the slab at the subducted ridges (e.g., Kyushu-Paula ridge) and hot upwelling in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The intraplate volcanism in Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is caused by hot and wet upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Frequent generation of large deep earthquakes (>500 km depth) in the Pacific slab may supply additional fluids preserved in the slab to the mantle wedge under the Changbai volcano, making Changbai the largest and most active intraplate volcano in Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Fluids may be involved in nucleation and rupture processes of all types of earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14B..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14B..02P"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Aerosol Absorption in Solar Dimming over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Its Implications for Regional Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Persad, G.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Surface-based observations have identified statistically significant trends in clear-sky surface solar radiation (SSR) over South and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> since the 1960s. The trends are generally negative, indicating a reduction in clear-sky SSR or a 'dimming.' The dimming is strongly driven by aerosol emissions over the region, but little work has been done to quantify the particular aerosol mechanisms that produce the trend or the contribution to the surface values from aerosol absorption within the atmospheric column. The redistribution of shortwave radiation that these aerosol effects imply has the potential to significantly impact regional circulation and precipitation. We conduct experiments over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in two generations of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Atmospheric General Circulation Model, AM2.1 and AM3, in order to analyze the characteristics of the SSR trends that the models produce and to understand the particular aerosol mechanisms responsible. AM2.1 and AM3 have significantly different aerosol treatments, including differences in aerosol mixing and interactivity with model meteorology. We use the models' standalone radiation module to analyze how various aerosol characteristics in the two models (such as aerosol mixing state, hygroscopicity, and seasonal distribution) contribute to the trends produced. We find that the two models produce similar trends in clear-sky SSR, comparable to the observed trend, but via significantly different aerosol mechanisms with different regional climate implications. Both models' dimming trends, however, are strongly driven by increased aerosol absorption since 1960. The implications of this redistribution of solar heating between the surface and atmosphere for <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s regional climate will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.1255X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.1255X"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of VIIRS, GOCI, and MODIS Collection 6 AOD retrievals against ground sunphotometer observations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Q.; Zhang, H.; Choi, M.; Li, S.; Kondragunta, S.; Kim, J.; Holben, B.; Levy, R. C.; Liu, Y.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Persistent high aerosol loadings together with extremely high population densities have raised serious air quality and public health concerns in many urban centers in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. However, ground-based air quality monitoring is relatively limited in this area. Recently, satellite-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at high resolution has become a powerful tool to characterize aerosol patterns in space and time. Using ground AOD observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-<span class="hlt">Asia</span> Campaign, as well as from handheld sunphotometers, we evaluated emerging aerosol products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) aboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite (COMS), and Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Collection 6) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in 2012 and 2013. In the case study in Beijing, when compared with AOD observations from handheld sunphotometers, 51 % of VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) AOD, 37 % of GOCI AOD, 33 % of VIIRS Intermediate Product (IP) AOD, 26 % of Terra MODIS C6 3 km AOD, and 16 % of Aqua MODIS C6 3 km AOD fell within the reference expected error (EE) envelope (±0.05 ± 0.15 AOD). Comparing against AERONET AOD over the Japan-South Korea region, 64 % of EDR, 37 % of IP, 61 % of GOCI, 39 % of Terra MODIS, and 56 % of Aqua MODIS C6 3 km AOD fell within the EE. In general, satellite aerosol products performed better in tracking the day-to-day variability than tracking the spatial variability at high resolutions. The VIIRS EDR and GOCI products provided the most accurate AOD retrievals, while VIIRS IP and MODIS C6 3 km products had positive biases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.124..301Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.124..301Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of WRF/Chem over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Part II. Model improvement and sensitivity simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To address the problems and limitations identified through a comprehensive evaluation in Part I paper, several modifications are made in model inputs, treatments, and configurations and sensitivity simulations with improved model inputs and treatments are performed in this Part II paper. The use of reinitialization of meteorological variables reduces the biases and increases the spatial correlations in simulated temperature at 2-m (T2), specific humidity at 2-m (Q2), wind speed at 10-m (WS10), and precipitation (Precip). The use of a revised surface drag parameterization further reduces the biases in simulated WS10. The adjustment of only the magnitudes of anthropogenic emissions in the surface layer does not help improve overall model performance, whereas the adjustment of both the magnitudes and vertical distributions of anthropogenic emissions shows moderate to large improvement in simulated surface concentrations and column mass abundances of species in terms of domain mean performance statistics, hourly and monthly mean concentrations, and vertical profiles of concentrations at individual sites. The revised and more advanced dust emission schemes can help improve PM predictions. Using revised upper boundary conditions for O3 significantly improves the column O3 abundances. Using a simple SOA formation module further improves the predictions of organic carbon and PM2.5. The sensitivity simulation that combines all above model improvements greatly improves the overall model performance. For example, the sensitivity simulation gives the normalized mean biases (NMBs) of -6.1% to 23.8% for T2, 2.7-13.8% for Q2, 22.5-47.6% for WS10, and -9.1% to 15.6% for Precip, comparing to -9.8% to 75.6% for T2, 0.4-23.4% for Q2, 66.5-101.0% for WS10, and 11.4%-92.7% for Precip from the original simulation without those improvements. It also gives the NMBs for surface predictions of -68.2% to -3.7% for SO2, -73.8% to -20.6% for NO2, -8.8%-128.7% for O3, -61.4% to -26.5% for PM2.5, and -64.0% to 7.2% for PM10, comparing to -84.2% to -44.5% for SO2, -88.1% to -44.0% for NO2, -11.0%-160.3% for O3, -63.9% to -25.2% for PM2.5, and -68.9%-33.3% for PM10 from the original simulation. The improved WRF/Chem is applied to estimate the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate and air quality in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Anthropogenic aerosols can increase cloud condensation nuclei, aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. They can decrease surface net radiation, temperature at 2-m, wind speed at 10-m, planetary boundary layer height, and precipitation through various direct and indirect effects. These changes in turn lead to changes in chemical predictions in a variety of ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APJAS..50..609S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APJAS..50..609S"><span id="translatedtitle">Future change of extreme temperature climate indices over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> with uncertainties estimation in the CMIP5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seo, Ye-Won; Kim, Hojin; Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Moon, Ja-Yeon</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>How well the climate models simulate extreme temperature over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and how the extreme indices would change under anthropogenic global warming are investigated. The indices studied include hot days (HD), tropical nights (TN), growing degree days (GDD), and cooling degree days (CDD) in summer and heating degree days (HDD) and frost days (FD) in winter. The representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP 4.5) experiments for the period of 2075-2099 are compared with historical simulations for the period of 1979-2005 from 15 coupled models that are participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). To optimally estimate future change and its uncertainty, groups of best models are selected based on Taylor diagrams, relative entropy, and probability density function (PDF) methods previously suggested. Overall, the best models' multi-model ensemble based on Taylor diagrams has the lowest errors in reproducing temperature extremes in the present climate among three methods. Selected best models in three methods tend to project considerably different changes in the extreme indices from each other, indicating that the selection of reliable models are of critical importance to reduce uncertainties. Three groups of best models show significant increase of summerbased indices but decrease of the winter-based indices. Over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the most significant increase is seen in the HD (336 ± 23.4% of current climate) and the most significant decrease is appeared in the HDD (82 ± 4.2%). It is suggested that the larger future change in the HD is found over in the Southeastern China region, probably due to a higher local maximum temperature in the present climate. All of the indices show the largest uncertainty over Southeastern China, particularly in the TN (~3.9 times as large as uncertainty over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) and in the HD (~2.4). It is further noted that the TN reveals the largest uncertainty over three <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries (~1.7 and 1.4 over Korea and Japan, respectively). These future changes in extreme temperature events have an important implication for energy-saving applications and human molarity in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Online+AND+reputation&pg=3&id=EJ1019680','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Online+AND+reputation&pg=3&id=EJ1019680"><span id="translatedtitle">Attitudes of International Music Students from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> toward US Higher Education Institutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Choi, Jin Ho</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Nine National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) accredited universities in the United States (US) with the greatest populations of international students were surveyed to identify the status of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian international students' attitudes toward their schools. Among <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian international music students at US higher education…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.2843D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.2843D"><span id="translatedtitle">Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, K.; Liu, J.; Ding, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, T. L.; Shi, J.; Han, Y.; Wang, H.; Jiang, F.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. High CO abundances of 300-550 ppbv are observed in MOZAIC data in the free troposphere during these episodes. These are among the highest CO abundances documented at these altitudes. On average, such episodes with CO over 400 ppbv (in the 2003 and 2004 cases) and between 200 and 300 ppbv (in the 2005 case) may occur 2-5 and 10-20% in time, respectively, in the respective altitudes over the region. Correspondingly, elevated CO is shown in MOPITT daytime data in the middle to upper troposphere in the 2003 case, in the lower to middle troposphere in the 2004 case, and in the upper troposphere in the 2005 case. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases. In the 2003 case, emissions from large forest fires near Lake Baikal dominated the elevated CO, which had been rapidly transported upward by a frontal system from the fire plumes. In the 2004 case, anthropogenic CO from the North China Plain experienced frontal lifting and mostly reached ~ 700 hPa near the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, while CO from biomass burning over Indochina experienced orographic lifting, lee-side-trough-induced convection, and frontal lifting through two separate transport pathways, leading to two distinct CO enhancements around 700 and 300 hPa. In the 2005 case, the observed CO of ~ 300 ppbv around 300 hPa originated from anthropogenic sources over the Sichuan Basin and the North China Plain and from forest fires over Indochina. The high CO was transported to such altitudes through strong frontal lifting, interacting with convection and orographic lifting. These cases show that topography affects vertical transport of CO in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> via different ways, including orographic uplifting over the Hengduan Mountains, assisting frontal lifting in the North China Plain, and facilitating convection in the Sichuan Basin. In particular, topography-induced lee-side troughs over Indochina led to strong convection that assisted CO uplifting to the upper troposphere. This study shows that the new daytime MOPITT near-infrared (NIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) data (version 5 or above) have enhanced vertical sensitivity in the free troposphere and may help qualitative diagnosis of vertical transport processes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26269820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26269820"><span id="translatedtitle">Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (2). Study of a collection sample deposited at the Russian Academy of Sciences, with descriptions of new species and a checklist.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rocienė, Agnė; Stonis, Jonas R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Over the few couple of decades, the Nepticulidae of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> have been the subject of continuing investigation. Male genitalia of the nepticulid species described from Primorskiy Kray (the Russian Far <span class="hlt">East</span>) were re-examined in the preceding paper in this journal. The present paper continues our study on the diversity and systematics of the Nepticulidae of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on a sample of specimens collected in 1974-1990 at various sites of the southern part of Primorskiy Kray and treats 35 species: two new taxa (Ectoedemia ortiva sp. nov. and E. species 219) and 33 other species. Seventeen of them are briefly discussed and illustrated with photographs of male genitalia. Two new synonyms are proposed, and three new distribution records are provided. We also provide an updated checklist of the Nepticulidae of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which comprises 105 species; 67 species occur in the Russian Far <span class="hlt">East</span> and 53 in Japan (20 of which occur both in Japan and Russia). Species with Euro-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asiatic distribution currently comprise 11% of the Japanese fauna and 16% of the continental fauna of the Russian Far <span class="hlt">East</span>, Primorskiy Kray. PMID:26269820</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...80Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...80Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model developed for CORDEX <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: assessment of Asian summer monsoon simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In this study, a developed regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model FROALS was applied to the CORDEX <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> domain. The performance of FROALS in the simulation of Asian summer monsoon during 1989-2010 was assessed using the metrics developed by the CLIVAR Asian-Australian Monsoon Panel Diagnostics Task Team. The results indicated that FROALS exhibited good performance in simulating Asian summer monsoon climatology. The simulated JJA mean SST biases were weaker than those of the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM). The skill of FROALS approached that of CMIP5 MMEM in terms of the annual cycle of Asian summer monsoon. The simulated monsoon duration matched the observed counterpart well (with a spatial pattern correlation coefficient of 0.59). Some biases of CMIP5 MMEM were also found in FROALS, highlighting the importance of local forcing and model physics within the Asian monsoon domain. Corresponding to a strong <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon, an anomalous anticyclone was found over western North Pacific in both observation and simulation. However, the simulated strength was weaker than the observed due to the responses to incorrect sea surface anomalies over the key regions. The model also accurately captured the spatial pattern of the intraseasonal variability variance and the extreme climate indices of Asian summer monsoons, although with larger amplitude. The results suggest that FROALS could be used as a dynamical downscaling tool nested within the global climate model with coarse resolution to develop high-resolution regional climate change projections over the CORDEX <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=family+AND+planning+AND+China&id=EJ919144','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=family+AND+planning+AND+China&id=EJ919144"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher Education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marginson, Simon</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The paper reviews <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific higher education and university research, focusing principally on the "Confucian" education nations Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong China, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam. Except for Vietnam, these systems exhibit a special developmental dynamism--still playing out everywhere except Japan--and have created a distinctive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam+AND+education+AND+model&id=EJ919144','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam+AND+education+AND+model&id=EJ919144"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher Education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marginson, Simon</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The paper reviews <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific higher education and university research, focusing principally on the "Confucian" education nations Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong China, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam. Except for Vietnam, these systems exhibit a special developmental dynamism--still playing out everywhere except Japan--and have created a distinctive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...83...76P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...83...76P"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular records of continental air temperature and monsoon precipitation variability in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> spanning the past 130,000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peterse, Francien; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Zhou, Bin; Beets, Christiaan J.; Prins, Maarten A.; Zheng, Hongbo; Eglinton, Timothy I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Our current understanding of past changes in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation intensity derives from several loess-paleosol sequences and oxygen isotope (δ18O) records of well-dated stalagmites. Although temperature is generally presumed to have had minimal impact on EASM records, past air temperature dynamics over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are, so far, relatively poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of tools to reconstruct continental paleotemperatures. Here we report a high-resolution record of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian air temperature over the past 130,000 years, based on soil bacterial lipid signatures preserved in a loess-paleosol sequence from the Mangshan loess plateau in China. We find that maximum local insolation is the main driver of air temperature, although greenhouse gas concentrations and southern hemisphere climate may influence temperature at times when insolation is weak, causing a decoupling with EASM precipitation intensity. Direct comparison of our temperature record with precipitation-induced changes in past soil pH, derived from the same suite of lipids confirms this decoupling. Subsequent cross-spectral analysis of the two molecular proxy records reveals that variations in monsoon precipitation consistently lag those in air temperature throughout the whole record at the dominant precession band. The length of this lag is variable however, and increases as glaciation develops. This observation is consistent with an increasing influence of northern hemisphere ice sheets on the modulation of EASM response to insolation forcing during ice ages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp..287G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp..287G"><span id="translatedtitle">A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will induce a subsidence to its south and subsequently reduce precipitation over that region. Therefore, the responses of circulation and precipitation to aerosol forcing depend on the relative location of dust aerosols with respect to rainfall band, which may explain the fact that contradictory results exist regarding whether the aerosol effect would enhance or suppress precipitation. The dust induced change in precipitation is actually more of redistribution rather than the simple action of increase or decrease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2353G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2353G"><span id="translatedtitle">A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will induce a subsidence to its south and subsequently reduce precipitation over that region. Therefore, the responses of circulation and precipitation to aerosol forcing depend on the relative location of dust aerosols with respect to rainfall band, which may explain the fact that contradictory results exist regarding whether the aerosol effect would enhance or suppress precipitation. The dust induced change in precipitation is actually more of redistribution rather than the simple action of increase or decrease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860037508&hterms=deforestation+southeast+asia&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddeforestation%2Bsoutheast%2Basia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860037508&hterms=deforestation+southeast+asia&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddeforestation%2Bsoutheast%2Basia"><span id="translatedtitle">Orbital remote sensing - Space technology applications in south-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Malingreau, J.-P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The evolution of remote sensing techniques in the developing countries of southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is reviewed. The use of the images for monitoring soil, water, and vegetation resources, in order to develop a national policy for conservation of the resources, is described. The remote sensing data are helpful in observing deforestation in southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>; however, excessive cloud coverage does not allow accurate evaluation of the rice crop. The effects of the capabilities of the developing countries to process the data and remote sensing program of industrial countries on the future application of satellite imagery in developing countries are studied. The need for improved data banking and dissemination of the imagery is analyzed. Agreements on proprietary rights due to the improved ground resolution of orbital sensors are required. The designing of remote sensing equipment to meet the requirements of its users is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26115948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26115948"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiological status of kissing-bugs in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: A preliminary assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Pham Thi, Khoa; Truong Xuan, Lam; Panzera, Francisco; Pita, Sebastián; Schofield, Chris J</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Kissing-bugs (Triatominae) are being increasingly reported as a biting nuisance in SE <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with severe bite reactions sometimes leading to anaphylactic shock. In addition, they pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of trypanosomiasis, with potential diagnostic difficulties due to the range of trypanosome species in the region. Here, we review available information about Triatominae in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and present additional comparisons using morphometry, cytogenetics, and new DNA sequence data, to clarify their relationship with each other and with the better known American species. We deduce that all Asian Triatominae have probably derived from forms originally spread during the 15-18th centuries on sailing ships, from the area that now forms the southern USA. PMID:26115948</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2678631','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2678631"><span id="translatedtitle">Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> extended to 10,000 years ago</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.441a1001W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.441a1001W"><span id="translatedtitle">PREFACE: 11th <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th <span class="hlt">Symposium</span> on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The 11th <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th <span class="hlt">Symposium</span> on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This <span class="hlt">symposium</span> is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the <span class="hlt">Asia</span>-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent advances in thermal and non-equilibrium plasmas as well as on more new and innovative developments in the field of life innovation, green innovation and a technical report session. The editors hope that this volume will be useful and helpful for deepening our understanding of science and technology of plasma materials processing and also for stimulating further development of the plasma technology. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the organizing committee, the advisory committee, the executive committee, the program committee, the publication committee, organizing secretariat and financial support from The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, JSPS. Sponsors and Supporting Organization: The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Organizing Committee Chairperson: Osamu Tsuji, SAMCO Corporation, Japan Advisory Committee Chairperson: Akihisa Matsuda, Osaka University, Japan Executive Committee Chairperson: Masaru Hori, Nagoya University, Japan Program Committee Chairperson: Takamasa Ishigaki, Hosei University, Japan Publication Committee Chairperson: Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University Editors of APCPST-11 and SPMS-25 Professor Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Professor Toshio Kaneko, Tohoku University, Japan Professor Makoto Sekine, Nagoya University, Japan Professor Yasunori Tanaka, Kanazawa University, Japan</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3330686','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3330686"><span id="translatedtitle">Origins of domestic dog in Southern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog–wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West <span class="hlt">Asia</span> but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14 437 bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13–24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog–wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog–wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool. PMID:22108628</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22108628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22108628"><span id="translatedtitle">Origins of domestic dog in southern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog-wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West <span class="hlt">Asia</span> but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14,437 bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13-24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog-wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog-wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool. PMID:22108628</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Litho.238...86W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Litho.238...86W"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of metamorphic core complexes in non-over-thickened continental crust: A case study of Liaodong Peninsula (<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Kun; Burov, Evgueni; Gumiaux, Charles; Chen, Yan; Lu, Gang; Mezri, Leila; Zhao, Liang</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Pre-thickened hot orogenic crust is often considered a necessary condition for the formation of continental metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). However, the discovery of MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula, where the crust has a normal thickness (~ 35 km), challenges the universality of this scenario. Therefore, we implement a series of 2-D numerical thermo-mechanical modeling experiments in which we investigate the conditions of MCC formation in normal crusts, as well as the relationships between the underlying mechanisms and the syn-rift basin evolution. In these experiments, we explore the impact of the lithostratigraphic and thermo-rheological structure of the crust. We also examine the lithosphere thickness, strain softening, extension rate, and surface erosion/ sedimentation processes. The experiments demonstrate that high thermal gradients and crustal heterogeneities result only in a symmetric spreading dome, which is geometrically incompatible with the observations of the MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula. According to our further findings, the strain softening should play a key role in the development of asymmetric strain localization and domal topography uplift, while synchronous surface erosion controls the polarity of the syn-rift basin. The synthetic model data are compatible with the geological observations and cooling history based on the thermo-chronology for the eastern part of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. The model-predicted P-T-t paths are essentially different from those inferred for the other known MCCs, confirming the exceptional character of the MCC formation in the wide rift system of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196699','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196699"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Latin America and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>/North Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Latin America and the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span>/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13J..05L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13J..05L"><span id="translatedtitle">Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Seven South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A11I3109X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A11I3109X"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of VIIRS, GOCI, and MODIS Collection 6 AOD retrievals against ground sunphotometer measurements over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Kondragunta, S.; Zhang, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Persistent high aerosol loadings together with extremely high population density have raised serious air quality and public health concerns in most urban centers in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Recently, satellite retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has become a powerful tool to better characterize aerosol patterns in space and time. Using data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) and the Aerosol Robobotic Network (AERONET) (over 40 permanent and temporary sites), as well as handheld sunphotometers, we evaluated the AOD products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Collection 6) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in 2012 and 2013. During the study period, GOCI AOD provides the best temporal coverage (80%), followed by VIIRS Intermediate Product (IP) (75%), VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) (59%), and MODIS C6 3 km AOD (27%). The mean bias of VIIRS EDR, VIIRS IP, GOCI, and MODIS C6 3 km AOD are 0.08, 0.25, 0.01, and 0.15, respectively. When compared with ground observations, 56% of EDR, 27% of IP, 51% of GOCI, and 47% of MODIS C6 3 km AOD fall within the global expected error (EE) range of MODIS over land (±0.05±0.15AOD). EDR, IP, and MODIS C6 3km aerosol products perform better in rural areas, with a bias less than half of that in urban areas and more than 80% more retrievals falling within EE relative to in urban areas. Over Metro Beijing, comparing with AOD measured by handheld sunphotometers, 51% of VIIRS EDR AOD, 31% of VIIRS IP AOD, 33% of GOCI AOD, and 17% of MODIS AOD fall within the MODIS EE. Keywords - Aerosol Optical Depth; VIIRS; MODIS; GOCI; AERONET; DRAGON</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080015630','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080015630"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-Based Assessment of Possible Dust Aerosols Semi-Direct Effect on Cloud Water Path over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick; Wang, Tainhe; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yongxiang; Yi, Yuhong; Ayers, J. Kirk</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The semi-direct effects of dust aerosols are analyzed over eastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using 2 years (June 2002 to June 2004) of data from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, and 18 years (1984 to 2001) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. The results show that the water path of dust-contaminated clouds is considerably smaller than that of dust-free clouds. The mean ice water path (IWP) and liquid water path (LWP) of dusty clouds are less than their dust-free counterparts by 23.7% and 49.8%, respectively. The long-term statistical relationship derived from ISCCP also confirms that there is significant negative correlation between dust storm index and ISCCP cloud water path. These results suggest that dust aerosols warm clouds, increase the evaporation of cloud droplets and further reduce cloud water path, the so-called semi-direct effect. The semi-direct effect may play a role in cloud development over arid and semi-arid areas of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and contribute to the reduction of precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4327315','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4327315"><span id="translatedtitle">Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America. PMID:25699210</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..79..853S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..79..853S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of continental sources and sinks on the seasonal and latitudinal gradient of atmospheric carbon dioxide over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shim, Changsub; Lee, Jeongsoon; Wang, Yuxuan</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Here we demonstrate the sharp seasonal and latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, where there are relatively few ground-based observations. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) column-averaged dry air CO2 mole fraction (xCO2) retrieved by NASA's Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS) (2009-2011) program and GEOS-Chem nested-grid CO2 results are used. The strong anthropogenic emissions mainly from China and intensive vegetation uptake from northeastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span> lead to a clear seasonal change of the xCO2 between spring maximum and summer minimum (>10 ppm). In particular, the steep latitudinal gradient of summer time xCO2 by 3-5 ppm in the vicinity of the Korean Peninsula (32N-44N) is likely attributed to the large difference in CO2 fluxes among industry/cities, northeastern forests and the northwest Pacific region. This study represents the current progress to understand sub-continental scale atmospheric CO2 variabilities with recent satellite retrievals and nested-grid modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4531172','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4531172"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Meteorological and Geographical Factors on the Epidemics of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Island-Type Territory, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Chang-Chun David; Tang, Jia-Hong; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Shigematsu, Mika; Chan, Ta-Chien</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has threatened <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for more than three decades and has become an important public health issue owing to its severe sequelae and mortality among children. The lack of effective treatment and vaccine for HFMD highlights the urgent need for efficiently integrated early warning surveillance systems in the region. In this study, we try to integrate the available surveillance and weather data in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to elucidate possible spatiotemporal correlations and weather conditions among different areas from low to high latitude. The general additive model (GAM) was applied to understand the association between HFMD and latitude, as well as meteorological factors for islands in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, namely, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, from 2012 to 2014. The results revealed that latitude was the most important explanatory factor associated with the timing and amplitude of HFMD epidemics (P < 0.0001). Meteorological factors including higher dew point, lower visibility, and lower wind speed were significantly associated with the rise of epidemics (P < 0.01). In summary, weather conditions and geographic location could play some role in affecting HFMD epidemics. Regional integrated surveillance of HFMD in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is needed for mitigating the disease risk. PMID:26290875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=malnutrition&pg=3&id=EJ815227','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=malnutrition&pg=3&id=EJ815227"><span id="translatedtitle">Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Malnutrition&pg=3&id=EJ815227','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Malnutrition&pg=3&id=EJ815227"><span id="translatedtitle">Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.8306Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.8306Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Future prediction of surface ozone over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System and Regional Emission Inventory in <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamaji, Kazuyo; Ohara, Toshimasa; Uno, Itsushi; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Pochanart, Pakpong; Akimoto, Hajime</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Present and future tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations over <span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> have been simulated by the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (REAS) to predict surface O3 variations caused by future anthropogenic emissions changes. For future prediction, REAS provides three emission scenarios for China (the reference (REF), the policy succeed case (PSC), and the policy failure case (PFC) scenarios) and one emission scenario (the REF scenario) for the other countries. Simulated O3 concentration in summer was relatively high (70-80 ppbv in June and 65-75 ppbv in August) over the North China Plain in 2000. The projected REF emissions for 2020 (2020REF) enhance the monthly averaged O3 to 75-90 ppbv in June and 75-85 ppbv in August. The projected PSC emissions for 2020 (2020PFC), including a slight NOx reduction of -0.2 Tg (-2%) and a large NMVOC increase of 14.3 Tg (97%) for total Chinese emissions during 2000-2020, cause the monthly and annually averaged O3 concentrations to decrease by less than 2 ppbv in northeastern and central China. Over the North China Plain, the projected PFC emissions for 2020 (2020PFC) cause significant increases, more than 20 ppbv in the monthly averaged O3, and the O3 will be 85-105 ppbv in June and 80-95 ppbv in August for 2020. The 2020PFC also affect O3 increases in early summer in South Korea (14-18 ppbv increase for monthly average) and Japan (2-14 ppbv increase for monthly average) during 2000-2020 despite the slight NOx increase of 0.4 Tg (25%) in South Korea and the slight NOx reduction of -0.2 Tg (-10%) in Japan during 2000-2020. The pollutant in these regions seems to be transport from upwind source regions. These experiments show that over central eastern China at midday in June, the O3 concentration is largely affected by NOx emission increases but is insensitive to NMVOC emission increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.122..588A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.122..588A"><span id="translatedtitle">SLCP co-control approach in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Tropospheric ozone reduction strategy by simultaneous reduction of NOx/NMVOC and methane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akimoto, Hajime; Kurokawa, Jun`ichi; Sudo, Kengo; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Takemura, Toshihiko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Suzuki, Katsunori</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The emissions of NOx and CO2 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Northeast and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>) contribute more than 30% of the global total since 2008, and consequently the control of air pollutants and CO2 alleviating regional air pollution and global climate change is of great concern of not only in this region but also worldwide. In order to arrive at a rational view of the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) co-control approach in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the effectiveness of the reduction of NOx/NMVOC and CH4 emissions for the reduction of tropospheric O3 has been evaluated by individual and simultaneous 50%-reduction of the emissions in Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (NEA) using both a global chemical climate model (CHASER/SPRINTARS-MIROC), and a regional chemical transport model (WRF-CMAQ). The simultaneous reduction of NOx/NMVOC and CH4 emissions was found to reduce the regional concentration of surface O3 in NEA, and globally averaged net radiative forcing most effectively. Global mean RF and regional air quality change were also evaluated for the climate stabilization scenario ("450-ppm"), and climate stabilization with additional air pollution mitigation strengthened scenario ("450-ppm-cntr") developed in IIASA with the aid of GAINS model. In the 450 ppm-cntr scenario, emissions of NOx NMVOC, BC and OC were further reduced respectively, for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from the emissions in 450 ppm. The improvement of air quality as well as the mitigation of climate change would grant to the basis of the SLCP co-control approach in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TIMo&pg=3&id=EJ1008922','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TIMo&pg=3&id=EJ1008922"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors Influencing the Higher Education of International Students from Confucian <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Choi, Serene H.-J.; Nieminen, Timo A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Higher education, especially that leading to a degree from a high-prestige university, is strongly related to social status and employment opportunities in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries. This is a consequence of both traditional Confucian attitudes to education and the social and economic changes accompanying industrialisation. Since the number of places…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=walmart&pg=3&id=EJ1058639','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=walmart&pg=3&id=EJ1058639"><span id="translatedtitle">Overcoming the "Walmart Syndrome": Adapting Problem-Based Management Education in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores design issues to be considered in adapting the problem-based learning (PBL) for use in the context of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian higher education and tests its instructional effectiveness in a Master of Management degree program at a graduate school of business (GSB) in Thailand. The research analyzes course evaluation data obtained from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kuala+AND+lumpur&pg=4&id=ED243642','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kuala+AND+lumpur&pg=4&id=ED243642"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Rural Development in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 439.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Deboeck, Guido; Ng, Ronald</p> <p></p> <p>The paper presents results of discussions during an 8-day workshop (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 1979) on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian and Pacific rural development projects. Major workshop themes identified are managerial, technical, and institutional aspects of monitoring. The introduction discusses previous World Bank…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Special+AND+Education+AND+Malaysia&pg=7&id=EJ229495','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Special+AND+Education+AND+Malaysia&pg=7&id=EJ229495"><span id="translatedtitle">Education and Cultural Pluralism in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with Special Reference to Peninsular Malaysia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watson, J. K. P.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines educational policies in certain culturally plural South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian societies in relation to hypotheses concerning differences in educational policies resulting from the threat felt by the dominant elite and the effects of educational and national language policies on the assimilation or alienation of different ethnic groups.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22646502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22646502"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate oscillation during the Quaternary associated with landscape heterogeneity promoted allopatric lineage divergence of a temperate tree Kalopanax septemlobus (Araliaceae) in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakaguchi, Shota; Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Liu, Yi-Hui; Qi, Xin-Shuai; Kim, Sea-Hyun; Han, Jingyu; Takeuchi, Yayoi; Worth, James R P; Yamasaki, Michimasa; Sakurai, Shogo; Isagi, Yuji</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We investigated the biogeographic history of Kalopanax septemlobus, one of the most widespread temperate tree species in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, using a combined phylogeographic and palaeodistribution modelling approach. Range-wide genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellites (G'(ST) = 0.709; 2205 samples genotyped at five loci) and chloroplast DNA (G(ST) = 0.697; 576 samples sequenced for 2055 bp at three fragments) was high. A major phylogeographic break in Central China corresponded with those of other temperate species and the spatial delineation of the two temperate forest subkingdoms of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, consistent with the forests having been isolated within both <span class="hlt">East</span> and West China for multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Evidence for multiple glacial refugia was found in most of its current range in China, South Japan and the southernmost part of the Korean Peninsula. In contrast, lineage admixture and absence of private alleles and haplotypes in Hokkaido and the northern Korean Peninsula support a postglacial origin of northernmost populations. Although palaeodistribution modelling predicted suitable climate across a land-bridge extending from South Japan to <span class="hlt">East</span> China during the Last Glacial Maximum, the genetic differentiation of regional populations indicated a limited role of the exposed sea floor as a dispersal corridor at that time. Overall, this study provides evidence that differential impacts of Quaternary climate oscillation associated with landscape heterogeneity have shaped the genetic structure of a wide-ranging temperate tree in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:22646502</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4829828','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4829828"><span id="translatedtitle">A glimpse into evolution and dissemination of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: a comparative genomics study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feng, Ye; Ruan, Zhi; Shu, Jianfeng; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Clonal dissemination is characteristic of the important nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, as revealed by previous multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) studies. However, the disseminated phyletic unit is actually MLST sequence type instead of real bacterial clone. Here we sequenced the genomes of 13 multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii strains from Taiwan, and compared them with that of A. baumannii from other <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries. Core-genome phylogenetic tree divided the analyzed strains into three major clades. Among them, one ST455 clade was a hybrid between the ST208 clade and the other ST455 clade. Several strains showed nearly identical genome sequence, but their isolation sources differed by over 2,500 km and 10 years apart, suggesting a wide dissemination of the phyletic units, which were much smaller than the sequence type. Frequent structural variation was detected even between the closely related strains in antimicrobial resistance elements such as AbaRI, class I integron, indicating strong selection pressure brought by antimicrobial use. In conclusion, wide clonal dissemination and frequent genomic variation simultaneously characterize the clinical MDR A. baumannii in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:27072398</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006QSRv...25..126T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006QSRv...25..126T"><span id="translatedtitle">Pleistocene paleoenvironmental reconstructions and mammalian evolution in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: focus on fossil faunas from Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tougard, C.; Montuire, S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Mammalian faunal studies have provided various clues for a better reconstruction of hominid Quaternary paleoenvironments. In this work, two methods were used: (1) the cenogram method, based on a graphical representation of the mammalian community structure, and (2) the species richness of murine rodents to estimate climatic parameters. These methods were applied to Middle and Late Pleistocene mammalian faunas of South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, from South China to Indonesia. Special emphasis was laid on a fauna from north-<span class="hlt">east</span> Thailand dated back to approximately 170,000 years (i.e. a glacial period). This Thai fauna seems characteristic of a slightly open forested environment intermediate between those of present-day central Myanmar and the northern part of South China. In the Thai fauna, the occurrence of both cool-loving mammalian taxa, currently living further north, and species of larger body size than their living counterparts, indicates cooler and probably drier climatic conditions than present-day climates in Thailand. These results are quite consistent with Middle Pleistocene palynological records from South China and eastern Java. From other less well-documented Pleistocene faunas, taken into account in this work, humid climatic conditions of interglacial periods were revealed from large mammalian taxa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20561201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20561201"><span id="translatedtitle">Ficus racemosa is pollinated by a single population of a single agaonid wasp species in continental South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kobmoo, N; Hossaert-McKey, M; Rasplus, J Y; Kjellberg, F</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>High specificity in the Ficus-agaonid wasp mutualism has lead to the assumption of a mostly 'one-to-one' relationship, albeit with some exceptions. This view has been challenged by new molecular data in recent years, but surprisingly little is known about local and spatial genetic structuring of agaonid wasp populations. Using microsatellite markers, we analysed genetic structuring of Ceratosolen fusciceps, the fig wasp pollinating Ficus racemosa, a fig tree species widely distributed from India to Australia. In sampling stretching from the south of China to the south of Thailand we found evidence for only a single pollinating wasp species in continental South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian mainland. We found no evidence for the co-occurrence of cryptic species within our subcontinent sampling zone. We observed no spatial genetic structure within sites and only limited structuring over the whole sampling zone, suggesting that F. racemosa is pollinated by a single population of a single agaonid wasp species all over continental South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. An additional sample of wasps collected on F. racemosa in Australia showed clear-cut genetic differentiation from the Asian continent, suggesting allopatric divergence into subspecies or species. We propose that the frequent local co-occurrence of sister species found in the literature mainly stems from contact zones between biogeographic regions, and that a single pollinator species over wide areas might be the more common situation everywhere else. PMID:20561201</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10330595','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10330595"><span id="translatedtitle">Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ismail, R</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war. PMID:10330595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1511049Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1511049Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-model evaluation of short-lived pollutant distributions over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during summer 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Daskalakis, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The ability of six global and one regional model to reproduce distributions of tropospheric ozone and its precursors, as well as aerosols over <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in summer 2008 is evaluated using satellite and in-situ observations. Whilst ozone precursors (NO2 and CO) are generally underestimated by the models in the troposphere, surface NO2 concentrations are overestimated, suggesting that emissions of NOx are too high. Ozone integrated columns and vertical profiles are generally well modeled, but the global models face difficulties simulating the ozone gradient at the surface between urban and rural environments, pointing to the need to increase model resolution. The accuracy of simulated aerosol patterns over eastern China and northern India varies between the models, and although most of the models reproduce the observed pollution features over eastern China, significant biases are noted in the magnitude of optical properties (aerosol optical depth, aerosol backscatter). These results have important implications for accurate prediction of pollution episodes affecting air quality and the radiative effects of these short-lived climate pollutants over <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464906"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest biomass carbon sinks in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, with special reference to the relative contributions of forest expansion and forest growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Jingyun; Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Kato, Tomomichi; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Son, Yowhan</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Forests play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. With extensive afforestation and reforestation efforts over the last several decades, forests in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> have largely expanded, but the dynamics of their C stocks have not been fully assessed. We estimated biomass C stocks of the forests in all five <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Mongolia) between the 1970s and the 2000s, using the biomass expansion factor method and forest inventory data. Forest area and biomass C density in the whole region increased from 179.78 × 10(6) ha and 38.6 Mg C ha(-1) in the 1970s to 196.65 × 10(6) ha and 45.5 Mg C ha(-1) in the 2000s, respectively. The C stock increased from 6.9 Pg C to 8.9 Pg C, with an averaged sequestration rate of 66.9 Tg C yr(-1). Among the five countries, China and Japan were two major contributors to the total region's forest C sink, with respective contributions of 71.1% and 32.9%. In China, the areal expansion of forest land was a larger contributor to C sinks than increased biomass density for all forests (60.0% vs. 40.0%) and for planted forests (58.1% vs. 41.9%), while the latter contributed more than the former for natural forests (87.0% vs. 13.0%). In Japan, increased biomass density dominated the C sink for all (101.5%), planted (91.1%), and natural (123.8%) forests. Forests in South Korea also acted as a C sink, contributing 9.4% of the total region's sink because of increased forest growth (98.6%). Compared to these countries, the reduction in forest land in both North Korea and Mongolia caused a C loss at an average rate of 9.0 Tg C yr(-1), equal to 13.4% of the total region's C sink. Over the last four decades, the biomass C sequestration by <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>'s forests offset 5.8% of its contemporary fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. PMID:24464906</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2423B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2423B"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact on the present and future <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> climate of the land cover changes simulated by dynamic vegetation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boo, Kyung-On; Cho, Mee-Hyun; Martin, Gill; Lee, Johan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Land surface properties are important because of their known impact on the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian monsoon circulation. Historical and future changes in land cover changes give influences on the monsoon rainfall and circulation over the Asian summer monsoon region. The dynamic vegetation model, as one of the key process of the Earth System model, simulates the terrestrial biosphere where the fraction of tree and grass species is a function of the local climate state. The potential effect of the simulated land cover distribution needs to be individually evaluated in present and future climate simulations. Since it is reported that the simulated land surface properties could give influence on the systematic biases in monsoon rainfall and add an impact in the future projection via feedback with the dust loading of the atmosphere [Martin and Levine, 2012]. Motivated by the previous study, we investigate the impact of land cover change generated by the interactive terrestrial carbon cycle in the HadGEM2 Earth System configuration over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> under present-day and possible future climate condition. Data in this study is HadGEM2-A runs using HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution in Martin and Levine [2012]. In present-day run, over the northern China region to the west of Korea, bare soil increase distinctly in HadGEM2-ES rather than HadGEM2-AO. ES land cover by interactive vegetation model gives influences on JJA rainfall and temperature. There is interaction with model systematic biases in the present-day climate. JJA dry bias is larger when HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution was used for Korea. Dust aerosol effect contributes to the dry bias. As bare soil fraction increases, more emitted dust aerosol has direct effect of negative net downward SW, cooling the land surface, weakening monsoon inflow, inducing dry bias over Korea. In the other hand, over bare soil expanded area, changes in roughness length and soil evaporation, the subsequent latent heat flux changes contribute to local surface warming in JJA. In global warming, warmer and wetter climate in JJA is expected in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Relative to global warming, ES land cover and dust direct effects are small and the details are presented. Acknowledgements. This study is supported by the National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration (NIMR-2012-B-2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.3204O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.3204O"><span id="translatedtitle">Wet removal of black carbon in Asian outflow: Aerosol Radiative Forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oshima, N.; Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Matsui, H.; Kajino, M.; Nakamura, H.; Jung, J. S.; Kim, Y. J.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in March-April 2009. During the A-FORCE campaign, 120 vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were obtained in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere. This study examines the wet removal of BC in Asian outflow using the A-FORCE data. The concentrations of BC and CO were greatly enhanced in air parcels sampled at 3-6 km in altitude over the Yellow Sea on 30 March 2009, associated with upward transport due to a cyclone with modest amounts of precipitation over northern China. In contrast, high CO concentrations without substantial enhancements of BC concentrations were observed in air parcels sampled at 5-6 km over the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea on 23 April 2009, caused by uplifting due to cumulus convection with large amounts of precipitation over central China. The transport efficiency of BC (TEBC, namely the fraction of BC particles not removed during transport) in air parcels sampled above 2 km during the entire A-FORCE period decreased primarily with the increase in the precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during vertical transport, although their correlation was modest (r2 = 0.43). TEBC also depended on the altitude to which air parcels were transported from the PBL and the latitude where they were uplifted locally over source regions. The median values of TEBC for air parcels originating from northern China (north of 33°N) and sampled at 2-4 km and 4-9 km levels were 86% and 49%, respectively, during the A-FORCE period. These median values were systematically greater than the corresponding median values (69% and 32%, respectively) for air parcels originating from southern China (south of 33°N). Use of the A-FORCE data set will contribute to the reduction of large uncertainties in wet removal process of BC in global- and regional-scale models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..97..456H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..97..456H"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerial observations of air masses transported from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to the Western Pacific: Vertical structure of polluted air masses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hatakeyama, Shiro; Ikeda, Keisuke; Hanaoka, Sayuri; Watanabe, Izumi; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Bandow, Hiroshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Zhang, Daizhou; Okuyama, Kikuo; Ogi, Takashi; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Seto, Takafumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takami, Akinori</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>There has been only limited information about the vertical chemical structure of the atmosphere, so far. We conducted aerial observations on 11, 12, and 14 December 2010 over the northern part of the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea to analyze the spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and to elucidate transformation processes of air pollutants during the long-range transport. On 11 December, a day on which Asian dust created hazy conditions, the average PM10 concentration was 40.69 ?g m-3, and we observed high concentrations of chemical components such as Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, Al, Ca, Fe, and Zn. The height of the boundary layer was about 1200 m, and most species of pollutants (except for dust particles and SO2) had accumulated within the boundary layer. In contrast, concentrations of pollutants were low in the boundary layer (up to 1000 m) on 12 December because clean Pacific air from the southeast had diluted the haze. However, we observed natural chemical components (Na+, Cl-, Al, Ca, and Fe) at 3000 m, the indication being that dust particles, including halite, were present in the lower free troposphere. On 14 December, peak concentrations of SO2 and black carbon were measured within the boundary layer (up to 700 m) and at 2300 m. The concentrations of anthropogenic chemical components such as NO3-, NH4+, and Zn were highest at 500 m, and concentrations of both anthropogenic and natural chemical components (SO42-, Pb, Ca2+, Ca, Al, and Fe) were highest at 2000 m. Thus, it was clearly indicated that the air above the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea had a well-defined, layered structure below 3000 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..103H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..103H"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional Dispersal of Fukushima-derived Fission Nuclides by <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huh, Chih-An; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Hsu, Shih-Chieh</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Since the Fukushima nuclear accident happened on 12 March 2011, there have been a plethora of publications about the dispersion of radioactive material from the damaged reactors. Most of these works dealt with global transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the northern hemisphere and local transport in the vicinity of Fukushima and around Japan. In contrast, few works investigated into dispersal of radiation plumes from Japan to other areas on regional scales. This is because regional dispersal out of Japan in the springtime is most likely dominated by the northeastern monsoon, whereas there are few monitoring stations downwind in the southeastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region. In this respect, we are only aware of the data in Vietnam published by Long et al (2012) in addition to our own data obtained in and around Taiwan (Huh et al., 2012; Hsu et al., 2012). By integrating the data published in the literature plus those that can be searched from relevant websites, we try to further elucidate the dispersal of Fukushima-derived radiation toward the southeastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region. The WRF/Chem tracer model is employed to simulate the dispersal of radiation plumes from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. From a vis-à-vis comparison between the model simulation and the time-series of Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around the southeastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, we can distinguish between global transport by the Westerlies in the free troposphere and regional transport by the northeast monsoon in the planetary boundary layer. In general, regional (mainly meridional) transport carried more weight than global (mainly zonal) transport in contributing Fukushima-derived radioactivity to the area covered in this review, particularly at the ground-level sites. References 1. Hsu, S.C., Huh, C.A., Chan, C.Y., Lin, S.H., Lin, F.J. and Liu, S.C. (2012). Hemispheric dispersion of radioactive plume laced with fission nuclides from the Fukushima nuclear event. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L00G22, doi:10.1029/2011GL049986. 2. Huh, C.A., Hsu, S. C. and Lin, C. Y. (2012). Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around Taiwan: Free tropospheric versus boundary layer transport. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 319-320: 9-14. 3. Long, N.Q., Truong, Y., Hien, P.D., Binh, N.T., Sieu, L.N., Giap, T.V. and Phan, N.T. (2012). Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam. J. Environ. Radioactiv. 111: 53-58.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24816716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24816716"><span id="translatedtitle">The oriental fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: disentangling the different forces promoting the invasion and shaping the genetic make-up of populations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aketarawong, N; Guglielmino, C R; Karam, N; Falchetto, M; Manni, M; Scolari, F; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, is one of the most economically destructive pests of fruits and vegetables especially in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Based on its phytophagous life style, this species dispersed with the diffusion and implementation of agriculture, while globalization allowed it to establish adventive populations in different tropical and subtropical areas of the world. We used nine SSR loci over twelve samples collected across <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, i.e. an area that, in relatively few years, has become a theatre of intensive agriculture and a lively fruit trade. Our aim is to disentangle the different forces that have affected the invasion pattern and shaped the genetic make-up of populations of this fruit fly. Our data suggest that the considered samples probably represent well established populations in terms of genetic variability and population structuring. The human influence on the genetic shape of populations and diffusion is evident, but factors such as breeding/habitat size and life history traits of the species may have determined the post introduction phases and expansion. In <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> the origin of diffusion can most probably be allocated in the oriental coastal provinces of China, from where this fruit fly spread into Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The spread of this species deserves attention for the development and implementation of risk assessment and control measures. PMID:24816716</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3480369','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3480369"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogeography of Quercus variabilis Based on Chloroplast DNA Sequence in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Multiple Glacial Refugia and Mainland-Migrated Island Populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, Hongzhang; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Shan; Du, Hongmei; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Gapare, Washington; Wu, Harry X.; Liu, Chunjiang</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span> where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Korea Peninsular as well as Japan, Zhoushan and Taiwan Islands) was collected, and three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments were sequenced using universal primers. A total of 26 haplotypes were detected, and it showed a weak phylogeographical structure in eastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span> populations at species level, however, in the central-eastern region of Mainland China, the populations had more haplotypes than those in other regions, with a significant phylogeographical structure (NST = 0.751> GST = 0.690, P<0.05). Q. variabilis displayed high interpopulation and low intrapopulation genetic diversity across the distribution range. Both unimodal mismatch distribution and significant negative Fu’s FS indicated a demographic expansion of Q. variabilis populations in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. A fossil calibrated phylogenetic tree showed a rapid speciation during Pleistocene, with a population augment occurred in Middle Pleistocene. Both diversity patterns and ecological niche modelling indicated there could be multiple glacial refugia and possible bottleneck or founder effects occurred in the southern Japan. We dated major spatial expansion of Q. variabilis population in eastern <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to the last glacial cycle(s), a period with sea-level fluctuations and land bridges in <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea as possible dispersal corridors. This study showed that geographical heterogeneity combined with climate and sea-level changes have shaped the genetic structure of this wide-ranging tree species in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23115642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13B1062T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13B1062T"><span id="translatedtitle">Dust Activity during Winter Time in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (<span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall. Oppositely, for inactive years, drier-than-normal atmosphere appeared and consequently sluggish snowfall seasons followed. A SVD (singular value decomposition) analysis of the Asian synoptic circulation indicated that the connection between the pressure dipoles and the position of EAT is strong in 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2010, and 2011. It significantly affects both of the snowfall and dust activities. In summary, snowfall active years usually occurred when the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian dust storm was inactive. Nevertheless, the snowfall activity increased in Taiwan if there was dust event and the dust aerosol successfully transported to Taiwan. This finding is also demonstrated in the model simulation of this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25275329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25275329"><span id="translatedtitle">Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures. PMID:25275329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4062049','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4062049"><span id="translatedtitle">ELSI practices in genomic research in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: implications for research collaboration and public participation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the ‘ELSI 2.0’ initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21751774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21751774"><span id="translatedtitle">Polybrominated diphenyl ethers vs alternate brominated flame retardants and Dechloranes from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to the Arctic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Möller, Axel; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Zhong, Guangcai; Huang, Peng; Cai, Minggang; Sturm, Renate; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf</p> <p>2011-08-15</p> <p>Marine boundary layer air and seawater samples taken during a polar expedition cruise from <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea to the Arctic were analyzed in order to compare the occurrence, distribution, and fate of the banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with their brominated alternatives as well as the chlorinated Dechloranes. The sum of PBDEs (∑(10)PBDEs) in the atmosphere ranged from 0.07 to 8.1 pg m(-3) with BDE-209 being the dominating congener and from not detected (n.d.) to 0.6 pg L(-1) in seawater. Alternate brominated flame retardants (BFRs), especially hexabromobenzene (HBB), (2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), pentabromotoluene (PBT), 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), were detected in higher concentrations than PBDEs, even in the high Arctic (0.6 to 15.4 pg m(-3) for sum of alternate BFRs), indicating the change of PBDEs toward alternate BFRs in the environmental predominance. In addition, Dechlorane Plus (DP) as well as Dechlorane 602, 603, and 604 were detected both in the atmosphere and in seawater. The highest concentrations as well as the highest compound variability were observed in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian samples suggesting the Asian continent as source of these compounds in the marine environment. The air-seawater exchange indicates strong deposition, especially of alternate BFRs, as well as dry particle-bound deposition of BDE-209 into the ocean. PMID:21751774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.4059U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.4059U"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport of mineral and anthropogenic aerosols during a Kosa event over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uematsu, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Muraki, Hiroaki; Arao, Kimio; Uno, Itsushi</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>A quantitative appraisal of the formation processes and distribution of mineral aerosols internally mixed with anthropogenic substances is necessary for estimating the aerosol radiative forcing, especially over the North Pacific region. A large-scale Kosa (``Yellow Dust'') phenomenon associated with the movement of a low-pressure system was observed at Nagasaki, about 1000 km <span class="hlt">east</span> of the Asian continent in the spring of 1996. During the Kosa period (April 16-17), fine sulfur particles appeared first, and after 12 hours, a major plume of large mineral particles reached Nagasaki, which was detected and measured by the single-particle analysis with sampling intervals of 2 hours. The results demonstrate that Asian dust storms are occasionally capable of transporting mineral and anthropogenic particles in separate air masses from the source regions via the marginal seas to the western North Pacific. We note that it takes a certain time to admix the different air masses containing various types of aerosols along their transport paths from the Asian continent to remote marine atmosphere. The interactions of mineral particles with anthropogenic substances predominantly take place within the marine boundary layer toward the <span class="hlt">east</span> over the North Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JASS...26..355L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JASS...26..355L"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Yong Sam</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.124..321L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.124..321L"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of online-coupled WRF/Chem-MADRID in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Model evaluation and climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xu-Yan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qiang; He, Ke-Bin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (referred to as WRF/Chem-MADRID) is applied to simulate meteorological fields, air quality, and the direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in four months (January, April, July, and October) in 2008. Model evaluation against available surface and satellite measurements shows that despite some model biases, WRF/Chem-MADRID is able to reproduce reasonably well the spatial and seasonal variations of most meteorological fields and chemical concentrations. Large model biases for chemical concentrations are attributed to uncertainties in emissions and their spatial and vertical allocations, simulated meteorological fields, imperfectness of model representations of aerosol formation processes, uncertainties in the observations based on air pollution index, and the use of a coarse grid resolution. The results show that anthropogenic aerosols can reduce net shortwave flux at the surface by up to 40.5-57.2 W m-2, Temperature at 2-m by up to 0.5-0.8 °C, NO2 photolytic rates by up to 0.06-0.1 min-1 and the planetary boundary layer height by up to 83.6-130.4 m. Anthropogenic aerosols contribute to the number concentrations of aerosols by up to 6.2-8.6 × 104 cm-3 and the surface cloud concentration nuclei at a supersaturation of 0.5% by up to 1.0-1.6 × 104 cm-3. They increase the column cloud droplet number concentrations by up to 3.6-11.7 × 108 cm-2 and cloud optical thickness by up to 19.8-33.2. However, anthropogenic aerosols decrease daily precipitation in most areas by up to 3.9-18.6 mm during the 4 months. These results indicate the importance of anthropogenic aerosols in modulating regional climate changes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> through aerosol direct and indirect effects, as well as the need to further improve the performance of online-coupled models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3836001','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3836001"><span id="translatedtitle">Migration of rice planthoppers and their vectored re-emerging and novel rice viruses in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Otuka, Akira</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This review examines recent studies of the migration of three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Sogatella furcifera, and Nilaparvata lugens, in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Laodelphax striatellus has recently broken out in Jiangsu province, eastern China. The population density in the province started to increase in the early 2000s and peaked in 2004. In 2005, Rice stripe virus (RSV) viruliferous rate of L. striatellus peaked at 31.3%. Since then, rice stripe disease spread severely across the whole province. Due to the migration of the RSV vectors, the rice stripe disease spread to neighboring countries Japan and Korea. An overseas migration of L. striatellus that occurred in 2008 was analyzed, when a slow-moving cold vortex, a type of low pressure system, reached western Japan from Jiangsu, carrying the insects into Japan. Subsequently the rice stripe diseases struck these areas in Japan severely. In Korea, similar situations occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Their migration sources were also estimated to be in Jiangsu by backward trajectory analysis. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, whose vector is L. striatellus, has recently re-emerged in eastern China, and the evidence for overseas migrations of the virus, just like the RSV’s migrations, has been given. A method of predicting the overseas migration of L. striatellus has been developed by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean institutes. An evaluation of the prediction showed that this method properly predicted migration events that occurred in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from 2008 to 2011. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) was first found in Guangdong province. Its vector is S. furcifera. An outbreak of SRBSDV occurred in southern China in 2009 and spread to Vietnam the same year. This disease and virus were also found in Japan in 2010. The epidemic triggered many migration studies to investigate concrete spring-summer migration routes in China, and the addition of migration sources for early arrivals in Guangdong and Guangxi have been proposed. Nilaparvata lugens is also an important insect pest of rice. Its migration situations on the Indochina peninsula and return migrations in China are discussed. PMID:24312081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4770062','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4770062"><span id="translatedtitle">Functioning in patients with major depression treated with duloxetine or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Haro, Josep Maria; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Zhu, Gang; Yue, Li; Hong, Jihyung; Dueñas, Héctor; Brugnoli, Roberto</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To assess and compare the levels of functioning in patients with major depressive disorder treated with either duloxetine with a daily dose of ≤60 mg or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) as monotherapy for up to 6 months in a naturalistic setting in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In addition, this study examined the impact of painful physical symptoms (PPS) on the effects of these treatments. Patients and methods Data for this post hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month prospective observational study involving 1,549 patients with major depressive disorder without sexual dysfunction. The present analysis focused on a subgroup of patients from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (n=587). Functioning was measured using the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Depression severity was assessed using the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report. PPS were rated using the modified Somatic Symptom Inventory. A mixed model with repeated measures was fitted to compare the levels of functioning between duloxetine-treated (n=227) and SSRI-treated (n=225) patients, adjusting for baseline patient characteristics. Results The mean SDS total score was similar between the two treatment cohorts (15.46 [standard deviation =6.11] in the duloxetine cohort and 16.36 [standard deviation =6.53] in the SSRI cohort, P=0.077) at baseline. Both descriptive and regression analyses confirmed improvement in functioning in both groups during follow-up, but duloxetine-treated patients achieved better functioning. At 24 weeks, the estimated mean SDS total score was 4.48 (standard error =0.80) in the duloxetine cohort, which was statistically significantly lower (ie, better functioning) than that of 6.76 (standard error =0.77) in the SSRI cohort (P<0.001). This treatment difference was more apparent in the subgroup of patients with PPS at baseline. Similar patterns were also observed for SDS subscores (work, social life, and family life). Conclusion Depressed patients treated with duloxetine achieved better functioning compared to those treated with SSRIs. This treatment difference was mostly driven by patients with PPS at baseline. PMID:26966361</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26304332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26304332"><span id="translatedtitle">Physicochemical profiles of stingless bee (Apidae: Meliponini) honey from South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Thailand).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chuttong, Bajaree; Chanbang, Yaowaluk; Sringarm, Korawan; Burgett, Michael</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This study examines the physicochemical properties of stingless bee honey from SE <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (Thailand). Twenty-eight stingless bee honey samples, from 11 stingless bee species, were examined. Results reveal an average color (67 ± 19 mm Pfund), moisture (31 ± 5.4 g/100g), ash (0.531 ± 0.632 g/100g), electrical conductivity (1.1 ± 0.780 ms/cm), pH of (3.6 ± 0.198), total acidity (164 ± 162 meq/kg), diastase activity (1.5 ± 1.6 °Gothe) and hydroxymethylfurfural (8.7 ± 12 mg/kg). The carbohydrate profile is: total sugar (51 ± 21 g/100g), fructose (17 ± 9.7 g/100g), glucose (14 ± 8.6g/100g), maltose (41 ± 15 g/100g) and sucrose (1.2 ± 2.7 g/100g). These findings are not dissimilar to those reported for stingless bee honeys from the neo-tropics. When compared with the Apis mellifera standard, stingless bee honey is characterized as possessing higher moisture content, acidity, ash and HMF but a lower level of total sugars. PMID:26304332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..89..613O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..89..613O"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of atmospheric carbon monoxide at a high-mountain background station in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lin, Chia-Ching; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te; Schnell, Russell C.; Lang, Patricia M.; Kawasato, Taro; Wang, Jia-Lin</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Atmospheric CO were monitored at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) with an elevation of 2862 m AMSL from April 2006 to April 2011 by the in-situ non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectrometer and weekly flask sample collections via collaboration with NOAA/ESRL/GMD. In general very coherent results were observed between the two datasets, despite a slight difference between the two. A distinct seasonal pattern of CO was noticed at the LABS with a springtime maximum and a summertime minimum, which was predominately shaped by the long-range transport of biomass burning air masses from Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and oceanic influences from the Pacific, respectively. Diurnal cycles were also observed at the LABS, with a maximum in late afternoon and a minimum in early morning. The daytime CO maximum was most likely caused by the up-slope transport of lower elevation air. After filtering out the possibly polluted data points from the entire dataset with a mathematic procedure, the mean background CO level at the LABS was assessed as 129.3 46.6 ppb, compared to 149.0 72.2 ppb prior to the filtering. The cluster analysis of the backward trajectories revealed six possible source regions, which shows that air masses originating from the Westerly Wind Zone were dominated in spring and winter resulting in higher CO concentrations. As a contrast, the oceanic influences from the Pacific were found mostly in summer, contributing a lower seasonal CO concentration throughout a year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.1442Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.1442Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical downscaling of historical climate over CORDEX <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> domain: A comparison of regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model to stand-alone RCM simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun; Peng, Dongdong</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The FROALS (flexible regional ocean-atmosphere-land system) model, a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model, has been applied to the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> domain. Driven by historical simulations from a global climate system model, dynamical downscaling for the period from 1980 to 2005 has been conducted at a uniform horizontal resolution of 50 km. The impacts of regional air-sea couplings on the simulations of <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian summer monsoon rainfall have been investigated, and comparisons have been made to corresponding simulations performed using a stand-alone regional climate model (RCM). The added value of the FROALS model with respect to the driving global climate model was evident in terms of both climatology and the interannual variability of summer rainfall over <span class="hlt">East</span> China by the contributions of both the high horizontal resolution and the reasonably simulated convergence of the moisture fluxes. Compared with the stand-alone RCM simulations, the spatial pattern of the simulated low-level monsoon flow over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and the western North Pacific was improved in the FROALS model due to its inclusion of regional air-sea coupling. The results indicated that the simulated sea surface temperature (SSTs) resulting from the regional air-sea coupling were lower than those derived directly from the driving global model over the western North Pacific north of 15°N. These colder SSTs had both positive and negative effects. On the one hand, they strengthened the western Pacific subtropical high, which improved the simulation of the summer monsoon circulation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. On the other hand, the colder SSTs suppressed surface evaporation and favored weaker local interannual variability in the SST, which led to less summer rainfall and weaker interannual rainfall variability over the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Overall, the reference simulation performed using the FROALS model is reasonable in terms of rainfall over the land area of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and will become the basis for the generation of climate change scenarios for the CORDEX <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> domain that will be described in future reports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3467762','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3467762"><span id="translatedtitle">Resilience and Well-Being Among Children of Migrant Parents in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> Asia—a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment. PMID:22966930</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5045353','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5045353"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">East</span> Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using regional Chinese seismograms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed <span class="hlt">East</span> Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the <span class="hlt">East</span> Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S23C4549W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S23C4549W"><span id="translatedtitle">Rayleigh Wave Group Velocity Distributions for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Witek, M.; van der Lee, S.; Kang, T. S.; Chang, S. J.; Ning, S.; Ning, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have collected continuous vertical-component broadband data from 1109 seismic stations in regional networks across China, Korea, and Japan for the year 2011 to perform the largest surface wave tomography study in the region. Using this data set, we have measured over half a million Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves from 1-year stacks of station-pair ambient seismic noise cross-correlations. Quality control is performed by measuring the coherency of the positive and negative lag time sides of the cross-correlations. If the coherency is below an empirically determined threshold, the dispersion curve is measured on the side of the highest SNR. Otherwise, the positive and negative sides of the cross-correlation are averaged before dispersion curve measurement. Group velocity measurements for which the SNR was less than 10 are discarded. The Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves are regionalized on a tessellated spherical shell grid in the period range 10 to 50 s to produce maps of Rayleigh wave group velocity distributions. Preliminary maps at 10 seconds period match well with geologic features at the surface. In particular, we observe low group velocities in the Songliao, Bohai Bay, Sichuan, Ordos, Tarim, and Junggar Basins in China, and the Ulleung and Yamato Basins in the <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea (Sea of Japan). Higher group velocities are observed in regions with less sediment cover. At periods around 30 s, we observe group velocity decreases going from <span class="hlt">east</span> to west in China, representing an overall trend of crustal thickening due to the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The Ordos and Sichuan blocks show higher group velocities relative to the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, possibly reflecting low temperatures in these cratons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A22C..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A22C..08H"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of Smoke-Haze Dispersion from Wildfires in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> with a Lagrangian Particle Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hertwig, D.; Burgin, L.; Gan, C.; Hort, M.; Jones, A. R.; Shaw, F.; Witham, C. S.; Zhang, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Biomass burning, often related to agricultural deforestation, not only affects local pollution levels but periodically deteriorates air quality in many South <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian megacities due to the transboundary transport of smoke-haze. In June 2013, Singapore experienced the worst wildfire related air-pollution event on record following from the escalation of peatland fires in Sumatra. An extended dry period together with anomalous westerly winds resulted in severe and unhealthy pollution levels in Singapore that lasted for more than two weeks. Reacting to this event, the Met Office and the Meteorological Service Singapore have explored how to adequately simulate haze-pollution dispersion, with the aim to provide a reliable operational forecast for Singapore. Simulations with the Lagrangian particle model NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment), running on numerical weather prediction data from the Met Office and Meteorological Service Singapore and emission data derived from satellite observations of the fire radiative power, are validated against PM10 observations in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Comparisons of simulated concentrations with hourly averages of PM10 measurements in Singapore show that the model captures well the severe smoke-haze event in June 2013 and a minor episode in March 2014. Different quantitative satellite-derived emissions have been tested, with one source demonstrating a consistent factor of two under-prediction for Singapore. Confidence in the skill of the model system has been substantiated by further comparisons with data from monitoring sites in Malaysia, Brunei and Thailand. Following the validation study, operational smoke-haze pollution forecasts with NAME were launched in Singapore, in time for the 2014 fire season. Real-time bias correction and verification of this forecast will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3825W..94L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3825W..94L"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Gosat CAI and SPOT Vgt Ndvi Data with Different Season and Land Cover in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Guo, M.; Tani, H.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has become one of the most widely used indices in remote sensing applications in a variety of fields. Many studies have compared the NDVI values for different satellite sensors. Nowadays, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched on January 23, 2009. It is used to monitor greenhouse gases on the Earth's surface and also has a sensor, the Cloud Aerosol Imager (CAI), that senses red and near infrared spectrums. It can also process NDVI data. Therefore, we are first compare GOSAT CAI and SPOT VGT NDVI data in different seasonal and land cover in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian, to explore the relationship between the two types of datasets, and to discuss the possibility of extending SPOT VGT data using GOSAT CAI NDVI data for the same area. We used GOSAT CAI Level 3 data to derive 10-day composite NDVI values for the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region for November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 using the maximum value composite (MVC) method. We compared these values with 10-day composite SPOT VGT NDVI data for the same period. The results show that the correlation coefficients of regression analysis generally revealed a strong correlation between NDVI from the two sensors in November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 (0.88, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively). The differences place may be affected by cloud cover. From the combined analysis of seasonal changes and land cover, we found that the correlations between the SPOT VGT and the GOSAT CAI NDVI data are less affected by seasonal change and the SPOT VGT data is more sensitive to high vegetation coverage than the GOSAT CAI data. In the future, through continued monitoring and processing by cloud removal technology, the accuracy of GOSAT CAI NDVI data will be further improved and thus be more widely used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..12010378G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..12010378G"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineral dust impacts on regional precipitation and summer circulation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using a regional coupled climate system model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Jun; Yin, Yan</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The climatic impacts of dust on <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian precipitation, summer monsoon, and sea surface temperature (SST) were investigated by a regional coupled atmosphere-ocean-land model. The regional and annual mean dust clear-sky (all-sky) direct radiative forcings were predicted to be -6.65 W m-2 (-1.78 W m-2) at the surface and 3.79 W m-2 (8.65 W m-2) at the top of atmosphere. The climatic effects of dust include a cooling effect below 700 hPa and a warming effect above, leading to more stabilized lower troposphere and anomalously cyclonic wind over Japan and surrounding oceans. Sensitivity tests show that the "surface cooling" effect by dust could reduce evaporation over land and enhance stability of the lower atmosphere, leading to reduced vapor content and precipitation in China in the spring. However, the upward movements by the "elevated heat pump" effect of dust over northern China or by the atmospheric convergence over southern China, and the downward movement by the secondary circulation over central China, along with the enhanced evaporation and the weakened lapse rate over Chinese continent, lead to increased precipitation in downwind areas of dust source regions and southern China and to decreased precipitation in central China in summer. Results from this simulation also show that dust aerosol tends to weaken the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer monsoon by reducing the land-sea-temperature contrast. In addition, dust could also perturb SST by the local net heat flux rebalance as well as the northward heat transport from surrounding oceans. The anomalous northward surface wind contributes even larger on SST in June, July, and August.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11712113M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11712113M"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of vegetation on land-atmosphere coupling strength and its implication for desertification mitigation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myoung, Boksoon; Choi, Yong-Sang; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Seon Ki</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Desertification of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian drylands and the consequent dust transport have been serious concerns for adjacent Asian countries as well as the western United States. Tree planting has been considered one applicable strategy to mitigate the desertification. However, the desired effect of the tree planting would not be brought to fruition unless the newly planted trees change the coupling characteristics between the land and the atmosphere. Based on this perception, we attempt to clarify the effects of vegetation on the coupling strength between the atmosphere and land surface, and we suggest the most efficient areas of tree planting for desertification mitigation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Using regional vegetation-atmosphere coupled model simulations, coupling strength with and without vegetation was computed and compared with each other. An increased vegetation fraction reduces the coupling strength in June, July, and August (JJA), primarily due to decreased evapotranspiration variability. This effect is pronounced over the Manchurian Plains and the highly populated areas of Beijing and Tianjin. The reduced coupling strength tends to weaken feedback between soil moisture and precipitation as a maintenance mechanism of warm season droughts in the midlatitudes and subsequently decrease the probability of droughts, a finding that is reflected in the enhanced JJA mean soil moisture. However, some drylands like the eastern edges of the Gobi desert present marginal or even opposite changes in coupling strength, meaning a limited effect of vegetation on relieving droughts. Therefore, given limited financial and human resources, acupuncture-like afforestation, i.e., concentrated tree planting in a particular region where the coupling strength can be substantially reduced by vegetation, is an effective strategy to secure long-standing desertification mitigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26439083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26439083"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple glacial refugia for cool-temperate deciduous trees in northern <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: the Mongolian oak as a case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeng, Yan-Fei; Wang, Wen-Ting; Liao, Wan-Jin; Wang, Hong-Fang; Zhang, Da-Yong</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, temperate forests are predicted to have retracted southward to c. 30° N during the last glacial maximum (LGM) based on fossil pollen data, whereas phylogeographic studies have often suggested glacial in situ survival of cool-temperate deciduous trees in their modern northern ranges. Here we report a study of the genetic diversity and structure of 29 natural Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) populations using 19 nuclear simple sequence repeat (nSSR) loci and four chloroplast DNA fragments. Bayesian clustering analysis with nSSRs revealed five groups, which were inferred by approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to have diverged in multiple refugia through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Analysis of chloroplast DNA variation revealed four lineages that were largely but incompletely geographically disjunct. Ecological niche modelling (ENMs) indicated a southward range shift of the oak's distribution at the LGM, although high suitability scores were also evident in the Changbai Mts. (Northeast China), the Korean Peninsula, areas surrounding the Bohai Sea, and along the coast of the Russian Far <span class="hlt">East</span>. In addition, endemic chloroplast DNA haplotypes and nuclear lineages occurred in high-latitude northern areas where the ENM predicted no suitable habitat. The combined evidence from nuclear and chloroplast DNA, and the results of the ENM clearly demonstrate that multiple northern refugia, including cryptic ones, were maintained across the current distributional range of the Mongolian oak during the LGM or earlier glacial periods. Though spatially limited, postglacial expansions from these refugia have led to a pattern of decreased genetic diversity with increasing latitude. PMID:26439083</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405005','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405005"><span id="translatedtitle">Parental migration and the mental health of those who stay behind to care for children in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P.; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The international migration of parents from the global south raises questions about the health impacts of family separation on those who stay behind. This paper uses data collected in 2008 and 2009 for a project on Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (CHAMPSEA) to address a largely neglected research area by investigating the mental health of those who stay behind in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam to care for the children of overseas migrants. A mixed-methods research design is employed to answer two questions. First, whether carers in transnational (migrant) households are more likely to suffer mental health problems than those in non-migrant households; and secondly, whether transnational family practices and characteristics of migration are associated with mental health outcomes for stay-behind carers. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was completed by carers in selected communities (N = 3026) and used to identify likely cases of common mental disorders (CMD). Multivariate logistic regression and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews (N = 149) reveal a nuanced picture. All stay-behind carers in the Indonesian sample are more likely than carers in non-migrant households to suffer CMD. Across the three study countries, however, it is stay-behind mothers with husbands working overseas who are most likely to experience poor mental health. Moreover, infrequent contact with the migrant, not receiving remittances and migrant destinations in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> are all positively associated with carer CMD, whereas greater educational attainment and greater wealth are protective factors. These findings add new evidence on the ‘costs’ of international labour migration and point to the role of gendered expectations and wider geopolitical structures. Governments and international policy makers need to intervene to encourage transnational family practices that are less detrimental to the mental health of those who stay behind to care for the next generation. PMID:25464878</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464878"><span id="translatedtitle">Parental migration and the mental health of those who stay behind to care for children in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P; Yeoh, Brenda S A</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The international migration of parents from the global south raises questions about the health impacts of family separation on those who stay behind. This paper uses data collected in 2008 and 2009 for a project on Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (CHAMPSEA) to address a largely neglected research area by investigating the mental health of those who stay behind in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam to care for the children of overseas migrants. A mixed-methods research design is employed to answer two questions. First, whether carers in transnational (migrant) households are more likely to suffer mental health problems than those in non-migrant households; and secondly, whether transnational family practices and characteristics of migration are associated with mental health outcomes for stay-behind carers. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was completed by carers in selected communities (N = 3026) and used to identify likely cases of common mental disorders (CMD). Multivariate logistic regression and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews (N = 149) reveal a nuanced picture. All stay-behind carers in the Indonesian sample are more likely than carers in non-migrant households to suffer CMD. Across the three study countries, however, it is stay-behind mothers with husbands working overseas who are most likely to experience poor mental health. Moreover, infrequent contact with the migrant, not receiving remittances and migrant destinations in the Middle <span class="hlt">East</span> are all positively associated with carer CMD, whereas greater educational attainment and greater wealth are protective factors. These findings add new evidence on the 'costs' of international labour migration and point to the role of gendered expectations and wider geopolitical structures. Governments and international policy makers need to intervene to encourage transnational family practices that are less detrimental to the mental health of those who stay behind to care for the next generation. PMID:25464878</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.3556C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.3556C"><span id="translatedtitle">An analysis on abnormally low ozone in the upper troposphere over subtropical <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in spring 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, C. Y.; Li, Y. S.; Tang, J. H.; Leung, Y. K.; Wu, M. C.; Chan, L. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Liu, S. C.</p> <p></p> <p>Abnormally low ozone (O 3) mixing ratios were observed by electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes in the upper troposphere over subtropical <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in spring 2004, a season when high tropospheric O 3 is usually observed in the region. Low O 3 with a lowest mixing ratio of 13 ppbv, less than a fourth of the respective seasonal average of 60-100 ppbv, was observed at 11-18 km above ground over Hong Kong (22.31°N, 114.17°E), Sanya (18.23°N, 109.52°E) and Taipei (24.98°N, 121.43°E). The origin of the low O 3 was investigated using meteorological evidence, satellite imagery and three-dimensional backward air trajectory. We found for the first time that the low O 3 resulted from deep convective pumping of low O 3 maritime air masses near the center of typhoon Sudal from the boundary layer of the tropical region to the <span class="hlt">east</span> of the Philippines to the upper troposphere. The low O 3 air masses were then transported to the higher latitudes far ahead of the typhoon following the long-range transport driven by the circulations associated with the typhoon and the northern Hadley cell. The findings of this study highlight that more research efforts are needed to understand the effect of the circulation associated with tropical cyclones on the distribution and budget of O 3 and other trace gases in the troposphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3864L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3864L"><span id="translatedtitle">Change in early-summer meridional teleconnection over the western North Pacific and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> around the late 1970s</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Z.; Lu, R.; Zhou, W.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Previous studies showed that during summer, there is a meridional teleconnection over the western North Pacific and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (WNP-EA) on the interannual time scales. This meridional teleconnection is characterized by the zonally elongated circulation anomalies with alternate signs in the meridional direction over this region. The present study indicates that there is a significant change in the early-summer meridional teleconnection around the late 1970s, by using ERA-40 reanalysis data during 1958-2001. Although this meridional teleconnection appears as a dominant mode during the whole analyzing period, a close inspection revealed that the teleconnection becomes obscure considerably after the late 1970s. Before the late 1970s, the meridional displacement of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream (EAJS), which is the most dominant mode of EAJS interannual variability, has a statistically significant relationship with both the zonal shift of the WNP subtropical high (WNPSH) and rainfall anomaly in the tropical WNP. After the late 1970s, however, this tropical-extratropical interaction over the WNP-EA is disrupted. We hypothesize that this change in meridional teleconnection is due to the weakening of vertical easterly shear over the tropical WNP in June after the late 1970s. Before the late 1970s, the easterly vertical shear permits the coupling of external mode and internal mode excited by the tropical WNP precipitation anomaly, and results in a significant barotropic response, which is necessary for the meridional teleconnection over the WNP-EA. After the late 1970s, the near-zero vertical shear is unfavorable for the coupling and thus weakens the meridional teleconnection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6475035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6475035"><span id="translatedtitle">The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of people as quickly as possible. Evan without financial constraints, the Decade would not reach its goals unless critical manpower and institutional problems were addressed forthwith. Efforts are needed to train engineers, other specialists, and staff in the subprofessional and artisan categories. Good management requires intersectoral coordination. A decentralized "buttom-up" approach is mandatory at the planning stage, with strong financial, administrative, and technical support for implementation. Technology must be relevant, cost effective, feasible, necessary, sufficient, and energy conserving. Communities benefitting from the Decade should be encouraged to participate in the decision making process to the maximum extent possible. Country specific studies should be conducted to document the hardships of women and activities should be disigned to alleviate their burdens. The provisioon of sanitation lags far behind that of drinking water, and low cost technology options for excreta disposal must be adopted. The responsibility for operation and maintenance should be delegated to the lowest level and to the community, with technical support from higher levels. PMID:6475035</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26988923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26988923"><span id="translatedtitle">Zoonotic trypanosomes in South <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Attempts to control Trypanosoma lewisi using veterinary drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Desquesnes, Marc; Yangtara, Sarawut; Kunphukhieo, Pawinee; Chalermwong, Piangjai; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herder, Stéphane</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A growing number of atypical human infections due to the livestock parasite Trypanosoma evansi, or to the rat parasite Trypanosoma lewisi, are reported in humans in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In some cases, clinical evolutions request treatments, however, so far, there were very few attempts to control T. lewisi using trypanocidal drugs. In a study published elsewhere, the efficacy of human trypanocides is evaluated in laboratory rats, and it concludes that none of them is able to cure rats experimentally infected with T. lewisi. Control of T. lewisi in rat would be a step for identification of drugs against this parasite. In the present study, 4 veterinary drugs: diminazene aceturate, isometamidium chloride, melarsomine hydrochloride and quinapyramine sulfate and chloride, were evaluated at low and high doses, in intra-muscular injections to normal rats experimentally infected with a stock of T. lewisi from Thailand. None of these treatments being efficient, a trial was also made using melarsomine hydrochloride in T. evansi infected rats and in mixed T. lewisi and T. evansi infected rats, in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the drugs under the present protocol. T. evansi was cleared from the rat's blood the day after the treatment, whi