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1

Cranes in East Asia; proceedings of the symposium held in Harbin, People's Republic of China, June 9-18, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introductory Remarks (R.C. Stendell) I appreciate the opportunity to be in Harbin and participate in the international scientific workshop on Cranes in East Asia. I would like to provide some background information on how this meeting came to be. Almost one year ago, in July 1997, Dr. Kun John of the Seoul National University contacted the U.S. Geological Surveya??s Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) requesting that we host a meeting of scientists from the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic Peoplea??s Republic of Korea (DPRK) to discuss the biology and ecology of cranes on the Korean peninsula. Dr. John and his colleagues expressed concern about three species of cranes that migrate up and down the Korean Peninsula and use the Demilitarized Zone. The species of interest are the Red-crowned Crane, White-naped Crane, and the Hooded Crane. The primary question was the conservation of these species in this part of the world. Another concern involved exploring potential economic values and opportunities associated with these species. Dr. Richard Johnson, and economist at MESC, assumed responsibility as the primary MESC contact to help bring about this meetinga?|

Johnson, R. L., (Edited By); Hongfei, Zou; Stendell, R.C.

2001-01-01

2

3, 655678, 2007 East Asia and the  

E-print Network

of dust record over China (Donghuai, 2004) and Japan Sea (Nagashima et al., in press), the west-20 erlyCPD 3, 655­678, 2007 East Asia and the North Pacific at LGM W. Yanase and A. Abe-Ouchi Title Page surface climate and atmospheric circulation over East Asia and the North Pacific in the PMIP2 coupled

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

Tropospheric ozone in east Asia  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the observed data for the tropospheric ozone at mid latitudes in east Asia is done. There are three ways by which the tropospheric ozone is calculated, namely: (1) Ozonesonde measurements, (2) Fishman`s method of Residual Ozone and (3) TOMS measurements - an indirect method of calculating tropospheric ozone. In addition the surface ozone values at the network sites in Japan is also considered. The analysis of data is carried out for a period of twelve years from 1979 to 1991. In general it is observed that the tropospheric ozone is more in summer than winter, obviously because of the larger tropopause height in summer. On an average for the period of the analysis, the ozone values are at a high of about 60 DU (dobson units). While in winter the values go down to around 30 DU. Also a time series analysis shows an increasing trend in the values over the years. The ozonesonde values are correlated more to the TOMS tropospheric ozone values. For the stations analyzed in Japan, the TOMS tropospheric ozone values are generally greater than the ozonesonde values. The analysis of the average monthly surface ozone in Japan shows highs in spring and lows in summer. This can be attributed to movement of pollutant laden fronts towards Japan during spring. The highs for surface ozone are about 50 DU while the lows are around 20 DU.

Phadnis, M.J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1996-12-31

4

Indian Strategic Thinking about East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the Cold War, India's strategic horizons have moved beyond its traditional preoccupations in South Asia. India is developing a strategic role in East Asia in particular. At the same time India's strategic thinking has undergone a revolution, as the country that prided itself on non-alignment has moved closer to the West. But India's culture, history and

David Brewster

2011-01-01

5

Acid deposition in east Asia  

SciTech Connect

A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Ichikawa, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae (Japan)

1996-12-31

6

Higher Education in South-East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers

Online Submission, 2006

2006-01-01

7

Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to

Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

8

Facing East: Portraits From Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we understand the individual? And perhaps equally importantly, how does the world of portraiture provide insight into individuals? These are thorny questions that have occupied the minds of some of the world's philosophers and artists for millennia. Across the continent of Asia, this meditative and artful process has created thousands of interesting portraits. A few of them have been placed on display by the curators at the Freer & Sackler Galleries in this online exhibit, which also has a real-life analog currently on display. In this exhibit, visitors can move around various parts of Asia as they examine various images of people (both well known and unknown), accompanied by brief text passages. Additionally, visitors can view thematic introductions to the objects featured here that include "Likeness & Identity" and "Portraits & Memory".

2006-01-01

9

Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum  

E-print Network

Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. Citation: Cai

Xu, Shuhua

10

East Asia: The Road to Recovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book by the World Bank Group examines factors contributing to East Asia's financial collapse and makes suggestions for economic recovery. Seven chapters spanning East Asian trade and competition and the sector at the heart of the crisis--the financial sector, may be downloaded individually. Figures displaying the evolution of interest rates in Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand (January 1996-July 1998) and a discussion of social effects are provided in the final chapter entitled "Priorities for a Sustainable Recovery."

1998-01-01

11

Traditional Architecture of East Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed by graduate students in architecture at Yale and the University of Virginia, this Website presents an online collection of East Asian architectural photos, featuring China, Japan, North and South Korea, Cambodia, and Thailand. The site currently offers over 1,400 photographs covering interior, exterior, close-up, and long-shot views of 115 architectural sites, including such places as China's Forbidden City and the Great Wall, Japan's Kyoto Imperial Palace and Osaka Castle, South Korea's Munmyo Confucian Shrine and selected streets of Seoul, North Korea's War Cemetery, Cambodia's Angor Wat Temple, and many more. The pictures come in thumbnail and full-frame sizes and have brief, descriptive captions. (Some proceed in a manner that creates a kind of "virtual tour"; others are somewhat more haphazard.)

12

Some cooperative activities in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the activity of continued and sequential cooperation among Asian countries/regions, especially in East Asia. Such efforts started in 1990 from a small-size China-Korea-Japan meeting on starforming regions. Being aware of the importance of cooperation among those neighboring countries, participants agreed to hold sequential "East Asian Meetings for Astronomy (EAMA)". The 1992 meeting entitled "Millimeter-Wave and Infrared Astronomy" was held in Japan, and the 1999 meeting entitled "Observational Astrophysics in Asia and its Future" was held in China. These meetings achieved quite high activity with 100-200 participants, each. An important product of those meetings was active exchange between young astronomers, including graduate students. The primary aim of these meetings/activities was to promote small but practical cooperation in the field of astronomical instrumentation, as well as to widen the contact among Asian astronomers. An East-Asian co-experiment to search for good sites for a possible "Asian Observatory" was among such efforts. The close cooperation between Japan, China (Peoples' Republic and Taipei) and Korea, on millimeter and sub-millimeter wave technology is another good example of joint developments of new instruments.

Kaifu, Norio

13

East Asia: Seismotectonics, magmatism and mantle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we review the significant recent results of geophysical studies and discuss their implications on seismotectonics, magmatism, and mantle dynamics in East Asia. High-resolution geophysical imaging revealed structural heterogeneities in the source areas of large crustal earthquakes, which may reflect magma and fluids that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. In subduction zone regions, the crustal fluids originate from the dehydration of the subducting slab. Magmatism in arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab. The intraplate magmatism has different origins. The continental volcanoes in Northeast Asia (such as Changbai and Wudalianchi) seem to be caused by the corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and the deep dehydration of the stagnant slab as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is possibly caused by a similar process in BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China seems to be a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin may be related to a metastable olivine wedge in the subducting Pacific slab. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which may trigger upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and cause the slab-plume interactions. Some of these issues, such as the origin of intraplate magmatism, are still controversial, and so further detailed studies are needed from now.

Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Sheng; Ohtani, Eiji

2011-02-01

14

Modernization in East Asia: Alternate theories of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asian Science: Tradition and Beyond, Papers from the Seventh International Conference on the History of Science in East Asia, edited by Hashimoto Keiz, Catherine Jami, and Lowell Skar, Osaka, Japan: Kansai University Press, 1995, pp. xii + 568.

Dhruv Raina

1999-01-01

15

The Misnomer of East Asia Summer Monsoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terminology East Asian summer monsoon is used to refer to the heavy rainfall in southeast China including the Yangtze River Valley starting in May and ending in August (e.g., Chen and Chang 1980, Tao and Chen 1987, Ding 1992, Chang et al. 2000a.) This rainfall region is associated with the Mei-Yu front, which extends to Japan and its neighborhood and is called Baiu there. The Mei-Yu front becomes prominent in May and has a slow northward movement. From May to July the elongated rain belt moves from the southeast coast of China to the Yangtze River Valley. The rain belt extends north-east-ward to south of Japan in May and later covers Korea also. The purpose of this note is to point out that the terminology of East Asian summer monsoon is a misnomer to refer to the portion of this rainbelt residing over East Asia, in the sense that it is not a monsoon.

Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode

2004-01-01

16

Europe: East and West Undergraduate Research Symposium 2013  

E-print Network

Europe: East and West Undergraduate Research Symposium 2013 Are you interested in Western Europe or Eastern Europe, including Russia? Then present a paper at the 2013 Undergraduate Research Symposium of Pittsburgh The Symposium is intended to provide advanced research experience to undergraduates and is mod

Sibille, Etienne

17

Climate change and health in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the public health and societal implications of climate change in South East Asia, and create a framework for planning national and regional responses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The paper elaborates on the adverse consequences of climate change in South East Asia, the current efforts taken by the regional countries, the current barriers

Jacob Kumaresan; Jai P. Narain; Nalini Sathiakumar

2011-01-01

18

NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to develop a better understanding of the impacts of aerosols on regional-to-global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

2005-01-01

19

Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

2005-01-01

20

East Asia Institute April 5th Aging Issues in Korea  

E-print Network

, South Korea is home to the fastest growing rate. He stated that 15East Asia Institute April 5th , 2012 Aging Issues in Korea There is also years in Korea. This poses problems when considering life after retirement

Dodla, Ramana

21

Health promotion in South East Asia.  

PubMed

The countries of the South East Asia region, which includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, have undertaken a variety of strategies to address the health challenges in the region. The ever-growing pressure of population in the region has allowed rapid transmission of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, and HIV/AIDS. One of the innovative community-based health initiatives in response to this problem is Indonesia's Primary Health Care Project. This project aimed to develop a sustainable health infrastructure by training medical staff, coordinators, village cadres, midwives and those working for TB programs; provision of ongoing guidance and education in this area; and provision of medicines and funds. The project has pioneered a process towards positive changes. Another strategy is the collaboration of youth groups, island development committees, and health workers in Maldives which has led to the declaration of two islands (Madifushi and Haa Alif Berinmadhoo) as 'no smoking' islands. In addition, Sarvodaya has successfully developed a methodology to involve Buddhist monks in AIDS prevention and control through "the Buddhist approach to AIDS prevention in Sri Lanka." PMID:12349574

Mir, N S

1998-01-01

22

China's emergence in East Asia under alternative trading arrangements  

E-print Network

China's emergence in East Asia under alternative trading arrangements Hiro Leea,* , David Roland China's accelerated global emergence has changed trade patterns in the Asia-Pacific region and exerted to China, Japan, and the United States using a dynamic global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model

Kammen, Daniel M.

23

Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840-1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval.) A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840-1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki) and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne) magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50) during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69%) of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak?50). It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50) examples of sporadic aurorae observed in the United States during the interval AD 1880-1940. The localised nature and spatial structure of some sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia is indicated by the use of descriptive terms such as "lightning", "rainbow", "streak" and "grid".

Willis, D. M.; Stephenson, F. R.; Fang, Huiping

2007-03-01

24

Food in health security in North East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food and health security in North East Asia including South Korea, North Korea, China and Japan was com- pared. Because this region contains countries with many complex problems, it is worthwhile to study the current situation. With about 24% of the world's population, all North East Asian countries supply between 2400 and 3000 Kcal of energy. Regarding health status, two

Hyun-Kyung Moon

2009-01-01

25

Characteristics of ionospheric storms in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

???The ionosphere experiences intense response during the geomagnetic storm and it varies with latitude and longitude. The DPS-4 digisonde measurements and GPS-TEC data of ionospheric stations located at different latitudes in the longitudinal sector of 90-130E during 2002 to 2012 were analyzed to investigate the ionospheric effects in the different latitude of East Asia during geomagnetic storm. About 70 geomagnetic storms are selected according to the Dst index and observed data and they are in different seasons and different solar activity levels. A few quiet days averages of data before geomagnetic storm were used as the undisturbed level. Results show that for the middle and high latitude, the short-lived positive disturbance associated with the initial phase of the every storm was observed in each season and then the disturbances were negative till the termination of storm. At the low latitude, storm-time disturbances of foF2 have obvious diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics. Generally, geomagnetic activity will cause foF2 to increase at daytime and decrease at nighttime except for the summer in low solar activity period. The intensity of response of foF2 is stronger at nighttime than that at daytime. The negative ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in summer and the positive ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in winter. In high solar activity period, the diurnal variation of the response of foF2 is very pronounced in each season, and the strong ionospheric response can last several days. In low solar activity period, ionospheric response has very pronounced diurnal variation in winter only. Its notable that geomagnetic activities occurred at local time nighttime can cause stronger and longer responses of foF2 at the low latitude. All in all, the obvious negative phase ionospheric storms often occurred at the low latitude. Moreover a notable phenomenon was observed for the low latitude, there are the intensive oscillations of foF2 occurring during the main storm phase of enhanced storm in Hainan, and it occurred in the morning generally. For the TEC data, strong disturbances can be observed simultaneously from high latitude to low latitude during the main phase of some storms. Generally strong/weak storms can cause the negative/positive phase storms of TEC in the low latitude and which are obvious in the daytime for the summer and winter and in the period from noon to midnight for the equinox. The differences of the responses of foF2 and TEC are also investigated.

Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guojun; Shi, Jiankui

26

Estimating the incidence of colorectal cancer in South East Asia  

PubMed Central

Aim To estimate the burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in South East Asia. Methods We reviewed the evidence from the published literature found through a systematic review in Medline, Embase, and Global Health and from unpublished data on cancer registries, which were sourced from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Incidence rates were summarized by calculating descriptive statistics and meta-analysis estimates. Results The crude mean incidence of CRC in South East Asia for both sexes was 6.95/100?000 population and the incidence increased with age. The crude meta-analysis estimate was 6.12/100?000 population (95% confidence interval 5.64-6.60/100?000) and the number of new CRC cases for 2000 was 32?058 (29?544-34?573). Conclusion The rates of CRC in South East Asia were much lower than those reported for high-income countries, but higher than those reported for Sub Saharan Africa. PMID:24382847

Kokki, Inka; Papana, Angeliki; Campbell, Harry; Theodoratou, Evropi

2013-01-01

27

Research Spotlight: Atmospheric aerosols and climate over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the most heavily populated and fastest developing region of the world, East Asia is a major source of anthropogenic aerosols, which can affect air quality and climate. In addition, the arid regions of its interior are a significant source of dust in the atmosphere over East Asia. Aerosol emissions could have noticeable effects on weather and climate in the region. To unravel the complex relationships between the environment and climate changes, extensive studies were conducted in China to understand the sources, distribution, transportation, transformation, and climatic effects of the Asian aerosols. In an introduction to a Journal of Geophysical Research special section, Li et al. provide an overview of 30 investigations conducted as part of the East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC) program. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2010JD015257, 2011)

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-06-01

28

South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,

Laird, John

1991-01-01

29

17.433 / 17.434 International Relations of East Asia, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

The aim of this lecture course is to introduce and analyze the international relations of East Asia. With four great powers, three nuclear weapons states and two of the world's largest economies, East Asia is one of the ...

Fravel, M. Taylor

30

Heat Flux above a Larch Forest in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larch is the dominant species of the boreal forests widely spreading over the northern part of East Asia. The presence of the forests has largely influenced the surface interaction with the overlying atmosphere. In order to estimate the role of the larch forests in the global carbon cycle and climatic system, flux monitoring is now in progress at a Japanese

T. Hirano; R. Hirata; N. Saigusa; S. Yamamoto; Y. Fujinuma; M. Takada; G. Inoue

2001-01-01

31

East Asia in the aftermath: Was there a crunch?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether there was a credit crunch in East Asia during the recent financial and economic crises. Motivated by widespread concern that, over and above any increases in real interest rates, corporates may have also faced credit rationing, we adopt an explicit disequilibrium framework for analyzing the behavior of real credit with a view to assessing whether the

Swati R. Ghosh; Atish R. Ghosh

2000-01-01

32

An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine ozone dry deposition in East Asia, which is an important but uncertain research area because of insufficient observation and numerical studies focusing on East Asia. Here we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, the Wesely and M3DRY schemes, which are used in the WRF-Chem and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models, respectively. Simulated ozone dry deposition velocities with the two schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) owing to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. Resulting ozone concentrations differ by up to 10 ppbv for a monthly mean in May when the peak ozone typically occurs in East Asia. An evaluation of the simulated dry deposition velocities shows that the Wesely scheme calculates values with more pronounced diurnal variation than the M3DRY and results in a good agreement with the observations. However, we find significant changes in simulated ozone concentrations using the Wesely scheme but with different surface type data sets, indicating the high sensitivity of ozone deposition calculations to the input data. The need is high for observations to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and its input data to improve the use of air quality models for East Asia.

Park, R. J.; Hong, S. K.; Kwon, H.-A.; Kim, S.; Guenther, A.; Woo, J.-H.; Loughner, C. P.

2014-08-01

33

Archaic human ancestry in East Asia Pontus Skoglunda,1  

E-print Network

groups to the ancestors of modern humans occurred on two separate occasions during the modern humanArchaic human ancestry in East Asia Pontus Skoglunda,1 and Mattias Jakobssona,b,1 a Department expansion out of Africa. At the same time, decreasing levels of human genetic diversity have been found

Jakobsson, Mattias

34

UTSA East Asia Institute On Friday January 25,  

E-print Network

shrine) -Seijin-no-hi (Coming of Age) -Ema (shrine tablets) -Omikuji trees (fortune lottery trees Making Ema Koinobori CELEBRATIONS ON LIFE IN JAPAN Making Shugibukuro #12; UTSA East Asia Institute. "Ema are the shrine tablets," said Kumashiro, "Many people write about

Dodla, Ramana

35

Recent Human Evolution in East Asia and Australasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In both East Asia and Australasia arguments for evolutionary continuity between middle-late Pleistocene hominid populations and modern Homo sapiens are of long standing. In both regions, however, problems of chronological distribution, dating and preservation of hominid skeletal materials provide an effective barrier to extending regional sequences back to `archaic' Homo sapiens or Homo erectus. The earliest securely dated modern Homo

Peter Brown

1992-01-01

36

Join Tomorrow s Global Leaders at the Hub of East Asia  

E-print Network

in Northeast Asia, with China and Russia to the north and Japan to the southeast across the East Sea. Korea hasJoin Tomorrow s Global Leaders at the Hub of East Asia #12;01 /Welcome to Yonsei University 01. Welcome to Yonsei University Yonsei University's central location in Korea, the hub of East Asia, offers

Burgstaller, Bernd

37

Impact of Black Carbon Aerosol on Climate in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) is one of the major atmospheric aerosols, which affects the radiative balance and thus the climate. We examine the effects of BC aerosol on climate in East Asia using a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by assimilated meteorological data and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Column Radiation Model (NCAR-CRM). Simulated BC aerosol concentrations are compared with observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE- P) and the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) aircraft campaigns in spring 2001. The model captured observed vertical distributions in East Asia. We applied our simulated BC aerosol with typical optical properties (refractive index (N) = 1.75-0.45i at a wavelength of 550 nm) to the NCAR-CRM to compute radiative forcing of BC aerosol. Our calculation shows negative forcing at the surface and positive forcing at the top of the atmosphere in East Asia, indicating warming of the atmosphere. A recent study by Alexander et al. (2008) found that submicrometer amorphous carbon spheres are ubiquitous in East Asian-Pacific outflow, and these carbon spheres are brown, not black, with a refractive index of 1.67-0.27i at a wavelength of 550 nm. In order to accommodate these new findings we also calculate radiative forcing of the simulated BC assuming its half as brown carbon in the NCAR-CRM. Our new values of simulated optical depth and resulting radiative forcing are by 50% lower than the previous results, implying a possible overestimation of BC warming effect in East Asia.

Kim, M.; Park, R. J.; Jeong, J. I.; Youn, D.

2008-12-01

38

Prevalence of Giardia lamblia with or without diarrhea in South East, South East Asia and the Far East  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review of the latest information on the prevalence of G. lamblia in South Asia, South East Asia and Far East, characterizing the current endemic situation within these regions. Around 33\\u000a published papers from 20022007 were collected on G. lamblia. The included countries were Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Republic\\u000a of Korea, and

Hassan H. Dib; Si Qi Lu; Shao Fang Wen

2008-01-01

39

Education and Development in East Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the specific role that formal education has played in the development process of the East Asian regions since World War II. The essays emphasize education's role as a source of growth and analyze its links with economic, social, and political domains in the post-war period. The writers hope to demonstrate both the changing

Morris, Paul, Ed.; Sweeting, Anthony, Ed.

40

Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes.  

PubMed

Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

2011-01-01

41

Country watch: South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

Bagasao, T M

1996-01-01

42

New Mycomya species from South-East Asia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae).  

PubMed

Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are revised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia. PMID:24943632

Visnen, Rauno

2014-01-01

43

Russia's economic and strategic interests in North-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the middle of the 1990s and especially after Vladimir Putin assumed the presidency Russia started to pursue an active\\u000a foreign policy in North East Asia, an area considered vital for Russian national political, economic and strategic interests.\\u000a While continuing to use every available method to conduct this policy Moscow placed special emphasis on promoting economic\\u000a cooperation with the neighboring

Gennady Chufrin

2003-01-01

44

Validation of a multidecadal RCM hindcast over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precipitation and low-level air temperature in East Asia from a regional climate model (RCM) hindcast for the 22-year period 19792000 is evaluated against observational data in preparation for the model use in regional climate change research. Emphasis of the evaluation is placed on the RCM capability in capturing the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation and low-level temperature, especially

Jinwon Kim; Hyun-Sook Jung; C. R. Mechoso; Hyun-Suk Kang

2008-01-01

45

Inverse modeling analysis of soil dust sources over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil dust is the dominant aerosol by mass concentration in the troposphere and has considerable effects on air quality and climate. Parts of East Asia, including southern Mongolia, northern China, and the Taklamakan Desert, are important dust source regions. Accurate simulations of dust storm events are crucial for protecting human health and assessing the climatic impacts of dust events. However, even state-of-the-art aerosol models still contain large uncertainties in soil dust simulations, particularly for the dust emissions over East Asia. In this study, we attempted to reduce these uncertainties by using an inverse modeling technique to simulate dust emissions. We used the measured mass concentration of particles less than 10?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in the surface air over East Asia, in combination with an inverse model, to understand the dust sources. The global three-dimensional GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) was used as a forward model. The inverse model analysis yielded a 76% decrease in dust emissions from the southern region of the Gobi Desert, relative to the a priori result. The a posteriori dust emissions from the Taklamakan Desert and deserts in eastern and Inner Mongolia were two to three fold higher than the a priori dust emissions. The simulation results with the a posteriori dust sources showed much better agreement with these observations, indicating that the inverse modeling technique can be useful for estimation of the optimized dust emissions from individually sourced regions.

Ku, Bonyang; Park, Rokjin J.

2011-10-01

46

Early evidence of the genus Homo in East Asia.  

PubMed

The timing and route of the earliest dispersal from Africa to Eastern Asia are contentious topics in the study of early human evolution because Asian hominin fossil sites with precise age constraints are very limited. Here we report new high-resolution magnetostratigraphic results that place stringent age controls on excavated hominin incisors and stone tools from the Yuanmou Basin, southwest China. The hominin-bearing layer resides in a reverse polarity magnetozone just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai subchron, yielding an estimated age of 1.7Ma. The finding represents the age of the earliest documented presence of Homo, with affinities to Homo erectus, in mainland East Asia. This age estimate is roughly the same as for H. erectus in island Southeast Asia and immediately prior to the oldest archaeological evidence in northeast Asia. Mammalian fauna and pollen obtained directly from the hominin site indicate that the Yuanmou hominins lived in a varied habitat of open vegetation with patches of bushland and forest on an alluvial fan close to a lake or swamp. The age and location are consistent with a rapid southern migration route of initial hominin populations into Eastern Asia. PMID:18842287

Zhu, R X; Potts, R; Pan, Y X; Yao, H T; L, L Q; Zhao, X; Gao, X; Chen, L W; Gao, F; Deng, C L

2008-12-01

47

The Russian Far East and Northeast Asia: Aspects of Energy Demand and Supply Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Overview of Energy Demand and Supply for Northeast Asia Northeast Asia (NEA), which in this report covers China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea and the Russian Far East, is one of Asia's most dynamic sub regions. With the exceptions of North Korea and the Russian Far East, the region has demonstrated spectacular economic growth at various times for over

Victor Kalashnikov

1997-01-01

48

Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars: Asia, Asian Studies and the National Security State: A Symposium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars has placed online the full text of a recent symposium on "Asia, Asian Studies and the National Security State." The symposium consists of a powerful article by Bruce Cumings, challenging the ideological roots of Asian Studies, with eight responses by a wide range of people active in the profession. The symposium focuses on two moments in the creation and development of Asian studies in the United States. "First, the symposium examines the birth of the field -- during the height of the Cold War -- as a creation of the national-security state, or what Cumings calls the state/intelligence/foundation nexus, which structured, financed, and set formative research agendas and methodologies at the time. Second, the symposium assesses how the sea changes in the contemporary Asian regional and global situations relate to emerging scholarly trends."

Scholars., Committee O.

1997-01-01

49

Volatility and Contagion in a Financially Integrated World: Lessons from East Asia's Recent Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1998Recent events in East Asia highlighted the risks of weak financial institutions and distorted incentives in a financially integrated world. These weaknesses led to two sources of vulnerability: East Asia's rapid buildup of contingent liabilities, and overreliance on short-term foreign borrowing.The buildup of vulnerabilities in East Asia is shown here to be mainly the result of weaknesses in financial

Leonardo Hernandez; Pedro Alba; Amar Bhattacharya; Swati Ghosh; Stijn Claessens

1999-01-01

50

The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented and discussed their contribution to better understand the impacts of aerosols on regional-to- global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

2003-01-01

51

Leeonychiurus, a new genus from East Asia (Collembola: Onychiuridae: Onychiurini).  

PubMed

A new genus of Onychiurini including five species is described from East Asia. Leeonychiurus gen. nov. differs in its antennal III sensory organ with granulated sensory clubs and 11 chaetae in the distal whorl of tibiotarsi. The main diagnostic characters of the genera from the tribe Onychiurini and the five species from the new genus are summarized. A new species, Leeonychiurus fusongensis sp. nov., is reported from northeast China and it can be easily distinguished from other species of the genus by the number of dorsal and ventral pseudocelli. The known Korean species L. polychaetosus is redescribed by the examination of the type materials. PMID:25112328

Sun, Xin; Arbea, Javier

2014-01-01

52

Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia (EEPSEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1993, the Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia (EEPSEA) supports training and research in environmental and resource economics in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao PDR, China, and Sri Lanka. Information on EEPSEA research projects, workshops, postdoctoral awards, and organizational structure is available in addition to the educational guide How to Design a Research Project in Environmental Economics. Full-text publications include policy briefs on issues of environmental regulation, in-depth research reports (1997-present), and a recently released series of Special Papers.

53

Omnibus Report: Europe, Middle East, Africa, East Asia and Latin America.  

PubMed

5 papers deal respectively with economic development in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, East Asia, and Latin America. In Europe, basic problems include increasing political and military weakness; the high costs of social democracy; problems of the welfare state; the trend toward low or no-growth population rates; declining fertility combined with increasing longevity; increasing demand for social services and health care; industrial decline; continuing decline in economic indices; integration of the Left in European politics; and a pervasive trend toward neoconservatism. The paper on the Middle East focuses on Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the recent Egypt-Israel Treaty, in terms of assessment of the present situation followed by a prognosis for the future. The paper on Africa discusses 4 crises of development: 1) the crisis of national identity; 2) the crisis of poverty; 3) the crisis of colonialism and neocolonialism; and 4) the crisis of popular control over government. The paper on east Asia discusses the "economic miracles" and whether or not they are replicable elsewhere in the Pacific and Asia. Finally, the paper on Latin America focuses on the fact that despite expansion of the urban middle class through economic development and modernization, little economic improvement has resulted. The challenge of the 1980s will be to see whether Latin America can put its economies back on track while managing to channel more of the economic benefits to the "have-nots" and to allow more open, participatory systems. PMID:12179856

Gallagher, C F; Nolte, R H; Liebenow, J G; Ravenholt, A; Handelman, H

1979-01-01

54

Aerosol retrieval over East Asia from GOSAT-CAI measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aerosol retrieval algorithm for East Asia was developed from Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) launched in January 2009 onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). In this study, surface reflectance is determined from 45-day composite of Rayleigh and gas corrected reflectance and the reflectance data of channel 2 and 3 of CAI were used. To distinguish aerosol absorptivity, Two methods waere considered using blue channels from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) launched in March 2012 onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) and single scattering albedo method using channel 1 of TANSO-CAI. To investigate aerosol optical properties over the East Asia, inversion products from AERONET sun-photometer observation using the method from Kim et al. (2007) were analyzed and look-up table approach to retrieve optical properties of aerosol was adopted. The algorithm provides aerosol optical depth (AOD) and size information where AOD were compared with those of AERONET from March 2012 to February 2013 in this study. The comparison results show that performance of the algorithm has reasonable agreements with coefficients of determination show range from 0.71 to 0.86 and regression slope ranged from 0.69 to 0.88, depending on season. Based on the obtained results with CAI algorithm developed continuous updates are carried out for the further improvement.

Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Mijin; Choi, MyungJe; Go, Su Jung; Lim, HyunKwang

2014-05-01

55

SYMPOSIUM REPORT SUPPLEMENT Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma in Asia Pacific  

E-print Network

SYMPOSIUM REPORT SUPPLEMENT Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma in Asia Pacific and the ARIA: The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma are markedly increasing to epidemic asthma, about 50% of whom live in developing countries, and about 400 million people suffer from AR. AR

Boyer, Edmond

56

Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives. PMID:23024679

ITO, HIROTO; SETOYA, YUTARO; SUZUKI, YURIKO

2012-01-01

57

Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia  

E-print Network

Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit, and the distribution pattern of acid rain was also altered. The annual mean pH values in northern China and Korea show

58

Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.  

PubMed

The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental outflow from Eurasia. The same tendency is not found for SO4(2-). PMID:22168108

Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

2011-11-01

59

Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

2013-12-01

60

Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective  

PubMed Central

Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia. PMID:22664492

Ghimire, M.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Narain, J.P.

2012-01-01

61

A Report to the Australian Development Assistance Bureau. Regional Symposium on Distance Teaching in Asia (Penang, Malaysia, May 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports and summaries of papers presented at the 1981 Regional Symposium on Distance Teaching in Asia are presented. The symposium, which was represented by 22 countries, was organized by the Universiti Sains (University of Science) Malaysia as part of the activities associated with the completion of 10 years of off-campus program facilities. The

Reid-Smith, Edward R.

62

Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang

2013-05-01

63

Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

2014-01-01

64

Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation from East China Sea and a PSV stack of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) provides information on the mechanisms of the geodynamo and can also be used for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale. In this study, we constructed PSV curves of relative rapidly deposited Holocene marine sequence from East China Sea. Results show that the dominant magnetic carriers are pseudo-single domain (PSD) to multidomain (MD) magnetites. Paleomagnetic directions are preserved by coarse-grained magnetite, even affected by post-depositional diagenetic alteration. The PSV record of core MD06-3040 exhibits six major inclination peaks and five declination swings during the Holocene. The periodicities for inclination are about 2000 and 550 years, and for declination are about 1400 and 500 years. The PSV of MD06-3040 is comparable to archeomagnetic and historic results for the last 2500 years and to PSV results from lake sediments in southern China and Japan during the Holocene. A PSV stack of East Asia is constructed by sedimentary and archeological PSV results, which can be used as an important reference curve for a large region, and the PSV correlation between sites can be applied for relative dating of East Asia.

Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Hongbo; Deng, Chenglong; Liu, Qingsong

2014-11-01

65

Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more northerly flora are a subset of the genera present in a more southerly flora. Main conclusions: The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

2003-01-01

66

Atmospheric chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia.  

PubMed

This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15-70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of ?19ClPAHs and ?9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610fg-TEQm(-3) respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4240000fg-TEQm(-3) respectively. PMID:24997898

Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

2014-09-01

67

Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?  

PubMed Central

The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the lengthwidththickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 90008600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

2011-01-01

68

After the Crisis: The Social Contract and the Middle Class in East Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace recently placed online the complete text of After the Crisis: The Social Contract and the Middle Class in East Asia, authored by Nancy Birdsall and Stephan Haggard and published in July. The text examines the impact of the Asian financial crisis of 1997 upon an emergent, urban middle class and considers the key role this class is likely to play in the ongoing construction of the social contract in East Asia.

69

Light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia from black carbon (BC) mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements at four sites: Korea Climate Observatory-Gosan (KCO-G), Korea Climate Observatory-Anmyeon (KCO-A), Maldives Climate Observatory-Hanimaadhoo (MCO-H) and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P). No significant seasonal variations of BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at MCO-H during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at KCO-G and KCO-A is higher than that in MCO-H due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at NCO-P is 0.14, which is two times great than that in MCO-H and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at NCO-P is the lowest among four sites. Consistently, the highest elemental carbon to sulfate ratio is found at NCO-P.

Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Lee, H.

2011-12-01

70

Spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts in the East Asian region (105-150E, 20-50N) are quantified using the effective drought index (EDI) over a period of 43 years, from 1962 to 2004, and the East Asian region was classified into six subregions on the basis of similarity in drought climate: (D1) South China; (D2) lower region of the Yangtze River, South Korea, and Central/South Japan; (D3) Central China and North Korea; (D4) Northwest China and middle region of the Yangtze River; (D5) North China; and (D6) Northeast China and North Japan. The EDI time series was then summarized for the different drought subregions and a drought map was created that shows the spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia. The map shows that in subregions, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and D6, there were 50 (11.63 per decade), 36 (8.37 per decade), 30 (6.98 per decade), 28 (6.51 per decade), 29 (6.74 per decade), and 33 (7.67 per decade) drought occurrences, respectively. The most common characteristic of droughts in the subregions is that short-term droughts (<200 days) which mainly occur in spring and summer, whereas long-term droughts (?200 days) mainly occur in autumn and winter. D1 shows the highest frequency of short-term droughts. Short-term droughts occur more frequently than long-term droughts in D2 and D3, but D4 and D6 showed a higher frequency of long-term droughts than short-term droughts. D5 showed a similar frequency of short- and long-term droughts. Drought onset dates are evenly distributed throughout the year for D1, D2, and D3, but distributed mostly in spring and summer in D4, D5, and D6. All the differences are linked to variations in the precipitation cycle of each subregion. In terms of annual variations in drought occurrence, D2 showed weakening droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a positive trend), whereas the other subregions showed intensifying droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a negative trend). The greatest intensifying trend was observed in D5, followed by D3, D6, D4, and D1.

Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

2014-07-01

71

HRD in Asia. Symposium 3. [AHRD Conference, 2001].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) in Asia. "The Experiences of HRD Professionals Participating in Continuing Professional Development in Taiwan" (Yu-Shu [Jason] Chen) reports on a study that was based on the method of hermeneutic phenomenology and conducted to describe and interpret the experiences of

2001

72

Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).  

PubMed

Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available. PMID:16050168

Bharucha, Z S

2005-01-01

73

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-01-01

74

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

75

Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":

Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

76

Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education

Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

2011-01-01

77

Democratization and Civil-military Relations in East Asia: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent wave of democratization in East Asia predominantly struck countries in which the armed forces had played a dominant political role under the authoritarian regimes. This article analyzes how and how successful governments in emerging East Asian democracies have crafted civilian control over the military. Starting from theoretical findings of recent research on democratic transition and in military sociology,

Aurel Croissant; David Khn

2007-01-01

78

Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Grass Lizards Genus Takydromus (Reptilia: Lacertidae) of East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Takydromus Daudin is a group of Lacertidae lizards with slender bodies and long tails. Half of the Takydromus spp. are endemic to islands of eastern Asia aligned along the Pacific margin of the East Asian continent. This feature offers a good opportunity to study the effects of glaciations and land connections on the speciation of East Asian fauna. We reconstructed

Si-Min Lin; Chaolun Allen Chen; Kuang-Yang Lue

2002-01-01

79

Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) predictions of the tropospheric ozone budget over east Asia  

E-print Network

Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) predictions of the tropospheric ozone budget over east., Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) predictions of the tropospheric ozone budget over east Asia, J Research Center and University of Wisconsin Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is used

Liu, Hongyu

80

The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in

Lin, Han-Yi

2014-01-01

81

FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices. Aubert et al introduce a novel technique of synthesizing composite nanomaterials and Cross and coworkers characterize Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films co-doped with Bi and Fe to enhance PZT capacitor ferroelectric properties. These articles are closely related to the global environmental load and energy issues that require solutions in modern ceramics technology. We hope that this focus issue will help advance not only ceramics-related but also other fields of materials science.

Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

2010-10-01

82

Estimate of springtime atmospheric mercury distribution in East Asia by CMAQ model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study some chemical transport simulations on atmospheric mercury in the springtime of 2005 in East Asia were conducted with CMAQ chemical transport model. East Asian Air Pollutant Emission Grid Database (EAGrid2000 ; Atmospheric Environment (2007) by A. Kannari et al.) were chosen as emission inventories of precursors and emission inventory of mercury was obtained from Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). Grid size was set to 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree, and average concentration and deposition amount of elemental mercury Hg(0), reactive mercury Hg(2), and particulate mercury Hg(P) were calculated in East Asia, respectively. Comparing calculated values with observed values measured at several points in Japan, comparably good agreements were shown, however, near industrialized area, especially, many ironworks are located, calculated values were overestimated or underestimated. That is because AMAP inventory is not involved local emission of mercury in East Asia. Therefore emission inventory of mercury should be revised in the future works.

Yamamoto, Kouhei; Shimizu, Kana

2010-05-01

83

Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter temperature distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

2013-01-01

84

Proof in climatology for circulation effect of stalagmite ?18O in East Asia: analysis on the ratios among water vapor transport passageway intensities in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Further verification about the circulation effect of stalagmite ?18O in East Asian monsoon region needs the quantitative description for the proportion of water vapor transport (WVT) from different source regions. WVT passageway intensities are defined as regionally averaged WVT flux modes in this paper. The ratio between two WVT passageways' intensities represents relative intensity of the two WVT passageways. Using the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data for 1948-2011, the ratios of the intensities of three WVT passageways from low latitudes (the intensity of WVT from Bay of Bengal (IBOB), the intensity of WVT from South China Sea (ISCS) and the intensity of WVT from western North Pacific (IWNP) in summer are calculated. SB is for the ISCS-IBOB ratio, WB for the IWNP-IBOB ratio, and WS for the IWNP-ISCS ratio. The decadal increase occurs in the time series of WB and WS, with higher values in 1976-1995 and lower values in 1950-1975, probably resulting from the strengthening of WVT from WNP in the midterm of 1970s. East Asian atmospheric circulations, WVTs and previous SST characters corresponding to the ratios are analyzed. The result indicates that SB, WB and WS may properly reflect the relative intensities between ISCS and IBOB, between IWNP and IBOB, and between IWNP and ISCS, respectively. For high SB years, the Asian Low and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weaken. The southwesterly winds from BOB to the Yangtze River valley by the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau weaken and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The southwesterly winds from SCS to East Asia strengthen and the WVT from SCS to East Asia strengthens. In high WB years, the Asian Low weakens and the WPSH shifts westwards, enhances and enlarges. The WVT from WNP to East Asia increases because of the strengthening of the easterly winds on the south of the WPSH. The westerly winds from BOB to East Asia by Indo-China Peninsula decrease and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The atmospheric circulation and WVT associated with WS are similar with those associated with WB. There are close relationships between WB (and WS) and the WPSH area, position and intensity. In high WB (and WS) years, the WPSH shifts westwards, enlarges and enhances. There is no obvious anomalous previous SST signal in tropical Indian Ocean and equatorial central and eastern Pacific for anomalous SB years. WB and WS are closely related to previous SST signal. When the equatorial central and eastern Pacific is in El Nio phase, SST in the tropical Indian Ocean, BOB and SCS is high and SST at middle latitudes in North Pacific is low, WB and WS tend to be high. After the midterm of 1970s, the equatorial central and eastern Pacific is often in El Nio phase. It is in agreement with higher WB in 1976-1995 than that in 1950-1975. In light of circulation effect of stalagmite ?18O in East Asia, high WB implies high stalagmite ?18O. Therefore, the interdecadal increase of WB in 1976-1995 than in 1950-1975 provides the proof using the conception of circulation effect to explain the interdecadal change of stalagmite ?18O at most regions in East Asia.

Nan, S.; Tan, M.; Zhao, P.

2013-07-01

85

Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

Moore, Malcolm A.

2014-01-01

86

Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia. PMID:25080928

Zhu, Yao; Wang, Hong-Kai; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Ye, Ding-Wei

2015-01-01

87

Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia. PMID:25080928

Zhu, Yao; Wang, Hong-Kai; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Ye, Ding-Wei

2015-01-01

88

A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

2011-12-01

89

Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East Asia. Our results also show that the active Tengchong volcano in SW China is related to the deep subduction of the Burma microplate down to the mantle transition zone and a BMW above the Burma slab. References: D. Zhao (2004) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. J. Huang, D. Zhao (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, B09305. D. Zhao et al. (2009) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 197-206.

Zhao, D.

2009-12-01

90

Evaluation of biogenic emission flux and its impact on oxidants and inorganic aerosols in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a major precursor during the summer season, biogenic species are of primary importance in the ozone and SOAs (secondary organic aerosols) formations. Isoprene and mono-terpene also influence the level of inorganic aerosols (i.e. sulfate and nitrate) by controlling OH radicals. However, biogenic emission fluxes are highly uncertain in East Asia. While isoprene emission fluxes from the GEIA (Global Emissions Inventory Activity) and POET (Precursors of Ozone and their Effects in the Troposphere) inventories estimate approximately 20 Tg yr-1 in East Asia, those from the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) and MOHYCAN (MOdel for Hydrocarbon emissions by the CANopy) estimate approximately 10 Tg yr-1 and 5 Tg yr-1, respectively. In order to evaluate and/or quantify the magnitude of biogenic emission fluxes over East Asia, the tropospheric HCHO columns obtained from the GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) observations were compared with the HCHO columns from the CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) simulations over East Asia. In this study, US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v4.5.1 model simulation using the ACE-ASIA (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) emission inventory for anthropogenic pollutants and GEIA, POET, MEGAN, and MOHYCAN emission inventories for biogenic species was carried out in conjunction with the Meteorological fields generated from the PSU/NCAR MM5 (Pennsylvania state University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Meso-scale Model 5) model for the summer episodes of the year 2002. In addition to an evaluation of the biogenic emission flux, we investigated the impact of the uncertainty in biogenic emission inventory on inorganic aerosol formations and variations of oxidants (OH, O3, and H2O2) in East Asia. In this study, when the GEIA and POET emission inventories are used, the CMAQ-derived HCHO columns are highly overestimated over East Asia, particularly South China compared with GOME-derived HCHO columns. The CMAQ-derived HCHO columns using the MOHYCAN emission inventory have similar values with the GOME-derived HCHO columns over East Asia. Also, differences in biogenic emission fluxes lead to changes in the levels of nitrates by changing the OH radical concentrations.

Han, K. M.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Woo, J.; Kim, H.

2010-12-01

91

Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up to 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 % and 11%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large scale deployment of FGD for China's power plants, and the promotion of high-efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25% and 15%, driven by the rapid increase in the emissions from China owing to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17% mainly due to the implementation of tight vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current legislation and current implementation status, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are estimated to increase by about one quarter by 2030 from the 2010 levels, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28%, 36%, 28%, and 15% respectively compared with the baseline case. The implementation of the "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures is expected to lead to another one third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one quarter reduction for SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. With the full implementation of maximum feasible reduction measures, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia are expected to account for only about one quarter and NMVOC for one third of the levels of the baseline projection. Compared with previous projections, this study projects larger reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions by considering aggressive govermental plans and standards scheduled to be implemented in the next decade, and quantifies the significant effects of detailed progressive control measures on NMVOC emissions up to 2030.

Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

2014-01-01

92

Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia would account for only about one-quarter, and NMVOC for one-third, of the levels of the baseline projection. Compared with previous projections, this study projects larger reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions by considering aggressive governmental plans and standards scheduled to be implemented in the next decade, and quantifies the significant effects of detailed progressive control measures on NMVOC emissions up until 2030.

Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

2014-07-01

93

Asia Pacific Symposium of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (APSAEM2010) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 28-30th  

E-print Network

Asia Pacific Symposium of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (APSAEM2010) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 28-30th July 2010 Reducing Electromagnetic Interference in Non-Isolated DC to DC Step JAMALUDIN*2 Investigation of the Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is important for design of a good power

Hammerton, James

94

BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

2009-04-01

95

The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and

Mok, Ka Ho

2013-01-01

96

China and arms control: Transition in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Asian security environment in transition from the Cold War structure to whatever replaces it, prospects for arms control initiatives in the region and the attitudes and cooperative mechanisms to implement effective regimes are in a state of flux. Within Asia, Beijing`s conventional and nuclear defense modernization programs, combined with its active arms export program, make China a central

P. H. B. Godwin; J. J. Schulz

1994-01-01

97

Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project entitled

Menton, Linda K.

2007-01-01

98

Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine universities in the United States with the greatest number of international students and having an accredited music program through the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) were selected. Survey research methodologies were used to identify the status of the international music students from East Asia in U.S. higher education

Choi, Jin Ho

2009-01-01

99

Financial Services Integration in East Asia : Lessons from the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper distills some policy lessons from the financial services integration programme in the European Union for East Asia. Focusing on the improved cross-border facilitation of financial flows rather than on general macroeconomic factors related to optimal currency area formation, the paper discusses some specific features of the EUs financial sector liberalization programme and the results achieved so far. Considering

Gloria O. Pasadilla

2008-01-01

100

A PCR-BASED METHOD TO DETECT ALPHA THALASSEMIA WITH SOUTH EAST ASIA MUTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The currently existing techniques in ordinary hematology laboratories do not allow for definitive diagnosis of alpha thalassemia carrier status. The objective of this study was to optimize a polymerase chain reaction- based method for the detection of the most common two-gene deletional alpha thalassemia of South East Asia type mutation. The detection of hemoglobin Barts hydrops fetalis, homozygous for

Ayman A. Al-Qaddome

2005-01-01

101

History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

2000-01-01

102

North-East Asia interconnection scenario map, and power reserve strategy in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of This work is to obtain the reserve power for the future power shortages faced by the metropolitan areas of the Korean Peninsula and by the southeastern area of the South Korea in North-East Asia. The assumed scenarios will be proposed in the cases of without or with connection to the Sinpo nuclear power plant which is to

Sang-Seung Lee; Jong-Keun Park; Seung-Il Moon; Jong-Fil Moon; Jae-Chul Kim; Seul-Ki Kim; Ho-Yong Kim

2004-01-01

103

The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This

Mok, Ka Ho

2012-01-01

104

New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

105

Metamorphic Core Complex dynamics and structural development: Field evidences from the Liaodong Peninsula (China, East Asia)  

E-print Network

the compositional layering, and after the strain rate and partial melting. In the Late Mesozoic, continental, Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and U/Pb on zircon insu-00715908,version1-11Jul2012 Author controlling the initiation of MCC (as a soft anomaly within lower crust). In East Asia, a regional

Boyer, Edmond

106

Volatility and contagion in a financially integrated world : lessons from East Asia's recent experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The buildup of vulnerabilities in East Asia is shown here to be mainly the result of weaknesses in financial intermediation, poor corporate governance, and deficient government policies, including pro-cyclical macroeconomic policy responses to large capital inflows. Weak due diligence by external creditors, fueled partly by ample global liquidity, also played a role but global factors were more important in triggering

Pedro Alba; Amar Bhattacharya; Stijn Claessens; Swati Ghosh; Leonardo Hernandez

1998-01-01

107

Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate

Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

2012-01-01

108

Mapping the Terrain of Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain perspective on the extent to which the vision for knowledge production in East Asia set forth by Bajunid, Cheng, Hallinger, Walker, Dimmock and others almost 20 years ago has been fulfilled. The authors undertook an effort to map the terrain of knowledge production in educational leadership and

Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren

2013-01-01

109

Globalisation and the Changing Nature of the State in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with

Green, Andy

2007-01-01

110

Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from

Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

2008-01-01

111

Contemporary crustal deformation in east Asia constrained by Global Positioning System measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements collected since the early 90's allow us to derive geodetic velocities at 16 permanent stations in east Asia and 68 campaign mode sites in north China. The resulting velocity field shows the following: (1) Contrary to the early inferences that the Shanxi Rift has accommodated significant right-slip motion, our results suggest that the rift system,

Zheng-kang Shen; Chengkun Zhao; An Yin; Yanxing Li; David D. Jackson; Peng Fang; Danan Dong

2000-01-01

112

Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational

Hayden, Howard; And Others

113

Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the

Yuan W; Lin W; R. Yu; M. Zhang; H. Chen; J. Li

2012-01-01

114

Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 23 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across six themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, and Change"; (4) "Aesthetics, Celebrations and Values"; (5)

Beville, Francie; Boone, Mark; Chapman, Kelly; Crump, Claudia; Curtis, Lonnie; Erickson, Stacy; Kaiser-Polge, Tami; Klus, John A.; Luebbehusen, Mary Lou; Rea, Patrick S.; Ward, Mary E.

115

Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 40 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across five themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, Change"; (4) Institutions, Power & Government"; and (5)

Aiken, Geoff; Benton, Susan; Duvall, James; Eltzroth, Diane; Hooyberg, Astrid; Keim, Marilee; Norris, Elizabeth; Smith, Peggy; Vogel, Kathy; Williams, Steven

116

Springtime photochemical ozone production observed in the upper troposphere over east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft observations of ozone and its precursors (NO, NOy, CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons) were made near Japan (26-44N) between 21 and 24 April 1998 to investigate the effect of transport and chemistry on the tropospheric ozone over east Asia in spring. The average mixing ratios of ozone and its precursors in the upper troposphere were higher than those observed during

Y. Miyazaki; K. Kita; Y. Kondo; M. Koike; M. Ko; W. Hu; S. Kawakami; D. R. Blake; T. Ogawa

2003-01-01

117

Springtime photochemical ozone production observed in the upper troposphere over east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft observations of ozone and its precursors (NO, NOy, CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons) were made near Japan (2644N) between 21 and 24 April 1998 to investigate the effect of transport and chemistry on the tropospheric ozone over east Asia in spring. The average mixing ratios of ozone and its precursors in the upper troposphere were higher than those observed during

Y. Miyazaki; K. Kita; Y. Kondo; M. Koike; M. Ko; W. Hu; S. Kawakami; D. R. Blake; T. Ogawa

2003-01-01

118

Springtime photochemical ozone production observed in the upper troposphere over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft observations of ozone and its precursors (NO, NOy, CO, and non-methane hydrocarbons) were made near Japan in April 1998 to investigate the effect of transport and chemistry on tropospheric ozone over East Asia in spring. The average concentrations of ozone and its precursors in the upper troposphere were higher than those observed during February-March 1994. The significantly higher mixing

Y. Miyazaki; K. Kita; Y. Kondo; M. Ko; W. Hu; S. Kawakami; M. Koike; D. Blake; T. Ogawa

2001-01-01

119

Integrating remotely sensed data with an ecosystem model to estimate net primary productivity in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of integrating remotely sensed data with an ecosystem model to estimate net primary productivity (NPP) in East Asia. We improved the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model for global NPP estimation by incorporating a new land cover map and employed a robust Normalized Difference Vegetation IndexLeaf Area Index (NDVILAI) algorithm. Using this method, we produced

Bunkei Matsushita; Masayuki Tamura

2002-01-01

120

Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand in east Asiaa numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were investigated numerically by an Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new deflation module of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from

Hiroaki Terada; Hiromasa Ueda; Zifa Wang

2002-01-01

121

Big push industrialization: some empirical evidence for East Asia and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine some testable implications of growth theories based on threshold externalities and complementarities. Specifically, we use industry data for a set of eight emerging economies in East Asia and Eastern Europe to perform general tests of the big push industrialization hypothesis of Murphy, Shleifer, and Vishny (1989). The preliminary results reported here are generally supportive of

Christine Sauer; Geng Li; Kishore Gawande

2003-01-01

122

East Asia in a unipolar international order and Europes role in the region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to explore the post-Cold War international system in which regional orders intermingle their influence. It pays special attention to regional conflicts in East Asia in the new era and what roles global powers could play to maintain regional stability. I will first examine the characteristics of the new global order after the end of the bipolarity. I

Francis Yi-hua Kan

2004-01-01

123

Review of rabies epidemiology and control in South, South East and East Asia: past, present and prospects for elimination.  

PubMed

Rabies is a serious public health problem in Asia. It causes substantial animal welfare, economic and human health impacts, with approximately 39,000 human deaths each year. Domestic dogs are the main reservoir and source of rabies in Asia. Common constraints for the control of rabies in the countries of Asia include inadequate resources; lack of political commitment to control programs; lack of consensus on strategy; weak intersectoral coordination and inadequate management structure; insensitive surveillance systems; limited accessibility to modern rabies vaccine and supply problems; lack of public awareness and public cooperation; and the existence of myths and religious issues. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology of rabies in both human and animals in each South and South East Asian country, the past and current approaches to control and the prospect for rabies elimination. We conclude that defining the cost of rabies to society and communicating this to decisionmakers might be the key to achieving such an advance. PMID:23180493

Tenzin; Ward, M P

2012-11-01

124

Labor Standards and Labor Market Flexibility in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s, de jure labor standards have improved in Northeast and Southeast Asia and de jure labor market flexibility\\u000a has decreased. For most countries in the region, however, de facto labor standards are much worse than de jure standards,\\u000a and de facto flexibility is much higher than de jure flexibility. International pressure has rarely produced meaningful change\\u000a in either

Teri L. Caraway

2010-01-01

125

Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation  

PubMed Central

This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps. PMID:24818109

Parikh, Purvish M.; Raja, T.; Mula-Hussain, L.; Baral, R. P.; Ingle, P.; Narayanan, P.; Tsikai, N.; Baki, M. O.; Satyapal, N.; Adusei, K. O.; Popoola, A.; Musibi, A.; Nyaim, E.; Tsomo, U.; Opio, C.; Jamshed, A.; Reddy, P.

2014-01-01

126

Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation.  

PubMed

This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps. PMID:24818109

Parikh, Purvish M; Raja, T; Mula-Hussain, L; Baral, R P; Ingle, P; Narayanan, P; Tsikai, N; Baki, M O; Satyapal, N; Adusei, K O; Popoola, A; Musibi, A; Nyaim, E; Tsomo, U; Opio, C; Jamshed, A; Reddy, P

2014-04-01

127

East Asia in the AftermathWas There a Crunch?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a disequilibrium framework to investigate a possible credit crunch in the East Asian crisis countries (Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand) during 1997-98. It defines a credit crunch as a situation in which interest rates do not equilibrate supply and demand for credit and the aggregate amount is supply constrained, i.e. there is quantity rationing. In all three countries,

Swati Ghosh; Atish Ghosh

1999-01-01

128

English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent

Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

2012-01-01

129

Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia  

SciTech Connect

Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

2012-05-01

130

On mobility and fertility transitions in east and southeast Asia.  

PubMed

The relationship between fertility and mobility is examined with reference to Zelinsky's [1971] mobility transition hypothesis. Five Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, China) at different stages of development and mobility transition are compared with respect to shifting sectoral patterns of migration and changing levels of fertility. National trends suggest that the development sequence proposed by Zelinsky on the basis of the European experience does not generally apply to Asia. In four out of five cases examined, fertility declined before substantial urbanization took place. Zelinsky's sequence of mobility change should be modified to fit the experience of developing countries, but the importance of the interrelations hip between fertility decline and mobility change remains PMID:12343909

Skeldon, R

1992-01-01

131

78 FR 77141 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2014 East Coast Trade Symposium: Increasing Economic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...trade/trade_outreach/2014_trade_symp/. Requests...holding one Trade Symposium in 2014 and it will be held on the East...to budgetary constraints as a result of sequestration, CBP will...West Coast Trade Symposium in 2014. This document announces...

2013-12-20

132

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.  

SciTech Connect

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO{sub 2} emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

2010-01-01

133

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

2010-04-01

134

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

2010-07-01

135

Solar cycle modulation of the ENSO impact on the winter climate of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how the East Asian winter climate response to the El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) varies with the 11-year solar cycle. The results indicate that the ENSO and East Asian climate relationship is robust and significant during winters with low solar (LS) activity, with evident warming in the lower troposphere over East Asia, which can be closely linked to the decreased pressure gradient between the cold Eurasian continent and the warm Pacific. Moreover, during the LS and El Nio winters, there is a typical rainfall response in Southeast Asia, with wet conditions over South China and dry conditions over the Philippines, Borneo, Celebes, and Sulawesi, which can be explained by the anticyclone over the western North Pacific (WNP). However, during high solar activity winters, both the surface temperature and rainfall anomalies are much less closely associated with the ENSO. The possible mechanism for this solar modulation of the ENSO-related East Asian climate anomalies may be the change in the tropospheric circulation with the ENSO in both tropical and extratropical regions. Particularly, in the LS cases, an anomalous WNP anticyclone is intensified and a noticeable cyclone occupies northern Northeast Asia, resulting from the changing location and strength of the large-scale Walker circulation induced by the more pronounced sea surface temperature anomalies associated with the ENSO. Further investigation with long historic data confirms that the relationship between the ENSO and the East Asian winter climate anomalies depends on the phases of 11 year solar cycle, with enhanced East Asian climate variation during the LS winters.

Zhou, Qun; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Wen

2013-06-01

136

Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

PubMed Central

It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

137

Impact of particle nonsphericity on the development and properties of aerosol models for East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the effects of aerosol nonsphericity information on the classification of aerosol models and the associated radiative properties over East Asia are investigated. The radiance measurements and inversions of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are used. Four aerosol models over East Asia are obtained by adding the shape information to the clustering analysis. These four aerosols are identified on the basis of their optical properties. Compared to the results without sphericity parameter, adding the sphericity parameter in the clustering process contributes to the extraction of a strongly absorbing aerosol. Furthermore, the effect of the physical and optical properties of the aerosol on the top of atmospheric (TOA) total reflectance and polarized reflectance are investigated. The results indicate that the addition of the sphericity parameter in the clustering process leads to a change in the total reflectance by up to 16% and a change in the polarized reflectance by up to 100%.

Chen, Hao; Cheng, Tianhai; Gu, Xingfa; Wu, Yu

2015-01-01

138

Review: lumpy skin disease: an emerging threat to Europe, the Middle East and Asia.  

PubMed

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically devastating emerging viral disease of cattle. Lumpy skin disease is currently endemic in most African countries and has recently spread out of Africa into the Middle East region. In this article, we review the putative mechanisms of spread of LSD into the Middle East and the risks of further spread into Turkey, Europe and Asia. We also review the latest findings on the epidemiology of LSD, its mechanisms of transmission, the potential role of wildlife in its maintenance and spread and the diagnostic tests and control methods currently available. PMID:21749675

Tuppurainen, E S M; Oura, C A L

2012-02-01

139

Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

2014-02-01

140

Simulations of LGM climate of East Asia by regional climate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate conditions in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were remarkably different from the present ones. Adopting a regional\\u000a climate model (RCM) which has included a detailed land surface scheme, LGM climate of East Asia has been simulated. The effects\\u000a of vegetation changes on LGM climate have been diagnosed by adding forces of LGM paleovegetation reconstructed from the geological\\u000a records. The

Yiqun Zheng; Ge Yu; Sumin Wang; Bin Xue; Huaqiang Liu; Xinmin Zeng

2003-01-01

141

Impacts of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions on Climate Change in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate impact by anthropogenic drivers gives high concerns in climate change simulation. IPCC AR4 emphasized the role of aerosol on climate besides the GHGs due to its negative significant radiative forcing. We find that climate feedback of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia through direct and indirect (aerosol-cloud interaction) radiative process using HadGEM2-AO developed by the UK Met office. Due to the industrial revolution and population growth, total anthropogenic aerosol emissions have grown dramatically over East Asia; sulfate aerosol is the dominant component accounting for about 50% of total aerosol optical depth at 550nm (Figure 1). An increased amount of aerosols might increase the CCN number concentration and lead to more, but smaller, cloud droplets for fixed liquid water content. This increases the albedo of the cloud, resulting in enhance reflection and a cooling effect. And smaller drops require longer growth times to reach size at which they easily fall as precipitation. This effect called the cloud lifetime effect may enhance the cloud cover (Figure 2), with a persistent positive correlation between cloud cover and aerosol optical depth. Particularly, aerosols have an influence on the amount of cloud cover (SC, ST, and NS) through the interaction with precipitation efficiency of low level clouds. As a result of perturbations of East Asia aerosols from preindustrial to present day, a net radiative flux at the top of atmosphere is estimated to be -4 W/m2, with a regional mean surface cooling of 1.2 K. More detailed analysis will be shown at the conference. Fig. 1. (a) Total AOD distributions (b) Changes in decadal mean AOD over East Asia. Fig 2. Cloud cover distributions classified by ISCCP cloud types.

Shim, S.; Jung, Y.; Baek, H.; Cho, C.

2013-12-01

142

Vasectomy surgical techniques in South and South East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Simple ligation of the vas with suture material and excision of a small vas segment is believed to be the most common vasectomy occlusion technique performed in low-resource settings. Ligation and excision (LE) is associated with a risk of occlusion and contraceptive failure which can be reduced by performing fascial interposition (FI) along with LE. Combining FI with intra luminal thermal cautery could be even more effective. The objective of this study was to determine the surgical vasectomy techniques currently used in five Asian countries and to evaluate the facilitating and limiting factors to introduction and assessment of FI and thermal cautery in these countries. Methods Between December 2003 and February 2004, 3 to 6 major vasectomy centers from Cambodia, Thailand, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh were visited and interviews with 5 to 11 key informants in each country were conducted. Vasectomy techniques performed in each center were observed. Vasectomy techniques using hand-held, battery-driven cautery devices and FI were demonstrated and performed under supervision by local providers. Information about interest and open-mindedness regarding the use of thermal cautery and/or FI was gathered. Results The use of vasectomy was marginal in Thailand and Cambodia. In India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, vasectomy was supported by national reproductive health programs. Most vasectomies were performed using the No-Scalpel Vasectomy (NSV) technique and simple LE. The addition of FI to LE, although largely known, was seldom performed. The main reasons reported were: 1) insufficient surgical skills, 2) time needed to perform the technique, and 3) technique not being mandatory according to country standards. Thermal cautery devices for vasectomy were not available in any selected countries. Pilot hands-on assessment showed that the technique could be safely and effectively performed by Asian providers. However, in addition to provision of supplies, introducing cautery with FI could be associated with the same barriers encountered when introducing FI in combination with LE. Conclusion Further studies assessing the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of implementation are needed before thermal cautery combined with FI is introduced in Asia on a large scale. Until thermal cautery is introduced in a country, vasectomy providers should practice LE with FI to maximize effectiveness of vasectomy procedure. PMID:15916711

Labrecque, Michel; Pile, John; Sokal, David; Kaza, Ramachandra CM; Rahman, Mizanur; Bodh, SS; Bhattarai, Jeewan; Bhatt, Ganesh D; Vaidya, Tika Man

2005-01-01

143

http://swat.tamu.edu/conferences/2013-seea/ SWAT Workshop and Conference in South East and East Asia (SWAT SEEA III), Bogor, Indonesia  

E-print Network

East and East Asia (SWAT SEEA III), Bogor, Indonesia "In commemoration of the World Day to Combat Padjadjaran, City of Bogor http://ipbicc.com/aboutus HOSTS: Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia their local conditions. This time WASWAC is coordinating with institutions inside and outside Indonesia

144

Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5 x 0.5 grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than precipitations for both mean and extreme. Near-term future projections for 2024-2049 from four available RCMs suggest that temperature and precipitation are expected to increase in both mean and extremes over East Asia.

Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

2014-05-01

145

Observations of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols in East and South Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), brown carbon and mineral dust, typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we investigate the optical and radiative properties of light-absorbing aerosols from ground-based and aircraft measurements in East and South Asia within the framework of UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud-Asia (ABC-Asia) project and Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) campaign (December 2012 ~ February 2013). BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements and radiative forcing calculations were performed at four sites: Gosan (Korea), Anmyeon (Korea), Hanimaadhoo (Maldives) and Pyramid (Nepal). No significant seasonal variations of aerosol properties, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at Hanimaadhoo during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at Gosan and Anmyeon is higher than that in Hanimaadhoo due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at Pyramid is 0.14, which is two times great than that in Hanimaadhoo and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at Pyramid is the lowest among four sites. Throughout the unmanned aerial vehicle experiment in Jeju, Korea during August-September 2008, long-range transport of aerosols from Beijing, Shanghai and Marine plumes are sampled in aerosol layers up to 3-4 km above sea level. The diurnal mean solar heating rate, calculated from the observed solar fluxes in shortwave regime (0.3 to 2.8 ?m), at 3 to 4 km altitudes for Beijing and marine plume conditions are about 1.0 and 0.75 K/day, respectively. On the other hand, BC concentration at Kathmandu during SusKat campaign is found to be maximum in the morning (09LST) as well as in the late evening (20LST). Around noon time lowest amount of BC is recorded. Increased vehicular movement and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to higher amount of BC. In addition the wind direction contributes to the variation in BC concentration.

Yoon, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, W.

2013-05-01

146

Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012  

PubMed Central

This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Nio-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

2014-01-01

147

Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Nio-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

2014-07-01

148

HTT haplotypes contribute to differences in Huntington disease prevalence between Europe and East Asia  

PubMed Central

Huntington disease (HD) results from CAG expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Although HD occurs worldwide, there are large geographic differences in its prevalence. The prevalence in populations derived from Europe is 10100 times greater than in East Asia. The European general population chromosomes can be grouped into three major haplogroups (group of similar haplotypes): A, B and C. The majority of HD chromosomes in Europe are found on haplogroup A. However, in the East-Asian populations of China and Japan, we find the majority of HD chromosomes are associated with haplogroup C. The highest risk HD haplotypes (A1 and A2), are absent from the general and HD populations of China and Japan, and therefore provide an explanation for why HD prevalence is low in East Asia. Interestingly, both East-Asian and European populations share a similar low level of HD on haplogroup C. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that different HTT haplotypes have different mutation rates, and geographic differences in HTT haplotypes explain the difference in HD prevalence. Further, the bias for expansion on haplogroup C in the East-Asian population cannot be explained by a higher average CAG size, as haplogroup C has a lower average CAG size in the general East-Asian population compared with other haplogroups. This finding suggests that CAG-tract size is not the only factor important for CAG instability. Instead, the expansion bias may be because of genetic cis-elements within the haplotype that influence CAG instability in HTT, possibly through different mutational mechanisms for the different haplogroups. PMID:21248742

Warby, Simon C; Visscher, Henk; Collins, Jennifer A; Doty, Crystal N; Carter, Catherine; Butland, Stefanie L; Hayden, Anna R; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Ross, Colin J; Hayden, Michael R

2011-01-01

149

Fluctuation of Farming-Pastoral Ecotone in Association with Changing East Asia Monsoon Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a monsoon climate dominated region, East Asia has a high rate of climate variation. Previous studies demonstrated that the East Asian monsoon had weakened since the end of 1970's; however, contrary to the climatic trend, a common scenario of advancing farming-pastoral ecotone (FPE) has been proposed. The objective of this study is to analyze land surface changes in association with monsoon climate variability over past three decades in East Asia. A combination of intensive ground survey of vegetation and land use, meteorological data, and remote sensing are used to quantify the relationship between vegetation and climate and to analyze the FPE fluctuations associated with changing climate. Precipitation data collected from 46 meteorological stations over past three decades are used to represent climate variations and to delineate the FPE boundary. Satellite time series are used to evaluate greenness-precipitation linkages by vegetation type and to create land cover maps depicting spatial pattern fluctuations of the FPE. There was no persistent northwest shifting trend of either the FPE boundary or vegetation cover during last three decades. Time integrated vegetation greenness varies with precipitation, but the maximum or minimum greenness may be only sensitive to precipitation for areas with mean annual precipitation lower than approximately 200 mm. Meanwhile, significant correlation was found between vegetation greenness and precipitation variations for areas with mean annual precipitation greater than approximately 300 mm, especially the ecotone with a ?NDVI of 0.1220.032. The 'advances' of FPE closely mimic fluctuations of precipitation in East Asia. Reference: Lu, W., G. Jia, 2013, Climatic Change, 119(3): 747-760.

Lu, W.; Jia, G.

2013-12-01

150

Aerosol retrieval over East Asia from GOSAT-CAI measurements during the DRAGON campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In East Asia, ground and satellite observation is important because aerosols are very complex in this region. For this reason, we developed an algorithm for the East Asia where optical properties of aerosol are integrated from AERONET sun-photometers to generate lookup table (LUT). Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation -Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) launched in January 2009 onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) iprovides unique channels in UV, visible and NIR to retrieve aerosol informations. This algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol type in 0.1 degree x 0.1 degree and 1.1 degree x 1.0 degree resolutions. To distinguish aerosol absorptivity, we also utilized blue channels from of Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) launched in March 2010 onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). Surface reflectance of this region is determined from 45-day composite of Rayleigh and gas corrected reflectance. Particularly we compared the retrieved AOD with those of AERONET during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) - Asia campaign period and the found reasonalbe agreements between the two results.

Lee, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Choi, M.; Go, S.; Lim, H.

2013-12-01

151

United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region  

SciTech Connect

The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

NONE

1998-12-31

152

Changing patterns of HIV epidemic in 30 years in East Asia.  

PubMed

The HIV epidemic in East Asia started relatively late compared to the rest of the world. All countries or areas, except for North Korea, had reported HIV and AIDS cases, with China being the major contributor to the epidemic. Though initially driven by injecting drug use in China, East Asia did not experience an explosive spread. Strong commitment in China and early harm reduction programs in Taiwan managed to reduce transmission substantially among injecting drug users. In contrast to China and Taiwan, injection drug use has accounted just a little, if not at all, for the spread of HIV in other East Asian counties. However, following a global trend, sexual contact has become a major route of infection across the region. While much progress has been achieved in this region, with the epidemic among other key populations relatively stable, the emerging epidemic through sex between men is a growing concern. Recent estimates suggest that HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) has reached 6.3 % in China, 7.5 % in Mongolia, and ranges between 8.1 %-10.7 % in Taiwan and between 2.7 %- 6.5 % in South Korea. In Japan, 74 % of male HIV cases were among MSM in 2012, while Hong Kong has witnessed a sharp increase of HIV cases among MSM since 2004. There is urgent need to address issues of discrimination and stigma toward homosexuality, and to strengthen the strategies to reach and care for this population. PMID:24664878

Suguimoto, S Pilar; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-saaidi, Christina; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

2014-06-01

153

A climatology of extratropical cyclones over East Asia during 1958-2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climatology of extratropical cyclones (ECs) over East Asia (20-75N, 60-160E) is analyzed by applying an improved objective detection and tracking algorithm to the 4-time daily sea level pressure fields from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data. A total of 12914 EC processes for the period of 1958-2001 are identified, with an EC database integrated and EC activities reanalyzed using the objective algorithm. The results reveal that there are three major cyclogenesis regions: West Siberian Plain, Mongolia (to the south of Lake Baikal), and the coastal region of East China; whereas significant cyclolysis regions are observed in Siberia north of 60N, Northeast China, and Okhotsk Sea-Northwest Pacific. It is found that the EC lifetime is largely 1-7 days while winter ECs have the shortest lifespan. The ECs are the weakest in summer among the four seasons. Strong ECs often appear in West Siberia, Northeast China, and Okhotsk Sea-Northwest Pacific. Statistical analysis based on k-means clustering has identified 6 dominating trajectories in the area south of 55N and east of 80E, among which 4 tracks have important impacts on weather/climate in China. ECs occurring in spring (summer) tend to travel the longest (shortest). They move the fastest in winter, and the slowest in summer. In winter, cyclones move fast in Northeast China, some areas of the Yangtze-Huaihe River region, and the south of Japan, with speed greater than 15 m s-1. Explosively-deepening cyclones are found to occur frequently along the east coast of China, Japan, and Northwest Pacific, but very few storms occur over the inland area. Bombs prefer to occur in winter, spring, and autumn. Their annual number and intensity in 1990 and 1992 in East Asia (EA) are smaller and weaker than their counterparts in North America.

Zhang, Yingxian; Ding, Yihui; Li, Qiaoping

2012-06-01

154

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

Gonzlez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simn, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpci

2012-01-01

155

Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)  

PubMed Central

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a contact zone between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

Gonzlez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simn, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpci

2012-01-01

156

Characteristics of atmospheric circulation over East Asia associated with summer blocking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

boreal summer-blocking regions were defined using the reanalysis data over the three decades of 1981-2010, and the influence of the blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode.

Park, Yong-Jun; Ahn, Joong-Bae

2014-01-01

157

Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes over East Asia through AsiaFlux and improved MODIS gross primary production data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate estimation of carbon fluxes over terrestrial ecosystems provides useful information in studying the global carbon cycle. Estimates of carbon fluxes such as gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) have been commonly used as indicators of the global carbon budgets. Eddy covariance (EC) flux towers are operating all over the world, networking each other. The towers provide temporally continuous measurements of carbon, water and energy over terrestrial ecosystems as being the best way to estimate ecosystem fluxes up to date. However, the EC flux towers only cover the scale of footprint, having difficulty in representing fluxes at the regional or continental scale. For upscaling flux tower data, satellite products that cover vast areas at high temporal resolution can be used. While many studies were conducted to estimate carbon fluxes from satellite products using process-based modeling and empirical modeling approaches, there are still great uncertainties in carbon flux estimation due to biases and errors associated with in-situ measurements, spatio-temporal discrepancy between satellite products and in-situ measurements, and relatively less accurate satellite products. In this paper, NEE and GPP were estimated using machine learning techniques including random forest, Cubist, and support vector regression. Various satellite products were used as independent variables such as land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, leaf area index, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, GPP, evapotranspiration, rainfall, normalized difference water index obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). However, MODIS GPP based on the light use efficiency (LUE) model has some uncertainties derived from input data used in this model such as coarse spatial resolution of the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) meteorological data, upstream data of MODIS land cover use, FPAR, LAI, and model parameters. MODIS GPP data was improved using enhanced input variables by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data with high spatial resolution instead of DAO data, reflecting topographic characteristics over East Asia. GPP estimated using the enhanced input variables was compared with original MODIS GPP and in situ GPP to analyze the degree of improvements. Finally, improved GPP data were incorporated into the machine learning empirical models to estimate NEE. The spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP and NEE) over East Asia were also examined considering vegetation type and topography.

Kim, Miae; Im, Jungho; Lee, Junghee; Shin, Minso; Lee, Sanggyun

2014-05-01

158

Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded); CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya) by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and diploids indicates that triploids are not composed of a single independent lineage. The ancient origins and evolutionary uniqueness of the seven lineages warrant their conservation. An overall phylogenetic framework obtained from the present study will be of use for estimating the phylogenetic relationships of Carassius fishes on the Eurasian continent. PMID:20064277

2010-01-01

159

WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 ?m or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40-50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby

2014-08-01

160

World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle East, Africa and Asia/Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle East, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the Asia and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

Not Available

1982-01-01

161

East Asia Crisis Workshop at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 13 and 14, 1998, the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) held an international workshop on the financial crisis in East Asia. Held in Brighton, UK, the workshop had contributors from leading academic institutions, private financial institutes, and international organizations such as the OECD. Commissioned papers in full text include "The East Asian Financial Crisis: A Year Later," by Yung Chul Park and Chi-Young Song of Kookmin University, "How to Protect Developing Countries from Volatility of Capital Flows?" by Stephany Griffith-Jones, Senior Fellow at IDS, and "Domestic Causes of Currency Crises: Policy Lessons for Crisis Avoidance," by Helmut Reisen, Head of Research at the OECD Development Centre, among others. Selected short contributions are also available on topics such as the macroeconomy in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

1998-01-01

162

Evaluation of simulated precipitation: Recent trends in extreme indices over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate research, particularly application studies for water, agriculture, forestry, fishery and energy management require fine scale multi-decadal information of meteorological, oceanographic and land states. Unfortunately, spatially and temporally homogeneous multi-decadal observations of these variables in high horizontal resolution are non-existent. Some long term surface records of temperature and precipitation exist, but the number of observation is very limited and the measurements are often contaminated by changes in instrumentation over time. Some climatologically important variables, such as soil moisture, surface evaporation, and radiation are not even measured over most of East Asia. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to provide valuable regional finescale information, especially in regions where the climate variables are strongly regulated by the underlying topography and the surface heterogeneity. We investigated the ability of a regional climate model to provide the characteristics of East Asian climate focusing on summer and winter monsoon using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system [GRIMs; Hong et al. 2013]. The model can reproduce large scale features associated the East Asian summer and winter monsoon in terms of 30-year (1979-2008) seasonal mean climate. However, accurate prediction of monsoon precipitation is still a challenging task. Precipitation is one of the most important results generated during the model simulation. It is also generally the most difficult variable to simulate correctly in a regional model. Therefore, we will focus on precipitation to examine variability and uncertainty over East Asia in terms of extreme indices. The assessment of simulated precipitation is expected to provide the high-quality data that can be used in various application areas such as hydrology or environmental model forcing.

Yhang, Yoo-Bin

2014-05-01

163

Marine sedimentary evidence for monsoon strengthening, Tibetan uplift and drainage evolution in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau has caused an increased flux of clastic material from Asia into the surrounding marginal seas. This flux reflects increased regional erosion, partially caused by topographic uplift of Tibet, but dominantly by higher precipitation linked to monsoon intensification. Using regional seismic profiles from East Asia as proxies for the Cenozoic accumulation history we constrain the timing of enhanced erosion and thus climate change and plateau uplift. Most of the seas show sedimentation increasing after 45 Ma following India-Asia collision. Rates rose sharply at 33 Ma, and again around 18 Ma, possibly caused by stages in monsoon strengthening enhancing regional erosion. Erosion of gorges in eastern Tibet is a modest source of sediment to the marginal seas. The late Miocene (5-11 Ma) is a time of reduced sedimentation in all basins except in the Mekong area, which alone is influenced by exhumation of the Vietnamese Central Highlands. The slower regional erosion reflects a drier climate and strong winter monsoon during the late Miocene, while the Plio-Pleistocene (<5 Ma) sees a return to fast accumulation rates, possibly triggered by global climatic deterioration. Single grain Pb and bulk sediment Nd isotopic characteristics of modern river and Eocene sediments from the Gulf of Tonkin support models of drainage capture in the Red River system since the Eocene. This drainage has lost flux from sources similar to the Yangtze Block, possibly reflecting capture of flow from the middle and lower Yangtze from the Red River linked to Tibetan uplift.

Clift, Peter D.; Layne, Graham D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy

164

Pleistocene loess in the humid subtropical forest zone of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

deposits in Asia have been used as indicators of palaeoclimate, because they are usually found bordering deserts. This paper reports extensive and thick deposits of loess in tropical southwest China, between latitudes 18 and 2330'N, which is 1300 km south of known, and extensively researched loess deposits in north China. The present climate of the reported loess areas is hot and humid, with mean annual rainfall of 1000-2000 mm, and vegetation of subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest. This compares with less than 400 mm rainfall and vegetation of semi-desert steppe, in areas of current loess accumulation on desert margins in north China. The source area of the loess, which is dated by optical luminescence to the late Pleistocene, from 90-222 ka, is thought to be the exposed East Asian Shelf, which was up to 140 m below present sea level during Quaternary arid phases. Recent research on the nature of the shelf environment, and the relatively large particle size of the loess, suggests a local origin. The reported loess is not interbedded with palaeosols, and small amounts of soil cover the loess, compared with well developed soils in loess in semiarid regions in north China. This is explained by elimination of the supply source by sea level rise following each arid phase, as continued dust supply appears necessary for soil to form. This preliminary report of loess in southwest China conflicts with palynological evidence, and suggests that recent reconstructions of Pleistocene aridity in east Asia may be conservative.

Nichol, Janet E.; Nichol, Douglas W.

2013-05-01

165

Regional Climate Simulations of Summer Diurnal Rainfall Variations over East Asia and Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the simulations of summer (June-August) precipitation over East Asia by the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3), with emphasis on the diurnal variations of precipitation over Southeast China (PSEC) during the 1998-2002 summer seasons. The evaluation focuses on the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations in PSEC as proposed by previous observational studies. It is found that the diurnal variations of PSEC are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs). In particular, the Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption (GFC) produces reasonable diurnal variations of PSEC. Other CPSs such as the Emanuel scheme produces a weaker late-afternoon maximum of PSEC, and the Kuo scheme as well as the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption (GAS) is unable to simulate the occurrence of the late-afternoon maximum of PSEC. The simulations show that the adoption of the GFC scheme reproduces the large-scale land-sea breeze circulation and the moisture flux convergence that have been documented by previous studies as the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations of PSEC. This feature illustrates the importance of convective cloud feedback at the diurnal timescale in maintaining the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of precipitation over East Asia are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

Huang, W.-R.; Chan, J. C. L.

2012-04-01

166

Polio-free certification and lessons learned--South-East Asia region, March 2014.  

PubMed

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide. By 2006, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by more than 99%, and only four remaining countries had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. The last confirmed WPV case in India occurred in January 2011, leading the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Regional Commission for the Certification of Polio Eradication (SEA-RCC) in March 2014 to declare the 11-country South-East Asia Region (SEAR), which includes India, to be free from circulating indigenous WPV. SEAR became the fourth region among WHO's six regions to be certified as having interrupted all indigenous WPV circulation; the Region of the Americas was declared polio-free in 1994, the Western Pacific Region in 2000, and the European Region in 2002. Approximately 80% of the world's population now lives in countries of WHO regions that have been certified polio-free. This report summarizes steps taken to certify polio eradication in SEAR and outlines eradication activities and lessons learned in India, the largest member state in the region and the one for which eradication was the most difficult. PMID:25340910

Bahl, Sunil; Kumar, Rakesh; Menabde, Nata; Thapa, Arun; McFarland, Jeffrey; Swezy, Virginia; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Jafari, Hamid S; Elsner, Linda; Wassilak, Steven G F; Kew, Olen M; Cochi, Stephen L

2014-10-24

167

Source contributions of sulfate aerosol over East Asia estimated by CMAQ-DDM.  

PubMed

We applied the decoupled direct method (DDM), a sensitivity analysis technique for computing sensitivities accurately and efficiently, to determine the source-receptor relationships of anthropogenic SO(2) emissions to sulfate aerosol over East Asia. We assessed source contributions from East Asia being transported to Oki Island downwind from China and Korea during two air pollution episodes that occurred in July 2005. The contribution from China, particularly that from central eastern China (CEC), was found to dominate the sulfate aerosols. To study these contributions in more detail, CEC was divided into three regions, and the contributions from each region were examined. Source contributions exhibited both temporal and vertical variability, largely due to transport patterns imposed by the Asian summer monsoon. Our results are consistent with backward trajectory analyses. We found that anthropogenic SO(2) emissions from China produce significant quantities of summertime sulfate aerosols downwind of source areas. We used a parametric scaling method for estimating anthropogenic SO(2) emissions in China. Using column amounts of SO(2) derived from satellite data, and relationships between the column amounts of SO(2) and anthropogenic emissions, 2009 emissions were diagnosed. The results showed that 2009 emissions of SO(2) from China were equivalent to 2004 levels. PMID:22642816

Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae

2012-06-19

168

Decreasing emissions of NOx relative to CO2 in East Asia inferred from satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, global CO2 emission inventories are mainly based on bottom-up estimates that rely, for example, on reported fossil fuel consumptions and fuel types. The associated uncertainties propagate into the CO2-to-NOx emission ratios that are used in pollution prediction and monitoring, as well as into biospheric carbon fluxes derived by inverse models. Here we analyse simultaneous and co-located satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY (ref. ; SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) of the column-average dry-air mole fraction of CO2 (refs , ) and NO2 (refs , , ) for the years 2003-2011 to provide a top-down estimate of trends in emissions and in the ratio between CO2 and NOx emissions. Our analysis shows that the CO2-to-NOx emission ratio has increased by 4.2 +/- 1.7% yr-1 in East Asia. In this region, we find a large positive trend of CO2 emissions (9.8 +/- 1.7% yr-1), which we largely attribute to the growing Chinese economy. This trend exceeds the positive trend of NOx emissions (5.8 +/- 0.9% yr-1). Our findings suggest that the recently installed and renewed technology in East Asia, such as power plants, transportation and so on, is cleaner in terms of NOx emissions than the old infrastructure, and roughly matches relative emission levels in North America and Europe.

Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Schneising, O.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.

2014-11-01

169

210Pb deposition in the far East Asia: controlling factors of its spatial and temporal variations.  

PubMed

In order to better understand the behavior of (210)Pb deposition in Far East Asia, comprehensive data of monthly (210)Pb deposition, which includes several time-series and spatial distribution data at 14 stations in Japan and 2 stations in Taiwan, were analyzed. Pb-210 deposition at most of the sites exhibited a typical seasonal change with higher values in winter and lower values in summer; especially, the greatest (210)Pb deposition in the world occurred in winter at sites beside the Japan Sea. The deposition behavior of (210)Pb in Far East Asia differed between winter and summer. The meteorological phenomenon peculiar to winter of the Japan Sea side, i.e., formation of the Japan Sea convergence zone, might cause the high (210)Pb concentration in rainwater, as may heavy snowfall. The (210)Pb concentration in rainwater showed long-term variability, although this differed between winter and summer. This long-term variability may be related to climatological factors such as El Nio. PMID:21109333

Hirose, K; Kikawada, Y; Doi, T; Su, C-C; Yamamoto, M

2011-05-01

170

Ethnic Differences in Survival after Breast Cancer in South East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of breast cancer in Asia is escalating. We evaluated the impact of ethnicity on survival after breast cancer in the multi-ethnic region of South East Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the Singapore-Malaysia hospital-based breast cancer registry, we analyzed the association between ethnicity and mortality following breast cancer in 5,264 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2007 (Chinese: 71.6%, Malay: 18.4%, Indian: 10.0%). We compared survival rates between ethnic groups and calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) to estimate the independent effect of ethnicity on survival. Malays (n?=?968) presented at a significantly younger age, with larger tumors, and at later stages than the Chinese and Indians. Malays were also more likely to have axillary lymph node metastasis at similar tumor sizes and to have hormone receptor negative and poorly differentiated tumors. Five year overall survival was highest in the Chinese women (75.8%; 95%CI: 74.4%77.3%) followed by Indians (68.0%; 95%CI: 63.8%72.2%), and Malays (58.5%; 95%CI: 55.2%61.7%). Compared to the Chinese, Malay ethnicity was associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.34; 95%CI: 1.191.51), independent of age, stage, tumor characteristics and treatment. Indian ethnicity was not significantly associated with risk of mortality after breast cancer compared to the Chinese (HR: 1.14; 95%CI: 0.981.34). Conclusion In South East Asia, Malay ethnicity is independently associated with poorer survival after breast cancer. Research into underlying reasons, potentially including variations in tumor biology, psychosocial factors, treatment responsiveness and lifestyle after diagnosis, is warranted. PMID:22363531

Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng-Har; Saxena, Nakul; Taib, Nur Aishah; Lim, Siew-Eng; Iau, Philip; Adami, Hans-Olov; Bulgiba, Awang M.; Lee, Soo-Chin; Verkooijen, Helena M.

2012-01-01

171

Model study on acidifying wet deposition in East Asia during wintertime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional air quality model (RAQM) has been developed and applied together with an aerosol model to investigate the states and characteristics of wet deposition in East Asia in December 2001. Model simulation is performed with monthly based emission inventory [Streets, D.G., Bond, T.C., Carmichael, G.R., Fernandes, S.D., Fu, Q., He, D., Klimont, Z., Nelson, S. M., Tsai, N.Y., Wang, M.Q., Woo, J.-H., Yarber, K.F., 2003. An inventory of gaseous and primary emissions in Asia in the year 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D21), 8809] and meteorological fields derived from MM5. Model results are compared with extensive monitoring data including relevant gaseous species and ions in precipitation. The validation demonstrates that this model system is able to represent most of the major physical and chemical processes involved in acid deposition and reproduces concentrations reasonably well, within a factor of 2 of observations in general. The study shows that the regions with pH less than 4.5 are mainly located in southwestern China, parts of the Yangtze Delta, the Yellow Sea and the Korean peninsula, indicating wide regions of acid precipitation in East Asia in wintertime. Japan islands mainly exhibit pH values of 4.5-5.0, whereas over wide areas of northern China, pH values are relatively high (?5.0) due to neutralization by alkaline materials such as calcium-laden particles and ammonia, which are more abundant in northern China than that in southern China. While acid rain over most of China is still characterized by sulfur-induced type, considerable areas of eastern China and the western Pacific Rim are found to be more affected by nitric acid than sulfuric acid in acidification of precipitation, which is supposed to result from a combined effect of variations in photochemistry and emission, suggesting the increasing importance of NO x emission in these regions.

Han, Zhiwei; Ueda, Hiromasa; Sakurai, Tatsuya

172

Women and AIDS in south and South-East Asia: the challenge and the response.  

PubMed

South and South-East Asia are at the centre of the most aggressive advances of the AIDS epidemic today. The challenge this presents to the region is clear. While reported absolute numbers still lag behind the African region (11,160,900 in Africa; 3,081,235 in Asia) knowledgeable observers agree that the place of infection and potential devastation in this region exceed what we have seen in Africa. Those concerned with the welfare of the people of Asia, therefore, must make serious efforts to break the chain of HIV transmission as quickly and effectively as possible and identify and care for the infected. Women are entitled to protection by rights the same as men. However, for anatomical reasons, women are more vulnerable than men to infection by HIV. In addition, throughout the Asian region, women's "natural" vulnerability is vastly magnified by poverty and generally low levels of education and personal autonomy which make it difficult for them to gain access to information and appropriate services. Because of women's multiple roles in the epidemic-potential "infectee", care-giver, transmitter of infection-if we are to be successful in halting the spread of HIV/AIDS we must give particular attention to reaching, working with, and serving women. Meeting this challenge requires involvement of men as well as women, individuals and institutions, governments and NGOs, in four broad areas of activity: (i) HIV/AIDS education and information; (ii) basic education and economic activity to reduce gender inequities; (iii) improvements in policy and social environments; and (iv) provision of health and other services. Lack of commitment, skill, or persistence in meeting the challenge will cost lives across Asia. PMID:9050187

Mboi, N

1996-01-01

173

Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia  

SciTech Connect

The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m-2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m-2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiewi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong

2011-11-14

174

Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region  

PubMed Central

East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 3753% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. PMID:23596197

Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami

2014-01-01

175

Sagart Rice and Language Symposium, Cornell University, 22-25 September, 2011 1/32 How many independent rice vocabularies in Asia ?1  

E-print Network

Sagart Rice and Language Symposium, Cornell University, 22-25 September, 2011 1/32 How many independent rice vocabularies in Asia ?1 Laurent Sagart CNRS, Paris, France (Draft -- not for citation) 1. The spread of rice as a multidisciplinary problem. 1.1. The farming-language hypothesis, with a twist How can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

Source identification and apportionment of halogenated compounds observed at a remote site in East Asia.  

PubMed

The sources of halogenated compounds in East Asia associated with stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change are relatively poorly understood. High-precision in situ measurements of 18 halogenated compounds and carbonyl sulfide (COS) made at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, from November 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed by a positive matrix factorization (PMF). Seven major industrial sources were identified from the enhanced concentrations of halogenated compounds observed at Gosan and corresponding concentration-based source contributions were also suggested: primary aluminum production explaining 37% of total concentration enhancements, solvent usage of which source apportionment is 25%, fugitive emissions from HCFC/HFC production with 11%, refrigerant replacements (9%), semiconductor/electronics industry (9%), foam blowing agents (6%), and fumigation (3%). Statistical trajectory analysis was applied to specify the potential emission regions for seven sources using back trajectories. Primary aluminum production, solvent usage and fugitive emission sources were mainly contributed by China. Semiconductor/electronics sources were dominantly located in Korea. Refrigerant replacement, fumigation and foam blowing agent sources were spread throughout East Asian countries. The specified potential source regions are consistent with country-based consumptions and emission patterns, verifying the PMF analysis results. The industry-based emission sources of halogenated compounds identified in this study help improve our understanding of the East Asian countries' industrial contributions to halogenated compound emissions. PMID:24298975

Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Mhle, Jens; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Jo, Chun Ok; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

2014-01-01

177

Growing threat of intense tropical cyclones to East Asia over the period 1977-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of intense tropical cyclones (TCs) to East Asia has increased in recent decades. Integrated analyses of five available TC data sets for the period 1977-2010 revealed that the growing threat of TCs primarily results from the significant shift that the spatial positions of the maximum intensity of TCs moved closer to East Asian coastlines from Vietnam to Japan. This shift incurs a robust increase in landfall intensity over east China, Korea and Japan. In contrast, an increase of TC genesis frequency over the northern part of the South China Sea leads to a reduction in the maximum TC intensity before landfall, because of their short lifetime; thus, there are no clear tendencies in the landfall intensity across Vietnam, south China and Taiwan. All changes are related to the strengthening of the Pacific Walker circulation, closely linked with the recent manifestation that the warming trend of sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific is much higher than that in the central to eastern Pacific.

Park, Doo-Sun R.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Joo-Hong

2014-01-01

178

18/03/2010 11:46IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437  

E-print Network

18/03/2010 11:46IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News

West, Stuart

179

Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies: The Creation and Development of New Firms in Latin America and East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a comparative study of entrepreneurship in Latin America and East Asia. It focuses on the process of creation of new companies. That process is analyzed at three different stages: inception of the entrepreneurial venture, company start-up, and its early development. From the initial motivation to become an entrepreneur to the contacts needed to help

Hugo Kantis; Masahiko Ishida; Mashahiko Komori

2002-01-01

180

Are Fluctuations in Energy Consumption Transitory or Permanent? Evidence From a Panel of East Asia & Pacific Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita for 15 East Asia & Pacific countries employing the Lagrange Multiplier (LM) panel unit root test with one structural break for 1971-2007. When we apply the LM univariate test without break, we find a unit root in per capita consumption for Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South

Hakan Kum

2012-01-01

181

Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia Soo Ya Baea,b  

E-print Network

Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia Soo Ya Baea concentration a b s t r a c t We examine the effects of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations (EANET) sites and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model together with a new below-cloud-scavenging

Park, Rokjin

182

Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

2014-04-01

183

Susceptibility of human influenza viruses from Australasia and South East Asia to the neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human influenza viruses isolated from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) and South East Asia were analysed to determine their sensitivity to the NA inhibitor drugs, zanamivir and oseltamivir. A total of 532 strains isolated between 1998 and 2002 were tested using a fluorescence-based assay to measure the relative inhibition of NA activity over a range of drug concentrations. Based on

Aeron C. Hurt; Ian G. Barr; Gunter Hartel; Alan W. Hampson

2004-01-01

184

Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

2014-09-01

185

Endangered Peoples of Southeast & East Asia: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and East Asia and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie E.

Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.

186

Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,

Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

2011-01-01

187

Association between winter temperature in China and upper air circulation over East Asia revealed by canonical correlation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was used to study the relationship between the winter temperature in China and the circulation at 500 hPa over East Asia. CCA identifies a number of paired patterns that depend on Principle Component (PC) truncation of the two fields. Retaining more PCs usually gives more physically meaningful CCA patterns, but the leading paired pattern has often

Deliang Chen; Youmin Chen

2003-01-01

188

A numerical study of tropospheric ozone in the springtime in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is applied to East Asia to study the transport and photochemical transformation of tropospheric ozone in March 1998. The calculated mixing ratios of ozone and carbon monoxide are compared with ground level observations at three remote sites in Japan and it is found that the model reproduces the observed features very well. Examination of several high episodes of ozone and carbon monoxide indicates that these elevated levels are found in association with continental outflow, demonstrating the critical role of the rapid transport of carbon monoxide and other ozone precursors from the continental boundary layer. In comparison with available ozonesonde data, it is found that the model-calculated ozone concentrations are generally in good agreement with the measurements, and the stratospheric contribution to surface ozone mixing ratios is quite limited.

Zhang, Meigen; Xu, Yongfu; Itsushi, Uno; Hajime, Akimoto

2004-04-01

189

Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area. PMID:24598117

Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

2014-03-01

190

Resilience and Well-Being Among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asiaa major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment. PMID:22966930

Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

2012-01-01

191

The impact of the Gulf war on migration and remittances in Asia and the Middle East.  

PubMed

The author discusses the impact of the 1990 Gulf war on the migrant worker populations in the region, with a focus on migration and remittances in Asia and the Middle East. Both immediate and long-term effects are considered. "From the perspective of foreign migrant communities living in the Gulf...the war...was much more of a disaster for Arabs than for Asians....Arab migrant populations...were dramatically affected by the Gulf crisis. In contrast, the Asian migrant community was largely concentrated in Saudi Arabia and the [United Arab Emirates] and remained relatively less affected by the crisis. Subsequent polarization in the Arab world gives Asian labor-exporting countries an unexpected opportunity to increase their share of Gulf labor markets still further in the coming years." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12159608

Addleton, J

1991-12-01

192

The next generation of public health approaches to asthma in Asia and the Middle East.  

PubMed

Chronic respiratory diseases now affect more than half a billion people worldwide and their importance as a global health problem has risen dramatically in recent years, prompting intense epidemiological investigation and the launch of numerous initiatives. Across Asia and the Middle East, a variety of environmental exposures increase the risk for the onset or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease, resulting in a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality. This article outlines new possibilities for public health surveillance of environmental exposures and chronic respiratory disease built around an emerging model of participatory public health: a decentralized approach that involves citizens in the collection and analysis of data, harnesses pervasive technology such as mobile phones and distributed sensors, and provides an open platform for public-private collaboration. PMID:20566559

Van Sickle, David

2010-07-01

193

Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia.  

PubMed

East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could facilitate the understanding of biodiversity origin and maintenance in East Asia. PMID:25540694

Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

2014-11-01

194

Synergistic impacts of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on summer surface O3 in East Asia.  

PubMed

A factor separation technique and an improved regional air quality model (RAQM) were applied to calculate synergistic contributions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs), biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to daily maximum surface 03 (O3DM) concentrations in East Asia in summer (June to August 2000). The summer averaged synergistic impacts of AVOCs and NOx are dominant in most areas of North China, with a maximum of 60 ppbv, while those of BVOCs and NOx are notable only in some limited areas with high BVOC emissions in South China, with a maximum of 25 ppbv. This result implies that BVOCs contribute much less to summer averaged O3DM concentrations than AVOCs in most areas of East Asia at a coarse spatial resolution (1 degree x 1 degree) although global emissions of BVOCs are much greater than those of AVOCs. Daily maximum total contributions of BVOCs can approach 20 ppbv in North China, but they can reach 40 ppbv in South China, approaching or exceeding those in some developed countries in Europe and North America. BVOC emissions in such special areas should be considered when 03 control measures are taken. Synergistic contributions among AVOCs, BVOCs and NOx significantly enhance O3 concentrations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region and decrease them in some areas in South China. Thus, the total contributions of BVOCs to O3DM vary significantly from day to day and from location to location. This result suggests that 03 control measures obtained from episodic studies could be limited for long-term applications. PMID:23923425

Qu, Yu; An, Junling; Li, Jian

2013-03-01

195

Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand in east Asiaa numerical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were investigated numerically by an Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new deflation module of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from the previous ones for Sahara and Australian deserts, this new one includes three major predictors, i.e., the friction velocity, the surface humidity and the predominant weather system, while this module was linked to the AQPMS. For model validation, the predicted pH values and sulfate- and nitrate-ion levels of precipitation, together with the surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants, were compared with the measured values at atmospheric monitoring stations, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Firstly, the trend of the acid rain in East Asia due to the rapid increase of Chinese pollutants emission was investigated, and a remarkably rapid increase of acid rain area was predicted in the period from 1985 to 1995, the monthly mean pH values showing the decrease of 0.3-0.8 in the area from the center to northeast in China, and 0.1-0.2 even in Japan and Korea. Secondly, the simulation results of April 1995 exhibited a strong neutralization of the precipitation by the yellow sand. The monthly mean pH values in the northern China showed a remarkable increase of 0.6-1.8 by neutralization effect of the yellow sand, while the increases in the southern China were less than 0.1. Even in Korea and Japan the yellow sand caused the increase of the pH value of rain by 0.1-0.2.

Terada, Hiroaki; Ueda, Hiromasa; Wang, Zifa

196

Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia  

PubMed Central

East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could facilitate the understanding of biodiversity origin and maintenance in East Asia. PMID:25540694

Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

2014-01-01

197

Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over East Asia and Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the East Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in East Asia, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfallthe moisture flux convergenceover Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.

2013-04-01

198

Seismic imaging of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and mantle down to 1200 km depth under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004, 2007; Huang and Zhao, 2006). A large number of arrival times of P, pP, PP and PcP waves recorded by many seismic stations in East Asia are used in the tomographic inversions. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to 670-km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under eastern China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topographic boundary in East China. Although there are some discrepancies between the topographic boundary and the western edge of the stagnant slab, both of them are located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The entire Pacific slab is stagnant in the mantle transition zone under Northeast China (53-37 degree north latitude). Under 37-28 degree north latitude, however, some of the slab materials are visible below the 670-km discontinuity, though most of the slab materials are still in the transition zone, suggesting that part of the slab materials have started to drop down to the lower mantle. Under the Mariana arc, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. It is also visible that the Philippine Sea slab has subducted down to the mantle transition zone depth under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region (Abdelwahed and Zhao, 2007). There are three active intraplate volcanoes in China. The Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes in Northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab, suggesting that the two active volcanoes are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcanoes associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific slab and its stagnancy in the transition zone as well as corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The active Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is related to the eastward subduction of the Burma microplate. References: D. Zhao (2004) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. D. Zhao (2007) Gondwana Research 12, 335-355. J. Huang, D. Zhao (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, B09305.

Zhao, D.

2008-12-01

199

The role of aerosol absorption in driving clear-sky solar dimming over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-based observations indicate a significant decreasing trend in clear-sky downward surface solar radiation (SSR) over East Asia since the 1960s. This "dimming" is thought to be driven by the region's long-term increase in aerosol emissions, but little work has been done to quantify the underlying physical mechanisms or the contribution from aerosol absorption within the atmospheric column. Given the distinct climate impacts that absorption-driven dimming may produce, this constitutes an important, but thus far rather neglected, line of inquiry. We examine experiments conducted in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's atmospheric general circulation models, AM2.1 and AM3, in order to analyze the model-simulated East Asian clear-sky SSR trends. We also use the models' stand-alone radiation module to examine the contribution from various aerosol characteristics in the two models (such as burden, mixing state, hygroscopicity, and seasonal distribution) to the trends. Both models produce trends in clear-sky SSR that are comparable to that observed but via disparate mechanisms. Despite their different aerosol characteristics, the models produce nearly identical increases in aerosol absorption since the 1960s, constituting as much as half of the modeled clear-sky dimming. This is due to a compensation between the differences in aerosol column burden and mixing state assumed in the two models, i.e., plausible clear-sky SSR simulations can be achieved via drastically different aerosol parameterizations. Our novel results indicate that trends in aerosol absorption drive a large portion of East Asian clear-sky solar dimming in the models presented here and for the time periods analyzed and that mechanistic analysis of the factors involved in aerosol absorption is an important diagnostic in evaluating modeled clear-sky solar dimming trends.

Persad, Geeta G.; Ming, Yi; Ramaswamy, V.

2014-09-01

200

Effects of bulk ice microphysics on the simulated monsoonal precipitation over east Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the effects of bulk ice microphysical processes on the simulation of monsoonal precipitation in summer over east Asia, centered over Korea. The mixed phase microphysics scheme of the WRF-Single-Moment-MicroPhysics class 5 (WSM5) is implemented into the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). The performance of the WSM5 scheme is compared to that of Reisner's mixed phase scheme, that is, the MM5-Single-moment-Microphysics class 5 (MSM5). Together with looking at the impact of ice microphysics, the importance of the sedimentation of falling ice crystals on simulated rainfall events is investigated. The same sensitivity experiments are extended to a 2-month-long simulation of the east Asian summer monsoon. It was found that the new microphysics in the WSM5 scheme produces a more realistic vertical distribution of condensates. For a locally developed heavy rainfall event over Korea, the impact of revised ice microphysics is significant. The WSM5 scheme simulates more (less) precipitation in the south (north), compared with that of the MSM5 scheme, by stabilizing the air columns in the rainfall area, leading to a better agreement with the observed precipitation. By contrast, ice sedimentation becomes more important for those cases of heavy rainfall, associated with a mobile surface cyclone system, accomplished by suppressing large-scale bias through a realistic ice cloud/radiation feedback. The sedimentation of cloud ice is found to be crucial to the successful simulation of monsoonal precipitation and large-scale features within the east Asian summer monsoon.

Lim, Jeong-Ock Jade; Hong, Song-You

2005-12-01

201

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2404 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China and from South Korea increased, while emissions from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.

Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

2014-05-01

202

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2437 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per-capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China increased rapidly and emissions from South Korea increased slightly, while emissions from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.

Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

2013-08-01

203

Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic) stretching, rifting and postrift subsidence were widely shown with the formation of oil and gas sedimentary basins with a thick sedimentary cover (West Siberian, Turan, Caspian, Middle Amur, Songliao), large igneous provinces (South Urals, West and East Siberian, Central Kazakhstan, Trans-Baikal, etc.) and rift systems (Mongol-Transbaikal, Baikal, etc.). The aim of further research under the existing joint projects should be identifying and tracing the boundaries of the Arctic-Asian mobile belt, study and correlation of geological complexes-indicators of major tectonic events, reconstruction of the history of the accretionary belt with superimposed oil and gas bearing sedimentary basins as a tectonic structure of the global level.

Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

2014-05-01

204

Contribution of ammonium nitrate to aerosol optical depth and direct radiative forcing by aerosols over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on the contribution of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) to aerosol optical depth (AOD) and direct radiative forcing (DRF) by aerosols over an East Asian domain. In order to evaluate the contribution, CTM-estimated AOD was combined with satellite-retrieved AOD, utilizing a data assimilation technique, over East Asia for the entire year of 2006. Using the assimilated AOD and CTM-estimated aerosol optical properties, the DRF by aerosols was estimated over East Asia via a radiative transfer model (RTM). Both assimilated AOD and estimated DRF values showed relatively good agreements with AOD and DRF by aerosols from AERONET. Based on these results, the contributions of NH4NO3 to AOD and DRF by aerosols (?AOD and ?DRF) were estimated for four seasons of 2006 over East Asia. Both ?AOD and ?DRF showed seasonal variations over East Asia within the ranges between 4.7% (summer) and 31.3% (winter) and between 4.7% (summer) and 30.7% (winter), respectively, under clear-sky conditions, showing annual average contributions of 15.6% and 15.3%. Under all-sky conditions, ?DRF varied between 3.6% (summer) and 24.5% (winter), showing annual average contribution of 12.1% over East Asia. These annual average contributions of NH4NO3 to AOD and DRF are almost comparable to the annual average mass fractions of NH4NO3 to PM2.5 and PM10 (17.0% and 14.0%, respectively). ?AOD and ?DRF were even larger in the locations where NH3 and NOx emission rates are strong like the Central East China (CEC) region and Sichuan basin. For example, under clear-sky conditions, both ?AOD and ?DRF over the CEC region range between 6.9% (summer) and 47.9% (winter) and between 6.7% (summer) and 47.5% (winter), respectively. Based on this analysis, it was concluded that both ?DRF and ?DRF cannot be ignored in East Asian air quality and radiative forcing studies, particularly during winter.

Park, R. S.; Lee, S. J.; Shin, S.-K.; Song, C. H.

2013-07-01

205

Contribution of ammonium nitrate to aerosol optical depth and direct radiative forcing by aerosols over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on the contribution of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) to aerosol optical depth (AOD) and direct radiative forcing (DRF) by aerosols over an East Asian domain. In order to evaluate the contribution, chemistry-transport model (CTM)-estimated AOD was combined with satellite-retrieved AOD, utilizing a data assimilation technique, over East Asia for the entire year of 2006. Using the assimilated AOD and CTM-estimated aerosol optical properties, the DRF by aerosols was estimated over East Asia via a radiative transfer model (RTM). Both assimilated AOD and estimated DRF values showed relatively good agreements with AOD and DRF by aerosols from AERONET. Based on these results, the contributions of NH4NO3 to AOD and DRF by aerosols (?AOD and ?DRF) were estimated for the four seasons of 2006 over East Asia. Both ?AOD and ?DRF showed seasonal variations over East Asia within the ranges between 4.7% (summer) and 31.3% (winter) and between 4.7% (summer) and 30.7% (winter), respectively, under clear-sky conditions, showing annual average contributions of 15.6% and 15.3%. Under all-sky conditions, ?DRF varied between 3.6% (summer) and 24.5% (winter), showing annual average contribution of 12.1% over East Asia. These annual average contributions of NH4NO3 to AOD and DRF are almost comparable to the annual average mass fractions of NH4NO3 in PM2.5 and PM10 (17.0% and 14.0%, respectively). ?AOD and ?DRF were even larger in the locations where NH3 and NOx emission rates are strong, such as the central East China (CEC) region and Sichuan Basin. For example, under clear-sky conditions, both ?AOD and ?DRF over the CEC region range between 6.9% (summer) and 47.9% (winter) and between 6.7% (summer) and 47.5% (winter), respectively. Based on this analysis, it was concluded that both ?AOD and ?DRF cannot be ignored in East Asian air quality and radiative forcing studies, particularly during winter.

Park, R. S.; Lee, S.; Shin, S.-K.; Song, C. H.

2014-02-01

206

A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South East Asia?  

PubMed

Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South East Asia. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South East Asia hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South East Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South East Asia. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy. PMID:12184826

Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Mller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark

2002-08-01

207

Transport of NOx in East Asia identified by satellite and in situ measurements and Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dioxide (NO2) columns observed from space have been useful in detecting the increase of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in East Asia, particularly China, coinciding with rapid economic growth during the past several decades. NO2 columns retrieved above a particular location reflect a combination of local NOx emissions and transported NOx from upwind sources. In this study, we demonstrate the transport of NOx emitted in East Asia using satellite and surface in situ measurements and Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations. Enhanced satellite NO2 columns in the Yellow Sea (between China and South Korea) and the East Sea (between South Korea and Japan), and different seasonal variations of NO2 in China, North and South Korea, and Japan, suggest the importance of NOx transport in understanding the local NOx budget. Lagrangian transport model simulations with tracers of different chemical lifetimes identify source-receptor relationships that explain high NO2 over the oceans and springtime peaks in Korea and Japan, with China being the most likely source region. Our results have important implications for studies using satellite NO2 retrievals to derive NOx emissions at local scales in regions adjacent to large sources, such as in East Asia, Europe, and the Eastern U.S.

Lee, H.-J.; Kim, S.-W.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, C.-H.; Park, R. J.; Trainer, M.; Woo, J.-H.

2014-03-01

208

Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean.  

PubMed

Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5 N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1 N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from East Asia. The air-sea gas exchange of CUPs was generally dominated by net deposition. Latitudinal trends of fugacity ratios of ?-endosulfan, chlorothalonil, and dacthal showed stronger deposition of these compounds in East Asia than in Chukchi Sea, while trifluralin showed stronger deposition in Chukchi Sea (-455 245 pg/m(2)/day) than in the North Pacific (-241 158 pg/m(2)/day). Air-sea gas exchange of chlorpyrifos varied from net volatilizaiton in East Asia (<40 N) to equilibrium or net deposition in the North Pacific and the Arctic. PMID:22103582

Zhong, Guangcai; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Mller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

2012-01-01

209

Long range transport of acidic species over East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean in winter monsoon - a numerical analysis  

SciTech Connect

In winter season, wind system in East Asia is generally dominated by monsoon. The monsoon is caused by persistent high pressure over Siberia and low pressure over Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea, the high pressure which is formed by radiative cooling of air mass over the continent. In Japan area, the monsoon appears as westerly or northwesterly, and usually brings heavy snow over the Japan Sea side of Japanese islands. Since the air mass associated with the monsoon passes over strong emission sources of the East Asia continent, it carries much air pollutants. Significant part of the pollutants should fall to the surface with snow over Japanese islands, and the rest of the pollutants would be distributed into troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean. In this study, to estimate mass budget of air pollutants released over countries in East Asia we have performed 3-D transport/chemistry/deposition simulations for the area of East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean for one month of March, 1994, when an extensive field observation campaign called TEM-WEST Phase B (Pacific Exploratory Mission-West){close_quotes} was conducted. The simulation model includes most of the important chemical species such as NO{sub x}, HNO{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, sulfate, hydrocarbons, O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, etc., and covers 3-D region from 80 to 180 degrees east in longitude, 10 degrees south to 60 degrees north in latitude, and earth`s surface to 10 hPa in vertical. The simulation results will be discussed in connection with the PEM-WEST(B) observation.

Kitada, Toshihiro; Nishizawa, Masato; Isogawa, Seiji [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan); Kondo, Yutaka [Nagoya Univ., Toyokawa (Japan)

1996-12-31

210

Emergence and diversity of begomoviruses infecting solanaceous crops in East and Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Over the past three decades diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) have emerged to be important constraints to the production of solanaceous crops, particularly tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and peppers (Capsicum spp.), in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The most studied of these is Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which has spread to many other areas from its likely origin in the Mediterranean basin region. The virus is usually associated with the polyphagous and virus-vectoring-efficient B-biotype of its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). However, in Southeast and East Asia, a wide variety of distinct local begomovirus species have been identified from tomato and pepper crops over this period, and TYLCV was detected in Japan only in about 1996, China in 2006 and Korea in 2008, despite B-biotype whiteflies being present in several of the countries of the region since at least the early 1990s. Continental Southeast Asia appears to be a major center of diversity for begomoviruses and some species may have spread across the region; Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Myanmar region into southern China and is now displacing the local tomato-infecting species in Taiwan, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLCKaV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Vietnam region to Java, Indonesia. Since many of the native tomato- or pepper-infecting begomoviruses and associated satellite DNAs have also been detected in local weed species, it seems likely that their ancestors originated in these weed hosts, but with the expansion and intensification of tomato and pepper production in the region, there was selection for recombinant or mutant forms with greater virulence on tomato and/or pepper. Expansion and intensification of these crops may also have resulted in increased populations of local, and if present, B- or Q-biotype whiteflies, aiding the increase and spread of local begomovirus species. PMID:24440320

Kenyon, Lawrence; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Shih, Su-Ling; Lee, Li-Mei

2014-06-24

211

Numerical analysis for contribution of the Tibetan Plateau to dust aerosols over the East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the Tibetan Plateau is widely thought as a potential dust source to the atmosphere over East Asia, little is known about the temporal changes of Tibetan dust activities and Tibetan dust source strength. In this study, we address these two issues by analyzing dust storm frequencies and aerosol index through remote sensing data and by means of numerical simulation. The findings indicate that monthly dust profiles over the Tibetan Plateau vary significantly with time. Near the surface, dust concentration increases from October, reaches its maximum in February-March, and then decreases. In the middle to upper troposphere, dust concentration increases from January, reaches its maximum in May-June, and decreases thereafter. Although Tibetan dust sources are important contributors to dust in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau, their contribution to dust in the troposphere over eastern China is weaker. The contribution of Tibetan dust sources to dust in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau decreases sharply with height, from 69% at the surface, 40% in the lower troposphere, and 5% in the middle troposphere. Furthermore, the contribution shows seasonal changes, with dust sources at the surface at approximately 80% between November and May and 45% between June and September; in the middle and upper troposphere, dust sources are between 21% from February to March and less than 5% in the other months. Overall, dust aerosols originating from the Tibetan Plateau contribute to less than 10% of dust in East Asia. In addition, the Thar Desert may be an important source of dust in the troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau. The monthly distribution of the sum of Aerosl index over the Thar Desert is consistent with that over the Tibetan Plateau; it increases from January to May/June and then begins to decrease. During May/June, a cyclonic anomaly of atmospheric circulation occurs in the low troposphere over the Thar Desert, which could transport dust from the Thar Desert to the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The simulated dust concentration at surface (a), at 0.975 Sigma level (b), and at 0.850 Sigma level (c) over the Tibetan Plateau.

Mao, R.; Gong, D.; Shao, Y.; Wu, G.

2012-12-01

212

On Estimating Crop Coefficients and Decoupling Factors of Forest Ecosystems in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For effective water management, the quantification of evapotranspiration (ET) is imperative. Considering the difficulty of measurement and adequate simulation of ET in large areas, the crop coefficients (Kc=ETc adj/ETo/Ks; where ETc adj is the adjusted evapotranspiration, ETo is the reference crop evapotranspiration estimated by the FAO56-PM method, and Ks is the water stress coefficient) and the decoupling factors (?=ETa/ETp; where ETa is the actual evapotranspiration, and ETp is the potential evapotranspiration estimated by the Penman-Monteith equation) are valuable information for the assessment of regional ET. In this study, we determined the Kc and ? of seven forest ecosystems in East Asia (i.e., temperate and coniferous forests in Gwangneung, Korea, GDK and GCK, respectively; cool temperate forests in Changbaishan, China, CBS, in Takayama and Teshio, Japan, TKY and TSE, respectively; subtropical forest in Xishuangbanna, Southern China, BNS; tropical forest in Palangkaraya, Indonesia, PDF) using the multi-year observed ET by eddy covariance technique. Annual ETo ranged from 443 mm at the TKY site to 1368 mm at the PDF site. Annual ETp ranged from 835 mm at the TSE site to 2466 mm at the PDF site. The Kc and ? for the (cool) temperate forests showed a clear seasonality with the minimum (~0.3 of Kc and ~0 of ?) in winter and the maximum in summer or early autumn. The maxima of Kc were different among the sites and ranged from 0.6 at the TSE site to 1.2 at the BNS site. Unlike the maximum Kc, the maxima of ? were similar among the temperate forests (0.4~0.5) and between the tropical forests (~0.6). Implications of the results are discussed in terms of usefulness and accuracy of using Kc and ?. Acknowledgement - This study was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER 2012-3030. The flux database was provided by CarboEastAsia - A3 Foresight Program and KoFlux.

Kang, M.; Kim, J.; Kwon, H.; Hirano, T.; Saigusa, N.; Takagi, K.; Yu, G.

2012-12-01

213

Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of Clintoniaudensis Trautv. & Mey. (Liliaceae) in East Asia.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the phylogeographic history of Clintoniaudensis Trautv. & Mey. (Liliaceae) inferred from two types of chloroplast DNA markers, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequences. Eighty samples were collected from 20 natural populations, 19 located in China and one in Japan, across the entire range of the species in East Asia. High genetic diversity (h(T)(PCR-RFLP)=0.972, h(T)(sequencing)=0.874) and significant differentiation (N(ST)(PCR-RFLP)=0.893, N(ST)(sequencing)=0.988 and G(ST)(PCR-RFLP)=0.777, G(ST)(sequencing)=0.978) were detected at the species level. These findings are consistent with a scenario of clonal reproduction and locally restricted gene exchange. The level of diversity of tetraploid populations was slightly greater than that of diploid populations. Significant molecular variation was found between tetraploids and diploids. Tetraploids may be autopolyploids and may have formed repeatedly in different locations. At least three regions of origin could be recognized. Twenty-six distinct haplotypes were identified. Haplotype frequency distributions were strongly skewed, with most haplotypes (n=25) represented by only one sample each and thus restricted to a single population. Non-overlapping distributions of cpDNA haplotypes and strong genetic differentiation among populations and/or different ploid level were consistent with the findings of a nested clade analysis, which inferred long-distance colonization as the major process influencing the spatial haplotype distribution of this species. Nested clade analysis showed that the 26 haplotypes formed two 3-step, four 2-step and eleven 1-step clades, with twelve clades showing significant geographical associations. Higher N(ST) than G(ST) (P<0.05) suggested a distinct phylogeographical pattern. Based on mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests, we found no evidence of population expansion in the species. Our analyses indicate that the history of C.udensis involved both long-distance migration and the tectonic events of Mountains in East Asia. PMID:20172032

Wang, Yi-Ling; Li, Xin; Guo, Jing; Guo, Zhi-Gang; Li, Si-Feng; Zhao, Gui-Fang

2010-05-01

214

Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over East Asia  

SciTech Connect

A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.

Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

2012-01-16

215

A new dynamical index for classification of cold surge types over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cold surges over East Asia can be classified into wave-train type and blocking type according to their dynamic origins. In the present study, two dynamic indices are proposed to objectively identify cold surge types using potential temperature (?) on the dynamic tropopause at 2-potential vorticity units (2-PVU) surface. The two indices are designed to represent primary characteristics of the two types of cold surge. The wave-train index (WI) is defined as a difference of anomalous ? on the 2-PVU surface between the western North Pacific and northeast China, which captures a southward (northward) intrusion of cold (warm) air mass related to the trough-ridge pattern. The blocking index (BI) is defined as a difference of anomalous ? between the subarctic region and northeast China, which indicates air mass overturning related to a reversal of the usual meridional ? gradient commonly observed in the occurrence of blocking type cold surge. Composite analyses based on the distribution of the WI and BI clearly demonstrate the dynamic evolutions of corresponding cold surge types. The wave-train cold surge is associated with a southeastward expansion of the Siberian High and northerly wind near surface, which is caused by growing baroclinic waves. During the blocking cold surge, a geopotential height dipole indicating the subarctic blocking and deepening of East Asian coastal trough induces a southward expansion of the Siberian High and northeasterly wind. Compared to the wave-train type, the blocking cold surge exhibits a longer duration and stronger intensity. In the new framework of these dynamic indices, we can detect a third type of cold surge when both the wave-train and the blocking occur together. In addition, we can exclude the events that do not have the essential features of the upper tropospheric disturbances or the subarctic anticyclonic circulation, which are responsible for cold surge occurrence, using the new indices.

Park, Tae-Won; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Heo, Jin-Woo; Deng, Yi

2015-01-01

216

Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the East Asia region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent destructive earthquakes in East-Asia claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in East Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).

Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.

2013-12-01

217

Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

2013-01-01

218

In Vitro Susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis Isolates from Canine Skin with Atopic Dermatitis to Ketoconazole and Itraconazole in East Asia  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Topical or oral azole antifungals are commonly used in canine atopic dermatitis (AD), as the lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis exacerbates canine AD. To examine whether canine AD lesions harbor azole-resistant M. pachydermatis isolates in East Asia, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) obtained from AD lesions of canines in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of KTZ and ITZ were measured by the E-test using Sabouraud dextrose agar with 0.5% Tween 40. The MICs of KTZ and ITZ for isolates from canines with AD were significantly higher than the MICs for isolates from healthy canines. Our findings suggested that the clinical isolates from canine AD skin lesions were less susceptible to azoles than those from normal canine skin in East Asia. PMID:24334863

WATANABE, Shion; KOIKE, Anna; KANO, Rui; NAGATA, Masahiko; CHEN, Charles; HWANG, Cheol-Yong; HASEGAWA, Atsuhiko; KAMATA, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

219

In vitro susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates from canine skin with atopic dermatitis to ketoconazole and itraconazole in East Asia.  

PubMed

Topical or oral azole antifungals are commonly used in canine atopic dermatitis (AD), as the lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis exacerbates canine AD. To examine whether canine AD lesions harbor azole-resistant M. pachydermatis isolates in East Asia, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) obtained from AD lesions of canines in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of KTZ and ITZ were measured by the E-test using Sabouraud dextrose agar with 0.5% Tween 40. The MICs of KTZ and ITZ for isolates from canines with AD were significantly higher than the MICs for isolates from healthy canines. Our findings suggested that the clinical isolates from canine AD skin lesions were less susceptible to azoles than those from normal canine skin in East Asia. PMID:24334863

Watanabe, Shion; Koike, Anna; Kano, Rui; Nagata, Masahiko; Chen, Charles; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

2014-04-01

220

Characteristics of atmospheric circulation associated with cold surge occurrences in East Asia: A case study during 2005\\/06 winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the upper-level circulation and thermodynamical properties for the period when two distinct cold surges\\u000a broke out over East Asia during the 2005\\/06 winter are investigated. From early December 2005 to early January 2006, exceptionally\\u000a cold weather lasted for approximately one month due to two successive cold surges that took place on 2 December 2005 and 2\\u000a January

Tae-Won Park; Jee-Hoon Jeong; Chang-Hoi Ho; Seong-Joong Kim

2008-01-01

221

Size-resolved source apportionment of ambient particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Size- and time-resolved aerosol samples were collected using an eight-stage Davis rotating unit for monitoring (DRUM) sampler from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in East Asia. These samples were analyzed using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence for 3-h average concentrations of 19 elements consisting of S, Si,

J. S. Han; K. J. Moon; S. J. Lee; Y. J. Kim; S. Y. Ryu; S. S. Cliff; S. M. Yi

2006-01-01

222

Cenozoic East Asia plate tectonic reconstructions using constraints of mapped and unfolded slabs from mantle seismic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subducted slabs were mapped in the mantle under East Asia using MITP08 global seismic tomography (Li et al., 2008), Benioff zone seismicities and published local tomography. 3D gridded slab surfaces were constructed by manually picking and correlating the midpoint of fast seismic anomalies along variable cross-section orientations. The mapped slabs were structurally 'unfolded' and restored to the spherical Earth surface to assess their pre-subduction geometries. Gplates software was used to constrain plate tectonic reconstructions using the unfolded slabs. The unfolded SE Asia upper mantle slabs reveal a 'picture puzzle' fit along their edges that suggests a larger NE Indo-Australian ocean once existed that included the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea. Deeper lower mantle detached slabs indicate an early to mid-Cenozoic 'East Asia Sea' between east Sundaland and the Pacific that stretched from the Ryukyu Islands north of present-day Taiwan southward to Sulawesi. The unfolded slab constraints produced gap and overlap incompatibilities when used in published plate tectonic reconstructions. Here a plate tectonic reconstruction incorporating the unfolded slab constraints is proposed that has the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea clustered at the northern margin of Australia during the early Cenozoic. At the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with 'Australia-like' plate motions and overrode the 'East Asia Sea'. Plate motions were accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. Between 25 to 15 Ma the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea plates were fragmented from the greater Indo-Australian ocean. The Philippine Sea was captured by the Pacific plate and now has Pacific-like westward motions.

Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.

2012-12-01

223

Alkalization of yellow sand and its long-term effects on acid rain in East Asia: Observed Evidence and Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain has been one of the serious environmental problems in East Asia for the rapid industrialization in the last two decades. The contour line of pH value less than 5 has come up to the Yellow River region (35 deg N) from the southern China bounded by the Yangtze River (25 deg N) during these ten years. The objective of EANET ( Acid Deposition Moniroring Network in East Asia) is to create a common understanding of the state of the acid deposition problems in East Asia. There are 38 monitoring sites for wet deposition monitoring and data was collected since January 1999. The analysis of datasets in 1999 shows that aerosol has alkalization effects on pH of rain, especially in spring. An Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS) was used to investigate the neutralization of acid rain by the yellow-sand in East Asia. The AQPMS includes all the major processes such as emission, advection, diffusion, chemistry, dry deposition, wet deposition and micro-physical processes. A new deflation module for the dust uptake is designed to estimate the dust loading (Wang et. al.,2000). The gas-phase chemical reaction scheme is a slightly modified version of the CBM-IV. Changes in trace species concentrations due to chemical reactions of soluble and reactive gases in in-cloud and below-cloud droplets are computed using a box aqueous chemical model. Numerical simulation was performed for two cases, that is, with and without the neutralization effects of Kosa in 1999. The predicted pH values and sulfate- and nitrate-ion levels of precipitation, together with the surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants, were compared with measured datasets of EANET and a reasonable agreement was obtained. The simulation results of 1999 exhibited a strong neutralization of the precipitation by the yellow-sand in the spring. The aerosol has alkalization effects on pH of rain, which reduces the H+ of rain.

Wang, Z.; Uno, I.; Akimoto, H.

2001-05-01

224

The role of atmospheric circulation system playing in coupling relationship between spring NPP and precipitation in East Asia area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many East Asia regions, spring (from March to May) precipitation is an important restricting factor to vegetation growth,\\u000a and atmospheric circulation system may influence spring precipitation patter. It is helpful to under the response of ecosystem\\u000a to climate change by studying the influence of atmospheric circulation system on the coupling relationship between spring\\u000a net primary productivity and precipitation. Driving

Yu Deyong; Zhu Wenquan; Pan Yaozhong

2008-01-01

225

Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing CO emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in East Asia from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. High CO abundances of 300-550 ppbv were observed in MOZAIC data in the free troposphere during these episodes. These are among the highest CO abundances documented at these altitudes. Correspondingly, elevated CO was shown in MOPITT daytime data in the middle to upper troposphere in the 2003 case, mostly in the lower to middle troposphere in the 2004 case, and in the upper troposphere in the 2005 case. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases. In the 2003 case, CO from large forest fires near Lake Baikal dominated the elevated CO, which had been rapidly transported upward by a~frontal system from the fire plumes. In the 2004 case, anthropogenic CO from the North China Plain experienced frontal lifting and mostly reached ~ 700 hPa near the East China Sea, while CO from biomass burning from Indochina experienced orographic lifting, leeside-trough induced convection, and frontal lifting through two separate transport pathways, leading to two distinct CO enhancements around 700 hPa and 300 hPa. In the 2005 case, high CO of ~ 300 ppbv, observed in the MOZAIC data around 350 hPa, originated from the anthropogenic source over the vicinity of the Sichuan basin and biomass burning from Indochina, after convection and strong frontal lifting. These cases show that topography affects vertical transport of CO in East Asia via different ways, including orographic uplifting over the Hengduan Mountains, assisting frontal lifting in the North China Plain, and facilitating convection in the Sichuan basin. In particular, topography-induced leeside troughs over Indochina lead to strong convection that assisted CO uplifting to the upper troposphere. This study shows that the new daytime MOPITT near-infrared (NIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) data (version 5 or above) have enhanced vertical sensitivity and may help qualitative diagnosis of vertical transport processes in East Asia.

Ding, K.; Liu, J.; Ding, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, T. L.; Shi, J.; Han, Y.; Wang, H.; Jiang, F.

2014-11-01

226

Medical physics is alive and well and growing in South East Asia.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been a significant economic growth in South East Asia, along with it a concurrent development of medical physics. The status of four countries--Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines and Indonesia are presented. Medical physicists in these countries have been experiencing the usual problems of lack of recognition, low salaries, and insufficient facilities for education and training opportunities. However the situation has improved recently through the initiative of local enthusiastic medical physicists who have started MS graduate programs in medical physics and begun organizing professional activities to raise the profile of medical physics. The tremendous support and catalytic roles of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and international organizations such as International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) have been instrumental in achieving progress. Contributions by these organizations include co-sponsorship of workshops and conferences, travel grants, medical physics libraries programs, and providing experts and educators. The demand for medical physicists is expected to rise in tandem with the increased emphasis on innovative technology for health care, stringent governmental regulation, and acceptance by the medical community of the important role of medical physicists. PMID:9141310

Ng, K; Pirabul, R; Peralta, A; Soejoko, D

1997-03-01

227

Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.  

PubMed

The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements. PMID:25000779

Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

2014-04-01

228

Effects of aerosols on cloud microphysics simulations with Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols in the atmosphere play an important role in cloud formation as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Chemical composition and number size distribution of aerosols significantly modify cloud properties by altering droplet number concentration, droplet effective radius, cloud albedo, cloud liquid water content, and cloud lifetime. However, a mechanistic simulation of aerosol effects in cloud microphysics is relatively scarce in regional meteorological forecasting models. We examine the effect of dynamically varying aerosols on CCN activation and cloud formation in the WRF model by employing the updated Twomey equation and our improvement in the cloud microphysics scheme in particular for the CCN activation process. First, we use the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to obtain spatially and temporally varying aerosol concentrations in East Asia, which are provided as input data in the WRF simulations. The baseline and sensitivity simulations are conducted using the WRF. The latter includes explicit calculation of CCN activation with aerosol concentrations from the CMAQ. A comparison of simulated precipitation with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission observation shows better agreement of sensitivity results with observed data. We also find that the simulated precipitation in the sensitivity model shows a clear weekly variability such as increases in precipitation during the weekdays whereas the decrease during the weekends. This simulated weekly variability is consistent with that of observed precipitation in Korea over the past decades and can be attributed to the indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols coined as "weekend effect", indicating the importance of an explicit consideration of aerosols for cloud microphysics simulations of regional meteorological models.

Bae, S.; Park, R.; Lim, K.; Hong, S.

2011-12-01

229

Assessment and monitoring of desertification using satellite imagery of MODIS in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The desertification in Northwestern China and Mongolia shows the result of conflicts between economic development and natural conservation. Many researches have proven the desert areas are growing in these regions. The variations of bi-weekly NDVI satellite images are used as one of the parameters to evaluate the vegetation dynamics over large scale studies. In this study, remotely sensed satellite images are conducted to provide multi-temporal vegetated and non-vegetated areas in order to assess the status of desertification in East Asia. Spatial data derived from these satellite images are applied to evaluate vegetation dynamics at regional scale to find out the hot spot areas vulnerable to desertification. The results show that the desert areas are mainly distributed over southern Mongolia, central and western Inner-Mongolia, western China (the Taklimakan desert). The desert areas were expanded from 2000 to 2002, were shrunk in 2003, and were expanded from 2003 to 2005 again. The hot spot areas of desertification are mainly distributed over southeastern Mongolia and eastern Inner-Mongolia. The results will help administrators to refine the planning processes in defining the boundaries of protected areas and will facilitate to take decision of the priority areas for conservation of desertification.

Lin, Meng-Lung; Chu, Chieh-Ming; Shih, Jyh-Yi; Wang, Qiu-Bing; Chen, Cheng-Wu; Wang, Shin; Tao, Yi-Huang; Lee, Yung-Tan

2006-12-01

230

Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South East Asia for action planning and surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South East Asia for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and (3) building capacity to improve tobacco control planning in the participating countries. Design: A structured conceptualisation methodology known as concept mapping was used. The process included brainstorming, sorting and rating of statements describing industry activities. Statistical analyses used multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Interpretation of the maps was participatory, using regional tobacco control researchers, practitioners, and policy makers during a face to face meeting. Participants: 31 participants in this study come from the four countries represented in the project along with six people from the Johns Hopkins Blomberg School of Public Health. Conclusions: The map shows eight clusters of industry activities within the four countries. These were arranged into four general sectors: economics, politics, public relations and deception. For project design purposes, the map indicates areas of importance and feasibility for monitoring tobacco industry activities and serves as a basis for an initial discussion about action planning. Furthermore, the development of the map used a consensus building process across different stakeholders or stakeholder agencies and is critical when developing regional, cross border strategies for tracking and surveillance. PMID:18218787

Stillman, F; Hoang, M; Linton, R; Ritthiphakdee, B; Trochim, W

2008-01-01

231

Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.  

PubMed Central

Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617

Douglas, I

1999-01-01

232

Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedli?ka, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedli?ka, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

Anichtchenko, Alexander

2011-01-01

233

Overview of radiation safety in the tin by-product (amang) industry of South East Asia.  

PubMed

Processing of by-product heavy minerals (amang) from tin mining involves potential exposure to external and internal sources of radioactivity. The radioactivity arises through the presence of thorium and uranium series radionuclides in the various minerals. Monazite is the most radioactive mineral, containing 3% to 7% thorium by weight, while ilmenite is generally the least radioactive mineral containing typically less than 0.05% thorium. External exposure occurs when workers are in close proximity to accumulations or stockpiles of the radioactive minerals, whereas internal exposure occurs when workers are involved in dusty processes. This paper summarizes the nature of the amang industry in South East Asia and presents the results of preliminary measurements of external radiation and airborne radioactivity in twelve Malaysian and Thai plants. Although constrained by a paucity of exposure data, it is concluded that radiation doses to some amang plant workers may approach or exceed international standards and that appropriate control measures are required as a matter of priority, Radiation doses may approach or exceed 100 mSv in situations where workers are exposed to excessive levels of ambient dust and no protective measures are used. Observations and recommendations are made relating to monitoring and surveillance, instruction and training, and engineering and administrative protection measures. PMID:8690608

Hewson, G S

1996-08-01

234

Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions  

PubMed Central

Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organizations South East Asia (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n?=?49 studies), mortality (n?=?28), nutrition (n?=?24), and infectious diseases (n?=?33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n?=?56 studies), socioeconomic (n?=?50) and biological sampling (n?=?25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103

McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry

2011-01-01

235

Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an East Asian domain containing 164 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE Asia field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G.G., Woo, J.-H., Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., 2007a. Top-down estimate of mercury emissions in China using four-dimensional variational data assimilation. Atmospheric Environment 41, 2804-2819) in China for the year 2001. The estimated natural emission helps explain the gap between the anthropogenic emission estimates based on activity data (e.g., Pacyna, J.M., Pacyna, E., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S., 2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4048-4063; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) and the emission inferred from field observations (e.g., Jaffe, D., Prestbo, E., Swartzendruber, P., Weiss-Penzias, P., Kato, S., Takami, A., Hatakeyama, S., Kajii, Y., 2005. Export of atmospheric mercury from Asia. Atmospheric Environment 39, 3029-3038; Weiss-Penzias, P., Jaffe, D., Swartzendruber, P., Hafner, W., Chand, D., Prestbo, E., 2007. Quantifying Asian and biomass burning sources of mercury using the Hg/CO ratio in pollution plumes observed at the Mount Bachelor observatory. Atmospheric Environment 41, 4366-4379) in the region.

Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey

236

Preliminary results from measurement of methane at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea for understanding emissions in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Importance of methane (CH4) to the global biogeochemical cycle and climate change has been well documented, and while the total global methane emissions are relatively well known, the strength of each source component and their trends are not, due to the varied biological and anthropogenic sources of emissions. This is especially true in East Asia, where strong expected emissions of CH4 from fossil fuel mining and burning as well as rice agriculture remain less understood. In this study, we present atmospheric measurements of methane and preliminary analysis of the results. Measurement site for this study is at Gosan, a remote background site located on Jeju Island, Korea. Due to its central location in East Asia, monitoring of both background and pollution from the surrounding regions is possible, thus ideal for monitoring methane emissions in East Asia. To facilitate high-quality continuous measurements, an automated measurement system with a GC-FID has been created and tested at Seoul National University. Identification of the dominant CH4 emission sources could be better understood by analyzing correlation with other anthropogenically and biogenically emitted compounds such as CO (important indicator for fossil fuel burning) and chlorinated compounds (emitted from biomass burning and the use of coal). Advanced air mass transport modeling will also be used to analyze different emission patterns by region.

Lee, E.; Kim, J.; Ahn, K.; Park, M.; Kim, K.

2010-12-01

237

Changes in relationships between surface air temperature and precipitation over East Asia associated with the 1976/1977climate shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in surface air temperature and precipitation are closely associated because of their thermodynamic relations. The climate shift in the late 1970s and associated changes in precipitation over East Asia have been well reported. However, how the relationships between surface air temperature and precipitation respond to the climate shift is not yet well understood. The issue is explored in the study by using the observed mean (Tmean ), daily maximum (Tmax ) and minimum (Tmin ) surface air temperatures and precipitation during the period of 1953-2000. Results show that relationships between Tmean and precipitation experienced remarkable changes over certain areas of East Asia after the climate shift with evident seasonal dependencies. In winter, after the climate shift significant negative correlations occupied more areas over Mongolia and China. By contrast, in summer significant negative correlations which existed over almost entire East Asia during the pre-shift period were mostly weakened with exception of enhanced correlations over some small isolated areas. While the changes in the relationships Tmax and precipitation showed a similar spatial pattern to that of Tmean , the Tmin -precipitation correlation did not. The results are useful for further testing climate simulations of the relationships between surface air temperature and precipitation.

Wu, L.

2013-12-01

238

Assessing Future Climate Changes in the East Asia due to the RCP scenarios downscaled by Regional Spectral Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses future climate change over East Asia using the Regional Spectral Model (RSM). The RSM is forced by two types of future climate scenarios produced by the Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2 (HG2); the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for the intergovernmental panel on climate change fifth assessment report (AR5). Analyses for the current (1980-2005) climate are performed to evaluate the RSM's ability to reproduce precipitation and temperature. Two different future (2020-2050) simulations are compared with the current climatology to investigate the climatic change over East Asia. The RSM satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of precipitation and temperature. The spatial distribution of the simulated large-scale features and precipitation by RSM shows generally improved pattern compared to that is given by the HG2. In addition, their inter-annual variations in Japan are better captured by the RSM. Assessment of future climate changes over the East Asia will be discussed.

Ham, Suryun; Yoshimura, Kei; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

2014-05-01

239

Asset specificity, culture, experience, firm Size and entry mode strategy: Taiwanese manufacturing firms in China, South-East Asia and Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the entry mode and ownership strategies in China, South-East Asia and Western Europe made by manufacturing firms in Taiwan. The results find that when the larger, high R&D and high advertising intensive Taiwanese manufacturing firms invest in China, South-East Asia and Western Europe, they would be likely to choose the greenfield-WFOE entry. On the other hand, when

Ming-Tien Tsai; Yung-Ming Cheng

2004-01-01

240

Ethnic Related Selection for an ADH Class I Variant within East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely studied enzymes and the evolution of the mammalian gene cluster encoding these enzymes is also well studied. Previous studies have shown that the ADH1B*47His allele at one of the seven genes in humans is associated with a decrease in the risk of alcoholism and the core molecular region with this allele has been selected for in some East Asian populations. As the frequency of ADH1B*47His is highest in East Asia, and very low in most of the rest of the world, we have undertaken more detailed investigation in this geographic region. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report new data on 30 SNPs in the ADH7 and Class I ADH region in samples of 24 populations from China and Laos. These populations cover a wide geographic region and diverse ethnicities. Combined with our previously published East Asian data for these SNPs in 8 populations, we have typed populations from all of the 6 major linguistic phyla (Altaic including Korean-Japanese and inland Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Hmong-Mien, Austro-Asiatic, Daic, and Austronesian). The ADH1B genotyping data are strongly related to ethnicity. Only some eastern ethnic phyla or subphyla (Korean-Japanese, Han Chinese, Hmong-Mien, Daic, and Austronesian) have a high frequency of ADH1B*47His. ADH1B haplotype data clustered the populations into linguistic subphyla, and divided the subphyla into eastern and western parts. In the Hmong-Mien and Altaic populations, the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) and relative EHH (REHH) tests for the ADH1B core were consistent with selection for the haplotype with derived SNP alleles. In the other ethnic phyla, the core showed only a weak signal of selection at best. Conclusions/Significance The selection distribution is more significantly correlated with the frequency of the derived ADH1B regulatory region polymorphism than the derived amino-acid altering allele ADH1B*47His. Thus, the real focus of selection may be the regulatory region. The obvious ethnicity-related distributions of ADH1B diversities suggest the existence of some culture-related selective forces that have acted on the ADH1B region. PMID:18382665

Li, Hui; Gu, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoyun; Speed, William C.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Golub, Efim I.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

2008-01-01

241

Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5N-26.5N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5N-50N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast prediction skill represented by domain-averaged temporal correlation coefficient is 0.44, which is twice higher than the skill of the current dynamical hindcast, suggesting that the dynamical models have large rooms to improve. The maximum potential attainable prediction skills for the peak summer SEA rainfall is also estimated and discussed by using the PMA. High predictability regions are found over several climatological rainfall centers like Indo-China peninsula, southern coast of China, southeastern SCS, and Philippine Sea.

Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

2014-11-01

242

Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol measurements over tropical rainforests are important in order to understand their sources and sinks, and hence the rainforests' influence on local and regional climate. To date, there have been no published studies in South-East Asia, which, compared to the African and South American continents, represents a unique mixture of tropical seas and islands. Aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-east Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Ultrafine particle fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to entrainment of particles into the growing mixed layer. In-canopy measurements were conducted at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1 - 20 m) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. Number concentrations in this size range in the canopy understory correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5 - 1.0 m) between above and below canopy showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites, which varied according to time of day. This lag time was shortest during the middle of the day by a significant margin. This was not observed for coarse mode (> 1.0 m) aerosols. Further evidence of daytime coupling between above and below canopy in terms of aerosol measurements is implied by comparison of measurements from an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at the GAW tower and simultaneous bag sampling at the in-canopy site, subsequently analysed with the AMS. The transport of particles through the canopy, and fluxes above canopy, will be discussed in terms of mechanisms and diurnal variation, and the results of this study will be examined in order to build up a picture of the dynamics of aerosols above and within the rainforest canopy.

Whitehead, James; Gallagher, Martin; Robinson, Niall; Gabey, Andrew; Dorsey, James; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Ryder, James; Nemitz, Eiko; Davies, Fay

2010-05-01

243

Vitamin D status and food security in North-East Asia.  

PubMed

The functions of vitamin D are pleiotropic affecting all body organs and systems in some way. Its adequacy depends principally on sunshine for UV light to stimulate its synthesis in skin and on foods which contain it, either animal-derived or obtained from fungi or mushrooms, with the UV-responsive substrates dehydrocholesterol for vitamin D-3 or ergosterol for vitamin D-2, respectively. Thus, vitamin D health is very environmentally dependent. With ecosytem degradation, whether by atmospheric pollution or food systems which do not derive UV irradiation, as with fish farming or mushroom processing, then this nutrient input into human biology may falter. Vitamin D deficiency is now common and widespread in North-East Asia as elsewhere. When discovered early in the 20th century it was linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and, for a generation or so, children were given fish, usually cod, liver oil to prevent bone disease. Now cod as a species and many edible fish are threatened. Over-exposure to sun-light increases the risk of skin cancer. We may tackle this problem by vitamin D supplementation with an alternative to fish liver. But the demographic pressures of population size and ageing (when the skin is less UV responsive) make the clinical and public health decisions and strategies demanding. Vitamin D health has become indicative of food security whose usual indicator is food diversity; such diversity may allow lesser concentrations to be more effective in organ and system function, but we have little evidence to support this at present. PMID:23353604

Wahlqvist, Mark L

2013-01-01

244

The diagnosis and evaluation of total ozone and UV Index forecasting over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern regarding a decrease in stratospheric ozone is the consequential increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing through the atmosphere and reaching the Earth's surface. Forecast of the UV Index is a direct application of the resources used to study UV radiation and the knowledge of the dependencies of surface UV on absorption and scattering processes. In general, UV radiation levels are influenced by total ozone, sun elevation, latitude, cloud cover, and ground reflection. Above all, forecast values of total ozone are significantly used as input to Radiative Transfer Models or statistical models for UV index forecasting. The forecasting of UV index is worthwhile over East Asia to represent large variation of total ozone according to latitude and seasonal change. In order to evaluate UV Index forecasting, the multiple linear regression model for total ozone forecasting (predictors; climatology, yesterday total ozone, and geopotential height at 200 hPa) was analyzed newly. The predictand data consisted of total ozone observations for March 2005 to February 2006, measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The predictors were obtained from climatology (TOMS ozone climatology for November 1978 to December 2004), yesterday OMI total ozone, and a classification of upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric meteorological variables (Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction data; RDPS) to be related to total ozone. There are significant differences of correlation coefficient between total ozone (predictand) and predictors for variation of season. Especially, geopotential height at 250 hPa and 150 hPa appear as major predictors in spring and winter rather than climatology or yesterday total ozone, respectively. As a result, root mean square error (RMSE) between total ozone forecasting values to be reconstructed for spring and observations reduced by 71 % more than used to forecast. According to evaluation of total ozone forecasting, RMSE between UV Index forecasting and observations decreased from 5 % to 33 % for different cloud conditions.

Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Cho, H.; Chung, S.

2006-12-01

245

Using Knowledge Fusion to Analyze Avian Influenza H5N1 in East and Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, a disease associated with high rates of mortality in infected human populations, poses a serious threat to public health in many parts of the world. This article reports findings from a study aimed at improving our understanding of the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza, H5N1, risk in East-Southeast Asia where the disease is both persistent and devastating. Though many disciplines have made important contributions to our understanding of H5N1, it remains a challenge to integrate knowledge from different disciplines. This study applies genetic analysis that identifies the evolution of the H5N1 virus in space and time, epidemiological analysis that determines socio-ecological factors associated with H5N1 occurrence, and statistical analysis that identifies outbreak clusters, and then applies a methodology to formally integrate the findings of the three sets of methodologies. The present study is novel in two respects. First it makes the initiative attempt to use genetic sequences and space-time data to create a space-time phylogenetic tree to estimate and map the virus' ability to spread. Second, by integrating the results we are able to generate insights into the space-time occurrence and spread of H5N1 that we believe have a higher level of corroboration than is possible when analysis is based on only one methodology. Our research identifies links between the occurrence of H5N1 by area and a set of socio-ecological factors including altitude, population density, poultry density, and the shortest path distances to inland water, coastlines, migrating routes, railways, and roads. This study seeks to lay a solid foundation for the interdisciplinary study of this and other influenza outbreaks. It will provide substantive information for containing H5N1 outbreaks. PMID:22615729

Ge, Erjia; Haining, Robert; Li, Chi Pang; Yu, Zuguo; Waye, Miu Yee; Chu, Ka Hou; Leung, Yee

2012-01-01

246

Ambient temperature and mortality: an international study in four capital cities of East Asia.  

PubMed

Extreme ambient temperature has been associated with increased daily mortality across the world. We describe the ambient temperature-mortality association for four capital cities in East Asia, Seoul, Beijing, Tokyo, and Taipei, and identify a threshold temperature for each city and the percent increase in mortality. We adapted generalized linear modeling with natural cubic splines (GLM+NS) to examine the association between daily mean apparent temperature (AT) and total mortality, as well as mortality due to respiratory (RD) and cardiovascular (CVD) causes in a threshold model. We conducted a time-series analysis adjusting for day of the week and long-term time trend. The study period differed by city. The threshold temperature for all seasons was estimated to be 30.1-33.5 degrees C, 31.3-32.3 degrees C, 29.4-30.8 degrees C, and 25.2 degrees -31.5 degrees C for Seoul, Beijing, Tokyo, and Taipei, respectively, on the same day. For the mean daily AT increase of 1 degrees C above the thresholds in Seoul, Tokyo, and Taipei, estimated percentage increases in daily total mortality were 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2-3.1), 1.7 (95% CI=1.5-2.0), and 4.3 (95% CI=2.9-5.7), respectively. Beijing provided no total mortality counts. Estimated percentage increases were 2.7-10.5 for RD mortality, 1.1-9.3 for CVD mortality in 4 cities. This study identified increased mortality due to exposure to elevated AT. The importance of effects of AT and city-specific threshold temperatures suggests that analyses of the impact of climate change should take regional differences into consideration. PMID:19853280

Chung, Joo-Youn; Honda, Yasushi; Hong, Yun-Chul; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Guo, Yue-Leon; Kim, Ho

2009-12-20

247

WHO framework convention on tobacco control and its implementation in South-East Asia region.  

PubMed

The birth of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took place in response to the global tobacco epidemic and it became the most important global tobacco control instrument. Duly recognizing tobacco use as an important public health problem and in the wake of rising prevalence of and mortality related to tobacco use, almost all Member States of the South-East Asia Region signed and ratified the WHO FCTC. Following the ratification, Member countries have enacted comprehensive national tobacco control laws and regulations. Most countries have covered some important provisions, such as tax and price measures, smoke-free places, health warnings, a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, and a ban on tobacco sales to minors. In spite of innumerable constraints and challenges, particularly human, infrastructural and financial resources, Member countries have been doing their best to enforce those legislations and regulations as effectively as possible. In order to educate the general public on the harmful effects of tobacco, mass health campaigns have been organized which are being continued and sustained. However, some of the important areas that need attention in due course of time are tax raises, illicit trade, tobacco industry interference and alternate cropping systems. All Member States in the Region are striving harder to achieving the goals and provisions of the Framework Convention through actively engaging all relevant sectors and addressing the tobacco issue holistically, and thus protecting the present and future generations from the devastating health, social, economic and environmental consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:22089686

Sinha, Dhirendra N; Narain, Jai P; Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Rinchen, Sonam

2011-01-01

248

Intraseasonal Cold Air Outbreak over East Asia and the preceding atmospheric condition over the Barents-Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent occurrence of cold air outbreak is a dominant feature of the East Asian winter monsoon. A contributing factor for the this cold air outbreak is the role of stationary Rossby waves over the Eurasian continent which intensifies the surface Siberian High and the accompanying cold air outflow. Reduced sea ice and increase in turbulence heat flux is hypothesized as a source of such stationary waves (Honda et al. 2009). In particular, the winter of 2009/2010 saw a strong correlation of high pressure anomaly over the Barents/Kara sea and the following cold air buildup over the Eurasian continent and its advection towards East Asia (Hori et al. 2011). The lag correlation of surface temperature over Japan and the 850hPa geopotential height shows a cyclonic anomaly appearing over the Barents/Kara sea which creates a cold air advection over the Eurasian continent. The pressure anomaly subsequently shifted westward to mature into a blocking high which created a wave- train pattern downstream advecting the cold air buildup eastward toward East Asia and Japan (Fig1). We further examine this mechanism for other years including the 2005/2006, 2010/2011 winter and other winters with extreme cold air outbreaks. Overall, the existence of an anticyclonic anomaly over the Barents/Kara sea correlated well with the seasonal dominance of cold air over the Eurasian continent thereby creating a contrast of a warm Arctic and cold Eurasian continent.In the intraseasonal timescale, the existence of this anticyclone corresponds to a persisting atmospheric blocking in the high latitudes. In the presentation, we address the underlying chain of events leading up to a strong cold air outbreak over East Asia from an atmosphere - sea ice - land surafce interaction point of view for paritular cold winter years.

Hori, M. E.; Inoue, J.

2011-12-01

249

Demographic transitions and migration in prehistoric East/Southeast Asia through the lens of nonmetric dental traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region. PMID:24954129

Matsumura, Hirofumi; Oxenham, Marc F

2014-09-01

250

Volatility basis-set approach simulation of organic aerosol formation in East Asia: implications for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction and controllable amounts  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosol (OA) simulations using the volatility basis-set approach were made for East Asia and its outflow region. Model simulations were evaluated through comparisons with OA measured by aerosol mass spectrometers in and around Tokyo (at Komaba and Kisai in summer 2003 and 2004) and over the outflow region in East Asia (at Fukue and Hedo in spring 2009). The simulations with aging processes of organic vapors reasonably well reproduced mass concentrations, temporal variations, and formation efficiency of observed OA at all sites. As OA mass was severely underestimated in the simulations without the aging processes, the oxidations of organic vapors are essential for reasonable OA simulations over East Asia. By considering the aging processes, simulated OA concentrations considerably increased from 0.24 to 1.28 g m-3 in the boundary layer over the whole of East Asia. OA formed from the interaction of anthropogenic and biogenic sources was also enhanced by the aging processes. The fraction of controllable OA was estimated to be 87 % of total OA over the whole of East Asia, showing that most of the OA in our simulations formed anthropogenically (controllable). A large portion of biogenic secondary OA (78 % of biogenic secondary OA) formed through the influence of anthropogenic sources. The high fraction of controllable OA in our simulations is likely because anthropogenic emissions are dominant over East Asia and OA formation is enhanced by anthropogenic sources and their aging processes. Both the amounts (from 0.18 to 1.12 g m-3) and the fraction (from 75 % to 87 %) of controllable OA were increased by aging processes of organic vapors over East Asia.

Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kanaya, Y.; Takigawa, M.

2014-09-16

251

The role of glacial isostatic adjustment in the present-day crustal motion and sea levels of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to model and remove the contribution of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) from the observed crustal velocities and sea-level rates in East Asia, so that the signal from other geological processes such as tectonic uplift or global change can be better revealed. State-of-the-art GIA models that include 3D variations in mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness are employed in this study. Uncertainties of the GIA response are estimated from different ice history and background viscosity models. It is demonstrated that the uncertainties in the GIA response in East Asia are generally small compared with the response itself. For example, the land uplift rate near the east coast of China due to GIA has magnitudes of about 0.1 mm/yr while the uncertainties are generally less than 0.04 mm/yr. These are small compared with the observed magnitude of uplift rate (1.0 mm/yr) and the measurement uncertainties of GPS. For the height rates in leveling observation, relative sea-level rates in tide gauge data, absolute seal-level rates from satellite altimetry and tangential velocities from GPS data, the GIA effects are also shown to be generally small compared with observed data. This technique of ``cleaning" geodetic data will become more useful in the future when the uncertainties of geodetic measurements can be reduced to less than 0.1 mm/yr.

Wang, H.; Wu, P.; Jia, L.; Hu, B.; Jiang, L.

2011-08-01

252

Multiple introductions of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses into East Asia in 20102011  

PubMed Central

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. Sporadic introductions of this virus into FMD-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. In 2010 and 2011, incursions of the FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland Southeast Asia, caused extensive outbreaks across East Asia. In this study, 12 full genome FMDV sequences for representative samples collected from the Peoples Republic of China (PR China) including the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Republic of Korea, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and The Russian Federation were generated and compared with additional contemporary sequences from viruses within this lineage. These complete genomes were 8119 to 8193 nucleotides in length and differed at 1181 sites, sharing a nucleotide identity???91.0% and an amino acid identity???96.6%. An unexpected deletion of 70 nucleotides within the 5?-untranslated region which resulted in a shorter predicted RNA stem-loop for the S-fragment was revealed in two sequences from PR China and Hong Kong SAR and five additional related samples from the region. Statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provide evidence that these outbreaks in East Asia were generated by two independent introductions of the O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage sometime between August 2008 and March 2010. The rapid emergence of these viruses from Southeast Asia highlights the importance of adopting approaches to closely monitor the spread of this lineage that now poses a threat to livestock industries in other regions. PMID:24007643

2013-01-01

253

Multiple introductions of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses into East Asia in 2010-2011.  

PubMed

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. Sporadic introductions of this virus into FMD-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. In 2010 and 2011, incursions of the FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland Southeast Asia, caused extensive outbreaks across East Asia. In this study, 12 full genome FMDV sequences for representative samples collected from the People's Republic of China (PR China) including the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Republic of Korea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and The Russian Federation were generated and compared with additional contemporary sequences from viruses within this lineage. These complete genomes were 8119 to 8193 nucleotides in length and differed at 1181 sites, sharing a nucleotide identity ? 91.0% and an amino acid identity ? 96.6%. An unexpected deletion of 70 nucleotides within the 5'-untranslated region which resulted in a shorter predicted RNA stem-loop for the S-fragment was revealed in two sequences from PR China and Hong Kong SAR and five additional related samples from the region. Statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provide evidence that these outbreaks in East Asia were generated by two independent introductions of the O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage sometime between August 2008 and March 2010. The rapid emergence of these viruses from Southeast Asia highlights the importance of adopting approaches to closely monitor the spread of this lineage that now poses a threat to livestock industries in other regions. PMID:24007643

Valdazo-Gonzlez, Begoa; Timina, Anna; Scherbakov, Alexey; Abdul-Hamid, Nor Faizah; Knowles, Nick J; King, Donald P

2013-01-01

254

Genome scan of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia: population differentiation, hybridization and adaptive speciation.  

PubMed

We examine the genetic structure and evolutionary history of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia by employing a genome scan - amplified fragment length polymorphism. Population analysis reveals three divergent clades in Eriocheir s. s., which dominate the East China Sea-Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan (plus Okinawa) and the South China Sea, respectively, mostly in agreement with our previous mtDNA analysis. With the tropical South China Sea inferred as the origin, the East China Sea-Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan clades in the north diverged successively from the ancestral clade during the mid-Pleistocene. The divergence of the three clades likely resulted from isolation of the three marginal seas caused by sea level change in the Pleistocene. Two sympatric zones, one of the East China Sea-Yellow Sea and the South China Sea clades in southeast China and the other of the East China Sea-Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan clades in Vladivostok, are demonstrated to be hybrid zones, with hybridization occurring currently in the former but historically in the latter. Adaptive speciation is observed in the divergence process of the three clades, possibly because of selection from accumulated temperature. Our study indicates that the genetic structure and evolutionary history of Eriocheir s. s. have been primarily affected by Pleistocene glacial cycles, secondarily by divergent selection and drainage isolation, but only minimally by human activities. PMID:22465485

Xu, Jiawu; Chu, Ka Hou

2012-07-01

255

Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia  

SciTech Connect

Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30?g/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22N and 95 to 107E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

2014-10-12

256

Ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia: how does season modify the association?  

PubMed

Previous studies in East Asia have revealed that the short-term associations between tropospheric ozone and daily mortality rate were strongest in winter, which is opposite to the findings in North America and Western Europe. Therefore, we investigated the season-varying association between ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia from 1979 to 2010. Time-series Poisson regression models were used to analyze the association between ozone and daily nonaccidental mortality rate in each city, testing for different temperature lags. The best-fitting model was obtained after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to pool the city-specific estimates. An interquartile-range increase of the moving average concentrations of same-day and previous-day ozone was associated with an increase of 1.44% (95% posterior interval (PI): 1.08%, 1.80%) in daily total mortality rate after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. The corresponding increases were 0.62% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.16%) in winter, 1.46% (95% PI: 0.89%, 2.03%) in spring, 1.60% (95% PI: 1.03%, 2.17%) in summer, and 1.12% (95% PI: 0.73%, 1.51%) in fall. We found significant associations between short-term exposure to ozone and higher mortality rate in East Asia that varied considerably from season to season with a significant trough in winter. PMID:25139207

Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Samoli, Evangelia; Yang, Xin; Kan, Haidong

2014-10-01

257

A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.  

PubMed

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

Yokoyama, Shinji

2014-04-01

258

State of photonics-related industry in Japan: Digital economy is creating a deep integration in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future challenges and problems of Japanese photonics-related industries are discussed by analyzing the statistics of domestic photonics production trend in Japan from the aspects of offshoring and deep integration taking place in East Asia due to the growing of the global digital economy. Mobile phone, digital camera, semiconductor stepper, and fiber to the X. X is home, buildings, factories, shops, government (FTTX) are case studied, and the utilization of the information and communication technology (ICT), together with a free trade policy, is expected for the future challenges.

Tatsuno, Kimio

2013-12-01

259

Morphological characterization of Streptocephalus sirindhornae (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from South East Asia: First record of the Streptocephalidae from China.  

PubMed

During a zooplankton study in southern China, Streptocephalus specimens were collected from ephemeral ponds located in the Yunnan Province and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. We determined that the specimens from both locations are Streptocephalus sirindhornae Sanoamuang, Murugan, Weekers, and Dumont, 2000. This documents are the first records of Streptocephalidae in China, which represent its northern and easternmost distributional edge in East Asia. All specimens are deposited in Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology, Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The morphological terminology follows Rogers and Padhye (2014) and the material is compared with the original description (Sanoamuang et al., 2000). PMID:25661625

Shu, Shusen; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Rogers, D Christopher; Yang, Junxing; Chen, Xiaoyong

2015-01-01

260

Decadal trend and interannual variation of outflow of aerosols from East Asia: Roles of variations in meteorological parameters and emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to quantify the decadal trend and interannual variation of aerosol outflow from East Asia. Simulations of aerosols are performed for years 1986-2006, driven by the NASA/GEOS-4 assimilated meteorological fields. The impacts of variations in meteorological parameters and emissions are imposed separately and together by numerical experiments. With variations in both meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions, simulated annual outflow of PM2.5 (sum of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon) from East Asia increased by 6.0Tg (or 53%) over years 1986-2006, in which the outflow fluxes of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosols had the largest contributions with decadal trends of+1.2,+0.8, and+0.7Tgdecade-1, respectively. Simulated outflow fluxes of aerosols also exhibited large interannual variations; the absolute percent departure from the mean (APDM) values of the annual outflow fluxes of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, and PM2.5 were 5.9%, 7.9%, 5.4%, 5.8%, 4.2%, and 5.2%, respectively, as variations in both meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions were considered. Model sensitivity studies show that, for outflow fluxes of aerosols from East Asia, the decadal trends were driven by variations in anthropogenic emissions whereas the interannual variations were dominated by variations in meteorological parameters. The increases in anthropogenic emissions alone explained about 86% of the decadal trend in outflow of PM2.5. Although variations in meteorological parameters can influence the interannual variations in aerosol outflow by changing both aerosol concentrations over East Asia and zonal winds, the latter is identified to be the key factor because of the high positive correlation coefficient between the annual outflow flux of PM2.5 and zonal wind at 700hPa (the altitude with the maximum outflow fluxes) for years 1986-2006.

Yang, Yang; Liao, Hong; Lou, Sijia

2015-01-01

261

JPR SYMPOSIUM Carbon cycle process in East Asia Taxonomic identity, phylogeny, climate and soil fertility  

E-print Network

fertility as drivers of leaf traits across Chinese grassland biomes Jin-Sheng He · Xiangping Wang · Bernhard these drivers in a field study of 171 plant species in 174 sites across Chinese grasslands, including in Chinese grassland plants, despite strongly varying climate and soil conditions. Keywords Functional traits

Minnesota, University of

262

Multi-week prediction of South-East Asia rainfall variability during boreal summer in CFSv2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we analyze the multi-week prediction bias and skill from the National Centers for Environment Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) based on its hindcasts for 1999-2012. The analyses focus on the prediction of the rainfall variability over South-East Asia during boreal warm seasons and the dependence of the prediction on the activity of intrasesaonal leading modes. It is shown that the prediction skill measured by anomaly correlation is comparable between the total anomalies and intraseasonal anomalies during the first 2 weeks. After week 2, the prediction skill drops substantially and the skill for total anomalies is largely from the prediction for the interannual variability. Moreover, the forecast skill tends to be higher when the amplitude of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation (BSISO) is larger, especially for the BSISO. It is noted that the prediction skill over South-East Asia depends on the phase of the BSISO. One deficiency in the CFSv2 is that the northward propagation of the forecast BSISO is generally slower than the observed.

Liu, Ren-Feng; Wang, Wanqiu

2014-11-01

263

Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia: Observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December 1998 to 31 December 1999. Wet deposition monitoring data at 17 sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in east Asia in addition to State Environmental Protection Agency data were used to evaluate the model, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Observed evidence clearly shows that in northern China acid deposition is heavily influenced and buffered by natural soil dust from desert and semiarid areas. The observed mean rainwater pH value in northern China is the highest, between 6.0 and 7.2, while in southern China, where many areas severely impacted by acid precipitation are located, the pH value is much lower, between 3.5 and 5. In Japan the mean pH value is 4.7, significantly higher than that in southern China, while in South Korea the pH value is intermediate between those in northern China and Japan. The model is capable of reproducing this geographical distribution of rainwater pH over east Asia. The simulation results for 1999 demonstrated strong neutralization of precipitation by soil aerosols over northeast Asia, and the distribution pattern of acid rain was also altered. The annual mean pH values in northern China and Korea show a remarkable increase of 0.8-2.5, while the increase in mean pH values over southern China and Japan are less than 0.1. The neutralization effects vary by season, with the greatest influence in spring, when pH values increased by 0.1-0.4 in Japan, 0.5-1.5 in Korea, and more than 2 in northern China.

Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Uno, Itsushi

2002-10-01

264

[Characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem primary productivity in East Asia based on remote sensing and process-based model].  

PubMed

Based on the bi-linearly interpolated meteorological reanalysis data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA and by using the leaf area index data derived from the GIMMS NDVI to run the process-based Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model, this paper simulated and analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the terrestrial ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in East Asia in 2000-2005. Before regional simulating and calculating, the observation GPP data of different terrestrial ecosystem in 15 experimental stations of AsiaFlux network and the inventory measurements of NPP at 1300 sampling sites were applied to validate the BEPS GPP and NPP. The results showed that BEPS could well simulate the changes in GPP and NPP of different terrestrial ecosystems, with the R2 ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.2 to 1.2 g C x m(-2) x d(-1). The simulated values by BEPS could explain 78% of the changes in annual NPP, and the RMSE was 118 g C x m(-2) x a(-1). In 2000-2005, the averaged total GPP and total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia were 21.7 and 10.5 Pg C x a(-1), respectively, and the GPP and NPP exhibited similar spatial and temporal variation patterns. During the six years, the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems varied from 10.2 to 10.7 Pg C x a(-1), with a coefficient of variation being 2. 2%. High NPP (above 1000 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the southeast island countries, while low NPP (below 30 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the desert area of Northwest China. The spatial patterns of NPP were mainly attributed to the differences in the climatic variables across East Asia. The NPP per capita also varied greatly among different countries, which was the highest (70217 kg C x a(-1)) in Mongolia, far higher than that (1921 kg C x a(-1)) in China, and the lowest (757 kg C x a(-1)) in India. PMID:22586952

Zhang, Fang-Min; Ju, Wei-Min; Chen, Jing-Ming; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Gui-Rui; Han, Shi-Jie

2012-02-01

265

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent findings on the causal mechanism of the great 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and related issues on seismic structure and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia. High-resolution tomography revealed significant lateral heterogeneities in the interplate megathrust zone beneath the Tohoku, South Kuril and Southwest Japan forearc regions. Large megathrust earthquakes since 1900 generally occurred in or around high-velocity (high-V) patches in the megathrust zone, which may reflect asperities resulting from subducted seamounts, oceanic ridges and other topographic highs on the Pacific seafloor. In contrast, low-velocity (low-V) patches in the megathrust zone may contain more sediments and fluids, where the subducting oceanic plate and the overlying continental plate are less coupled or even decoupled. The nucleation of large crustal earthquakes in the Japan Islands, including the 11 April 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) in SE Tohoku, is affected by arc magma and fluids resulting from slab dehydration. The Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to 430-460 km depth under East China Sea, Tsushima Strait and Japan Sea. A window in the aseismic Philippine Sea slab is detected, which may be caused by splitting of weak parts of the slab at the subducted ridges (e.g., Kyushu-Paula ridge) and hot upwelling in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The intraplate volcanism in Northeast Asia is caused by hot and wet upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Frequent generation of large deep earthquakes (>500 km depth) in the Pacific slab may supply additional fluids preserved in the slab to the mantle wedge under the Changbai volcano, making Changbai the largest and most active intraplate volcano in Northeast Asia. Fluids may be involved in nucleation and rupture processes of all types of earthquakes.

Zhao, Dapeng

2015-02-01

266

Future change of extreme temperature climate indices over East Asia with uncertainties estimation in the CMIP5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How well the climate models simulate extreme temperature over East Asia and how the extreme indices would change under anthropogenic global warming are investigated. The indices studied include hot days (HD), tropical nights (TN), growing degree days (GDD), and cooling degree days (CDD) in summer and heating degree days (HDD) and frost days (FD) in winter. The representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP 4.5) experiments for the period of 2075-2099 are compared with historical simulations for the period of 1979-2005 from 15 coupled models that are participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). To optimally estimate future change and its uncertainty, groups of best models are selected based on Taylor diagrams, relative entropy, and probability density function (PDF) methods previously suggested. Overall, the best models' multi-model ensemble based on Taylor diagrams has the lowest errors in reproducing temperature extremes in the present climate among three methods. Selected best models in three methods tend to project considerably different changes in the extreme indices from each other, indicating that the selection of reliable models are of critical importance to reduce uncertainties. Three groups of best models show significant increase of summerbased indices but decrease of the winter-based indices. Over East Asia, the most significant increase is seen in the HD (336 23.4% of current climate) and the most significant decrease is appeared in the HDD (82 4.2%). It is suggested that the larger future change in the HD is found over in the Southeastern China region, probably due to a higher local maximum temperature in the present climate. All of the indices show the largest uncertainty over Southeastern China, particularly in the TN (~3.9 times as large as uncertainty over East Asia) and in the HD (~2.4). It is further noted that the TN reveals the largest uncertainty over three East Asian countries (~1.7 and 1.4 over Korea and Japan, respectively). These future changes in extreme temperature events have an important implication for energy-saving applications and human molarity in the future.

Seo, Ye-Won; Kim, Hojin; Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Moon, Ja-Yeon

2014-11-01

267

Future change of extreme temperature climate indices over East Asia with uncertainties estimation in the CMIP5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How well the climate models simulate extreme temperature over East Asia and how the extreme indices would change under anthropogenic global warming are investigated. The indices studied include hot days (HD), tropical nights (TN), growing degree days (GDD), and cooling degree days (CDD) in summer and heating degree days (HDD) and frost days (FD) in winter. The representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP 4.5) experiments for the period of 2075-2099 are compared with historical simulations for the period of 1979-2005 from 15 coupled models that are participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). To optimally estimate future change and its uncertainty, groups of best models are selected based on Taylor diagrams, relative entropy, and probability density function (PDF) methods previously suggested. Overall, the best models' multi-model ensemble based on Taylor diagrams has the lowest errors in reproducing temperature extremes in the present climate among three methods. Selected best models in three methods tend to project considerably different changes in the extreme indices from each other, indicating that the selection of reliable models are of critical importance to reduce uncertainties. Three groups of best models show significant increase of summerbased indices but decrease of the winter-based indices. Over East Asia, the most significant increase is seen in the HD (336 23.4% of current climate) and the most significant decrease is appeared in the HDD (82 4.2%). It is suggested that the larger future change in the HD is found over in the Southeastern China region, probably due to a higher local maximum temperature in the present climate. All of the indices show the largest uncertainty over Southeastern China, particularly in the TN (~3.9 times as large as uncertainty over East Asia) and in the HD (~2.4). It is further noted that the TN reveals the largest uncertainty over three East Asian countries (~1.7 and 1.4 over Korea and Japan, respectively). These future changes in extreme temperature events have an important implication for energy-saving applications and human molarity in the future.

Seo, Ye-Won; Kim, Hojin; Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Moon, Ja-Yeon

2014-10-01

268

Summertime land-sea thermal contrast and atmospheric circulation over East Asia in a warming climatePart I: Past changes and future projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) contrast, an index of tropospheric thermodynamic structure and dynamical circulation, has shown a significant increase in recent decades over East Asia during the boreal summer. In Part I of this two-part paper, observational data and the results of transient warming experiments conducted using coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs) are analyzed to examine changes in land-sea thermal contrast and the associated atmospheric circulation over East Asia from the past to the future. The interannual variability of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East for 1950-2012 was found to be tightly coupled with a characteristic tripolar pattern of tropospheric circulation over East Asia, which manifests as anticyclonic anomalies over the Okhotsk Sea and around the Philippines, and a cyclonic anomaly over Japan during a positive phase, and vice versa. In response to CO2 increase, the cold northeasterly winds off the east coast of northern Japan and the East Asian rainband were strengthened with the circulation pattern well projected on the observed interannual variability. These results are commonly found in GCMs regardless of future forcing scenarios, indicating the robustness of the East Asian climate response to global warming. The physical mechanisms responsible for the increase of the land-sea contrast are examined in Part II.

Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

2014-11-01

269

Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East AsiaChina, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the China Geological Survey (CGS) to conduct a mineral resource assessment of Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Dexing deposit in eastern China that contains more than 8,000,000 metric tons of copper. In addition, large parts of the area are undergoing active exploration and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits. Three tracts were delineated to be permissive for Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia: the Manchuride, Coastal Pacific, and East Qinling tracts, all Jurassic through Cretaceous in age. The tracts are based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits is possible. These tracts range in area from about 170,000 to about 1,400,000 km2. Although maps at a variety of scales were used in the assessment, the final tract boundaries are intended for use at a scale of 1:1,000,000. These Mesozoic deposits in East Asia all formed in post-subduction environments, environments newly recognized as permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits. Based on the grade, tonnage, and geologic characteristics of the known deposits, two tracts, Manchuride and Coastal Pacific, were evaluated using the general (Cu-Mo-Au) porphyry copper grade and tonnage model. The East Qinling tract was evaluated using the molybdenum-rich (Cu-Mo) model. Assessment participants estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits at different levels of confidence for each permissive tract. These estimates were then combined with the selected grade and tonnage models using Monte Carlo simulation to generate quantitative probabilistic estimates of undiscovered resources. Resources in future extensions of deposits with identified resources were not specifically evaluated. Assessment results, presented in tables and graphs, show mean amounts of metal and rock in undiscovered deposits at different quantile levels, as well as the arithmetic mean for each tract. This assessment estimated a mean total of about 44 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the assessed permissive tracts in East Asia. This represents nearly 4 times the 12 known deposits. Predicted mean (arithmetic) resources that could be associated with these undiscovered deposits are about 198,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper and about 3,900 t of gold, as well as byproduct molybdenum and silver. The reported identified resources for those 12 known deposits total about 23,000,000 t of copper and about 850 t of gold. The assessment area is estimated to contain nearly nine times as much copper in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits as has been identified to date. This report includes an overview of the assessment results and summary tables. Descriptions of each tract are included in appendixes, with estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits, and probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. A geographic information system that accompanies the report includes tract boundaries and a database of known porphyry copper deposits and prospects.

Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R., Jr.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy

2012-01-01

270

Dynamics of the Seismogenic Layer for Deforming Zones in Central and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present solutions for the seismogenic layer of the India-Eurasia collision zone by utilizing a forward dynamic modeling approach, where body force distributions, inferred lateral variations in linear effective viscosity, and known far-field velocity boundary conditions are defined. Body forces are the differences in gravity potential energy per unit area calculated as the depth integral of vertical stress from the surface down to a common depth reference of 20 km below sea level (assumed long-term brittle-ductile transition). Velocity boundary conditions are defined using long-term plate motion estimates. Effective viscosities in our models are proportional to the long-term friction on faults and are inversely proportional to strain rates inferred from Kostrov summation of Quaternary fault observations. Lateral variations in effective viscosity for the modeled layer span over 5 orders of magnitude. We neglect stresses due to flexure as well as small shear stresses at the base of the crustal layer. Our dynamic approximation is oversimplified because the width of the deforming zone for even geometrically simple faults increases with depth. Moreover, the long-term brittle-ductile transition depth (our proxy for the base of our model seiemogenic layer) is likely spatially variable and not at uniform depth below sea level. Nevertheless, this approach does produce quantitative insight on the question of frictional strength for faults within deforming upper crust. Self-consistent dynamic strain rate tensor solutions to the force-balance equations are solved and tested for fitness with the kinematic strain rate tensor styles inferred from Quaternary fault observations and from CMT solutions. We assume an isotropic relationship between dynamic strain rate tensor directions and kinematic strain rate directions and assume that these are appropriate strain field indicators. Dynamic model velocity fields are scored via reduced chi-square misfit with GPS velocity observations at over 2500 GPS locations. Preliminary models defined with fault friction values of ? = 0.025 for the Burma region, ? = 0.10 - 0.25 for the Tibetan Plateau region, and ? > 0.6 for the megathrust system as well as for north central and far east Asia achieve optimal fit to Quaternary deformation indicators. Successful models indicate that deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with velocity boundary conditions within Burma and parts of the Tibetan Plateau. The dynamic stress and strain rate tensor fields and the dynamic velocity field each are acutely sensitive to the intrinsic mechanical properties of the faults, the density of available fault fabric, and perhaps to contributions from horizontal basal tractions. We test our models of the seismogenic layer, which do not account for contributions from basal tractions, to the effect of deeper lithospheric loads. Initial results indicate that such loads are generally smaller than the stresses associated with our models of the seismogenic layer. Stresses associated from deeper sources together with stresses from the seismogenic layer yield dynamical model output that may enhance the fit to deformation indicators.

Klein, E. C.; Flesch, L. M.; Holt, W. E.

2010-12-01

271

Recent developments in the genetic history of East Asia and Oceania.  

PubMed

Recent developments in our understanding of the genetic history of Asia and Oceania have been driven by technological advances. Specifically, our understanding of the past has been augmented by: genome sequences from ancient hominins and ancient modern humans; more comprehensive studies of existing populations (e.g., complete mtDNA genome sequences and genome-wide data) and the development of new statistics and analytical methods to interpret the abundance of new data. We review some of the new discoveries since we entered the age of archaic and modern genomics and how they have changed our understanding of the settlement and subsequent population dynamics in Asia and the Pacific. PMID:25170982

Duggan, Ana T; Stoneking, Mark

2014-12-01

272

Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward US Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) accredited universities in the United States (US) with the greatest populations of international students were surveyed to identify the status of East Asian international students' attitudes toward their schools. Among East Asian international music students at US higher education

Choi, Jin Ho

2013-01-01

273

No More Negotiated Deals?: Settlement of Trade and Investment Disputes in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many argue that East Asian countries have come to adopt aggressive legalism in trade and investment policy, in the sense that they have come to settle their trade and investment disputes through the dispute settlement mechanism (DSM) of the WTO and the other third-party procedures. Scrutiny of the dispute cases of these countries shows, however, that East Asian legalism is

Junji Nakagawa

2007-01-01

274

Seasonal characteristics of tropospheric ozone production and mixing ratios over East Asia: A global three-dimensional chemical transport model analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine seasonal and geographical distributions of tropospheric ozone production and mixing ratios over East Asia with a global three-dimensional chemical transport model called Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 1 (MOZART 1). Net ozone production within the East Asian boundary layer exhibits three distinct seasonal cycles depending on region (north of 20N, 5-20N and south of 5N). North

Denise L. Mauzerall; Daiju Narita; Hajime Akimoto; Larry Horowitz; Stacy Walters; Didier A. Hauglustaine; Guy Brasseur

2000-01-01

275

West Meets East in Central Asia: Competing Discourses on Secondary Education Reform in the Kyrgyz Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kyrgyz Republic--a remote mountainous region--is one of five former Soviet states in central Asia. This case study begins with a brief overview of the political and economic situation of the Kyrgyz Republic and its relation to aims of Soviet schooling in the 20th century. A critique of the Soviet schooling model by foreign academics before and

De Young, Alan J.

276

A Strategic Approach for Electric Power Interconnection in North-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in the Northeast Asia (NEA) region has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing with the inception of natural gas pipeline projects and electric power interconnection plans. This study analyzes the possibility of NEA's electric power interconnection, and suggests a strategic approach to implement this project. For this purpose, a scenario

Won-Cheol Yun

277

South East Asia to America: Links in a Chain (Part Two).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the transfer of Indochinese refugees from Southeast Asia to the United States, their stay in interim refugee camps, the voyage by plane, bureaucratic problems, and their first encounter with American life. Provides an anecdotal account of one family's experiences and reactions. (GC)

Rose, Peter I.

1981-01-01

278

Higher Education in East Asia and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews Asia-Pacific higher education and university research, focusing principally on the "Confucian" education nations Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong China, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam. Except for Vietnam, these systems exhibit a special developmental dynamism--still playing out everywhere except Japan--and have created a distinctive

Marginson, Simon

2011-01-01

279

Foreign direct investment and growth in East Asia: lessons for Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been important in the growth and global integration of developing economies. Both Northeast and Southeast Asia, especially the latter, have been part of this development, with increasing inflows of FDI and greater foreign participation in local economies. However, Indonesia has been an outlier within the region. Inflows of FDI have been lower to Indonesia than

Robert E. Lipsey; Fredrik Sjholm

2011-01-01

280

Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).  

PubMed

Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific. PMID:15495964

Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

2004-01-01

281

Competitiveness Report: Computer Science Top Conference Performance Comparison and Collaboration in East Asia countries of China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Singapore,  

E-print Network

in East Asia countries of China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan (20022006) Hao the Asian regions of China (Mainland), Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Sin gapore, and Taiwan, and collected in computer science. Our surveyed Asian regions in clude China (Mainland), Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea

Ouhyoung, Ming

282

Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,

Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

2005-01-01

283

Visits to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation from South Asia and the Middle East, 19461990: An indicator of changing international programs and politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

International study programs have contributed to the diffusion of modern irrigation technologies, approaches, and problems. But the patterns and processes of international travel have received little attention to date. This paper examines foreign visits to the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) from South Asia and the Middle East from 1946 to 1990. Using data from the Foreign Activities Branch of

James L. Wescoat; Roger Smith; David Schaad

1992-01-01

284

Interdecadal variability of summer climate over East Asia and its association with 500 hPa height and global sea surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdecadal variability of summer climate (rainfall and temperature) in East Asia (China and Japan) and its association with the anomalies of geopotential heights at 500 hPa over the Northern Hemisphere (NH), global sea surface temperature (SSTA), and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) were examined. An abrupt change was found in the middle and by the end of the 1970s in the

Zeng-Zhen Hu

1997-01-01

285

A study of anthropogenic impacts of the radiation budget and the cloud field in East Asia based on model simulations with GCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of man-made air pollutants on the climate of East Asia, focusing on eastern China where anthropogenic aerosol concentrations are rapidly increasing. The increasing emission of anthropogenic aerosols causes serious air pollution episodes and various effects on the climate in this region. It is therefore necessary to quantify the contribution of aerosols to the change in the

Makiko Mukai; Teruyuki Nakajima; Toshihiko Takemura

2008-01-01

286

National Socialist Foreign Policy and Press Instructions, 19339: Aims and Ways of Coverage Manipulation based on the Example of East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of this article concerns the connection between German foreign policy and the National Socialist's press instructions, from 1933 to 1939. In particular the National Socialists' methods and aims of controlling German newspaper coverage of other countries will be analysed, focusing mainly on the example of East Asia, due to Germany's dynamic relationship with Japan and China before the

Stefan Hbner

2012-01-01

287

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago  

PubMed Central

The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

2009-01-01

288

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago.  

PubMed

The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

2009-05-01

289

Orbital remote sensing - Space technology applications in south-east Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of remote sensing techniques in the developing countries of southeast Asia is reviewed. The use of the images for monitoring soil, water, and vegetation resources, in order to develop a national policy for conservation of the resources, is described. The remote sensing data are helpful in observing deforestation in southeast Asia; however, excessive cloud coverage does not allow accurate evaluation of the rice crop. The effects of the capabilities of the developing countries to process the data and remote sensing program of industrial countries on the future application of satellite imagery in developing countries are studied. The need for improved data banking and dissemination of the imagery is analyzed. Agreements on proprietary rights due to the improved ground resolution of orbital sensors are required. The designing of remote sensing equipment to meet the requirements of its users is discussed.

Malingreau, J.-P.

1985-01-01

290

Chinas Integration in East Asia:Production Sharing, FDI & High-Tech Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has taken advantage of the globalisation process and has become an assembly country for firms in Asia, which have extended\\u000a their production and trade networks to China. Chinas position in the segmentation of the production processes has fostered\\u000a its trade in high-technology products. However the rapid technological upgrading of Chinas trade is associated with an increasing\\u000a dependence on foreign

Guillaume Gaulier; Franoise Lemoine; Deniz nal-Kesenci

2007-01-01

291

Origins of domestic dog in Southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA  

PubMed Central

Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in Asia South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dogwolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West Asia but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14?437?bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to East Asia. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 1324 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dogwolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dogwolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool. PMID:22108628

Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P

2012-01-01

292

The Long Winding Road of Opioid Substitution Therapy Implementation in South-East Asia: Challenges to Scale Up  

PubMed Central

The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users. Significance for public health Several countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region can be commended for introducing opioid substitution therapy (OST) to address the ongoing HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). Local evidence shows OST is an effective drug treatment approach in the Asian context given sufficient technical and institutional support. However, despite much progress, the number of OST dispensing sites and recipients remains totally inadequate in terms of impact upon the current HIV epidemic among PWID. Ongoing advocacy is needed if countries are to achieve the WHOs target of 40% of PWID being dosed with OST. Greater political commitment a strengthened policy environment, capacity building for OST clinics, lessening the criminalisation of drug use and promoting a public health response will give many more PWID access to OST and slow the advance of the HIV epidemic. PMID:25170509

Reid, Gary; Sharma, Mukta; Higgs, Peter

2014-01-01

293

Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae)  

PubMed Central

Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America.

Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J.

2015-01-01

294

Satellite-Based Assessment of Possible Dust Aerosols Semi-Direct Effect on Cloud Water Path over East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The semi-direct effects of dust aerosols are analyzed over eastern Asia using 2 years (June 2002 to June 2004) of data from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, and 18 years (1984 to 2001) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. The results show that the water path of dust-contaminated clouds is considerably smaller than that of dust-free clouds. The mean ice water path (IWP) and liquid water path (LWP) of dusty clouds are less than their dust-free counterparts by 23.7% and 49.8%, respectively. The long-term statistical relationship derived from ISCCP also confirms that there is significant negative correlation between dust storm index and ISCCP cloud water path. These results suggest that dust aerosols warm clouds, increase the evaporation of cloud droplets and further reduce cloud water path, the so-called semi-direct effect. The semi-direct effect may play a role in cloud development over arid and semi-arid areas of East Asia and contribute to the reduction of precipitation.

Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick; Wang, Tainhe; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yongxiang; Yi, Yuhong; Ayers, J. Kirk

2006-01-01

295

Effect of continental sources and sinks on the seasonal and latitudinal gradient of atmospheric carbon dioxide over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we demonstrate the sharp seasonal and latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 over East Asia, where there are relatively few ground-based observations. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) column-averaged dry air CO2 mole fraction (xCO2) retrieved by NASA's Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS) (2009-2011) program and GEOS-Chem nested-grid CO2 results are used. The strong anthropogenic emissions mainly from China and intensive vegetation uptake from northeastern Asia lead to a clear seasonal change of the xCO2 between spring maximum and summer minimum (>10 ppm). In particular, the steep latitudinal gradient of summer time xCO2 by 3-5 ppm in the vicinity of the Korean Peninsula (32N-44N) is likely attributed to the large difference in CO2 fluxes among industry/cities, northeastern forests and the northwest Pacific region. This study represents the current progress to understand sub-continental scale atmospheric CO2 variabilities with recent satellite retrievals and nested-grid modeling.

Shim, Changsub; Lee, Jeongsoon; Wang, Yuxuan

2013-11-01

296

Satellite-based assessment of possible dust aerosols semi-direct effect on cloud water path over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semi-direct effects of dust aerosols are analyzed over eastern Asia using 2 years (June 2002 to June 2004) of data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, and 18 years (1984 to 2001) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. The results show that the water path of dust-contaminated clouds is considerably smaller than that of dust-free clouds. The mean ice water path (IWP) and liquid water path (LWP) of dusty clouds are less than their dust-free counterparts by 23.7% and 49.8%, respectively. The long-term statistical relationship derived from ISCCP also confirms that there is significant negative correlation between dust storm index and ISCCP cloud water path (CWP). These results suggest that dust aerosols warm clouds, increase the evaporation of cloud droplets and further reduce the CWP, the so-called semi-direct effect. The semi-direct effect may play a role in cloud development over arid and semi-arid areas of East Asia and contribute to the reduction of precipitation.

Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick; Wang, Tianhe; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yongxiang; Yi, Yuhong; Ayers, J. Kirk

2006-10-01

297

Climate oscillation during the Quaternary associated with landscape heterogeneity promoted allopatric lineage divergence of a temperate tree Kalopanax septemlobus (Araliaceae) in East Asia.  

PubMed

We investigated the biogeographic history of Kalopanax septemlobus, one of the most widespread temperate tree species in East Asia, using a combined phylogeographic and palaeodistribution modelling approach. Range-wide genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellites (G'(ST) = 0.709; 2205 samples genotyped at five loci) and chloroplast DNA (G(ST) = 0.697; 576 samples sequenced for 2055 bp at three fragments) was high. A major phylogeographic break in Central China corresponded with those of other temperate species and the spatial delineation of the two temperate forest subkingdoms of East Asia, consistent with the forests having been isolated within both East and West China for multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Evidence for multiple glacial refugia was found in most of its current range in China, South Japan and the southernmost part of the Korean Peninsula. In contrast, lineage admixture and absence of private alleles and haplotypes in Hokkaido and the northern Korean Peninsula support a postglacial origin of northernmost populations. Although palaeodistribution modelling predicted suitable climate across a land-bridge extending from South Japan to East China during the Last Glacial Maximum, the genetic differentiation of regional populations indicated a limited role of the exposed sea floor as a dispersal corridor at that time. Overall, this study provides evidence that differential impacts of Quaternary climate oscillation associated with landscape heterogeneity have shaped the genetic structure of a wide-ranging temperate tree in East Asia. PMID:22646502

Sakaguchi, Shota; Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Liu, Yi-Hui; Qi, Xin-Shuai; Kim, Sea-Hyun; Han, Jingyu; Takeuchi, Yayoi; Worth, James R P; Yamasaki, Michimasa; Sakurai, Shogo; Isagi, Yuji

2012-08-01

298

Education and Cultural Pluralism in South East Asia, with Special Reference to Peninsular Malaysia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines educational policies in certain culturally plural South East Asian societies in relation to hypotheses concerning differences in educational policies resulting from the threat felt by the dominant elite and the effects of educational and national language policies on the assimilation or alienation of different ethnic groups.

Watson, J. K. P.

1980-01-01

299

What Explains the Industrial Revolution in East Asia? Evidence From the Factor Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents dual estimates of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) for East Asian countries. While the dual estimates of TFPG for Korea and Hong Kong are similar to the primal estimates, they exceed the primal estimates by 1 percent a year for Taiwan and by more than 2 percent for Singapore. The reason for the large discrepancy for Singapore

Chang-Tai Hsieh

2002-01-01

300

The impact on the present and future East Asia climate of the land cover changes simulated by dynamic vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface properties are important because of their known impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. Historical and future changes in land cover changes give influences on the monsoon rainfall and circulation over the Asian summer monsoon region. The dynamic vegetation model, as one of the key process of the Earth System model, simulates the terrestrial biosphere where the fraction of tree and grass species is a function of the local climate state. The potential effect of the simulated land cover distribution needs to be individually evaluated in present and future climate simulations. Since it is reported that the simulated land surface properties could give influence on the systematic biases in monsoon rainfall and add an impact in the future projection via feedback with the dust loading of the atmosphere [Martin and Levine, 2012]. Motivated by the previous study, we investigate the impact of land cover change generated by the interactive terrestrial carbon cycle in the HadGEM2 Earth System configuration over East Asia under present-day and possible future climate condition. Data in this study is HadGEM2-A runs using HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution in Martin and Levine [2012]. In present-day run, over the northern China region to the west of Korea, bare soil increase distinctly in HadGEM2-ES rather than HadGEM2-AO. ES land cover by interactive vegetation model gives influences on JJA rainfall and temperature. There is interaction with model systematic biases in the present-day climate. JJA dry bias is larger when HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution was used for Korea. Dust aerosol effect contributes to the dry bias. As bare soil fraction increases, more emitted dust aerosol has direct effect of negative net downward SW, cooling the land surface, weakening monsoon inflow, inducing dry bias over Korea. In the other hand, over bare soil expanded area, changes in roughness length and soil evaporation, the subsequent latent heat flux changes contribute to local surface warming in JJA. In global warming, warmer and wetter climate in JJA is expected in East Asia. Relative to global warming, ES land cover and dust direct effects are small and the details are presented. Acknowledgements. This study is supported by the National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration (NIMR-2012-B-2).

Boo, Kyung-On; Cho, Mee-Hyun; Martin, Gill; Lee, Johan

2014-05-01

301

Forest biomass carbon sinks in East Asia, with special reference to the relative contributions of forest expansion and forest growth.  

PubMed

Forests play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. With extensive afforestation and reforestation efforts over the last several decades, forests in East Asia have largely expanded, but the dynamics of their C stocks have not been fully assessed. We estimated biomass C stocks of the forests in all five East Asian countries (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Mongolia) between the 1970s and the 2000s, using the biomass expansion factor method and forest inventory data. Forest area and biomass C density in the whole region increased from 179.78 10(6) ha and 38.6 Mg C ha(-1) in the 1970s to 196.65 10(6) ha and 45.5 Mg C ha(-1) in the 2000s, respectively. The C stock increased from 6.9 Pg C to 8.9 Pg C, with an averaged sequestration rate of 66.9 Tg C yr(-1). Among the five countries, China and Japan were two major contributors to the total region's forest C sink, with respective contributions of 71.1% and 32.9%. In China, the areal expansion of forest land was a larger contributor to C sinks than increased biomass density for all forests (60.0% vs. 40.0%) and for planted forests (58.1% vs. 41.9%), while the latter contributed more than the former for natural forests (87.0% vs. 13.0%). In Japan, increased biomass density dominated the C sink for all (101.5%), planted (91.1%), and natural (123.8%) forests. Forests in South Korea also acted as a C sink, contributing 9.4% of the total region's sink because of increased forest growth (98.6%). Compared to these countries, the reduction in forest land in both North Korea and Mongolia caused a C loss at an average rate of 9.0 Tg C yr(-1), equal to 13.4% of the total region's C sink. Over the last four decades, the biomass C sequestration by East Asia's forests offset 5.8% of its contemporary fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. PMID:24464906

Fang, Jingyun; Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Kato, Tomomichi; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Son, Yowhan

2014-06-01

302

Aerial observations of air masses transported from East Asia to the Western Pacific: Vertical structure of polluted air masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been only limited information about the vertical chemical structure of the atmosphere, so far. We conducted aerial observations on 11, 12, and 14 December 2010 over the northern part of the East China Sea to analyze the spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants from East Asia and to elucidate transformation processes of air pollutants during the long-range transport. On 11 December, a day on which Asian dust created hazy conditions, the average PM10 concentration was 40.69?gm-3, and we observed high concentrations of chemical components such as Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, Al, Ca, Fe, and Zn. The height of the boundary layer was about 1200m, and most species of pollutants (except for dust particles and SO2) had accumulated within the boundary layer. In contrast, concentrations of pollutants were low in the boundary layer (up to 1000m) on 12 December because clean Pacific air from the southeast had diluted the haze. However, we observed natural chemical components (Na+, Cl-, Al, Ca, and Fe) at 3000m, the indication being that dust particles, including halite, were present in the lower free troposphere. On 14 December, peak concentrations of SO2 and black carbon were measured within the boundary layer (up to 700m) and at 2300m. The concentrations of anthropogenic chemical components such as NO3-, NH4+, and Zn were highest at 500m, and concentrations of both anthropogenic and natural chemical components (SO42-, Pb, Ca2+, Ca, Al, and Fe) were highest at 2000m. Thus, it was clearly indicated that the air above the East China Sea had a well-defined, layered structure below 3000m.

Hatakeyama, Shiro; Ikeda, Keisuke; Hanaoka, Sayuri; Watanabe, Izumi; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Bandow, Hiroshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Zhang, Daizhou; Okuyama, Kikuo; Ogi, Takashi; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Seto, Takafumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takami, Akinori

2014-11-01

303

Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.  

PubMed

This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war. PMID:10330595

Ismail, R

1999-01-01

304

Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia.  

PubMed

The regional distribution of an ancient Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 (Hg C) in Asia provides an ideal tool of dissecting prehistoric migration events. We identified 465 Hg C individuals out of 4284 males from 140 East and Southeast Asian populations. We genotyped these Hg C individuals using 12 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 8 commonly used Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and performed phylogeographic analysis in combination with the published data. The results show that most of the Hg C subhaplogroups have distinct geographical distribution and have undergone long-time isolation, although Hg C individuals are distributed widely across Eurasia. Furthermore, a general south-to-north and east-to-west cline of Y-STR diversity is observed with the highest diversity in Southeast Asia. The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal 'Out-of-Africa' route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. The northward expansion of Hg C in East Asia started approximately 40 thousand of years ago (KYA) along the coastline of mainland China and reached Siberia approximately 15 KYA and finally made its way to the Americas. PMID:20448651

Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Jin, Li; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing

2010-07-01

305

Phylogeography of Quercus variabilis based on chloroplast DNA sequence in East Asia: multiple glacial refugia and Mainland-migrated island populations.  

PubMed

The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern Asia. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Korea Peninsular as well as Japan, Zhoushan and Taiwan Islands) was collected, and three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments were sequenced using universal primers. A total of 26 haplotypes were detected, and it showed a weak phylogeographical structure in eastern Asia populations at species level, however, in the central-eastern region of Mainland China, the populations had more haplotypes than those in other regions, with a significant phylogeographical structure (N(ST=?)0.751> G(ST=?)0.690, P<0.05). Q. variabilis displayed high interpopulation and low intrapopulation genetic diversity across the distribution range. Both unimodal mismatch distribution and significant negative Fu's F(S) indicated a demographic expansion of Q. variabilis populations in East Asia. A fossil calibrated phylogenetic tree showed a rapid speciation during Pleistocene, with a population augment occurred in Middle Pleistocene. Both diversity patterns and ecological niche modelling indicated there could be multiple glacial refugia and possible bottleneck or founder effects occurred in the southern Japan. We dated major spatial expansion of Q. variabilis population in eastern Asia to the last glacial cycle(s), a period with sea-level fluctuations and land bridges in East China Sea as possible dispersal corridors. This study showed that geographical heterogeneity combined with climate and sea-level changes have shaped the genetic structure of this wide-ranging tree species in East Asia. PMID:23115642

Chen, Dongmei; Zhang, Xianxian; Kang, Hongzhang; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Shan; Du, Hongmei; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Gapare, Washington; Wu, Harry X; Liu, Chunjiang

2012-01-01

306

Assessment of dynamic downscaling of the extreme rainfall over East Asia using a regional climate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the capability of the dynamic downscaling method (DDM) in an East Asian climate study for June 1998\\u000a using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research non-hydrostatic Mesoscale\\u000a Model (MM5). Sensitivity experiments show that MM5 results at upper atmospheric levels cannot match reanalyses data, but the\\u000a results show consistent improvement in simulating moisture transport at low

Yanhong Gao; Yongkang Xue; Wen Peng; Hyun-Suk Kang; Duane Waliser

2011-01-01

307

Food Security - Global Trends and Region Perspective with Reference to East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sharp increase in global food prices during 2007?2008 has triggered the awareness of food insecurity problems and their impacts on the low income, food?deficit countries many of which are located in the East Asian countries. The food?security situation was good in relative terms given that the percentage of carbohydrates consumed is slightly lower than the world average while proteins

Ching-Cheng Chang; Shih-Hsun Hsu

2011-01-01

308

Regional Dispersal of Fukushima-derived Fission Nuclides by East Asia Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Fukushima nuclear accident happened on 12 March 2011, there have been a plethora of publications about the dispersion of radioactive material from the damaged reactors. Most of these works dealt with global transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the northern hemisphere and local transport in the vicinity of Fukushima and around Japan. In contrast, few works investigated into dispersal of radiation plumes from Japan to other areas on regional scales. This is because regional dispersal out of Japan in the springtime is most likely dominated by the northeastern monsoon, whereas there are few monitoring stations downwind in the southeastern Asia region. In this respect, we are only aware of the data in Vietnam published by Long et al (2012) in addition to our own data obtained in and around Taiwan (Huh et al., 2012; Hsu et al., 2012). By integrating the data published in the literature plus those that can be searched from relevant websites, we try to further elucidate the dispersal of Fukushima-derived radiation toward the southeastern Asia region. The WRF/Chem tracer model is employed to simulate the dispersal of radiation plumes from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. From a vis--vis comparison between the model simulation and the time-series of Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around the southeastern Asia, we can distinguish between global transport by the Westerlies in the free troposphere and regional transport by the northeast monsoon in the planetary boundary layer. In general, regional (mainly meridional) transport carried more weight than global (mainly zonal) transport in contributing Fukushima-derived radioactivity to the area covered in this review, particularly at the ground-level sites. References 1. Hsu, S.C., Huh, C.A., Chan, C.Y., Lin, S.H., Lin, F.J. and Liu, S.C. (2012). Hemispheric dispersion of radioactive plume laced with fission nuclides from the Fukushima nuclear event. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L00G22, doi:10.1029/2011GL049986. 2. Huh, C.A., Hsu, S. C. and Lin, C. Y. (2012). Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around Taiwan: Free tropospheric versus boundary layer transport. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 319-320: 9-14. 3. Long, N.Q., Truong, Y., Hien, P.D., Binh, N.T., Sieu, L.N., Giap, T.V. and Phan, N.T. (2012). Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam. J. Environ. Radioactiv. 111: 53-58.

Huh, Chih-An; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Hsu, Shih-Chieh

2013-04-01

309

Ionospheric and geomagnetic effects of the solar eclipse of 18 March 1988 in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chain of observational stations running parallel to the path of totality has been used to obtain ionograms, electron-content measurements, magnetograms, and microbarograph recordings of the effects of the March 18, 1988 solar eclipse's transit through Southeast Asia. Depletions of f0E and f0F1 are noted, and electron density-height profiles reveal a deeply hollowed-out electron-density valley over the 200-300 km altitude range. The equatorial anomally diffusion process was substantially reduced. As a result of the electron density depletion in the E-region at the magnetic equator, the northward movement of S(q) current electrons was halted. Direct evidence is obtained for the production of acoustic gravity waves by the moving bow wave front of the solar eclipse.

Walker, G. O.; Li, T. Y. Y.; Wong, Y. W.; Kikuchi, T.; Huang, Y. N.

1991-02-01

310

Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic migration is a common geological process of basin formation and evolution. However, little is known about tectonic migration in the western Pacific margins. This paper focuses on the representative Cenozoic basins of East China and its surrounding seas in the western Pacific domain to discuss the phenomenon of tectonic jumping in Cenozoic basins, based on structural data from the Bohai Bay Basin, the South Yellow Sea Basin, the East China Sea Shelf Basin, and the South China Sea Continental Shelf Basin. The western Pacific active continental margin is the eastern margin of a global convergent system involving the Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indian Plate. Under the combined effects of the India-Eurasia collision and retrogressive or roll-back subduction of the Pacific Plate, the western Pacific active continental margin had a wide basin-arc-trench system which migrated or jumped eastward and further oceanward. This migration and jumping is characterized by progressive eastward younging of faulting, sedimentation, and subsidence within the basins. Owing to the tectonic migration, the geological conditions associated with hydrocarbon and gashydrate accumulation in the Cenozoic basins of East China and its adjacent seas also become progressively younger from west to east, showing eastward younging in the generation time of reservoirs, seals, traps, accumulations and preservation of hydrocarbon and gashydrate. Such a spatio-temporal distribution of Cenozoic hydrocarbon and gashydrate is significant for the oil, gas and gashydrate exploration in the East Asian Continental Margin. Finally, this study discusses the mechanism of Cenozoic intrabasinal and interbasinal tectonic migration in terms of interplate, intraplate and underplating processes. The migration or jumping regimes of three separate or interrelated events: (1) tectonism-magmatism, (2) basin formation, and (3) hydrocarbon-gashydrate accumulation are the combined effects of the Late Mesozoic extrusion tectonics, the Cenozoic NW-directed crustal extension, and the regional far-field eastward flow of the western asthenosphere due to the India-Eurasia plate collision, accompanied by eastward jumping and roll-back of subduction zones of the Pacific Plate.

Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming

2014-07-01

311

Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures. PMID:25275329

Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

2014-10-01

312

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emissions of three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFC-22 (CHClF2), HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) and three hydrofluorocarbons, HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) and HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) from five East Asian countries for the year 2008 are determined by inverse modeling. The inverse modeling is based on in-situ measurements of these halocarbons at the Japanese stations Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma, the Chinese station Shangdianzi and

A. Stohl; J. Kim; S. Li; S. O'Doherty; P. K. Salameh; T. Saito; M. K. Vollmer; D. Wan; B. Yao; Y. Yokouchi; L. X. Zhou

2010-01-01

313

Migration of rice planthoppers and their vectored re-emerging and novel rice viruses in East Asia  

PubMed Central

This review examines recent studies of the migration of three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Sogatella furcifera, and Nilaparvata lugens, in East Asia. Laodelphax striatellus has recently broken out in Jiangsu province, eastern China. The population density in the province started to increase in the early 2000s and peaked in 2004. In 2005, Rice stripe virus (RSV) viruliferous rate of L. striatellus peaked at 31.3%. Since then, rice stripe disease spread severely across the whole province. Due to the migration of the RSV vectors, the rice stripe disease spread to neighboring countries Japan and Korea. An overseas migration of L. striatellus that occurred in 2008 was analyzed, when a slow-moving cold vortex, a type of low pressure system, reached western Japan from Jiangsu, carrying the insects into Japan. Subsequently the rice stripe diseases struck these areas in Japan severely. In Korea, similar situations occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Their migration sources were also estimated to be in Jiangsu by backward trajectory analysis. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, whose vector is L. striatellus, has recently re-emerged in eastern China, and the evidence for overseas migrations of the virus, just like the RSVs migrations, has been given. A method of predicting the overseas migration of L. striatellus has been developed by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean institutes. An evaluation of the prediction showed that this method properly predicted migration events that occurred in East Asia from 2008 to 2011. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) was first found in Guangdong province. Its vector is S. furcifera. An outbreak of SRBSDV occurred in southern China in 2009 and spread to Vietnam the same year. This disease and virus were also found in Japan in 2010. The epidemic triggered many migration studies to investigate concrete spring-summer migration routes in China, and the addition of migration sources for early arrivals in Guangdong and Guangxi have been proposed. Nilaparvata lugens is also an important insect pest of rice. Its migration situations on the Indochina peninsula and return migrations in China are discussed. PMID:24312081

Otuka, Akira

2013-01-01

314

ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation  

PubMed Central

Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the ELSI 2.0 initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

2014-01-01

315

Impact of vegetation on land-atmosphere coupling strength and its implication for desertification mitigation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification of the East Asian drylands and the consequent dust transport have been serious concerns for adjacent Asian countries as well as the western United States. Tree planting has been considered one applicable strategy to mitigate the desertification. However, the desired effect of the tree planting would not be brought to fruition unless the newly planted trees change the coupling characteristics between the land and the atmosphere. Based on this perception, we attempt to clarify the effects of vegetation on the coupling strength between the atmosphere and land surface, and we suggest the most efficient areas of tree planting for desertification mitigation in East Asia. Using regional vegetation-atmosphere coupled model simulations, coupling strength with and without vegetation was computed and compared with each other. An increased vegetation fraction reduces the coupling strength in June, July, and August (JJA), primarily due to decreased evapotranspiration variability. This effect is pronounced over the Manchurian Plains and the highly populated areas of Beijing and Tianjin. The reduced coupling strength tends to weaken feedback between soil moisture and precipitation as a maintenance mechanism of warm season droughts in the midlatitudes and subsequently decrease the probability of droughts, a finding that is reflected in the enhanced JJA mean soil moisture. However, some drylands like the eastern edges of the Gobi desert present marginal or even opposite changes in coupling strength, meaning a limited effect of vegetation on relieving droughts. Therefore, given limited financial and human resources, acupuncture-like afforestation, i.e., concentrated tree planting in a particular region where the coupling strength can be substantially reduced by vegetation, is an effective strategy to secure long-standing desertification mitigation.

Myoung, Boksoon; Choi, Yong-Sang; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Seon Ki

2012-06-01

316

Molecular systematics and plumage coloration evolution of an enigmatic babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis) in East Asia.  

PubMed

The streak-breasted scimitar babbler, Pomatorhinus ruficollis, is a polytypic and taxonomically enigmatic babbler common in southern, eastern, and southeastern Asia. To infer the phylogeny of the P. ruficollis, we examined the sequences of two complete mitochondrial genes (2184 bp in total) from fourteen of the fifteen known subspecies, and an additional five nuclear genes (2657 bp in total) from ten subspecies. The mitochondrial phylogeny indicates four major clades with large geographical identity in P. ruficollis and paraphyly of the P. ruficollis species complex, with the inclusion of the olivaceus group of congeneric P. schisticeps. Together with their interbreeding in northern Indochina, we propose to lump this group into P. ruficollis. Analysis of both multilocus networks and species-tree inference recovered poor phylogenetic structure among mainland/ Hainan subspecies and exclusive groupings of the Taiwanese subspecies, consistent with the recent taxonomic revision of its species status. Our analyses also suggest strong incongruence between the morphological-based classification and molecular systematics, implying the strength of multilocus data for taxonomy. PMID:24071558

Dong, Feng; Li, Shou-Hsien; Zou, Fa-Sheng; Lei, Fu-Min; Liang, Wei; Yang, Jun-Xing; Yang, Xiao-Jun

2014-01-01

317

Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms  

SciTech Connect

Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-03-01

318

A regional climate model simulation of summer monsoon over east asia: a case study of 1991 flood in yangtze-huai river valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of summer monsoon over East Asia is the result of multi-scale interactions, including the large-scale subtropical\\u000a high, upper level jet and regional-scale Meiyu front, vortex, and thermal heating. Regional Climate Models should be a better\\u000a way to simulate the summer monsoon evolution, because not only they can reflect the large-scale forcing through boundary condition,\\u000a theirs high resolution can

Helin Wei; Wei-Chyung Wang

1998-01-01

319

Does Having a Migrant Parent Reduce the Risk of Undernutrition for Children Who Stay Behind in South-East Asia?  

PubMed Central

Many parents from South-East Asia who go overseas to work are motivated by a desire to secure a better future for their children, yet the health consequences for children who stay behind are poorly understood. This study is the first cross-country comparison to explore the relationships between parental migration and the risk of undernutrition (stunting) for primary school-aged children. The analysis uses data from the CHAMPSEA Project for children aged 9 to 11 years in the Philippines (N = 480) and Vietnam (N = 482). A series of logistic regression models compares outcomes for children living in transnational households and children living with both parents in non-migrant households in the same communities. We find no general advantage of having a migrant parent. Rather there is a reduced risk of stunting only for some left-behind children in the Philippines, whereas having a caregiver with low educational attainment is a major risk factor for all children. The findings point to a complex set of relationships between parental migration and child nutrition, possibly reflecting differential opportunities for accumulating household wealth through overseas earnings. Moreover, differences between the two countries caution against generalizing across national or cultural groups. We conclude by considering the implications of the findings for theories of transnationalism and for the UN Millennium Development Goal of reducing childhood undernutrition. PMID:24966445

Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P.

2014-01-01

320

Satellite-Based Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Water Balance in the Grassland Ecosystems of Dryland East Asia  

PubMed Central

The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr?1 over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr?1 from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

2014-01-01

321

Does Having a Migrant Parent Reduce the Risk of Undernutrition for Children Who Stay Behind in South-East Asia?  

PubMed

Many parents from South-East Asia who go overseas to work are motivated by a desire to secure a better future for their children, yet the health consequences for children who stay behind are poorly understood. This study is the first cross-country comparison to explore the relationships between parental migration and the risk of undernutrition (stunting) for primary school-aged children. The analysis uses data from the CHAMPSEA Project for children aged 9 to 11 years in the Philippines (N = 480) and Vietnam (N = 482). A series of logistic regression models compares outcomes for children living in transnational households and children living with both parents in non-migrant households in the same communities. We find no general advantage of having a migrant parent. Rather there is a reduced risk of stunting only for some left-behind children in the Philippines, whereas having a caregiver with low educational attainment is a major risk factor for all children. The findings point to a complex set of relationships between parental migration and child nutrition, possibly reflecting differential opportunities for accumulating household wealth through overseas earnings. Moreover, differences between the two countries caution against generalizing across national or cultural groups. We conclude by considering the implications of the findings for theories of transnationalism and for the UN Millennium Development Goal of reducing childhood undernutrition. PMID:24966445

Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P

2013-12-01

322

Characterization of aerosols in East Asia with the Asian Dust and Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (AD-Net)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous observations of aerosols are being conducted with the Asian Dust and aerosol lidar observation Network (AD-Net). Currently, two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) polarization-sensitive (532 nm) lidars are operated at 20 stations in East Asia. At the primary stations (6 stations), nitrogen vibrational Raman scattering is also measured to obtain the extinction coefficient at 532 nm. Recently, continuous observations with a three-wavelength (1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) lidar having a high-spectral-resolution receiver at 532 nm and a Raman receiver at 355 nm and polarization-sensitive receivers at 532 nm and 355 nm) was started in Tsukuba. Also, continuous observations with multi-wavelength Raman lidars are being prepared in Fukuoka, Okinawa Hedo, and Toyama. A data analysis method for deriving distributions of aerosol components (weak absorption fine (such as sulfate), weak absorption coarse (sea salt), strong absorption fine (black carbon), non-spherical (dust)) has been developed for these multi-parameter lidars. Major subjects of the current studies with AD-Net include data assimilation of multi-parameter lidars, mixing states of Asian dust with air pollution particulate matter, and validation of EarthCARE ATLID based on the aerosol component analysis method.

Sugimoto, Nobuo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Matsui, Ichiro; Jin, Yoshitaka

2014-11-01

323

Constraining NOx emissions over East Asia using satellite NO2 column retrievals with emphasis on the role of NOx transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite observations have provided a continuous view of significant changes in NOx emissions over the past two decades. In this study, tropospheric NO2 columns from the polar orbiting OMI, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments were used to diagnose the annual and seasonal variations and the spatial characteristic of NOx emissions over East Asia. As expected, we found substantial increases in both NO2 columns and bottom-up NOx emissions over China from 2005 to 2011, resulting from rapid economic growth. However, the year-to-year change in NO2 columns over Korea showed increasing trends, in contrast to decreasing inventoried NOx emissions. Both NO2 columns and bottom-up NOx emissions over Japan decreased during this period. Seasonally, maximum and minimum NO2 columns occur in winter and summer above China, Korea, and Japan, as NOx chemical lifetime changes. Above Korea and Japan, however, secondary peaks are found in spring. Numerical simulations using Lagrangian and Eulerian chemical transport models indicate that transport of NOx from China could explain the spring peaks of NO2 columns above Korea and Japan and the discrepancy between annual trends of satellite observations and bottom-up emissions downwind of China . The model results also quantify the contributions of emissions and transport to the local NOx budget over each country and sub-regions of China.

Lee, H.; Kim, S.; Brioude, J. F.; Cooper, O. R.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, C.; Trainer, M.

2013-12-01

324

Arsenic-induced straighthead: an impending threat to sustainable rice production in South and South-East Asia!  

PubMed

Straighthead is a physiological disorder of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that results in sterile florets with distorted lemma and palea, and the panicles or heads may not form at all in extreme cases. Heads remain upright at maturity, hence the name 'straighthead'. The diseased panicles may not emerge from the flag leaf sheath when the disease is severe. Straighthead disease in rice results in poorly developed panicles and significant yield loss. Although other soil physicochemical factors involved, arsenic contamination in soil has also been reported to be closely associated with straighthead of rice. Monosodium methanearsonate has been a popular herbicide in cotton production in the USA, which has shown to cause injuries in rice that are similar to straighthead. Since toxicity of inorganic arsenic (iAs) is higher than other forms of arsenic, it may produce a more severe straighthead disorder in rice. The use of iAs-rich groundwater for irrigation, and the increase of iAs concentrations in agricultural soil in arsenic epidemic South and South-East Asia may cause a high incidence of straighthead in rice, resulting in a threat to sustainable rice production in this region. PMID:22139332

Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, M Mamunur; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

2012-03-01

325

Satellite-based analysis of evapotranspiration and water balance in the grassland ecosystems of Dryland East Asia.  

PubMed

The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr(-1) over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr(-1) from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

2014-01-01

326

Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia  

PubMed Central

The conversion of natural forest to oil palm plantation is a major current threat to the conservation of biodiversity in South East Asia. Most animal taxa decrease in both species richness and abundance on conversion of forest to oil palm, and there is usually a severe loss of forest species. The extent of loss varies significantly across both different taxa and different microhabitats within the oil palm habitat. The principal driver of this loss in diversity is probably the biological and physical simplification of the habitat, but there is little direct evidence for this. The conservation of forest species requires the preservation of large reserves of intact forest, but we must not lose sight of the importance of conserving biodiversity and ecosystem processes within the oil palm habitat itself. We urgently need to carry out research that will establish whether maintaining diversity supports economically and ecologically important processes. There is some evidence that both landscape and local complexity can have positive impacts on biodiversity in the oil palm habitat. By intelligent manipulation of habitat complexity, it could be possible to enhance not only the number of species that can live in oil palm plantations but also their contribution to the healthy functioning of this exceptionally important and widespread landscape. PMID:22006968

Foster, William A.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.; Fayle, Tom M.; Cockerill, Timothy D.; Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Broad, Gavin R.; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Eggleton, Paul; Khen, Chey Vun; Yusah, Kalsum M.

2011-01-01

327

Tackling the malaria problem in the South-East Asia Region: Need for a change in policy?  

PubMed Central

Malaria is largely neglected in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR), although it has the highest number of people susceptible to the disease. Malaria in the SEAR exhibits special epidemiological characteristics such as forest malaria and malaria due to migration across international borders. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has been a focal-point for the emergence of drug resistant malaria. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, coupled with the limited availability of insecticides, malaria control efforts in the SEAR face a steep challenge. Indirect man-made factors such as climate change, as well as direct man-made factors such as the circulation of counterfeit drugs have added to the problem. Increased monitoring, surveillance, pharmacovigilance as well as cross-border collaboration are required to address these problems. Regional networking and data-sharing will keep all stakeholders updated about the status of various malaria control programmes in the SEAR. Cutting-edge technologies such as GIS/GPS (geographical information system/global positioning system) systems and mobile phones can provide information in real-time. A holistic and sustained approach to malaria control by integrated vector management (IVM) is suggested, in which all the stakeholder countries work collaboratively as a consortium. This approach will address the malaria problem in a collective manner so that malaria control can be sustained over time. PMID:23481050

Bharati, Kaushik; Ganguly, N. K.

2013-01-01

328

Current epidemiology and clinical practice in arboviral infections implications on blood supply in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are a growing threat to global health. Complex vectorvirushost interactions lead to unpredictable epidemiological patterns. Difficulties in accurate surveillance including imperfect diagnostic tools impair effective response to outbreaks. With arboviral infections causing a wide spectrum of disease severity, from asymptomatic infection to fatal neuroinvasive and haemorrhagic fevers, the potential impact on blood safety is significant. Asymptomatic or presymptomatic individuals may introduce virus into the blood supply by donation, while recipients can potentially suffer severe consequences. Dengue, West Nile and chikungunya outbreaks have led to responses by blood transfusion services which can inform future planning. Reports of transfusion-associated transmission demonstrate the potentially fatal consequences of lack of haemovigilance. South-East Asia remains vulnerable to arboviruses with permissive climate and high levels of endemic transmission as well as the potential for emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases. Resource limitations constrain the use of expensive technologies for donor screening. Continued surveillance and research will be required to manage the arboviral threat to the blood supply. PMID:25210534

Gan, V C H; Leo, Y-S

2014-01-01

329

Nutrition leadership training in North-East Asia: an IUNS initiative in conjunction with nutrition societies in the region.  

PubMed

Food for humans is one of the most important of all global issues. It is a critical determinant of planetary and individual health, of economic development, of how sustainable energy and water supplies are, and its security a powerful determinant of peace or conflict. Those who assume leadership for the integrity of food and health systems have great responsibility. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), regional and national nutrition science and food technology organizations have concern about the leadership capacity available and required in what are rapidly changing and increasingly demanding circumstances. These include persistent poverty and hunger, climate change which threatens the sustainability of food production and fragile financial systems which are making food less affordable for many. North East Asia (NEA) is a major region for its population size, its economic wealth and disparities, its food production, its life expectancies among the best and its global reach. In 2008, for those of Chinese ancestry and of wider Asian origin, Nutrition Leadership training has been conducted in Hangzhou, Shanghai, Seoul and Taiwan (Hsinchu and Zhunan). Ninety prospective young leaders participated in all. Several successful early career Asian nutrition scientists and professionals served as role models. Senior colleagues acted as mentors for groups of 2 or 3. With mentors, the concept of leadership has been examined, careers and roles explored, knowledge and skills honed for a different future, and plans made to network in mutual support. Early feedback indicates that new opportunities have been created and seized. PMID:19114408

Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo; Sun, Jiang-Qin; Ge, Keyou; Paik, Hee-Young; Cho, Sung Hee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

2008-01-01

330

Climatic mapping to identify high-risk areas for Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum leaf blight on eucalypts in mainland South East Asia and around the world.  

PubMed

Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum is a pathogen on a wide range of hosts. It affects at least 20 species of eucalypts and is an important causal agent of leaf blight of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in central and southern Vietnam. Results from previous studies and observations of broadscale infection patterns in mainland South East Asia were used to derive simple rules (i.e. mean minimum temperature of coldest month > or =16 degrees C and mean annual precipitation > or =1400 mm) to identify locations which are likely to have a high risk of C. quinqueseptatum leaf blight (CqLB). Climatic mapping programs, which include interpolated climatic data estimated for numerous locations, were used to map these high risk areas in Africa, Australia and Latin America as well as in South East Asia. The predicted high-risk areas included several regions where CqLB has already been reported and the maps generated suggested other areas which may be at risk under present climatic conditions given the presence of C. quinqueseptatum and susceptible hosts. Some simple climate change scenarios were also used to suggest areas in mainland South East Asia which may become vulnerable to CqLB over the next 50 years. It is concluded that climatic mapping programs can assist the broadscale evaluation of risk of CqLB infections, although it is recognised that more detailed models and survey information are also needed. PMID:15092931

Booth, T H; Jovanovic, T; Old, K M; Dudzinski, M J

2000-06-01

331

Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-East Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Here, aerosol fluxes and diurnal variability in and above the rainforest canopy were examined in order to gain an understanding of their dynamics in the surface layer of the South-East Asian rainforest. Aerosol fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to venting of the nocturnal boundary layer as it broke up in the morning. Measurements were also conducted below and within canopy at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1-20 ?m) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. At ground level, number concentrations in this size range correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5-1.0 ?m) between above and below canopy showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites, which varied according to time of day. This lag time was shortest during the middle of the day by a significant margin. This was not observed for aerosols larger than 1.0 ?m. Further evidence of daytime coupling between above and below canopy in terms of aerosol measurements is implied by comparison of measurements from an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at the GAW tower and simultaneous bag sampling at the in-canopy site, subsequently analysed with the AMS. Transport of particles through the canopy seems to occur through large-scale, sporadic turbulent events, suggesting that the coupling between the canopy space and the air above is due to these ventilation events.

Whitehead, J. D.; Gallagher, M. W.; Dorsey, J. R.; Robinson, N.; Gabey, A. M.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Flynn, M. J.; Ryder, J.; Nemitz, E.; Davies, F.

2010-05-01

332

Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-East Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Here, aerosol fluxes and diurnal variability in and above the rainforest canopy were examined in order to gain an understanding of their behaviour in the surface layer of the South-East Asian rainforest. Aerosol fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to venting of the nocturnal boundary layer as it broke up in the morning. Measurements were also conducted within the canopy and trunk space at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy and trunk space, as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1-20 ?m) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. At ground level, number concentrations in this size range correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5-1.0 ?m) between above canopy and the trunk space showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites, which varied according to time of day. This lag time was shortest during the middle of the day by a significant margin. This was not observed for aerosols larger than 1.0 ?m. Further evidence of daytime coupling between above canopy and the trunk space in terms of aerosol measurements is implied by comparison of measurements from an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at the GAW tower and simultaneous bag sampling at the in-canopy site, subsequently analysed with the AMS. Transport of particles through the canopy seems to occur through large-scale, sporadic turbulent events, suggesting that the coupling between the canopy space and the air above is due to these ventilation events.

Whitehead, J. D.; Gallagher, M. W.; Dorsey, J. R.; Robinson, N.; Gabey, A. M.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Flynn, M. J.; Ryder, J.; Nemitz, E.; Davies, F.

2010-10-01

333

Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Land Properties from MODIS: Applications to the East Asia Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999 and the Aqua satellite in May 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and surface properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on (i) the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, (ii) cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals, (iii) aerosol optical thickness and size characteristics both over land and ocean, and (iv) ecosystem classification and surface spectral reflectance. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations to the east Asian region. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 min (Level-3 products).

King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Moody, Eric G.

2002-01-01

334

Lidar measurements of Raman scattering at ultraviolet wavelength from mineral dust over East Asia.  

PubMed

We developed a novel measurement channel that utilizes Raman scattering from silicon dioxide (SiO2) quartz at an ultraviolet wavelength (361 nm). The excitation of the Raman signals is done at the primary wavelength of 355 nm emitted from a lidar instrument. In combination with Raman signals from scattering from nitrogen molecules, we may infer the mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient. This technique thus allows us to identify in a comparably direct way the mineral quartz content in mixed pollution plumes that consist, e.g., of a mix of desert dust and urban pollution. We tested the channel for the complex situation of East Asian pollution. We find good agreement of the inferred mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient to results obtained with another mineral quartz channel which was operated at 546 nm (primary emission wavelength at 532 nm), the functionality of which has already been shown for a lidar system in Tsukuba (Japan). The advantage of the novel channel is that it provides a better signal-to-noise ratio because of the shorter measurement wavelength. PMID:21263697

Tatarov, Boyan; Mller, Detlef; Shin, Dong Ho; Shin, Sung Kyun; Mattis, Ina; Seifert, Patric; Noh, Young Min; Kim, Y J; Sugimoto, Nobuo

2011-01-17

335

Association between earthquake and equatorial waves in Outgoing Longwave Radiation over South East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, efforts has been made to correlate the equatorial planetary waves in Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and to seismic activities in South East Asian region. The OLR data has been obtained from NOAA Climate Prediction Centre web site. The earthquake information has been obtained from USGS earthquake information centre. This paper present observations for the two earthquakes, i.e., 26 January 2001, Bhuj, India and 26 December 2004, Sumatra, Indonesia. The normal days OLR has been compared to the OLR recorded during the seismic events. It has been observed that there is significant enhancement in OLR, few days before the earthquake event. The Morlet 6.6 wavelet analysis shows the presence of planetary waves in equatorial OLR for period about 6 days, during and about 80 days before the earthquake. The OLR data were analysed in such a way that the other possible effects are minimized. The anomalous increase and presence of planetary waves before 80 days of seismic event shows great potential in providing early warning of a disastrous earthquake. It should be noted that planetary waves is generated only in the equatorial region irrespective of strong/severe earthquake location.

Yadav, Manohar Lal

336

Learning cities in East Asia: Japan, the Republic of Korea and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lifelong learning cities emerged in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s; in the Republic of Korea in the 2000s and 2010s; and in China mostly from 2000 onwards. They were a countermeasure to the increasing challenges of global as well as post-industrial uncertainties at the turn of the century, when cities were trying to find governmental instruments to engage in cultural processes, community building and personal development as the new way of urban life. Learning was perceived to be a panacea to solve the social problems occurring in overwhelming processes of modernisation and industrialisation. The authors of this paper assert that the practice of and research on learning cities, especially in the East Asian region, need to go beyond the technical rationalities which are guiding government tools, and explain the realities to which they are meant to be applied. In order to do this, the authors investigated three separate but inter-connected scenes found in Japan, the Republic of Korea and China, revealing that the learning city is a phenomenon which reflects complex social dynamics and the interaction of many minds. While the cases in this region are distinctive, they do share some common characteristics. The authors place these within what they term a "community relations model", which they contrast with the "individual competence model" which is usually found in initiatives of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and schemes implemented in the area of the European Union (EU).

Han, SoongHee; Makino, Atsushi

2013-09-01

337

Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Land Properties from MODIS: Applications to the East Asia Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (two bands), 500 m (five bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this presentation we review the comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms that have been developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS data, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of (i) developing a cloud mask for distinguishing clear sky from clouds, (ii) retrieving global cloud radiative and microphysical properties, including cloud top pressure and temperature, effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, thermodynamic phase, and effective radius, (iii) monitoring tropospheric aerosol optical thickness over the land and ocean and aerosol size distribution over the ocean, (iv) determining atmospheric profiles of moisture and temperature, and (v) estimating column water amount. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations to the east Asian region in Spring 2001. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 degree (Level-3 products). An overview of the MODIS atmosphere algorithms and products, status, validation activities, and early level-2 and -3 results will be presented.

King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Chu, D. Allen; Moody, Eric G.

2001-01-01

338

Failure of Miltefosine Treatment for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Children and Men in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background High frequency of relapse in miltefosine-treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients in India and Nepal followed up for twelve months. Objective To identify epidemiological and clinical risk factors for relapse of VL in patients recently treated with standard dosing of miltefosine in India and Nepal. Design Prospective observational study in three Primary Health Centers and one reference center in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India; and two zonal hospitals and a university hospital in South-east Nepal; records of all consenting patients diagnosed with VL and treated with miltefosine according to the current treatment guidelines of the Kala azar elimination program between 2009 and 2011. Results We compared the clinical records of 78 cases of relapse with those of 775 patients who had no record of subsequent relapse. Relapse was 2 times more common amongst male patients (IRR 2.14, 95% CI 1.273.61), and 2 to 3 times more frequent in the age groups below 15 compared to the over 25 year olds (age 10 to 14: IRR 2.53; 95% CI 1.374.65 and Age 2 to 9: IRR 3.19; 95% CI 1.775.77). History of earlier VL episodes, or specific clinical features at time of diagnosis such as duration of symptoms or spleen size were no predictors of relapse. Conclusions Young age and male gender were associated with increased risk of VL relapse after miltefosine, suggesting that the mechanism of relapse is mainly host-related i.e. immunological factors and/or drug exposure (pharmacokinetics). The observed decrease in efficacy of miltefosine may be explained by the inclusion of younger patients compared to the earlier clinical trials, rather than by a decreased susceptibility of the parasite to miltefosine. Our findings highlight the importance of proper clinical trials in children, including pharmacokinetics, to determine the safety, efficacy, drug exposure and therapeutic response of new drugs in this age group. PMID:24941345

Ostyn, Bart; Hasker, Epco; Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Boelaert, Marleen

2014-01-01

339

Hybrid origin and differentiation of two tetraploid Achillea species in East Asia: molecular, morphological and ecogeographical evidence.  

PubMed

Achillea (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) offers classical models for speciation by hybridization and polyploidy. Here, we test the suspected allotetraploid origin of two species, Achillea alpina and Achillea wilsoniana between phylogenetically distinct lineages in East Asia. A total of 421 AFLP bands from 169 individuals and 19 populations of five 2x- and two 4x-species were obtained. The data set was analysed with a newly developed model that accounts for polyploidy and assumes lack of recombination between the parental chromosome sets (i.e. disomic inheritance). A. alpina and A. wilsoniana then appear to be allotetraploids between Achillea acuminata-2x (sect. Ptarmica) and Achillea asiatica-2x (sect. Achillea). The two 4x-species share 44% and 48% of their AFLP bands with A. acuminata-2x, and 39% and 38% with A. asiatica-2x, respectively. Eight plastid haplotypes (A-H) were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses. A. alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x share haplotype F only with A. asiatica-2x. This is consistent with the hybrid origin(s) involving the latter as the maternal ancestor. This result corroborates our previous DNA sequence data, where A. alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x are also placed close to A. asiatica-2x. Morphology, ecology, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles of the two 2x-species are distinct, whereas the two 4x-species, grouped as A. alpina aggregate, form a nearly continuous link between them. Considering all evidence, this 4x-aggregate is regarded as the product of a hybridization between genetically distant 2x-ancestors limited to China and adjacent areas: one A. acuminata-like, and the other A. asiatica-like. The allopolyploid A. alpina agg. exhibits considerable morphological variation and ecological flexibility, and has expanded throughout eastern Asia and to northern North America, far beyond the ranges of their presumed 2x-ancestors. PMID:16367836

Guo, Y-P; Vogl, C; Van Loo, M; Ehrendorfer, F

2006-01-01

340

An unrecognized major collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia during the Late Cretaceous, constraints on the plate reorganization of the Northwest Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions at plate boundaries induce stresses that constitute critical controls on the structural evolution of intraplate regions. However, the traditional tectonic model for the East Asian margin during the Mesozoic, invoking successive episodes of paleo-Pacific oceanic subduction, does not provide an adequate context for important Late Cretaceous dynamics across East Asia, including: continental-scale orogenic processes, significant sinistral strike-slip faulting, and several others. The integration of numerous documented field relations requires a new tectonic model, as proposed here. The Okhotomorsk continental block, currently residing below the Okhotsk Sea in Northeast Asia, was located in the interior of the Izanagi Plate before the Late Cretaceous. It moved northwestward with the Izanagi Plate and collided with the South China Block at about 100 Ma. The indentation of the Okhotomorsk Block within East Asia resulted in the formation of a sinistral strike-slip fault system in South China, formation of a dextral strike-slip fault system in North China, and regional northwest-southeast shortening and orogenic uplift in East Asia. Northeast-striking mountain belts over 500 km wide extended from Southeast China to Southwest Japan and South Korea. The peak metamorphism at about 89 Ma of the Sanbagawa high-pressure metamorphic belt in Southwest Japan was probably related to the continental subduction of the Okhotomorsk Block beneath the East Asian margin. Subsequently, the north-northwestward change of motion direction of the Izanagi Plate led to the northward movement of the Okhotomorsk Block along the East Asian margin, forming a significant sinistral continental transform boundary similar to the San Andreas fault system in California. Sanbagawa metamorphic rocks in Southwest Japan were rapidly exhumed through the several-kilometer wide ductile shear zone at the lower crust and upper mantle level. Accretionary complexes successively accumulated along the East Asian margin during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous were subdivided into narrow and subparallel belts by the upper crustal strike-slip fault system. The departure of the Okhotomorsk Block from the northeast-striking Asian margin resulted in the occurrence of an extensional setting and formation of a wide magmatic belt to the west of the margin. In the Campanian, the block collided with the Siberian margin, in Northeast Asia. At about 77 Ma, a new oceanic subduction occurred to the south of the Okhotomorsk Block, ending its long-distance northward motion. Based on the new tectonic model, the abundant Late Archean to Early Proterozoic detrital zircons in the Cretaceous sandstones in Kamchatka, Southwest Japan, and Taiwan are interpreted to have been sourced from the Okhotomorsk Block basement which possibly formed during the Late Archean and Early Proterozoic. The new model suggests a rapidly northward-moving Okhotomorsk Block at an average speed of 22.5 cm/yr during 89-77 Ma. It is hypothesized that the Okhotomorsk-East Asia collision during 100-89 Ma slowed down the northwestward motion of the Izanagi Plate, while slab pull forces produced from the subducting Izanagi Plate beneath the Siberian margin redirected the plate from northwestward to north-northwestward motion at about 90-89 Ma.

Yang, Yong-Tai

2013-11-01

341

Biomarker evidence for river discharge and vegetation feedbacks as a direct result of monsoon intensity changes in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East Asian Monsoon (EAM) is one of the most significant environmental and socioeconomical contributors to the densely-populated East Asia region and is a key system in global atmospheric circulation. Understanding paleo-EAM changes and feedbacks is therefore of pivotal importance for assessing the impact of future climate change. Previous paleo-EAM reconstructions using paleoprecipitation proxies in lake and cave records have shown a gradual decline in the EAM precipitation 6.5ka-present. What remains unclear is how those changes in central Asia impacted downstream fluvial process. To address this, we have measured a suite of organic geochemical proxies for fluvial sediment flux (the concentration ratio of terrestrial to marine n-fatty acids, n-alcohols and sterols, and the BIT Index) in surface sediments collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China, as well as a core spanning the past 6.5ka. All of our putative sediment flux proxies decrease down the estuary and into the South China Sea, indicating that they record the proportional input of terrigenous organic matter with fidelity giving confidence to their paleoenvironmental applicabiltiy in this region. Within the core, BIT Indices decrease from 0.75 to 0.55 from 6.5ka to present, closely tracking cave paleoprecipitation proxies. The n-alcohol-, n-fatty acid- and sterol-based proxies showed somewhat more variability but overall exhibited the same trends as each other and the BIT indices. In sum, these records indicate that sediment flux, and by extension river discharge, from the Pearl River covaried with paleoprecipitation from 6.5ka-present, and in particular that it has decreased in the later Holocene. Previously measured PRE bulk ?13C values also show a decrease in terrigenous OM over the past 6.5ka, but the record diverges from that of cave speleothems and the PRE biomarker proxies from 2ka-present, characterised by a step-change increase and thus a dramatic rather than gradual decrease in terrigenous OM. However, ?13C values of higher plant n-fatty acids also increase from 2ka-present, indicating that the bulk isotope record does not record a decrease in the terrestrial end-member proportion but instead a shift in the end-member ?13C value, likely due to a greater C4 plant contribution and consistent with increased aridity caused by a weakening monsoon. Thus, all lines of evidence are consistent, confirming interpretations from cave speleothems that EAM intensity had decreased over the past 6.5ka in response to summer tropical insolation, but also revealing its direct impact on vegetation and sediment-discharge from the Pearl River.

Strong, D.; Flecker, R.; Pancost, R. D.; Valdes, P. J.; Wilkinson, I. P.; Rees, J.

2010-12-01

342

GCM simulations of stable isotopes in the water cycle in comparison with GNIP observations over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine the performance of four isotope incorporated GCMs, i.e., ECHAM4 (University of Hamburg), HadCM3 (Hadley Centre), GISS E (Goddard Institute of Space Sciences), and MUGCM (Melbourne University), by comparing the model results with GNIP (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation) observations. The spatial distributions of mean annual ?D and mean annual deuterium excess d in precipitation, and the relationship between ? 18O and ?D in precipitation, are compared between GCMs and GNIP data over East Asia. Overall, the four GCMs reproduce major characteristics of ?D in precipitation as observed by GNIP. Among the four models, the results of ECHAM4 and GISS E are more consistent with GNIP observed precipitation ?D distribution. The simulated d distributions are less consistent with the GNIP results. This may indicate that kinetic fractionation processes are not appropriately represented in the isotopic schemes of GCMs. The GCM modeled MWL (meteoric water line) slopes are close to the GNIP derived MWL, but the simulated MWL intercepts are significantly overestimated. This supports that the four isotope incorporated GCMs may not represent the kinetic fractionation processes well. In term of LMWLs (local meteoric water lines), the simulated LMWL slopes are similar to those from GNIP observations, but slightly overestimated for most locations. Overall, ECHAM4 has better capability in simulating MWL and LMWLs, followed by GISS E. Some isotopic functions (especially those related to kinetic fractionation) and their parameterizations in GCMs may have caused the discrepancy between the simulated and GNIP observed results. Future work is recommended to improve isotopic function parameterization on the basis of the high-resolution isotope observations.

Zhang, Xinping; Sun, Zhian; Guan, Huade; Zhang, Xinzhu; Wu, Huawu; Huang, Yimin

2012-08-01

343

Comparison of the diurnal variations of warm-season precipitation for East Asia vs. North America downstream of the Tibetan Plateau vs. the Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wavenumber-frequency spectral decomposition technique is used to analyze the high-resolution NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) precipitation dataset and to explore the differences and similarities of the diurnal variation of warm-season precipitation in the East Asia and North America downstream of big topography. The predominant phase speed of precipitation at different time scales for North America, averaged over all warm-season months (May-August) for 2003-2010, is ∼20 m s-1, which is faster than the speed of ∼14 m s-1 calculated for East Asia. Consistent with the recent studies of the precipitation diurnal cycles for these two regions, the difference in the diurnal phase propagation is likely due to the difference in the mean steering level wind speed for these two regions. The wavenumber-frequency spectral analysis further reveals the complex, multi-scale, multi-modal nature of the warm-season precipitation variation embedded within the diurnal cycle over both continents, with phase speeds varying from 10 to 30 m s-1 and wave periods varying from diurnal to a few hours. At the diurnal frequency regulated by the thermodynamically driven Mountains-Plains Solenoids (MPS), increased precipitation for both continents first originates in the afternoon from the eastern edge of big topography and subsequently moves downslope in the evening and reaches the broad plains area at night. More complex diurnal evolutions are observed in East Asia due to more the complex, multistep terrains east of the Tibetan Plateau and the associated localized MPS circulations. Nevertheless, increased variation of precipitation at smaller spatial and temporal scales is evident in the active phase of the dominant diurnal cycle for both continents.

Zhang, Yuanchun; Zhang, Fuqing; Sun, Jianhua

2014-05-01

344

The Bimodality of the 100 hPa South Asia High and its Relationship to the Climate Anomaly over East Asia in Summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NCEP\\/NCAR pentad mean reanalysis data from 1980 to 1994 are employed to examine the activities of the 100 hPa South Asia High (SAH) during the boreal summer. The results show that there exists bimodality in the longitude location of the SAH. According to the two preferred regions for the SAH, the SAH is classified into the Tibetan Mode (TM)

Qiong ZHANG; Guoxiong WU; Yongfu QIAN

2002-01-01

345

Identifying and understanding vegetation productivity swings in response to ENSO dynamics to improve land surface modeling capability in quantifying extreme events across Australia and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we quantified linkages between climate and vegetation productivity response across large areas in Australia and East Asia, and carried out more detailed analysis for areas and intervals with extreme productivity swings. We first quantified teleconnections between large scale atmospheric oscillations over the western Pacific and vegetation productivity across Australia, Southeast and East Asia. For this purpose we analyzed remotely sensed vegetation productivity (estimated from MODIS vegetation index time series) in response to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). This resulted in a spatially explicit representation of extreme vegetation productivity response to regional climatic variability. For areas and intervals with strong vegetation productivity swings we then investigated the spatial-temporal relationship of remotely sensed vegetation productivity with temperature and rainfall grids as well as with productivity responses predicted by the Australian CSIRO Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model. By conducting this study across various spatial-temporal scales and variable aggregations, we identified geographic areas and intervals with strong vegetation productivity swings related to SOI atmospheric oscillations and attributed these swings to changes in regional temperature and precipitation grids. The final step of quantifying the space-time correlation between extreme swings in remotely sensed vegetation productivity and land surface model predictions provided insight into model capacity and sensitivity. We identified large ENSO drought-related crop productivity declines for Eastern Australia, continental and insular Southeast Asia and, temporally offset, in northeastern China. The largest divergence between extreme remotely sensed vegetation productivity drops and CABLE-predicted productivity occurred over ground water dependent ecosystems.

Broich, Mark; Huete, Alfredo; Yu, Qiang; Davies, Kevin; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia

2013-04-01

346

Simulating carbon and water cycles of larch forests in East Asia by the BIOME-BGC model with AsiaFlux data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larch forests are widely distributed across many cool-temperate and boreal regions, and they are expected to play an important role in global carbon and water cycles. Model parameterizations for larch forests still contain large uncertainties owing to a lack of validation. In this study, a process-based terrestrial biosphere model, BIOME-BGC, was tested for larch forests at six AsiaFlux sites and

M. Ueyama; K. Ichii; R. Hirata; K. Takagi; J. Asanuma; T. Machimura; Y. Nakai; T. Ohta; N. Saigusa; Y. Takahashi; T. Hirano

2009-01-01

347

Simulating carbon and water cycles of larch forests in East Asia by the BIOME-BGC model with AsiaFlux data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larch forests are widely distributed across many cool-temperate and boreal regions, and they are expected to play an important role in global carbon and water cycles. Model parameterizations for larch forests still contain large uncertainties owing to a lack of validation. In this study, a process-based terrestrial biosphere model, BIOME-BGC, was tested for larch forests at six AsiaFlux sites and

M. Ueyama; K. Ichii; R. Hirata; K. Takagi; J. Asanuma; T. Machimura; Y. Nakai; T. Ohta; N. Saigusa; Y. Takahashi; T. Hirano

2010-01-01

348

Transient receptor potential is essential for high temperature tolerance in invasive Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia minor 1 cryptic species.  

PubMed

Temperature is an important factor in affecting population dynamics and diffusion distribution of organisms. Alien species can successfully invade and colonize to various temperature environments, and one of important reasons is that alien species have a strong resistance to stress temperature. Recently, researchers have focused on the mechanisms of temperature sensing to determine the sensing and regulation mechanisms of temperature adaptation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) is one of the key components of an organism's temperature perception system. TRP plays important roles in perceiving temperature, such as avoiding high temperature, low temperature and choosing the optimum temperature. To assess high temperature sensation and the heat resistance role of the TRP gene, we used 3' and 5' rapid-amplification of cDNA ends to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of the TRP gene from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 (Middle East Asia Minor 1), examined the mRNA expression profile under various temperature conditions, and identified the heat tolerance function. This is the first study to characterize the TRP gene of invasive B. tabaci MEAM1 (MEAM1 BtTRP). The full-length cDNA of MEAM1 BtTRP was 3871 bp, and the open reading frames of BtTRP was 3501 bp, encoding 1166 amino acids. Additionally, the BtTRP mRNA expression level was significantly increased at 35C. Furthermore, compared with control treatments, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults was significantly decreased under high temperature stress conditions after feeding with dsRNA BtTRP. Collectively, these results showed that MEAM1 BtTRP is a key element in sensing high temperature and plays an essential role in B. tabaci MEAM1 heat tolerance ability. Our data improved our understanding of the mechanism of temperature sensation in B. tabaci MEAM1 at the molecular level and could contribute to the understanding of the thermal biology of B. tabaci MEAM1 within the context of global climate change. PMID:25254364

L, Zhi-Chuang; Li, Qian; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao

2014-01-01

349

Transient Receptor Potential Is Essential for High Temperature Tolerance in Invasive Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia Minor 1 Cryptic Species  

PubMed Central

Temperature is an important factor in affecting population dynamics and diffusion distribution of organisms. Alien species can successfully invade and colonize to various temperature environments, and one of important reasons is that alien species have a strong resistance to stress temperature. Recently, researchers have focused on the mechanisms of temperature sensing to determine the sensing and regulation mechanisms of temperature adaptation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) is one of the key components of an organisms temperature perception system. TRP plays important roles in perceiving temperature, such as avoiding high temperature, low temperature and choosing the optimum temperature. To assess high temperature sensation and the heat resistance role of the TRP gene, we used 3? and 5? rapid-amplification of cDNA ends to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of the TRP gene from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 (Middle East Asia Minor 1), examined the mRNA expression profile under various temperature conditions, and identified the heat tolerance function. This is the first study to characterize the TRP gene of invasive B. tabaci MEAM1 (MEAM1 BtTRP). The full-length cDNA of MEAM1 BtTRP was 3871 bp, and the open reading frames of BtTRP was 3501 bp, encoding 1166 amino acids. Additionally, the BtTRP mRNA expression level was significantly increased at 35C. Furthermore, compared with control treatments, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults was significantly decreased under high temperature stress conditions after feeding with dsRNA BtTRP. Collectively, these results showed that MEAM1 BtTRP is a key element in sensing high temperature and plays an essential role in B. tabaci MEAM1 heat tolerance ability. Our data improved our understanding of the mechanism of temperature sensation in B. tabaci MEAM1 at the molecular level and could contribute to the understanding of the thermal biology of B. tabaci MEAM1 within the context of global climate change. PMID:25254364

L, Zhi-Chuang; Li, Qian; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao

2014-01-01

350

The Silurian Hoedongri Formation in the Taebaeksan Basin of Korea Revisited: its Significance in the Tectonic Reconstruction of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Silurian Hoedongri Formation of the Taebaeksan Basin of South Korea has been used as a key unit to the correlation of tectonic provinces of East Asia since the South China craton (or Yangtz block) contains Silurian-Devonian sequences as well as Cambrian-Ordovician ones in the Paleozoic basins while the North China craton (or Sino-Korea block) is devoid of Silurian-Devonian sequences. In the Biryongdong area near the type locality of the Hoedongri Formation, it has been reported that the gray limestone of the Hoedongri Formation unconformably overlies brownish gray limestone of the Ordovician Haengmae Formation. However, our detailed examination on the Biryongdong section reveals that both of the brownish gray and gray limestones are mylonitic marbles with the boundary between the two units being a healed fault breccia zone (~ 12 m thick). The main difference of the two units is that repeated cycles of plastic deformation and fracturing occurred in the underlying brownish gray marble ('Haengmae') while the gray marble ('Hoedongri') deformed mainly by intracrystalline plasticity. The mylonitic foliation strikes NW with a low to moderate dip angle (20-60) to NE. The ridge-in-groove type lineation on foliation surface trends NNW. The shape-preferred foliation of elongated calcite grains are oblique to the mylonitic foliation defined by layers with a grain-size variation, indicating a top-to-the-SSE shear sense. The mylonitic marble consists of elongated remnant grains (80-120 ?m) with deformation twins and dynamically recrystallized matrix grains (10-40 ?m). Grain boundaries and twin boundaries are lobate or wavy, indicating dynamic boundary migration. Some layers of the gray mylonitic marble are composed entirely of larger (80-120 ?m) elongated calcite grains. In the brownish gray mylonitic marble unit, layers of brittle fracturing overprinting mylonitic foliation occur. In some of these layers, fragments (several cm - tens of cm) of the mylonitic marble are angular to subangular with coarse calcite fillings between the fragments. In other layers, mylonitic marble fragments are elongated with matrix foliation wrapping around them. These features suggest repeated cycles of plastic deformation and fracturing. Tectonic significance of this shear zone (at least 90 m thick) is not clear at present, and the regional extent and absolute age constraint of the shear zone should be clarified.

Chae, S.; Hong, J.; Jung, S.; Ree, J.

2011-12-01

351

Early Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia based on food-web and energy-flow models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years, there has been global interest in the environments and ecosystems around the world. It is helpful to reconstruct past environments and ecosystems to help understand them in the present and the future. The present environments and ecosystems are an evolving continuum with those of the past and the future. This paper demonstrates the contribution of geology and paleontology to such continua. Using fossils, we can make an estimation of past population density as an ecosystem index based on food-web and energy-flow models. Late Mesozoic nonmarine deposits are distributed widely on the eastern Asian continent and contain various kinds of fossils such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, dinosaurs, mammals, bivalves, gastropods, insects, ostracodes, conchostracans, terrestrial plants, and others. These fossil organisms are useful for late Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystem reconstruction using food-web and energy-flow models. We chose Early Cretaceous fluvio-lacustrine basins in the Choyr area, southeastern Mongolia, and the Tetori area, Japan, for these analyses and as a potential model for reconstruction of other similar basins in East Asia. The food-web models are restored based on taxa that occurred in these basins. They form four or five trophic levels in an energy pyramid consisting of rich primary producers at its base and smaller biotas higher in the food web. This is the general energy pyramid of a typical ecosystem. Concerning the population densities of vertebrate taxa in 1 km2 in these basins, some differences are recognized between Early Cretaceous and the present. For example, Cretaceous estimates suggest 2.3 to 4.8 times as many herbivores and 26.0 to 105.5 times the carnivore population. These differences are useful for the evaluation of past population densities of vertebrate taxa. Such differences may also be caused by the different metabolism of different taxa. Preservation may also be a factor, and we recognize that various problems occur in past ecosystem reconstructions. Counts of small numbers of confirmed species and estimates of maximum numbers of species present in the basin are used for the analysis and estimation of energy flow. This approach applies the methods of modern ecosystem analysis. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Matsukawa, M.; Saiki, K.; Ito, M.; Obata, I.; Nichols, D.J.; Lockley, M.G.; Kukihara, R.; Shibata, K.

2006-01-01

352

Genetic differentiation of Puccinia triticina populations in the Middle East and genetic similarity with populations in Central Asia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and widespread disease in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to determine if genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina are present in the Middle East region and to compare the population from the Middle East with the ...

353

Evaluating the accuracy of NOx emission fluxes over East Asia by comparison between CMAQ-simulated and OMI-retrieved NO2 columns with the application of averaging kernels from the KNMI algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the accuracy of bottom-up NOx emissions in East Asia, CMAQ-calculated NO2 columns were compared with OMI-retrieved NO2 columns. For a direct comparison between the two NO2 columns, the averaging kernels (AKs) retrieved from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) algorithm were applied to the CMAQ model simulations. When the two NO2 columns before and after the applications of AKs were compared over East Asia, it was found that, for example, the normalized mean errors (NMEs) between the CMAQ-estimated and OMI-retrieved NO2 columns were reduced significantly, from ∼103% to ∼46%, from ∼112% to ∼ 45%, and from ∼135% to ∼40% during spring, fall, and winter, respectively. Also, the two tropospheric NO2 columns were better correlated spatially in East Asia (R = 0.71-0.94) after the application of the AKs. From this study, it was found that the NOx emissions used were, on annual average, ∼28% underestimated in East Asia, although some overestimates were also found, partly over southern Central East China, the Sichuan Basin, and South Korea regions during the winter. However, these results can also be influenced by several uncertainty factors in the CMAQ model simulations, such as monthly variation and the strength of the NOx emissions. Thus, we also applied different monthly variation and different strengths of the NOx emissions to the CMAQ model simulations over East Asia. The results showed strong impacts on the tropospheric NO2 columns in East Asia, indicating that these two factors are also important. Further sensitivity analysis was conducted with reaction probabilities of N2O5 onto atmospheric aerosols. Those results are also discussed in detail in this manuscript. Although several uncertainty factors are discussed, it was concluded that the consideration of the AKs is the single most important factor in investigating the accuracy of bottom-up NOx emissions generally being used in CTM simulations.

Han, K. M.; Lee, S.; Chang, I. S.; Song, C. H.

2014-06-01

354

The Writing on the Wall: China-Russia-Iran Axis in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Nuclear Tipping Points in Middle East and East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to link Middle East and East Asian nuclear proliferation by examining the Sino-Russian Axis on the Iran-North Korea nuclear stalemate. The author treats Iran and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) as one unit, based on the author's 2008 paper, The King From the East: DPRK-Syria-Iran Nuclear Nexus and Strategic Implications for Israel and the ROK,

Christina Y. Lin

355

HRD Issues in Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) issues in Asia. "The Japanese Human Resource Development System" (Kiyoe Harada) provides a comprehensive model of the Japanese HRD system based on the current state of the art, including management practices and issues and trends in Japanese HRD. "Structured

1998

356

Changes in precipitation intensity over East Asia during the 20th and 21st centuries simulated by a global atmospheric model with a 60 km grid size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted three-member ensemble simulations using a global atmospheric model with a high horizontal resolution of a 60 km grid size for the period 1872-2099 (228 years). Between 1872 and 2005, the model was forced with observed historical sea surface temperatures (SST), while between 2006 and 2099, the boundary SST data were estimated using the multimodel ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 models and assuming A1B emission scenario. Annual mean precipitation (PAVE), the Simple Daily Precipitation Intensity Index (SDII), and the maximum 5 day precipitation total (R5d) averaged over East Asia increase almost monotonically through the 21st century. The statistically significant area of precipitation intensity increase is larger for 2080-2099 than for 2046-2065. In particular, intense rainfall will increase over northern and southern China during 2080-2099. The conversion rate from water vapor to precipitation per 1C rise in surface air temperature for SDII and R5D is much larger than that for PAVE during the 21st century. This suggests that extreme rainfall events will occur more frequently than moderate rainfall events even if the amount of temperature rise is same. Future changes in the horizontal transport of water vapor also lead to more intense precipitation over East Asia. In particular, the increase in clockwise water vapor transport due to intensification of the subtropical high contributes to increased intense precipitation over southern China.

Kusunoki, Shoji; Mizuta, Ryo

2013-10-01

357

Evaluation of NOx emission inventory over East Asia using satellite observations and the WRF-Chem model simulated NO2 columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted in large quantities by anthropogenic activity mainly from fossil fuel combustion and play a key role in the photochemically induced catalytic production of ozone. Rapid industrial and urban development in East Asia and specifically in China has resulted in unprecedented growth in NOx emissions. Remote sensing instruments have measured NO2 columns continuously during the past two decades. Spatial-temporal variations derived from these data sets provide important resources for identifying large sources and quantifying NOx emissions in this region. In addition to strong source areas, we also found the enhanced NO2 columns over Yellow Sea located between China and Korea, which imply a potentially important role of transport in local NOx budgets in this region. In order to quantify transport and emissions of NOx within East Asia, we carry out model simulations with a regional chemical transport model, the WRF-Chem model with different emission scenarios. The WRF-Chem model along with satellite measurements has been successfully used for the evaluations of bottom-up NOx emission inventories in the U.S. Finally, we evaluate and adjust the bottom-up NOx emission inventory by comparing the results of WRF-Chem simulations with the satellite NO2 columns and considering the roles of transport and emission.

Kim, C.; Lee, H.; Kim, S.; Lamsal, L. N.; Richter, A.; Ahmadov, R.; Burrows, J. P.; Frost, G. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.

2012-12-01

358

Mitochondrial COI and 16sRNA Evidence for a Single Species Hypothesis of E. vitis, J. formosana and E. onukii in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Tea green leafhopper is one of the most damaging tea pests in main tea production regions of East Asia. For lack of recognized morphological characters, the dominant species of tea green leafhoppers in Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan have always been named as Empoasca vitis Gthe, Jacobiasca formosana Paoli and Empoasca onukii MATSUDA, respectively. Furthermore, nothing is known about the genetic relationships among them. In this study, we collected six populations from Mainland China, four populations from Japan and one population from Taiwan, and examined the genetic distances in the COI and 16sRNA regions of mtDNA among them. The results showed that the genetic distances based on single gene or the combined sequences among eleven leafhopper populations were 0.31.2%, which were all less than the species boundary of 2%. Moreover, there were at least two haplotypes shared by two distinct populations from different regions. The phylogenetic analysis based on single gene or combined sets also supported that tea green leafhoppers from Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan were closely related to each other, and there were at least two specimens from different regions clustered ahead of those from the same region. Therefore, we propose that the view of recognizing the dominant species of tea green leafhoppers in three adjacent tea production regions of East Asia as different species is unreliable or questionable and suggest that they are a single species. PMID:25506929

Fu, Jian-Yu; Han, Bao-Yu; Xiao, Qiang

2014-01-01

359

A review of the status of foot and mouth disease in South-East Asia and approaches to control and eradication.  

PubMed

The author presents reports of foot and mouth disease (FMD) submitted between 1996 and 2001 to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE: World organisation for animal health) Sub-Commission for FMD in South-East Asia. Of the ten countries in South-East Asia, FMD is endemic in seven (Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) and three are free of the disease (Brunei, Indonesia and Singapore). Part of the Philippines is also recognised internationally as being free of FMD. From 1996 to 2001, serotype O viruses caused outbreaks in all seven of the endemically infected countries. On the mainland, three different type O lineages have been recorded, namely: the South-East Asian (SEA) topotype, the pig-adapted or Cathay topotype and the pan-Asian topotype. Prior to 1999, one group of SEA topotype viruses occurred in the eastern part of the region and another group in the western part. However, in 1999, the pan-Asian lineage was introduced to the region and has become widespread. The Cathay topotype was reported from Vietnam in 1997 and is the only FMD virus currently endemic in the Philippines. Type Asia 1 has never been reported from the Philippines but was reported from all countries on the mainland except Vietnam between 1996 and 2001. Type A virus has not been reported from east of the Mekong River in the past six years and seems to be mainly confined to Thailand with occasional spillover into Malaysia. The distribution and movement of FMD viruses in the region is a reflection of the trade-driven movement of livestock. There is great disparity across the region in the strength and resources of the animal health services and this has a direct impact on FMD control. Regulatory environments are not well developed and enforcement of regulations can be ineffectual. The management of animal movement is quite variable across the region and much market-driven transboundary movement of livestock is unregulated. Formal quarantine approaches are generally not supported by traders or are not available. Vaccination is not used widely as a control tool because of the expense. However, it is applied by the Veterinary Services in Malaysia to control incursions of the disease and there is a mass vaccination programme for large ruminants in Thailand where the Government produces and distributes vaccine. Vaccination is also used by the commercial pig sector, particularly in the Philippines and Thailand. PMID:12530354

Gleeson, L J

2002-12-01

360

Asynchronous marine-terrestrial signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia associated with low- and high-latitude climate changes  

PubMed Central

A high-resolution multiproxy record, including pollen, foraminifera, and alkenone paleothermometry, obtained from a single core (DG9603) from the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (ECS), provided unambiguous evidence for asynchronous climate change between the land and ocean over the past 40 ka. On land, the deglacial stage was characterized by rapid warming, as reflected by paleovegetation, and it began ca. 15 kaBP, consistent with the timing of the last deglacial warming in Greenland. However, sea surface temperature estimates from foraminifera and alkenone paleothermometry increased around 2019 kaBP, as in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Sea surface temperatures in the Okinawa Trough were influenced mainly by heat transport from the tropical western Pacific Ocean by the Kuroshio Current, but the epicontinental vegetation of the ECS was influenced by atmospheric circulation linked to the northern high-latitude climate. Asynchronous terrestrial and marine signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia were thus clearly related to ocean currents and atmospheric circulation. We argue that (i) early warming seawater of the WPWP, driven by low-latitude insolation and trade winds, moved northward via the Kuroshio Current and triggered marine warming along the ECS around 2019 kaBP similar to that in the WPWP, and (ii) an almost complete shutdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation ca. 1815 kaBP was associated with cold Heinrich stadial-1 and delayed terrestrial warming during the last deglacial warming until ca. 15 kaBP at northern high latitudes, and hence in East Asia. Terrestrial deglacial warming therefore lagged behind marine changes by ca. 34 ka. PMID:23720306

Xu, Deke; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Zhenxia; Li, Tiegang; Shen, Caiming; Wang, Luo

2013-01-01

361

Asynchronous marine-terrestrial signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia associated with low- and high-latitude climate changes.  

PubMed

A high-resolution multiproxy record, including pollen, foraminifera, and alkenone paleothermometry, obtained from a single core (DG9603) from the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (ECS), provided unambiguous evidence for asynchronous climate change between the land and ocean over the past 40 ka. On land, the deglacial stage was characterized by rapid warming, as reflected by paleovegetation, and it began ca. 15 kaBP, consistent with the timing of the last deglacial warming in Greenland. However, sea surface temperature estimates from foraminifera and alkenone paleothermometry increased around 20-19 kaBP, as in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Sea surface temperatures in the Okinawa Trough were influenced mainly by heat transport from the tropical western Pacific Ocean by the Kuroshio Current, but the epicontinental vegetation of the ECS was influenced by atmospheric circulation linked to the northern high-latitude climate. Asynchronous terrestrial and marine signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia were thus clearly related to ocean currents and atmospheric circulation. We argue that (i) early warming seawater of the WPWP, driven by low-latitude insolation and trade winds, moved northward via the Kuroshio Current and triggered marine warming along the ECS around 20-19 kaBP similar to that in the WPWP, and (ii) an almost complete shutdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation ca. 18-15 kaBP was associated with cold Heinrich stadial-1 and delayed terrestrial warming during the last deglacial warming until ca. 15 kaBP at northern high latitudes, and hence in East Asia. Terrestrial deglacial warming therefore lagged behind marine changes by ca. 3-4 ka. PMID:23720306

Xu, Deke; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Zhenxia; Li, Tiegang; Shen, Caiming; Wang, Luo

2013-06-11

362

A contribution of brown carbon aerosol to the aerosol light absorption and its radiative forcing in East Asia  

E-print Network

Asia in spring 2001. We estimated brown carbon aerosol concentrations in the model using the mass ratio. 1. Introduction Solar absorption by aerosols is one of the critical issues with large uncertainties et al., 2007). Its sources are known to be low-temperature biomass and biofuel burnings as well

Park, Rokjin

363

Simulation of paleoclimate over East Asia at 6ka BP and 21ka BP by a regional climate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a regional climate model with detailed land surface processes (RegCM2), East Asian monsoon climates at 6ka BP and 21ka BP are simulated by prescribing vegetation and employing paleovegetation respectively in order to examine land surface effects on East Asian climate system and the potential mechanisms for climate change. The RegCM2 with a 120 120km 2 resolution has simulated

Y. Q. Zheng; G. Yu; S. M. Wang; B. Xue; D. Q. Zhuo; X. M. Zeng; H. Q. Liu

2004-01-01

364

Emerging drug problems in Asia  

PubMed Central

This session, Emerging Drug Problems in Asia, focused on emerging drug problems in Asia. Dr. Juana Toms-Rossell discussed East and Southeast Asia: Emerging Drug Problems and Response and Dr. Wei J. Chen discussed Ketamine Use among Regular Tobacco and Alcohol Users as Revealed by Respondent Driven Sampling in Taipei: Prevalence, Expectancy, and Users' Risky Decision Making. PMID:25267884

Bart, Gavin

2014-01-01

365

Cross-Border Higher Education for Regional Integration:Analysis of the JICA-RI Survey on Leading Universities in East Asia. JICA-RI Working Paper. No. 26  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Set against the backdrop of increasing economic interdependence in East Asia, the idea of regional integration is now being discussed as a long-term political process in the region. As in the field of the international economy, de facto integration and interdependence exist with respect to the internationalization of the higher education system

Kuroda, Kazuo; Yuki, Takako; Kang, Kyuwon

2010-01-01

366

Building capacity for evidence generation, synthesis and implementation to improve the care of mothers and babies in South East Asia: methods and design of the SEA-ORCHID Project using a logical framework approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rates of maternal and perinatal mortality remain high in developing countries despite the existence of effective interventions. Efforts to strengthen evidence-based approaches to improve health in these settings are partly hindered by restricted access to the best available evidence, limited training in evidence-based practice and concerns about the relevance of existing evidence. South East Asia - Optimising Reproductive and

Steve McDonald; Tari Turner; Catherine Chamberlain; Pisake Lumbiganon; Jadsada Thinkhamrop; Mario R Festin; Jacqueline J Ho; Hakimi Mohammad; David J Henderson-Smart; Jacki Short; Caroline A Crowther; Ruth Martis; Sally Green

2010-01-01

367

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

-buIldIng A STRong STATE AMIdST A STRong SoCIETy 4 ChInA'S EnTRy InTo CEnTRAl ASIA'S SouThERn TIER 5 SECuRITy All on international law, security, diplomacy and regional issues. The first two weeks at the ANU were followed and Aviation. On their return to Kabul, the trainees will be expected to provide leadership in their ministries

368

Changes in storm track and precipitation variability in East Asia and western North Pacific related to the MJO during boreal winter under global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examines the change in precipitation intensity and storm track activity (STA) influenced by Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) in response to global warming in East Asia and western North Pacific during the boreal winter using CMIP5 models. The synoptic eddy activity and precipitation intensity are enhanced (suppressed) with the MJO in the tropical Indian Ocean (western Pacific). Several models have relatively good representation of MJO precipitation characteristics with high skill score (BEST models). In the present climate simulation (the latter half of 20th century), the BEST models ensemble produce weaker amplitude of upper-atmospheric circulations in the western North Pacific associated with the MJO in the Indian Ocean. This result arises from the weakened Rossby wave response excited by the MJO convective heating due to the reduced amplitude of MJO precipitation in the western Pacific. In the future climate (the late 21st century) projection, BEST models exhibit increased amplitude of MJO rainfall in the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific. The STA in the western North Pacific related to the MJO in the Indian Ocean intensify in the future warming climate. The intensification of STA corresponds to the increased lower-atmospheric meridional eddy heat flux. The analysis shows their intensifications correspond to the strengthened intraseasonal baroclinicity in the western North Pacific influenced by the MJO. BEST models project increase of precipitation over eastern China and Japan in East Asia. The diagnosis of the moisture budget indicate that this precipitation change is attributed to the increases of moisture flux due to mean moisture advection by strengthened anomalous intraseasonal southerly flow. On the other hand, the mean moisture convergence by anomalous intraseasonal flows and sea surface evaporation contribute to the increased precipitation over the subtropical western Pacific. These results suggests that correct projection in the midlatitude synoptic-to-intraseasonal weather variability require better model performance in amplitude, intensity, and eastward propagation of MJO precipitation and better understanding of air-sea interaction over the tropical and midlatitude.

Takahashi, C.; Shirooka, R.

2013-12-01

369

Late Triassic volcanic activity in South-East Asia: New stratigraphical, geochronological and paleontological evidence from the Luang Prabang Basin (Laos)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In South-East Asia, sedimentary basins displaying continental Permian and Triassic deposits have been poorly studied. Among these, the Luang Prabang Basin (North Laos) represents a potential key target to constrain the stratigraphic and structural evolutions of South-East Asia. A combined approach involving sedimentology, palaeontology, geochronology and structural analysis, was thus implemented to study the basin. It resulted in a new geological map, in defining new formations, and in proposing a complete revision of the Late Permian to Triassic stratigraphic succession as well as of the structural organization of the basin. Radiometric ages are used to discuss the synchronism of volcanic activity and sedimentation. The Luang Prabang Basin consists of an asymmetric NE-SW syncline with NE-SW thrusts, located at the contact between Late Permian and Late Triassic deposits. The potential stratigraphic gap at the Permian-Triassic boundary is therefore masked by deformation in the basin. The Late Triassic volcaniclastic continental deposits are representative of alluvial plain and fluvial environments. The basin was fed by several sources, varying from volcanic, carbonated to silicic (non-volcanic). U-Pb dating of euhedral zircon grains provided maximum sedimentation ages. The stratigraphic vertical succession of these ages, from ca. 225, ca. 220 to ca. 216 Ma, indicates that a long lasting volcanism was active during sedimentation and illustrates significant variations in sediment preservation rates in continental environments (from 100 m/Ma to 3 m/Ma). Anhedral inherited zircon grains gave older ages. A large number of them, at ca. 1870 Ma, imply the reworking of a Proterozoic basement and/or of sediments containing fragments of such a basement. In addition, the Late Triassic (Carnian to Norian) sediments yielded to a new dicynodont skull, attributed to the Kannemeyeriiform group family, from layers dated in between 225 and 221 Ma (Carnian).

Blanchard, Sbastien; Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Hallot, Erwan; Nalpas, Thierry; Poujol, Marc; Battail, Bernard; Jalil, Nour-Eddine; Steyer, Jean-Sbastien; Vacant, Renaud; Vran, Monette; Bercovici, Antoine; Diez, Jos Bienvenido; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Khenthavong, Bounxou; Vongphamany, Sotsy

2013-07-01

370

Comparison of simulated and observed signals over East Asia using WRF-Chem model, A-Train data, and satellite simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid economic growth in East Asia during the past few decades have led to substantial increase in emission of aerosols and their precursors. It could have a profound impact on the energy budget and hydrological cycle in this region. More recently, chemical transport models (CTMs) have been integrated with meteorological model in the on-line manner, which allowed to take interactive feedbacks into account. Also the recent success of space-borne CloudSat cloud radar and CALIPSO lidar active measurements adds information of vertical dimension to MODIS passive sensor's two-dimensional observations, which should allow us to evaluate models in more detail. In a combination of modeling and data analysis, it is important to assess of the impact of rising pollution levels on clouds in terms of aerosol indirect effect constitute a major cause of uncertainty in predicting future climate change. In this study, we make use of our merged dataset for CloudSat and CALIPSO as well as developed our cloud mask scheme. We compare the vertical and horizontal distributions of clouds in East Asia during springtime on 2007 simulated in Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). Different experiment scenarios are carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of cloud microphysics to changes in emissions and with or without accounting feedback mechanisms. The horizontal distributions of model results are compared with MODIS retrieved cloud properties. In addition, the contoured frequency by altitude diagram (CFADs) and joint histogram for CloudSat reflectivity and CALIPSO backscatter signals generated from model output using satellite simulators, the Joint Simulator for Satellite Sensors (J-simulator) developed under JAXA/EarthCARE mission, are compared to observed ones to evaluate the simulated cloud structure.

Hagihara, Y.; Itahashi, S.; Yumimoto, K.; Okamoto, H.

2011-12-01

371

Late Quaternary climates of East Asia deduced from the total organic carbon contents of cored sediments (MD179-3304, 3312) off Joetsu City, Japan Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations are analyzed with high temporal resolution (ca. 100 years) for cores MD179-3304 and MD179-3312 taken from the Japan Sea off Joetsu City. The temporal changes in TOC and TN concentrations vary quasi-regularly in similar patterns. The age models are formed on the basis of the dates of 14C dating, marker tephra beds, TL layers, and marine isotope events with depth. TOC concentration is high in MIS 1 and 5, low in MIS 2 and 4, and slightly elevated in MIS 3 with frequent short fluctuations. This general trend is very similar to LR04 curve, except for the reduced dominance of TOC around the MIS 5.5 substage. As shown typically in MIS 3, there are many peaks of TOC in a short interval. The details of these TOC peaks can be correlated with the warm interstadials of the Greenland ice core. We can identify a sawtooth-like decreasing trend of TOC in MIS 3. In contrast, the decreasing trend of ?18O in the ice core corresponds to an increasing trend of TOC in MIS 5. The most plausible explanation for the correlation of climate changes between East Asia and the North Atlantic is oscillation of the Arctic polar front through time. The detailed correspondence of TOC concentrations of the Japan Sea sediments to other common paleoclimate proxies means that the TOC concentrations of these sediments is an excellent paleoclimate record in Far East Asia, although the genetic relationship between air temperature and biological productivity in the Japan Sea is as yet unknown.

Urabe, Tasuku; Kuriyama, Manato; Matsumoto, Ryo; Kumon, Fujio

2014-08-01

372

Analysis of Non-Tropical Cyclone Induced Flood Events over South East Asia: Investigating Flood Frequency and Extremes in the Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much work has been completed in analyzing Southeast Asia's tropical cyclone climatology and the associated flooding throughout the region. Although, an active and strong monsoon season also brings major flooding across the Philippines resulting in the loss of lives and significant economic impacts, only a limited amount of research work has been conducted to investigate the frequency and flood loss estimates of these non-tropical cyclone (TC) storms. In this study, using the TRMM 3-hourly rainfall product, tropical cyclone rainfall is removed to construct a non-TC rainfall climatology across the region. Given this data, stochastically generated rainfall that is both spatially and temporally correlated across the country is created to generate a longer historically-based record of non-TC precipitation. After defining the rainfall criteria that constitutes a flood event based on observed floods and TRMM data, this event definition is applied to the stochastic catalog of rainfall to determine flood events. Subsequently, a thorough analysis of non-TC flood extremes, frequency, and distribution is completed for the country of the Philippines. As a result, the above methodology and datasets provide a unique opportunity to further study flood occurrences and their extremes across most of South East Asia.

Marcella, M. P.; CHEN, C.; Senarath, S. U.

2013-12-01

373

Co-operation in Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the co-operation in environmental education at the tertiary level with regard to sub-regions, which include North-East Asia, South-East Asia, South Asia, and the South Pacific. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

2001-01-01

374

Comparison of three chosen vegetables with others from South East Asia for their lutein and zeaxanthin content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three local leafy vegetables chekup manis (Sauropus androgynus), West Indian pea tree leaves (Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.), and drumstick tree leaves (Moringa oleifera), are consumed by local South East Asian populations and are believed to have beneficial effects on improved vision and prevention of eye diseases. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array detection was used to investigate their

Yeting Liu; Conrad O. Perera; Valiyaveettil Suresh

2007-01-01

375

The Restoration of a Local Energy Regime Amid Trends of Power Liberalization in East Asia: The Seoul Sustainable Energy Utility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the mid-1980s, power sector liberalization has been embraced at different levels in the East Asian countries of China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. The dominant rationale underlying power liberalization has been a quest for efficiency improvements, to be achieved by substituting private market activity for public regulations and by opening

Yu, Jung-Min

2009-01-01

376

Private Tutoring and Mass Schooling in East Asia: Reflections of Inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines private tutoring systems in three East Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia) with the purpose of examining the relationship between those systems and formal education systems. The study of private tutoring systems in each nation can be used to reveal the inadequacies of the formal education system in meeting the

Dawson, Walter

2010-01-01

377

The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages  

PubMed Central

Linguistic and archaeological evidence about the origins of the Malagasy, the indigenous peoples of Madagascar, points to mixed African and Indonesian ancestry. By contrast, genetic evidence about the origins of the Malagasy has hitherto remained partial and imprecise. We defined 26 Y-chromosomal lineages by typing 44 Y-chromosomal polymorphisms in 362 males from four different ethnic groups from Madagascar and 10 potential ancestral populations in Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific. We also compared mitochondrial sequence diversity in the Malagasy with a manually curated database of 19,371 hypervariable segment I sequences, incorporating both published and unpublished data. We could attribute every maternal and paternal lineage found in the Malagasy to a likely geographic origin. Here, we demonstrate approximately equal African and Indonesian contributions to both paternal and maternal Malagasy lineages. The most likely origin of the Asia-derived paternal lineages found in the Malagasy is Borneo. This agrees strikingly with the linguistic evidence that the languages spoken around the Barito River in southern Borneo are the closest extant relatives of Malagasy languages. As a result of their equally balanced admixed ancestry, the Malagasy may represent an ideal population in which to identify loci underlying complex traits of both anthropological and medical interest. PMID:15793703

Hurles, Matthew E.; Sykes, Bryan C.; Jobling, Mark A.; Forster, Peter

2005-01-01

378

South-East Asia is the center of origin, diversity and dispersion of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

Inferring invasion routes and identifying reservoirs of diversity of plant pathogens are essential in proposing new strategies for their control. Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungus responsible for rice blast disease, has invaded all rice growing areas. Virulent genotypes regularly (re)emerge, causing rapid resistance breakdowns. However, the world-wide genetic subdivision of M.oryzae populations on rice and its past history of invasion have never been elucidated. In order to investigate the centers of diversity, origin and migration of M.oryzae on rice, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 55 populations from 15 countries. Three genetic clusters were identified world-wide. Asia was the center of diversity and the origin of most migrations to other continents. In Asia, two centers of diversity were revealed in the Himalayan foothills: South ChinaLaosNorth Thailand, and western Nepal. Sexual reproduction persisted only in the South ChinaLaosNorth Thailand region, which was identified as the putative center of origin of all M.oryzae populations on rice. Our results suggest a scenario of early evolution of M.oryzae on rice that matches the past history of rice domestication. This study confirms that crop domestication may have considerable influence on the pestification process of natural enemies. PMID:24320224

Saleh, Dounia; Milazzo, Jolle; Adreit, Henri; Fournier, Elisabeth; Tharreau, Didier

2014-01-01

379

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

-uS STAndoff 4 ThE 6 SEpTEMbER ISRAElI STRIkE on SyRIA 5 pollS And ThE pAlESTInIAn polITICAl pRoCESS 7 Afgh reporting in Western media; issues in theological developments, particularly in a secular political Chowdhury, 13 June 2007. Reviving the Middle East Peace Process: An Arab Perspective, dr Ezzedine Choukri

380

Impacts of population growth, changing food preferences and agricultural practices on the nitrogen cycle in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

While increasing population and changing food preferences have changed agriculture in some East Asian countries to high input\\u000a systems with greater use of fertilizer nitrogen and greater numbers of animals, the changes and the effects on the environment\\u000a in the different countries have varied considerably. Many areas still do not use sufficient nitrogen to maximize crop yields.\\u000a In China, fertilizer

Z. Q. Xiong; J. R. Freney; A. R. Mosier; Z. L. Zhu; Y. Lee; K. Yagi

2008-01-01

381

An Abrupt Centennial-Scale Drought Event and Mid-Holocene Climate Change Patterns in Monsoon Marginal Zones of East Asia  

PubMed Central

The mid-latitudes of East Asia are characterized by the interaction between the Asian summer monsoon and the westerly winds. Understanding long-term climate change in the marginal regions of the Asian monsoon is critical for understanding the millennial-scale interactions between the Asian monsoon and the westerly winds. Abrupt climate events are always associated with changes in large-scale circulation patterns; therefore, investigations into abrupt climate changes provide clues for responses of circulation patterns to extreme climate events. In this paper, we examined the time scale and mid-Holocene climatic background of an abrupt dry mid-Holocene event in the Shiyang River drainage basin in the northwest margin of the Asian monsoon. Mid-Holocene lacustrine records were collected from the middle reaches and the terminal lake of the basin. Using radiocarbon and OSL ages, a centennial-scale drought event, which is characterized by a sand layer in lacustrine sediments both from the middle and lower reaches of the basin, was absolutely dated between 8.07.0 cal kyr BP. Grain size data suggest an abrupt decline in lake level and a dry environment in the middle reaches of the basin during the dry interval. Previous studies have shown mid-Holocene drought events in other places of monsoon marginal zones; however, their chronologies are not strong enough to study the mechanism. According to the absolutely dated records, we proposed a new hypothesis that the mid-Holocene dry interval can be related to the weakening Asian summer monsoon and the relatively arid environment in arid Central Asia. Furthermore, abrupt dry climatic events are directly linked to the basin-wide effective moisture change in semi-arid and arid regions. Effective moisture is affected by basin-wide precipitation, evapotranspiration, lake surface evaporation and other geographical settings. As a result, the time scales of the dry interval could vary according to locations due to different geographical features. PMID:24599259

Li, Yu; Wang, Nai'ang; Zhang, Chengqi

2014-01-01

382

Appendix C: Summary of Major Metallogenic Belts in Northeast Asia (the Russian Far East, Yakutia, Siberia, Transbaikalia, Northern China, Mongolia, South Korea, and Japan)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The major purposes of this chapter are to provide (1) an overview of the regional geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia for readers who are unfamiliar with the region, (2) a general scientific introduction to the succeeding chapters of this volume, and (3) an overview of the methodology of metallogenic and tectonic analysis used in this study. We also describe how a high-quality metallogenic and tectonic analysis, including construction of an associated metallogenic-tectonic model will greatly benefit other mineral resource studies, including synthesis of mineral-deposit models; improve prediction of undiscovered mineral deposit as part of a quantitative mineral-resource-assessment studies; assist land-use and mineral-exploration planning; improve interpretations of the origins of host rocks, mineral deposits, and metallogenic belts, and suggest new research. Research on the metallogenesis and tectonics of such major regions as Northeast Asia (eastern Russia, Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, and Japan) and the Circum-North Pacific (the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera) requires a complex methodology including (1) definitions of key terms, (2) compilation of a regional geologic base map that can be interpreted according to modern tectonic concepts and definitions, (3) compilation of a mineral-deposit database that enables a determination of mineral-deposit models and clarification of the relations of deposits to host rocks and tectonic origins, (4) synthesis of a series of mineral-deposit models that characterize the known mineral deposits and inferred undiscovered deposits in the region, (5) compilation of a series of metallogenic-belt belts constructed on the regional geologic base map, and (6) construction of a unified metallogenic and tectonic model. The summary of regional geology and metallogenesis presented here is based on publications of the major international collaborative studies of the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that have been led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These studies have produced two broad types of publications (1) a series of regional geologic, mineral-deposit, and metallogenic-belt maps, with companion descriptions of the region, and (2) a suite of metallogenic and tectonic analyses of the same region. The study area consists of eastern Russia (most of eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East), Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, Japan, and adjacent offshore areas. The major cooperative agencies are the Russian Academy of Sciences; the Academy of Sciences of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia); VNIIOkeangeologia and Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation; the Mongolian Academy of Sciences; the Mongolian University of Science and Technology; the Mongolian National University; Jilin University, Changchun, People?s Republic of China, the China Geological Survey; the Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources; the Geological Survey of Japan/AIST; the University of Texas, Arlington, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This study builds on and extends the data and interpretations from a previous project on the Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera conducted by the USGS, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, and the Geological Survey of Canada. The major products of this project were summarized by Naumova and others (2006) and are described in appendix A.

Rodionov, Sergey M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Distanov, Elimir G.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Davydov, Yuriy V.V.; Fridovskiy, Valeriy Yu.; Gamyanin, Gennandiy N.; Gerel, Ochir; Kostin, Alexei V.; Letunov, Sergey A.; Li, Xujun; Nikitin, Valeriy M.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Sudo, Sadahisa; Sotnikov, Vitaly I.; Spiridonov, Alexander V.; Stepanov, Vitaly A.; Sun, Fengyue; Sun, Jiapeng; Sun, Weizhi; Supletsov, Valeriy M.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tyan, Oleg A.; Vetluzhskikh, Valeriy G.; Wakita, Koji; Yakovlev, Yakov V.; Zorina, Lydia M.

2010-01-01

383

Late Paleozoic metallogenesis and evolution of the East Tianshan Orogenic Belt (NW China, Central Asia Orogenic Belt)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most largest known and important metallogenic provinces in China is East Tianshan, where seven major types of Late Paleozoic metal deposits have been recognized: (1) porphyry-type Cu-Mo-(Au) ore deposits, (2) volcanic Fe-Cu deposits, (3) orogenic lode gold deposits, (4) magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposits, (5) epithermal gold deposits, (6) volcanic hydrothermal Cu deposits, and (7) skarn Cu-Ag deposits. Tectonically, the development of these Late Paleozoic metal mineral deposits was closely associated with the subduction and closure of the ancient Tianshan ocean intervening between the Tarim craton and the Junggar-Kazakhstan block. In the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, the northern margin of the Tarim craton existed as a passive-type continental margin, whereas the ancient Tianshan ocean was subducted beneath the southern margin of the Junggar-Kazakhstan block, resulting in the formation of the Dananhu-Tousuquan magmatic arc and associated porphyry-type Cu-Mo-(Au) deposits. In the Middle Carboniferous, the ancient Tianshan ocean began to subduct beneath the northern margin of the Tarim craton, leading to the formation of the Aqishan-Yamansu magmatic arc and associated volcanic Fe-Cu deposits. In the Late Carboniferous, the ancient Tianshan ocean was closed, and a continent-arc collision occurred, leading to the formation of the Tianshan orogen. Following the collision was an extensional event, which was associated with the emplacement of large amounts of ultramafic-mafic complexes and the formation of a number of large- to medium-scale magmatic copper-nickel ore deposits along the Kangger suture zone. In the Early Permian, East Tianshan entered into a post-collision stage, associated with the widespread emplacement of granitoid bodies and eruption of within-plate volcanism, which led to the formation of volcanic hydrothermal copper deposits, skarn-type Cu-Ag deposits, post-orogenic gold deposits, and epithermal gold deposits in East Tianshan.

Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Su, Benxun; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Ao, Songjian; Wan, Bo; Zhang, Jien; Zhang, Zhiyong

2014-11-01

384

Temporal trajectories of wet deposition across hydro-climatic regimes: Role of urbanization and regulations at U.S. and East Asia sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dominant global patterns of urbanization and industrialization contribute to large-scale modification of the drivers for hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, as evident in Asia, Africa, and South America which are experiencing rapid population and economic growth. One manifestation of urbanization and economic development is decreases in air quality, increases in dry/wet deposition fluxes, and growing adverse impacts on public health and ecosystem integrity. We examined available long-term (1980-2010) observational data, gathered at weekly intervals, for wet deposition at 19 urban sites in the U.S., and monitoring data (2000-2009) available for 17 urban sites at a monthly scale in East Asia. Our analyses are based on data for four constituents (SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, and Mg2+); differences in atmospheric chemistry and terrestrial sources of these constituents enabled a robust comparative analysis. We examined intra-annual variability and the long-term temporal trajectories of wet deposition fluxes to discern the relative role of anthropogenic and stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. Here, we show that: (1) temporal variability in wet deposition fluxes follows an exponential probability density function at all sites, evidence that stochasticity of rainfall is the dominant control of wet deposition variability; (2) the mean wet deposition flux, ?? (ML-2T-1), has decreased in the U.S. over time since enactment of the Clean Air Act, with ?? having become homogenized across varying hydro-climatic regimes; and (3) in contrast, ?? values for East Asian cities are 3-10 times higher than U.S. cities, attributed to lax regulatory enforcement. Based on the observed patterns, we suggest a stochastic model that generates ellipses within which the ?? temporal trajectories are inscribed. In the U.S., anthropogenic forcing (regulations) is dominant in the humid regions, while variability in hydro-climatic forcing explains inter-annual variability in arid regions. Our stochastic analysis facilitates projections of the temporal trajectory shifts in wet deposition fluxes as a result of urbanization and other land-use changes, climate change, and regulatory enforcement.

Park, Jeryang; Gall, Heather E.; Niyogi, Dev; Rao, P. Suresh C.

2013-05-01

385

Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases Over NW Pacific During IOC 2002 Cruise - Pollutants Transported From East Asia and Biogenic Species Emitted From Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R/V Melville cruised from Osaka (Japan) on May 1st to Hawaii on Jun 5th, as a project of Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) 2002. During this cruise, atmospheric trace gases (O3, CO, DMS, many hydrocarbons, and halocarbons) were measured. It is expected that polluted air as well as Kosa from east Asia is transported to the Pacific in this season. On the west Pacific near from Japan, the concentrations of anthropogenic species were strongly affected by the meteorological condition. And the hydrocarbon concentrations have not very large difference at the east of Japan (about 145E) and at 170E in the same latitude. On 170E, the ship cruised straight from 50N to about 20N, and latitudinal profile of atmospheric species in the Pacific was observed. There are clear concentration decrease from higher latitude to lower latitude for CO, O3, hydrocarbons, and short lived halocarbons. There is a large gap at around 30N, since maritime air prevail at lower latitude. The ratios of hydrocarbons and CO give some information about their sources. CO and ethane have similar lifetime in the atmosphere, but the ratio ([ethane]/[CO]) decreased drastically as the distance from the land. CO is supplied by the oxidation of CH4 and hydrocarbons also on the ocean, in addition to the transportation of anthropogenically generated CO from land. Therefore concentration decrease of CO is smaller than that of hydrocarbons far from the anthropogenic source area. Biogenically generated species emitted from the ocean (DMS, ethene, propene, isoprene, CH3Br) were also measured during the cruise. Their trends are totally different from anthropogenic hydrocarbons. Higher concentrations of bogenic generated species were observed at lower latitude, where more activated biogenic activity is expected. Similar trend of ethene, propene, and DMS were observed. Especially, ethene and propene have good correlation. Since these species have relatively high reactivity in the atmosphere, they affect the local chemistry of the atmosphere on the ocean.

Kato, S.; Ui, T.; Uematsu, M.; Kajii, Y.

2002-12-01

386

Economic stability and health status: evidence from East Asia before and after the 1990s economic crisis.  

PubMed

The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health. PMID:15896870

Hopkins, Sandra

2006-02-01

387

Wet deposition of acidifying substances in different regions of China and the rest of East Asia: modeling with updated NAQPMS.  

PubMed

The traditional way to study Sources-Receptor Relationships (SRRs) of wet deposition is based on sensitivity simulation, which has weakness in dealing with the non-linear secondary formation pollutants (e.g. ozone and nitrate). An on-line source tracking method has been developed in the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with cloud-process module for the first time. The new model can not only quantify the total volume of the sulfate, nitrate and ammonium wet deposition with more accuracy, but also trace these acidic species to their emitted precursors. Compared with previous studies, our result clearly shows: (1) East China and Central China, which are the two primary export regions, have 15-30% and 10% effect on wet deposition in other areas, respectively; (2) Besides the above two regions, the total acid deposition in Southwestern and Northeastern China have reached or exceeded the critical loads under their own environmental conditions. PMID:24418974

Ge, B Z; Wang, Z F; Xu, X B; Wu, J B; Yu, X L; Li, J

2014-04-01

388

Are There Differences in the Health Outcomes of Mothers in Europe and East-Asia? A Cross-Cultural Health Survey  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study was to investigate differences in quality of life outcomes and depression of mothers in East-Asia and Central Europe. 170 women in Japan and 226 women in Austria with children between 3 and 5 answered the same cross-culturally validated questionnaires. The Quality of Life Questionnaire from the WHO (WHOQOL-Bref), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13), a Social Support Scale (MSPSS), and questions on gender orientation were used. In all dimensions of QOL (physical, psychological, social, and environmental) Japanese women had lower QOL scores compared to Austrian mothers (P < 001). Seven percent of women in both countries experienced major depression. In both countries sense of coherence, experienced stress level, satisfaction with income, social support, and gender roles had an influence on QOL and depressive symptoms. Mothers in Japan consider life events less comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful and experience less support. Consequently, creating an environment where fathers could be more involved in child rearing and mothers have more opportunities to choose between life styles and working and social environments would improve QOL not only in Japanese mothers but also in other countries all over the world.

Mautner, Eva; Ashida, Chie; Greimel, Elfriede; Lang, Uwe; Kolman, Christina; Alton, Daniela; Inoue, Wataru

2014-01-01