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1

The Progress of Globalization and Educational Reforms in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The symposium entitled "Social Changes in East Asia and Educational reforms: China, Korea, and Singapore" suggested that these countries are carrying out rather drastic educational reforms in the context of rapid social changes. The knowledge gained from the symposium also has important suggestions for Japanese educational reform. In addition, as…

Shimbo, Atsuko

2009-01-01

2

Cranes in East Asia; proceedings of the symposium held in Harbin, People's Republic of China, June 9-18, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introductory Remarks (R.C. Stendell) I appreciate the opportunity to be in Harbin and participate in the international scientific workshop on Cranes in East Asia. I would like to provide some background information on how this meeting came to be. Almost one year ago, in July 1997, Dr. Kun John of the Seoul National University contacted the U.S. Geological Surveya??s Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) requesting that we host a meeting of scientists from the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic Peoplea??s Republic of Korea (DPRK) to discuss the biology and ecology of cranes on the Korean peninsula. Dr. John and his colleagues expressed concern about three species of cranes that migrate up and down the Korean Peninsula and use the Demilitarized Zone. The species of interest are the Red-crowned Crane, White-naped Crane, and the Hooded Crane. The primary question was the conservation of these species in this part of the world. Another concern involved exploring potential economic values and opportunities associated with these species. Dr. Richard Johnson, and economist at MESC, assumed responsibility as the primary MESC contact to help bring about this meetinga?|

edited by Johnson, R. L.; Hongfei, Zou; Stendell, R. C.

2001-01-01

3

Facilities management in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into the growth stage of facilities management (FM) in the South East Asia region. A questionnaire study of local and international firms operating in South East Asia was used. South East Asia needs to open up to change, particularly with respect to parity in issues of global competition in FM

Mike Moore; Edward Finch

2004-01-01

4

Heart Failure in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Heart failure (HF) carries a major burden of disease in East Asia, with high associated risk of mortality and morbidity. In recent decades, the epidemiology of HF has changed with social and economical development in East Asia. The burden of HF is still severe in East Asia. The prevalence of HF ranges from 1.3% to 6.7% throughout the region. As aetiological factors, ischaemic heart disease has increased and valvular disease reduced in most East Asian countries. Diuretics are the most commonly used drugs (51.0%-97%), followed by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (59%-77%), with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEI, (32%-52%) and has angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, ARBs (31%-44%) in similar proportions. ?-blocker use has also increased in recent years. Total mortality from HF ranges from 2% to 9% in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Age>65 years, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with adverse outcome. More prospective, region-specific data are still required, particularly regarding new drug therapies such as eplerenone and ivabradine.

Guo, Yutao; Lip, Gregory YH; Banerjee, Amitava

2013-01-01

5

Heart failure in East Asia.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) carries a major burden of disease in East Asia, with high associated risk of mortality and morbidity. In recent decades, the epidemiology of HF has changed with social and economical development in East Asia. The burden of HF is still severe in East Asia. The prevalence of HF ranges from 1.3% to 6.7% throughout the region. As aetiological factors, ischaemic heart disease has increased and valvular disease reduced in most East Asian countries. Diuretics are the most commonly used drugs (51.0%-97%), followed by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (59%-77%), with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEI, (32%-52%) and has angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, ARBs (31%-44%) in similar proportions. Betablocker use has also increased in recent years. Total mortality from HF ranges from 2% to 9% in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Age>65 years, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with adverse outcome. More prospective, region-specific data are still required, particularly regarding new drug therapies such as eplerenone and ivabradine. PMID:23597295

Guo, Yutao; Lip, Gregory Y H; Banerjee, Amitava

2013-05-01

6

Precipitation chemistry in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of precipitation in East Asia was analyzed on the basis of the results of cooperative monitoring performed during the period from 1992 to 1993. The wet deposition of soluble ions was characterized by two major factors; the geographical distribution of precursor production through natural and anthropogenic activities, and the meteorological conditions such as wind system and rainfall pattern due to the Asian monsoon. Although northeastern China had the largest anthropogenic emission source, precipitation with relatively high pH value was observed. At islands in the northern Pacific far from major anthropogenic emission sources, precipitation with relatively low pH value was observed. It was suggested that ammonia and calcium were constantly produced in the continent, and that the higher concentrations of these bases in the atmosphere were incorporated into precipitation elements and neutralized the acidity due to H 2SO 4 and HNO 3 from fossil fuel combustion. The ratio of [nssCa 2++NH 4+]/[nssSO 42-+NO 3-] in precipitation was highest on the continent, moderate in the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Islands, and lowest in the northern Pacific; in other words, this ratio decreased as the distance from the continent increased. In the central region of East Asia, which is affected by both continental cold, dry air masses and subtropical warm, humid air masses, the frequency distribution of pH of precipitation showed a bimodal pattern in which unimodal patterns of northern China and that of the Japanese Islands were superimposed. The wet deposition of nssSO 42-, NO 3-, nssCa 2+, and NH 4+ showed relatively small differences between the sites, while that of Na + and Cl -, relatively large differences between the sites, reflecting the field of ionic concentration and amount of precipitation in East Asia.

Fujita, Shin-ichi; Takahashi, Akira; Weng, Jian-Hua; Huang, Lian-Fen; Kim, Hui-Kang; Li, Cheng-Kang; Huang, Frank T. C.; Jeng, Fu-Tien

7

East and Southeast Asia assessment.  

PubMed

The people of East and Southeast Asia, despite societal differences and varied economic successes, share 1 cultural value, i.e., the love of children and the importance of family. The small family norms espoused by family planning programs, the goal in some nations of 1- or 2-child families, the concept that 2 children are enough regardless of their sex -- all these ideas contradict the basic cultural appreciation for children in most countries and the preference for sons in many. Yet, demographic realities give Asia no alternative. It is necessary to work against cultural values to increase the opportunities for individuals, their families, their countries, and the region as a whole. All the countries of this region have had family planning programs since at least the 1970s, and some have been very successful. It may be well into the 21st century before the populations of most East and Southeast countries stabilize. Stabilization will take longer for those countries which are without successful family planning policies and programs. Each national family planning program requires the full and positive political and financial commitment of its government. Programs also need the freedom to try all new approaches. The appropriateness and acceptability of a particular mehtod should be decided by program managers and personnel in consultation with potential users, rather than by politicians. Future family planning programs will need to be even more innovative. Family planning service delivery must be brought closer to the client so it will be available in all communities and work places and at all potential public and private places. Other basic services such as nutrition, income-generating schemes, and general and maternal/child health must be integrated into the programs. The responsibility for managing programs must be assumed by the community in order to create a very strong and broad base of national commitment. PMID:12339633

Suyono, H

1984-06-01

8

Near East/South Asia Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from the Near East and South Asia. Titles include: Economic Growth Foremost Aim of Revolution; Health Clinics Provide Service to Mothers, Children; Government Concerned Over Sp...

1985-01-01

9

JPRS Report, Near East South Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from the Near East and South Asia. Titles include; Nine Leaders Assess Peace Talks' First Year; Urban Development of Sinai Urged; Europe Give Technical, Financial Aid; Islamic ...

1992-01-01

10

How international economic links affect East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author applies the theme of the last two papers in the Global Economic Prospects series, written by the International Economics Department, to the case of one developing region: East Asia. He documents the rapid integration of the East Asian economies into the world economy through trade and foreign direct investment, and suggests that this has helped create a relatively

Vikram Nehru

1993-01-01

11

Cloud Microphysical Characteristics over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of the existing literature on in-situ measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical properties was undertaken. Then, a database was established to contain microphysical properties for raindrop, cloud droplet, fog, ice nuclei (IN), snow crystal, as well as the relationship between radar reflectivity (Z) and rainfall rate (R). The time span of the in-situ probe measurements ranges from 1960 to 2008 over East Asia and from 1940 to 2008 in the other regions (which is defined as those include the Americas, Europe, and Australia). From the datasets, dividing the data coverage into East Asia and the other regions, several parameters are presented, including mean concentration of hydrometeor particles, liquid water content (LWC), as well as functional fit parameters of particles size distributions. The main properties of hydrometeor particles were presented, and the functional fitted parameters of particle size distributions over East Asia have been compared with those over the other regions. Note that the all measurements taken in other regions do not mean that all cloud systems in the other regions are similar. Our main method of the present study is to put all measurement results taken in different regions over the world together. If the cloud systems over East Asia have their own characteristics, it will be grouped together. Thus, the difference between East Asia and other regions is readily discernible. The results show that there are differences, sometimes even large differences, between East Asia and the other regions in terms of these cloud-precipitation microphysical characteristics. More specific conclusions are as follows: (1) Both exponential- and gamma-size distributions are used to fit RSD of rains originating from stratiform clouds. Average intercept N0 of exponential-size distribution over East Asia is one order of magnitude smaller than that over the other regions, and average slope ? is slight smaller. As for gamma-size distributions, the range of parameters in East Asia is narrower than those in the other regions. (2) Average cloud droplet number concentration (Nc) in stratiform clouds over East Asia is slightly smaller than that in the other regions, and cloud LWC is 0.089 g m-3 lower. Average fog drop concentration is a little higher than that in the other regions and the overall average fog LWC is approximately 1.5 times as high as that in the other regions. (3) There is a higher average IN concentration (22.9 L-1) in East Asia, compared that ( of 2.4 L-1) in the other regions. (4) The exponential size distribution has goodness-of-fits with snow-crystal size distributions. Average value of the parameter N0 is one order of magnitude smaller than that in the other regions, and ? is slightly smaller. (5) The relationship between radar reflectivity (Z) and rainfall rate (R) can be expressed as Z=aRb. The mean value of Z in East Asia is slightly larger than that in the other regions for the same R, and the distribution range Z of is narrower in East Asia than that in the other regions.

Yin, J.; Wang, D.; Zhai, G.

2012-04-01

12

Some important fermented foods of Mid-Asia, the Middle East, and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Other speakers in this Symposium discussed fermented foods of China, Japan, and Southeast Asia; I will describe several other\\u000a fermented foods that are very important in Mid-Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. These fermentations, unlike those of the\\u000a Orient, use bacteria and yeasts instead of filamentous fungi. They are acid products prepared from cereals traditionally grown\\u000a in the areas, notably

C. W. Hesseltine

1979-01-01

13

East Asia?s Dynamic Development Model and the Republic of Korea?s Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

No region has been more dynamic in recent years than East Asia. Despite its successful economic development, evaluations of the East Asian development model have often been capricious, shifting from ?miracle? to ?cronyism.? How can we explain East Asia?s ups and downs consistently? To respond to this challenge, it is necessary to study the progress of East Asian development and

Mary McNulty; Ho-Chul Lee

2003-01-01

14

East Asia's Foreign Exchange Rate Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Financial authorities in East Asia have adopted a variety of foreign exchange rate policies, ranging from Hong Kong's currency board system which links the Hong Kong dollar to the U.S. dollar, to the independently floating exchange rates of Japan, the Phi...

M. F. Martin

2006-01-01

15

The East Asia geographic map series  

SciTech Connect

During the last 15 years, the Circum-Pacific Map Project Northwest Quadrant Panel (NWQP) has created a map inventory of geoscience data at a scale of 1:10,000,000. Now, for East Asia, a second set of thematic maps is being initiated cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP). These new maps will constitute the East Asia Map Project, and they will present geoscience parameters at a scale of 1:2,000,000 that can be used to evaluate the potential for undiscovered resources with the application of new deposit modeling methodologies. The following map series are being compiled or are under consideration: geography, geotectonics, geophysics, mineral resources, energy resources, and hazards. The U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) is compiling the East Asia Geographic Map Series. Shorelines, rivers, and international boundaries have been computer plotted by the National Mapping Division from the most detailed version of the World Data Bank II (WDB II). This publicly available bank was hand digitized from a 1:3,000,000-scale global map compiled from a variety of sources. The East Asia series is composed of eight overlapping sheets with Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection having a common point of origin at 120{degree}E and 15{degree}N; neatlines for each sheet are 39{degree} {times} 54.4{degree}. Titles reflect each map's coverage: Sheet 1, Japan/Korea/Northeast China; Sheet 2, Southeast China; Sheet 3, Southeast Asia; Sheet 4, Philippines; Sheet 5, Malaysia/ West Indonesia; Sheet 6, East Indonesia; Sheet 7, Papua New Guinea/ Solomon Islands; and Sheet 8, Western Pacific Islands. Contours have been scribed by the USGS's Office of International Geology.

Terman, M.J.; Bell, E.P. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1990-06-01

16

East Asia's Recovery Gathering Force: An Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest World Bank regional brief describes East Asia's recovery from the 1997 economic crisis as "remarkable," but cautions that the region is still susceptible to another downturn. Presented by Masahiro Kawai, the bank's chief economist for East Asia and the Pacific, the 116-page report notes several signs of improvement, including high rates of economic growth, rising employment and labor earnings, increasing foreign investment, lower interest rates, and recovering currencies. The East Asian countries, Kawai concludes in the press release, "can at last return to the medium term development agenda," assisted, of course, by the World Bank. Users can download the full text of the report by section or in its entirety at the World Bank site.

17

Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes  

PubMed Central

East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history.

2013-01-01

18

Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes.  

PubMed

East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

Wang, Chuan-Chao; Li, Hui

2013-01-01

19

Regionalism and Free Trade Agreements in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of the progress of regionalism in East Asia and examines the background of the recent embrace of trade agreements by China, Japan, and South Korea. It discusses the progress toward free trade agreements (FTAs) within East Asia and offers reasons for their slow development. The impacts of eight hypothetical East Asian FTAs are estimated using

Inkyo Cheong

2003-01-01

20

Material Damage Caused by Acidic Air Pollution in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric and laboratory corrosion tests were carried out to assess the intensity of air pollution in East Asia. Qualitative and quantitative atmospheric corrosion was estimated from the damage caused to bronze, copper, steel, marble, cedar, cypress and urushi (Japanese lacquer) plates, exposed to outdoor and indoor airs in some cities of East Asia. Brochantite and cuprite were formed on copper

Y. Maeda; J. Morioka; Y. Tsujino; Y. Satoh; Xiaodan Zhang; T. Mizoguchi; S. Hatakeyama

2001-01-01

21

NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to develop a better understanding of the impacts of aerosols on regional-to-global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

2005-01-01

22

Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

2005-01-01

23

A Dynamical Downscaling Experiment over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess future climate change for Korea due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions, dynamical downscaling are carried out with MM5 at 18 km resolution over Korea driven at the lateral boundaries by meteorological field from atmospheric model ECHAM4 T106. Sea surface temperatures are from corresponding simulation with the ECHO-G. We analyze two 22-year regional climate simulations, one for present day conditions (1979-2000) and one for future condition (2079-2100) under SRES A1B Scenario. The simulated present day climate by the time-slice experiment with the high-resolution model ECHAM4 T106 show successful performance in simulating the northward migration and the local of the maximum rainfall during the rainy season over East Asia, although its rainfall amount was somewhat weak compared to the observation. Change of East Asian summer monsoon rainfall in the future tends to be increased especially over the east of Japan during July and September. Downscaled mean temperature over Korea during the period of 1979-2000 reproduce the realistic features although the results have cold bias. Simulated daily mean temperature will increase about 3.3É by the end of the 21st century compared with present day and, seasonally the rising is projected to be larger in winter than in summer. Also, simulated precipitation will increase about 15% by the end of of the 21st century compared with present day. These downscaled future climate scenario will be used for studies on impact, adapatation, and vulnerability of climate change over Korea.

Baek, H.; Kwon, W.; Choi, D.; Kim, C.; Cha, Y.

2009-05-01

24

Preliminary Bibliography on East Asia for Undergraduate Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classified bibliography on East Asia and similar bibliographies on Africa south of the Sahara (LI 000 882) and South Asia (LI 000 061) have been compiled under the first phase of a three-year cooperative project to strengthen bibliographical resources for undergraduate libraries on "neglected" foreign areas. The bibliography in its present…

Ehrman, Edith; Morehouse, Ward

25

Impact of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture Sector in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), agricultural trade liberalization has been one of the most sensitive issues in all trade negotiations. East Asian FTA might make economic sense, giving trade and investment linkages in East Asia through the involvement in global manufacturing supply chains. However, the most protected sector in the region, the

Tha Pye Nyo

26

78 FR 77141 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2014 East Coast Trade Symposium: “Increasing Economic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Protection U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2014 East Coast Trade Symposium: ``Increasing...CBP will convene only one Symposium in 2014, the East Coast Trade Symposium, which...Thursday, March 6 and Friday, March 7, 2014. The East Coast Trade Symposium will...

2013-12-20

27

Reduced genome size of Helicobacter pylori originating from East Asia  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major pathogen colonizing the human stomach, shows great genetic variation. Comparative analysis of strains from different H. pylori populations revealed that the genome size of strains from East Asia decreased to 1.60 Mbp, which is significantly smaller than that from Europe or Africa. In parallel with the genome reduction, the number of protein coding genes was decreased, and the guanine-cytosine content was lowered to 38.9%. Elimination of non-essential genes by mutations is likely to be a major cause of the genome reduction. Bacteria with a small genome cost less energy. Thus, H. pylori strains from East Asia may have proliferation and growth advantages over those from Western countries. This could result in enhanced capacity of bacterial spreading. Therefore, the reduced genome size potentially contributes to the high prevalence of H. pylori in East Asia.

Dong, Quan-Jiang; Wang, Li-Li; Tian, Zi-Bing; Yu, Xin-Jun; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Xuan, Shi-Ying

2014-01-01

28

Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars: Asia, Asian Studies and the National Security State: A Symposium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars has placed online the full text of a recent symposium on "Asia, Asian Studies and the National Security State." The symposium consists of a powerful article by Bruce Cumings, challenging the ideological roots of Asian Studies, with eight responses by a wide range of people active in the profession. The symposium focuses on two moments in the creation and development of Asian studies in the United States. "First, the symposium examines the birth of the field -- during the height of the Cold War -- as a creation of the national-security state, or what Cumings calls the state/intelligence/foundation nexus, which structured, financed, and set formative research agendas and methodologies at the time. Second, the symposium assesses how the sea changes in the contemporary Asian regional and global situations relate to emerging scholarly trends."

Scholars., Committee O.

1997-01-01

29

Paleomagnetotectonics of East Asia in the Proto-Tethys Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven paleomagnetic poles are obtained from Early Ordovician, Late Carboniferous, Permo-Triassic, Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Miocene and Quaternary rocks in Korea. These poles define the apparent polar wander path for the southern part of Korean Peninsula. The comparisons of APWPs from the North China Block, Yangtze Block and Korea reveals that the East Asia is comprised of two blocks, the North

Y. S Lee; S Nishimura; K. D Min

1997-01-01

30

Asia Federation Report on International Symposium on Grid Computing 2009 (ISGC 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides an overview of developments in the Asia-Pacific region, based on presentations made at the International Symposium on Grid Computing 2009 (ISGC 09), held 21-23 April. This document contains 14 sections, including a progress report on general Asia-EU Grid activities as well as progress reports by representatives of 13 Asian countries presented at ISGC 09. In alphabetical order, these are: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.

Grey, Francois

31

Future regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia: Energy security costs and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth in East Asia has rapidly increased regional energy, and especially, electricity needs. Many of the countries of East Asia have sought or are seeking to diversify their energy sources and bolster their energy supply and\\/or environmental security by developing nuclear power. Rapid development of nuclear power in East Asia brings with it concerns regarding nuclear weapons proliferation associated

David von Hippel; Peter Hayes; Jungmin Kang; Tadahiro Katsuta

2011-01-01

32

COPD in Asia: where East meets West.  

PubMed

COPD is a global health concern, and is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, it is currently the sixth leading cause of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality of the disease is predicted for the coming decades. These increases are mainly linked to the epidemic of tobacco exposure and indoor and outdoor air pollution in Asian countries. The burden of COPD in Asia is currently greater than that in developed Western countries, both in terms of the total number of deaths and the burden of disease, as measured in years of life lost and years spent living with disability. The types of health-care policies and the practice of medicine vary considerably among the regions of Asia and have an impact on the burden of disease. Treatment aims in Asian countries are based on evidence-based management guidelines. Barriers to the implementation of disease management guidelines are related to issues of resource conflict and lack of organizational support rather than cultural differences in medical practice. To reduce this burden of COPD in Asian countries, there is a need for a multifaceted approach in improving awareness of prevalence and disease burden, in facilitating accurate diagnosis of COPD among chronic respiratory diseases, in championing health policies that reduce the burden of the main risk factors for COPD and in the wider use of evidence-based management for COPD. PMID:18252918

Tan, Wan C; Ng, Tze P

2008-02-01

33

78 FR 57408 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2013 East Coast Trade Symposium: “Increasing Economic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2013 East Coast Trade Symposium: ``Increasing Economic Competitiveness Through Global Partnership and Innovation'' AGENCY...East Coast Trade Symposium will be ``Increasing Economic Competitiveness Through Global Partnership and Innovation.'' The...

2013-09-18

34

Experiencia de Asia Oriental (Lessons of East Asia: An Overview of Country Experience).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The success of development in East Asia is legendary. No other group of developing countries has done as well in fostering growth, reducing poverty, integrating with world markets, or raising standards of living. Although often spoken of as a single group...

D. M. Leipziger V. Thomas

1993-01-01

35

Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia.

Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

2011-01-01

36

New Mycomya species from South-East Asia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) .  

PubMed

Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are revised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia. PMID:24943632

Väisänen, Rauno

2014-01-01

37

Simulated Seasonal Variations in Wet Acid Depositions over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System–Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4 , NO3 , and NH4 concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater

Cui Ge; Meigen Zhang; Lingyun Zhu; Xiao Han; Jun Wang

2011-01-01

38

From Small Objects to Cars: Consumption Expansion in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To cover East Asia region analytically requires a researcher to abstract from specific geographic locations which vary widely\\u000a in economic development, and focus on consumer practices. Empirically, the visual urban landscape, which is being rapidly\\u000a transformed to accommodate consumer culture, appears to “convince” urbanites that goods on display, visually accessible, are\\u000a within reach, in spite of real financial deprivation. Ubiquitous

Beng Huat Chua

39

Cooperative teamwork for service quality in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers and employees need a crisp understanding of the nature of the teamwork that improves quality service to customers. Field and experiment studies have shown the utility of Deutsch’s theory of co-operation and competition for understanding quality enhancing teamwork in East Asia. Co-operative goals have been found to contribute to a constructive, open-minded discussion of opposing views that in turn

Dean Tjosvold; Jane Moy; Shigeru Sasaki

1999-01-01

40

Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese encephalitis virus is genetically divided into five genotypes. Until the early 1990s, only genotype-3 JE virus was identified in Japan, then, the genotype shifted to type-1 countrywide.Based on our molecular epidemiological study of JEV in Vietnam, China, and Japan, 8 subgroups of genotype 1 JEVs are circulating in East Asia and, at least, 4 of these subgroups are chronologically

Kouichi Morita

2009-01-01

41

Early evidence of the genus Homo in East Asia.  

PubMed

The timing and route of the earliest dispersal from Africa to Eastern Asia are contentious topics in the study of early human evolution because Asian hominin fossil sites with precise age constraints are very limited. Here we report new high-resolution magnetostratigraphic results that place stringent age controls on excavated hominin incisors and stone tools from the Yuanmou Basin, southwest China. The hominin-bearing layer resides in a reverse polarity magnetozone just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai subchron, yielding an estimated age of 1.7Ma. The finding represents the age of the earliest documented presence of Homo, with affinities to Homo erectus, in mainland East Asia. This age estimate is roughly the same as for H. erectus in island Southeast Asia and immediately prior to the oldest archaeological evidence in northeast Asia. Mammalian fauna and pollen obtained directly from the hominin site indicate that the Yuanmou hominins lived in a varied habitat of open vegetation with patches of bushland and forest on an alluvial fan close to a lake or swamp. The age and location are consistent with a rapid southern migration route of initial hominin populations into Eastern Asia. PMID:18842287

Zhu, R X; Potts, R; Pan, Y X; Yao, H T; Lü, L Q; Zhao, X; Gao, X; Chen, L W; Gao, F; Deng, C L

2008-12-01

42

A Report to the Australian Development Assistance Bureau. Regional Symposium on Distance Teaching in Asia (Penang, Malaysia, May 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports and summaries of papers presented at the 1981 Regional Symposium on Distance Teaching in Asia are presented. The symposium, which was represented by 22 countries, was organized by the Universiti Sains (University of Science) Malaysia as part of the activities associated with the completion of 10 years of off-campus program facilities. The…

Reid-Smith, Edward R.

43

FBIS Report. Science and Technology. Japan: The 3rd Asia-Pacific Workshop on Intelligent Materials and the 4th Symposium on Intelligent Materials, November 13, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: The 3rd Asia-Pacific Workshop on Intelligent Materials & the 4th Symposium on Intelligent Materials & the 4th Symposium on Intelligent Materials: Includes the following: Design of frontier Ceramics Through First Principles Calculations;...

1995-01-01

44

Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.  

PubMed

Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

2014-05-01

45

Asia Federation Report on International Symposium on Grid Computing (ISGC) 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides an overview of developments in the Asia-Pacific region, based on presentations made at the International Symposium on Grid Computing 2010 (ISGC 2010), held 5-12 March at Academia Sinica, Taipei. The document includes a brief overview of the EUAsiaGrid project as well as progress reports by representatives of 13 Asian countries presented at ISGC 2010. In alphabetical order, these are: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.

Grey, Francois; Lin, Simon C.

46

HRD in Asia. Symposium 3. [AHRD Conference, 2001].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) in Asia. "The Experiences of HRD Professionals Participating in Continuing Professional Development in Taiwan" (Yu-Shu [Jason] Chen) reports on a study that was based on the method of hermeneutic phenomenology and conducted to describe and interpret the experiences of…

2001

47

The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented and discussed their contribution to better understand the impacts of aerosols on regional-to- global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

2003-01-01

48

Combined analysis of temperature and precipitation extremes over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate extremes occur in various phenomena such as heat wave and heavy rains but generally extreme indices have been developed and applied for each phenomenon or variable separately. In order to monitor and analyze changes in frequency and intensity of various extremes in an integrated way, combined extreme indices have been devised. In particular, the Climate Extremes Index (CEI) which consists of five components related to temperature and precipitation extremes has been widely used to examine long-term changes in extremes over United States, Australia, and Europe. Each component of CEI is standardized by calculating fraction of areas that experience extremes (both above normal and below normal) for a specified period, and multi-variable index (defined as CEI) is obtained by taking arithmetic averages of five components. Recently, a modified CEI which includes directional information by looking at difference between upper-tail and lower-tail extremes has been suggested so as to better describe long-term trends of extremes. In this study, we analyze long-term changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over East Asia using mCEI for the past and future periods. Daily datasets of temperature and precipitation are obtained from a high-resolution gridded observation (APHRODITE) and three regional climate model (RCM) simulations participating in the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) East Asia project. Analysis results show that there are increasing trends in mCEIs during 1979-2005 in both observations and simulations, which are mostly explained by increases of temperature extremes. Results from future simulations based on RCP4.5 scenario suggest that mCEI will be increasing rapidly around 2030s due to increases in temperature extremes. This implies that most part of East Asia will start experiencing above normal extremes every year before mid-21st century.

Min, Seung-Ki; Jin, Jonghun

2014-05-01

49

A regional climate change simulation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, regional climate changes for seventy years (1980-2049) over East Asia and the Korean Peninsula are investigated using the Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES) B1 scenario via a high-resolution regional climate model, and the impact of global warming on extreme climate events over the study area is investigated. According to future climate predictions for East Asia, the annual mean surface air temperature increases by 1.8°C and precipitation decreases by 0.2 mm day-1 (2030-2049). The maximum wind intensity of tropical cyclones increases in the high wind categories, and the intra-seasonal variation of tropical cyclone occurrence changes in the western North Pacific. The predicted increase in surface air temperature results from increased longwave radiations at the surface. The predicted decrease in precipitation is caused primarily by northward shift of the monsoon rain-band due to the intensified subtropical high. In the nested higher-resolution (20 km) simulation over the Korean Peninsula, annual mean surface air temperature increases by 1.5°C and annual mean precipitation decreases by 0.2 mm day-1. Future surface air temperature over the Korean Peninsula increases in all seasons due to surface temperature warming, which leads to changes in the length of the four seasons. Future total precipitation over the Korean Peninsula is decreased, but the intensity and occurrence of heavy precipitation events increases. The regional climate changes information from this study can be used as a fruitful reference in climate change studies over East Asia and the Korean peninsula.

Lee, Dong-Kyou; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Chun-Sil; Choi, Suk-Jin

2013-11-01

50

Aerosol retrieval over East Asia from GOSAT-CAI measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aerosol retrieval algorithm for East Asia was developed from Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) launched in January 2009 onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). In this study, surface reflectance is determined from 45-day composite of Rayleigh and gas corrected reflectance and the reflectance data of channel 2 and 3 of CAI were used. To distinguish aerosol absorptivity, Two methods waere considered using blue channels from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) launched in March 2012 onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) and single scattering albedo method using channel 1 of TANSO-CAI. To investigate aerosol optical properties over the East Asia, inversion products from AERONET sun-photometer observation using the method from Kim et al. (2007) were analyzed and look-up table approach to retrieve optical properties of aerosol was adopted. The algorithm provides aerosol optical depth (AOD) and size information where AOD were compared with those of AERONET from March 2012 to February 2013 in this study. The comparison results show that performance of the algorithm has reasonable agreements with coefficients of determination show range from 0.71 to 0.86 and regression slope ranged from 0.69 to 0.88, depending on season. Based on the obtained results with CAI algorithm developed continuous updates are carried out for the further improvement.

Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Mijin; Choi, MyungJe; Go, Su Jung; Lim, HyunKwang

2014-05-01

51

Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives.

ITO, HIROTO; SETOYA, YUTARO; SUZUKI, YURIKO

2012-01-01

52

A New Paradigm for Higher Education and Culture in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how cultural identity reveals itself in East Asian higher education. The following questions are addressed. First, what is culture and what is the characteristic of East Asian culture? Second, what are cultural situations of East Asian higher education? Third, how does the cultural identity of East Asia reveal itself in…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

2006-01-01

53

Delhi's Pacific Ambition: Naval Power, “Look East,” and India's Emerging Influence in the Asia-Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

While India may not traditionally be considered to be a significant actor in the Asia-Pacific region, over the past 18 years, New Delhi has undertaken a concerted effort to direct its foreign, economic, and military policies eastward. What began as economic cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia has expanded into full-spectrum engagement with the major powers of East Asia.

WALTER C. LADWIG

2009-01-01

54

Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.  

PubMed

The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental outflow from Eurasia. The same tendency is not found for SO4(2-). PMID:22168108

Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

2011-11-01

55

HRD in Asia. Symposium 35. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of three symposia papers on human resources development (HRD) in Asia. "The Impact of Action Learning on the Conflict-Handling Styles of Managers in a Malaysian Firm" (Antony Hii, Michael J. Marquardt) presented results of a quantitative study of a three-month action learning program on managers' conflict-management skills.…

2000

56

Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

2013-12-01

57

Continuous Atmospheric Radon-222 Concentration Observation in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous observation of atmospheric radon-222 (222Rn) concentration has been operated for years in China, Korea and Japan, including remote islands isolated in the ocean. The sites were allocated along main wind directions of monsoon from the continent to the ocean in winter and yellow dust storm in spring. Higher levels of 222Rn concentrations with typical diurnal variation with early morning maxima were observed on the continent, while lower levels with no diurnal variation at remote islands. Seasonal variations with summer minima and winter maxima commonly obtained, and they suggested contribution of 222Rn originated from the continent to atmospheric 222Rn over the remote islands. A backward trajectory analysis showed clear relationship between variation in wind field and in 222Rn concentration at Hachijo Is., Japan, and proved availability of the observation for analysis of atmospheric transport in East Asia.

Moriizumi, Jun; Ohkuraa, Takehisa; Hirao, Shigekazu; Nono, Yuki; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Kim, Yoon-Shin; Guo, Qiuju; Mukai, Hitoshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Iida, Takao

2008-08-01

58

Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang

2013-05-01

59

Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia are investigated by a set of numerical experiments performed with the version 4 of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4). With reference to the pre-industrial period, most of the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal surface-air temperature and precipitation changes are found to result from a direct response of the atmosphere to insolation forcing, while dynamic ocean and vegetation modulate regional climate of East Asia to some extent. Because of its thermal inertia, the dynamic ocean induced an additional warming of 0.2 K for the annual mean, 0.5 K in winter (December-February), 0.0003 K in summer (June-August), and 1.0 K in autumn (September-November), but a cooling of 0.6 K in spring (March-May) averaged over China, and it counteracted (amplified) the direct effect of insolation forcing for the annual mean and in winter and autumn (spring) for that period. The dynamic vegetation had an area-average impact of no more than 0.4 K on the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal temperatures over China, with an average cooling of 0.2 K for the annual mean. On the other hand, ocean feedback induced a small increase of precipitation in winter (0.04 mm day-1) and autumn (0.05 mm day-1), but a reduction for the annual mean (0.14 mm day-1) and in spring (0.29 mm day-1) and summer (0.34 mm day-1) over China, while it also suppressed the East Asian summer monsoon rainfall. The effect of dynamic vegetation on the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal precipitation was comparatively small, ranging from -0.03 mm day-1 to 0.06 mm day-1 averaged over China. In comparison, the CCSM4 simulated annual and winter cooling over China agrees with simulations within the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), but the results are contrary to the warming reconstructed from multiple proxy data for the mid-Holocene. Ocean feedback narrows this model-data mismatch, whereas vegetation feedback plays an opposite role but with a level of uncertainty.

Tian, Z.; Jiang, D.

2013-09-01

60

Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia.

2014-01-01

61

Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

2002-01-01

62

Deeper Integration in East Asia: Regional Institutions and the International Economic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEA change in East Asian perceptions of the international economic system is causing a determined thrust toward deeper East Asian integration through regional financial and trade institutions. The financial crisis of 1997-98 contributed to this change by revealing weaknesses in the international financial architecture at the same time that it bared weaknesses in domestic policies and institutions in East Asia.

Wendy Dobson

2001-01-01

63

Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more northerly flora are a subset of the genera present in a more southerly flora. Main conclusions: The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

Qian, H.; Song, J. -S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

2003-01-01

64

Characteristics of aerosol transport and distribution in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used daily aerosol simulations for the period from 2001 to 2003 that were generated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to characterize aerosol transport and distributions in East Asia. In comparison with the AERONET, MODIS, and visibility observations, the model can capture the main distribution features of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its temporal changes with a correlation coefficient of 0.75 and 0.85, respectively. It was found that high AODs occur in Central China, the Sichuan basin, the Indo-China peninsula, the Indian subcontinent, and the Bay of Bengal because of black carbon, organic matter, and sulfate, whereas in the Taklimakan desert and its adjacent regions, high AODs occur because of dust. The potential effects of the hygroscopicity of aerosol particles on the AOD were mainly observed in the Sichuan basin, the Bay of Bengal, the Indo-China peninsula, and Central and Southern China. The East Asian aerosol transport was distinctly affected by the flux divergence induced by aerosol advection (AFD) and by the flux divergence induced by wind divergence/convergence (WFD). For black carbon, organic matter, and sulfate, the effect of AFD was a factor of 2 or 3 larger than that of WFD in the divergence region, whereas AFD dropped to 70% of WFD in the convergence region. The high AOD of black carbon, organic matter, and sulfate over the Sichuan basin related to the circulation characteristics of convergence in low altitudes and divergence in high altitudes, which can collect aerosol from adjacent regions at altitudes below 300 hPa and cause them to diverge easterly at higher altitudes.

Wu, Jian; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Deming

2013-10-01

65

Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation.  

PubMed

This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps. PMID:24818109

Parikh, Purvish M; Raja, T; Mula-Hussain, L; Baral, R P; Ingle, P; Narayanan, P; Tsikai, N; Baki, M O; Satyapal, N; Adusei, K O; Popoola, A; Musibi, A; Nyaim, E; Tsomo, U; Opio, C; Jamshed, A; Reddy, P

2014-04-01

66

Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation  

PubMed Central

This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps.

Parikh, Purvish M.; Raja, T.; Mula-Hussain, L.; Baral, R. P.; Ingle, P.; Narayanan, P.; Tsikai, N.; Baki, M. O.; Satyapal, N.; Adusei, K. O.; Popoola, A.; Musibi, A.; Nyaim, E.; Tsomo, U.; Opio, C.; Jamshed, A.; Reddy, P.

2014-01-01

67

Atmospheric chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia.  

PubMed

This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15-70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of ?19ClPAHs and ?9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610fg-TEQm(-3) respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4240000fg-TEQm(-3) respectively. PMID:24997898

Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

2014-09-01

68

Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?  

PubMed Central

The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia.

Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

2011-01-01

69

Women's cardiovascular health: perspectives from South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented. PMID:22525668

Rajadurai, Jeyamalar; Lopez, Eleanor A; Rahajoe, Anna Ulfah; Goh, Ping Ping; Uboldejpracharak, Yingnoi; Zambahari, Robaayah

2012-08-01

70

Spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts in the East Asian region (105-150°E, 20-50°N) are quantified using the effective drought index (EDI) over a period of 43 years, from 1962 to 2004, and the East Asian region was classified into six subregions on the basis of similarity in drought climate: (D1) South China; (D2) lower region of the Yangtze River, South Korea, and Central/South Japan; (D3) Central China and North Korea; (D4) Northwest China and middle region of the Yangtze River; (D5) North China; and (D6) Northeast China and North Japan. The EDI time series was then summarized for the different drought subregions and a drought map was created that shows the spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia. The map shows that in subregions, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and D6, there were 50 (11.63 per decade), 36 (8.37 per decade), 30 (6.98 per decade), 28 (6.51 per decade), 29 (6.74 per decade), and 33 (7.67 per decade) drought occurrences, respectively. The most common characteristic of droughts in the subregions is that short-term droughts (<200 days) which mainly occur in spring and summer, whereas long-term droughts (?200 days) mainly occur in autumn and winter. D1 shows the highest frequency of short-term droughts. Short-term droughts occur more frequently than long-term droughts in D2 and D3, but D4 and D6 showed a higher frequency of long-term droughts than short-term droughts. D5 showed a similar frequency of short- and long-term droughts. Drought onset dates are evenly distributed throughout the year for D1, D2, and D3, but distributed mostly in spring and summer in D4, D5, and D6. All the differences are linked to variations in the precipitation cycle of each subregion. In terms of annual variations in drought occurrence, D2 showed weakening droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a positive trend), whereas the other subregions showed intensifying droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a negative trend). The greatest intensifying trend was observed in D5, followed by D3, D6, D4, and D1.

Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

2013-08-01

71

Tomographic structure of East Asia: II. Stagnant slab above 660 km discontinuity and its geodynamic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

P-wave arrival times of both regional and teleseismic earthquakes were inverted to obtain mantle structures of East Asia.\\u000a No fast (slab) velocity anomalies was not find beneath the 660-km discontinuity through tomography besides a stagnant slab\\u000a within the transition zone. Slow P-wave velocity anomalies are present at depths of 100–250 km below the active volcanic arc\\u000a and East Asia. The

Yongshun John Chen; Shunping Pei

2010-01-01

72

BANKS, FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION AND THE 'INTEREST RATE PREMIUM PUZZLE' IN EAST ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simple theoretical framework to explorethe role of banks, bank inefficiencies and financial liberalization inexplaining the sustained interest rate premium offered in a number ofemerging economies in East Asia despite evidence of fairly credibleex-ante fixed exchange rates (Thailand in particular).Key words: banks, currency crisis, East Asia, financial liberalization,interest rates, ThailandJEL Classification: F30, F32, F4121. Background and Introduction...

Ramkishen S. Rajan

1999-01-01

73

Estimating mercury emission outflow from East Asia using CMAQ-Hg  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asia contributes nearly 50% of the global anthropogenic mercury emissions into the atmosphere. Recently, there are concerns for the long-range transport of mercury from East Asia to North America, which may lead to enhanced dry and wet depositions in North America. In this study, we performed four monthly simulations (January, April, July and October in 2005) using CMAQ-Hg v4.6

C.-J. Lin; L. Pan; D. G. Streets; S. K. Shetty; C. Jang; X. Feng; H.-W. Chu; T. C. Ho

2009-01-01

74

After the Crisis: The Social Contract and the Middle Class in East Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace recently placed online the complete text of After the Crisis: The Social Contract and the Middle Class in East Asia, authored by Nancy Birdsall and Stephan Haggard and published in July. The text examines the impact of the Asian financial crisis of 1997 upon an emergent, urban middle class and considers the key role this class is likely to play in the ongoing construction of the social contract in East Asia.

75

The MICS-Asia study: model intercomparison of long-range transport and sulfur deposition in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intercomparison study involving eight long-range transport models for sulfur deposition in East Asia has been initiated. The participating models included Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks, with a wide variety of vertical resolutions and numerical approaches. Results from this study, in which models used common data sets for emissions, meteorology, and dry, wet and chemical conversion rates, are reported and discussed.

Gregory R. Carmichael; Giuseppe Calori; Hiroshi Hayami; Itsushi Uno; Seog Yeon Cho; Magnuz Engardt; Seung-Bum Kim; Yoichi Ichikawa; Yukoh Ikeda; Jung-Hun Woo; Hiromasa Ueda; Markus Amann

2002-01-01

76

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

77

Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

78

Prevalence of Giardia lamblia with or without diarrhea in South East, South East Asia and the Far East.  

PubMed

This article is a review of the latest information on the prevalence of G. lamblia in South Asia, South East Asia and Far East, characterizing the current endemic situation within these regions. Around 33 published papers from 2002-2007 were collected on G. lamblia. The included countries were Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Republic of Korea, and China. Only five published papers were discarded because data was extracted before 2002-2007 or they are not included within our regions, emphasizing more on G. lamblia in animals, or performed at extensive molecular level. The prevalence of G. lamblia varied markedly between studies illustrating higher levels in the urban than in the rural areas, more among poor communities, slightly higher in males than in females with age range of 2-5-year-old children, and among university students, old-aged people, HIV-positive patients, and gastric carcinoma patients. Though G. lamblia is not a life-threatening parasite, nevertheless, it is still considered as the most common water-borne diarrhea-causing disease. It is important to understand the etiology, frequency, and consequences of acute diarrhea in children. Routine surveillance such as bi-annual follow-up treatments, treating G. duodenalis cysts and other protozoa oocysts detected in ground water sources, and continuous health education are the most preventive measures. PMID:18425689

Dib, Hassan H; Lu, Si Qi; Wen, Shao Fang

2008-07-01

79

An investigation on NH 3 emissions and particulate NH 4+-NO 3- formation in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the accuracy of NH 3 emissions in East Asia is evaluated by a comparison of measured and predicted NH 4NO 3 concentrations. For the prediction of particulate NH 4NO 3 concentrations, this study uses the USEPA Models-3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (Models-3/CMAQ) model. The measurement data are collected from 4 ground-based stations (Beijing, Shanghai, Qingdao, and Kangwha) and ACE-ASIA C130 Flights #6, #7, and #10. The four ground-based stations and air flight tracks are located in and around the Yellow Sea in East Asia. According to the results, the predicted fine-mode NH 4+concentrations are 1.2-3.8 times overestimated compared to those measured on the mass basis, and fine-mode NO 3- concentrations are 1.9-7.6 times overestimated on the mass basis. It is also revealed in this study that aberrantly high predicted fine-mode NO 3- concentrations in East Asia can be attributed to the overestimated NH 3 emissions. The predicted gas-phase NH 3 concentrations and estimated NH 3 emissions are likely to be 1.2-3.8 times overestimated in East Asia on the mass basis. Therefore, it is recommended that approximately 20-75% reduced NH 3 emission fields should be used in future modeling studies for East Asia.

Kim, J. Y.; Song, C. H.; Ghim, Y. S.; Won, J. G.; Yoon, S. C.; Carmichael, G. R.; Woo, J.-H.

80

Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

2011-01-01

81

The Monsoon of East Asia and its Global Associations-A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations concerning the summer and winter monsoons of East Asia and their global associations are reviewed. The seasonal mean structure, transient variation, including intraseasonal to interannual, and synoptic to planetary scale fluctuations are discussed separately for the two monsoon components. Similarities and differences between the East Asian monsoon and that of India are also surveyed. We also present a description

Ka-Ming Lau; Mai-Tsun Li

1984-01-01

82

Vertical vegetation zones along 30° N latitude in humid East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes in altitudinal vegetation zones along a 30° N parallel were studied based on vegetation data from 20 mountains in East Asia, from 85° E to 130° E longitude. The altitude of comparable vegetation zones showed a sharp increase of 1400–1900 m from east to west. Forest limit reached an altitude of 4400–4600 m in the eastern Tibetan Plateau,

Jing-Yun Fang; Masahiko Ohsawa; Tatuo Kira

1996-01-01

83

Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

Cheng, I-Hsuan

2010-01-01

84

Common Misconceptions about Students from South?East Asia Studying in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

International students from South?East Asia who study in Australia are often portrayed negatively compared to local students in terms of learning and study practices. This article discusses some of the misconceptions held by university teachers and administrators about South?East Asian students studying in Australia and examines them in the light of recent research. In particular, it challenges the views that

Denise Chalmers; Simone Volet

1997-01-01

85

Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand,

Francis André

2000-01-01

86

Air quality modeling in East Asia: present issues and future directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid economic growth has increased trace gas emissions in East Asia, resulting in various environmental issues, including acid deposition, regional haze, air quality degradation, and climate change, which are critical to the human existence. In particular, air quality degradation became an object of rising concern in East Asian countries. In order to understand sources, transport, and chemical transformation of air pollutants, scientists have widely used atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) in East Asia. Here we review our knowledge related to the present air quality issues and their modeling, focusing on O3 and particulate matter in East Asia. We finally suggest a few recommendations for the next generation of air quality models to improve their capability and use in this region.

Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Sang-Woo

2014-01-01

87

Fasciolopsiasis in Southeast Asia and the Far East: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1947 it was estimated that over 10 million people in the Far East were infected with Fasciolopsis buski. Most of these infections were reported from mainland China. Although fasciolopsiasis is endemic in Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, East Pakistan a...

J. H. Cross

1969-01-01

88

Impact of the dominant large-scale teleconnections on winter temperature variability over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50°N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30°N-50°N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30°N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter temperature distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

2013-07-01

89

Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter temperature distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

2013-01-01

90

Regional scale modeling of atmospheric CO2 over East Asia and comparison with satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia is now the most important regions in terms of CO2 emissions and the analyzing accurate CO2 budget is critical issue for low-carbon policy. He we show the simulated regional scale CO2 distribution. The regional scale chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) was used with 50km x 50km resolution. The lateral boundary conditions were from GEOS-Chem CO2 simulations (with 2x2.5 degree resolution) where the chemical CO2 production and 3-D emissions from aviation were included. It is clear that the seasonal changes in north-south gradient of CO2 concentration over East Asia is shown by the model. In spring, the westerly transport of CO2 from north-east China is dominant, which increases the higher CO2 concentration in northern part of East Asia in the lower troposphere (< 2km). In contrast, the strong CO2 sink of vegetation from northern part of Asia and Siberia reduces CO2 concentration significantly in northern part of East Asia. The modeling results represent that the seasonal CO2 changes in the spatial distribution are affected by both the Chinese CO2 emissions and CO2 sinks from the vegetation. The modeling results are compared with the recent GOSAT CO2 column observations and stationary data. The regional CO2 modeling study will help the global low carbon policy for responding to recent climate change.

Shim, C.

2012-12-01

91

A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

2011-12-01

92

BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

2009-04-01

93

Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia.  

PubMed

In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (?HCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (?(CMAQ, MEGAN) and ?(CMAQ, MOHYCAN)), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (?(SCIA)). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO(y) species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO(x) radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO(y) chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. PMID:23867846

Han, K M; Park, R S; Kim, H K; Woo, J H; Kim, J; Song, C H

2013-10-01

94

Displacement of VLBI sites in East Asia caused by ocean tide loading of Japan sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The displacement parameters and gravimetry corrections of 9 VLBI sites in East Asia caused by M2, S2, K1, and O1 component of Japan sea are calculated by using the loading mass convolution with the Green's function based on the different Earth models. The displacement parameters of the radial and horizontal component are between 3 ? 12 mm for all sites

Zhigen Yang; S. Manabe; K. Yokoyama; Wenjing Jin

1997-01-01

95

Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand in east Asia—a numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were investigated numerically by an Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new deflation module of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from

Hiroaki Terada; Hiromasa Ueda; Zifa Wang

2002-01-01

96

Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

Ho, Laina

97

Globalisation and the Changing Nature of the State in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with…

Green, Andy

2007-01-01

98

Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

2013-07-01

99

A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

2011-01-01

100

Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South East Asia for action planning and surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South East Asia for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and

F Stillman; M Hoang; R Linton; B Ritthiphakdee; W Trochim

2008-01-01

101

Integrating remotely sensed data with an ecosystem model to estimate net primary productivity in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of integrating remotely sensed data with an ecosystem model to estimate net primary productivity (NPP) in East Asia. We improved the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model for global NPP estimation by incorporating a new land cover map and employed a robust Normalized Difference Vegetation Index–Leaf Area Index (NDVI–LAI) algorithm. Using this method, we produced

Bunkei Matsushita; Masayuki Tamura

2002-01-01

102

Global perspectives on animal welfare: Asia, the Far East, and Oceania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In Asia and the Far East, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have

S. A. Rahman; L. Walker; W. Ricketts

103

Scaling Innovation in South East Asia: Empirical Evidence from Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diez J. R. and Kiese M. (2006) Scaling innovation in South East Asia: empirical evidence from Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok, Regional Studies40, 1–19. Our survey of 1600 manufacturing firms in Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok shows that the breadth and efficiency of innovative activities still lag considerably behind those found in 11 European regions. Cooperations are virtually indispensable for

Javier Revilla Diez; Matthias Kiese

2006-01-01

104

Training Rural Youth for Farming in the Asia and Far East Region. Report No. RAFE 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the Tenth Food and Agricultural Regional Conference for Asia and the Far East (August/September 1970), a comparative study of the different approaches already tried in the Region was conducted, and as the product of that study, this report briefly describes projects currently operating in India; Ceylon; Thailand; Malaysia;…

Bamford, G. N.

105

Contemporary crustal deformation in east Asia constrained by Global Positioning System measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements collected since the early 90's allow us to derive geodetic velocities at 16 permanent stations in east Asia and 68 campaign mode sites in north China. The resulting velocity field shows the following: (1) Contrary to the early inferences that the Shanxi Rift has accommodated significant right-slip motion, our results suggest that the rift system,

Zheng-kang Shen; Chengkun Zhao; An Yin; Yanxing Li; David D. Jackson; Peng Fang; Danan Dong

2000-01-01

106

History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

2000-01-01

107

Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

Chiang, Li-chuan

2012-01-01

108

An evaluation of O3 dry deposition simulations in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine processes that determine O3 in East Asia; in particular, we focused on O3 dry deposition, which is an uncertain research area due to insufficient observation and numerical studies in East Asia. Here, we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, Wesely and M3DRY, which are used in the WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. The O3 dry deposition velocities simulated using the two aforementioned schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) due to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. The O3 concentration differed by up to 10 ppbv for the monthly mean. The simulated and observed dry deposition velocities were compared, which showed that the Wesely scheme model is consistent with the observations and successfully reproduces the observed diurnal variation. We conduct several sensitivity simulations by changing the land use data, the surface resistance of the water and the model's spatial resolution to examine the factors that affect O3 concentrations in East Asia. As shown, the model was considerably sensitive to the input parameters, which indicates a high uncertainty for such O3 dry deposition simulations. Observations are necessary to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and input data to improve the East Asia air quality models.

Park, R. J.; Hong, S. K.; Kwon, H.-A.; Kim, S.; Guenther, A.; Woo, J.-H.; Loughner, C. P.

2014-01-01

109

University Outreach Programs on East Asia: Linkages with School and Community. Wingspread Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wingspread conference was convened by the National Committee on United States-China Relations, Inc. and the Asia Society to consider how universities and centers for East Asian studies might make knowledge of Asian affairs more available. The intended audiences were secondary schools, the business community, persons interested in world affairs…

Oxnam, Robert B.

110

East and Southeast Asia: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Asian Studies program at the University of Redlands, this easy-to-navigate directory allows users to access annotated links by country and by political, historical, and cultural topics. The site specifies seventeen East and Southeast Asian countries and hundreds of specific subjects, including sections on academic and library research sites. The homepage also offers direct links to current "hot topics," such as the crackdown on Falun Gong, the Asian financial crisis, the famine in North Korea, and East Timor's "Road to Independence." Frequently link-checked and updated, this is an excellent place to begin preliminary research on the region.

Eng, Robert Y.

111

Radial-Velocity Searches for Exoplanets in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hundreds of extrasolar planets have been discovered around various types of stars by various techniques during the past decade. Among them precise radial velocity measurements for stars are fundamental technique to detect and confirm exoplanets. In this paper activities in East-Asian region in this research field are introduced: East-Asian Planet Search Network, which is a network searching for planets around evolved intermediate-mass stars, and Subaru/IRD project, which will search for habitable planets around M-type dwarfs using infrared radial-velocity method.

Sato, Bun'ei

2014-04-01

112

Simulating Aerosol-cloud-radiation Feedbacks Over East Asia Using WRF-Chem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols play an important role in climate change through their impact on the radiative balance and hydrological cycle of the atmosphere. Recently much effort has been put into studying the radiative forcing of aerosols in East Asia. In this study, we apply the regional chemistry and transport model, WRF-Chem, to study aerosol radiative forcing over eastern Asia. Four model simulations have been conducted to ascertain the direct and indirect (cloud albedo and cloud lifetime) effects of aerosols on radiation and precipitation. The time period of interest is from Feb 22, 2005 to March 31, 2005 when there were extensive measurements of radiation, trace gases, and aerosol properties available from EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment ). Measurements from EAST-AIRE site Xianghe, MODIS, CERES, and AERONET are used to assess the performance of the base simulation. The base run shows good agreement with observations, although the model underestimates the aerosol loading in East Asia, especially over highly polluted regions. We compare the base run with the sensitivity runs and investigate the difference in short wave radiation at the surface and the top of atmosphere, cloud properties (cloud fraction, cloud condensation nuclei, effective radius, and liquid water path), and precipitation patterns. Preliminary results indicate that short wave radiation at the surface is reduced by 28 W m-2 at Xianghe site due to the aerosol direct effect.

Wang, J.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Li, Z.

2013-12-01

113

Development and evaluation of an operational SDS forecasting system for East Asia: CUACE/Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CUACE/Dust, an operational mesoscale sand and dust storm (SDS) forecasting system for East Asia, has been developed by online coupling a dust aerosol emission scheme and dust aerosol microphysics onto a regional meteorological model with improved advection and diffusion schemes and a detailed Northeast Asia soil erosion database. With improved initial dust aerosol conditions through a 3-DVar data assimilation system, CUACE/Dust successfully forecasted most of the 31 SDS processes in East Asia. A detailed comparison of the model predictions for the 8-12 March SDS process with surface network observations and lidar measurements revealed a robust forecasting ability of the system. The time series of the operationally forecasted dust concentrations for a number of representative stations for the whole spring 2006 (1 March-31 May) were evaluated against surface PM10 monitoring data, showing a good agreement in terms of the SDS timing and magnitudes at and near the source regions where dust aerosols dominate. For the operational forecasts of spring 2006 in East Asia, a TS (threat score) system evaluated the performance of CUACE/Dust against all available observations and rendered a spring averaged TS value of 0.31 for FT1 (24 h forecasts), 0.23 for FT2 (48 h forecasts) and 0.21 for FT3 (72 h forecasts).

Zhou, C. H.; Gong, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Niu, T.; Liu, H. L.; Zhao, T. L.; Yang, Y. Q.; Hou, Q.

2008-02-01

114

Investigation on aerosol optical properties over East Asia: From LEO to GEO satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol optical properties (AOP) have been regarded as good proxy indicators of the levels of particulate air pollutants such as PM2.5 and PM10, and have also been widely used for estimating direct radiative forcing (DRF) by aerosols. Up to date, the AOP have been retrieved mainly from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites such as terra- and aqua-MODIS. However, the critical limitation of the AOP products from the LEO satellites is relatively long temporal resolution of one to several days. In order to overcome this critical limitation, the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite-retrieved data is begun to be used recently. Therefore, in this study, several topics related to the fore-mentioned issues are introduced: (i) current status of the AOP retrieval from the LEO satellites and the AOP calculations from chemistry-transfer model (CTM) simulations over East Asia; (ii) the uses of the AOP data for estimating particulate pollution and DRF by aerosols in East Asia; (iii) preliminary AOP data retrieved from a geostationary sensor (GOCI: Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) on a Korean GEO satellite (COMS: Communication Ocean Meteorology Satellite); and (iv) possible improvements of the GEO-retrieved AOP data, combining them with the AOP data calculated from the CTM simulations over East Asia via a data assimilation technique. Regarding the AOP data retrievals from the COMS-GOCI sensor, two Korean aerosol retrieval algorithms are also introduced briefly: (i) Yonsei algorithm and (ii) GSTAR (GIST Aerosol Retrieval) algorithm. It is also discussed that these researches are being carried out with long-term research goals, aiming at the future applications of the AOP data, which is expected to be available from the world-first Korean environmental GEO sensors (GEMS: Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Sensor and GOCI-2) scheduled to be launched in 2017 or 2018, to the investigations onto the particulate air pollution and the DRF estimation by aerosols over East Asia (as well as possibly over the entire Asia domain).

Song, C. H.; Park, M.; Park, R.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.

2011-12-01

115

The United States Security Strategy for the East Asia-Pacific Region 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Defense recently released a review of security arrangements in East Asia and the Pacific, where close to 100,000 military personnel are currently stationed. Despite criticisms that the permanent stationing of these troops and another 100,000 in Europe is costly and unnecessary, the report argues, "our military presence in Asia serves as an important deterrent to aggression, often lessening the need for a more substantial and costly US response later." The report, which is available online and in .pdf format, outlines the key concepts behind the US presence in the region and discusses security and strategy issues for the next century.

116

Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols over South and East Asia using dual carbon isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of black carbon (BC) and other components of carbonaceous aerosols affect both climate and health in South and East Asia, yet substantial uncertainties exist regarding their sources. The relative contribution to atmospheric BC from fossil fuel versus biomass combustion is important to constrain both to direct mitigation and as their different properties make their effects on climate forcing and respiratory health different. This study approached the sourcing challenge by applying microscale radiocarbon measurements to aerosol particles collected in both source regions and at regional receptor observatories of both S Asia (New Delhi and the Maldives Climate Observatory) and of E Asia (Beijing, Shanghai, South China Coastal Observatory and the Korea Climate Observatory - Gosan, KCO-G, Jeju Island). The radiocarbon approach is ideally suited to this task as fossil sources are void of 14C whereas biomass combustion products hold a contemporary 14C signal. For S Asia, the 14C-based observations suggest that biomass combustion contributes half to two-thirds of the BC loading. In contrast, for E Asia, fossil fuel combustion account for four-fifths of the BC emitted from China. This source-diagnostic radiocarbon signal in the ambient aerosol over East Asia establishes a much larger role for fossil fuel combustion than suggested by all fifteen BC emission inventory models. There are also poor constraints on the sources of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), a large hydrophilic component of carbonaceous aerosols that enhances the propensity of aerosols to form clouds. In a 15-mo continuous campaign in S Asia, radiocarbon-based source apportionment of WSOC shows the dominance of biogenic/biomass combustion sources but also a substantial anthropogenic fossil-fuel contribution (about 20%). WSOC in E Asia reaching KCO-G were 50% from fossil sources. Aerosols reaching the Maldives after long-range over-ocean transport were enriched by 3-4‰ in ?13C-WSOC. This is contrary to the isotopic gradient expected for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and instead suggests that WSOC in the South Asian regional receptor atmosphere stems largely from chemically-aged POA. The year-round dual-isotope data suggests that a key contribution to S Asian WSOC may be ageing of POA from incomplete biomass combustion. These top-down isotope-based observational constraints is favorably combined with bottom-up emission inventories to iteratively produce an improved understanding of both anthropogenic sources and atmospheric behavior of climate- and health-afflicting carbonaceous aerosols in the air of South and East Asia.

Gustafsson, O.; Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.-; Kruså, M.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tiwari, S.-; Lee, M.; Chen, B.; Du, K.

2012-12-01

117

Paternal Genetic Structure of Hainan Aborigines Isolated at the Entrance to East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background At the southern entrance to East Asia, early population migration has affected most of the Y-chromosome variations of East Asians. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the isolated genetic structure of Hainan Island and the original genetic structure at the southern entrance, we studied the Y chromosome diversity of 405 Hainan Island aborigines from all the six populations, who have little influence of the recent mainland population relocations and admixtures. Here we report that haplogroups O1a* and O2a* are dominant among Hainan aborigines. In addition, the frequency of the mainland dominant haplogroup O3 is quite low among these aborigines, indicating that they have lived rather isolated. Clustering analyses suggests that the Hainan aborigines have been segregated since about 20 thousand years ago, after two dominant haplogroups entered East Asia (31 to 36 thousand years ago). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Hainan aborigines have been isolated at the entrance to East Asia for about 20 thousand years, whose distinctive genetic characteristics could be used as important controls in many population genetic studies.

Li, Dongna; Li, Hui; Ou, Caiying; Lu, Yan; Sun, Yuantian; Yang, Bo; Qin, Zhendong; Zhou, Zhenjian; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li

2008-01-01

118

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

2010-04-01

119

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

2010-07-01

120

Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

2004-01-01

121

Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

Hutchison, Charles S.

2010-12-01

122

Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction. PMID:12307191

You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

1974-01-01

123

Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.  

PubMed

It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2013-06-01

124

Seasonal evolution of the upper-tropospheric westerly jet core over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The location change of the westerly jet core at upper troposphere in June and July is investigated by using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The results show that the location of the westerly jet core changes rapidly from 140°E to 90°E during 35th-39th pentads, which corresponds to the plum rain period over East Asia. The location change of the jet core is actually the relative intensity change of the different westerly jet centers. The meridional temperature contrast in the troposphere is associated with the rapid location change of the jet core. The diabatic heating changes are the primary factor determining the seasonal evolution of the westerly jet core over East Asia.

Zhang, Yaocun; Kuang, Xueyuan; Guo, Weidong; Zhou, Tianjun

2006-06-01

125

MPOWER and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation in the South-East Asia region.  

PubMed

The 11 member states of WHO's South-East Asia Region share common factors of high prevalence of tobacco use, practice of several forms of tobacco use, increasing prevalence of tobacco use among the youth and women, link of tobacco use with poverty, and influence of tobacco advertisements in propagating the use of tobacco, especially among young girls and women. The effects of tobacco use are many-fold, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates as well as loss of gross domestic product (GDP) to respective countries. The WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia has been actively involved in curbing this menace essentially by way of assisting member states in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper gives an overview of these activities and discusses the opportunities and challenges in implementing the FCTC and possible practical solutions. PMID:23442401

Singh, P K

2012-01-01

126

Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

2014-02-01

127

Transboundary air pollution in East/Southeast Asia and geostationary measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accompanying with recent development of industry and economy in countries in Eastern/Southern/Southeastern Asia, emissions of air pollutants have been increasing significantly. Long-range, transboundary transport of these pollutants probably affects the atmospheric environment and the regional climate in this region. In Japan, although concentrations of ozone precursors have been decreasing in 1990s-2000s, surface ozone concentration has been gradually increasing and photochemical smog sometimes occurs not only in urban regions but also in remote areas. One of the causes of this ozone increase is considered to be transboundary transport of polluted air masses in East Asia. Geostationary (GEO) satellite observation of air pollutants over Asia is expected to contribute to understanding the photochemical and transport processes as well as the spatial and temporal variation of their emissions in this region. It can play crucial rolls for monitoring and predicting the transboundary pollution events. In this talk, some examples of transboundary pollution in East and Southeast Asia will be presented, and the detection possibility of these pollution events from GEO satellite will be discussed. Possible improvement of the model prediction of these pollution events by assimilating GEO satellite data will be also presented.

Kita, K.; Kasai, Y.; Sagi, K.; Hayashida, S.; Irie, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Miyazaki, K.; Takigawa, M.; Noguchi, K.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Akimoto, H.

2009-12-01

128

Trend of acid rain and neutralization byy ellow sand in east AsiaFa numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Acid rain and,its neutralization byy ellow sand,in East Asia were,investigated numericallybyan,Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new,deflation module,of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from the previous ones for Sahara and Australian

Hiroaki Terada; Hiromasa Ueda; Zifa Wang

129

Integrated assessment of CO 2 and SO 2 policies in North East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantifies the costs and impacts of six scenarios for carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions in North East Asia (NEA) within an integrated probabilistic analysis. The inclusion of the cooling effect of sulphates means that CO2 control in China would be likely to increase the regional temperature in NEA in the short-term. This is because CO2

Yeora Chae; Chris Hope

2003-01-01

130

East Asia and Pacific Summer Institutes for U.S. Graduate Students  

NSF Publications Database

Current information is available at the NSF Summer Institutes Website (http://www.nsf.gov/eapsi). Applicants are advised to review specific information for Australia, China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan under ?Potential Host Institutions for East Asia and Pacific Summer Institutes? on the Summer Institutes Website (http://www.nsf.gov/eapsi). More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF ...

131

Tomographic structure of East Asia: I. No fast (slab) anomalies beneath 660 km discontinuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first of two papers that describes a regional tomography investigation, which combines P-wave arrival times of\\u000a both regional and teleseismic earthquakes to obtain 3D mantle structures of East Asia up to 1 000 km depth. The most important\\u000a findings of this tomography study are reported in this paper as follows. (1) No fast P-wave velocity anomalies can

Shunping Pei; Yongshun John Chen

2010-01-01

132

Current Status of Dengue\\/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in WHO South-East Asia Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue fever\\/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF\\/DHF) is the most important emerging viral disease affecting nearly half of the world's population. It is estimated that there are between 50 to 100 million cases of DF and about 500 000 cases of DHF which require hospitalization every year. In the WHO South-East Asia Region, over the past 15 years, DF\\/DHF has become a

Chusak Prasittisuk; A. G. Andjaparidze; Vijay Kumar

133

Study of atmospheric mercury budget in East Asia using STEM-Hg modeling system.  

PubMed

East Asia is the largest source region of global anthropogenic mercury emissions, and contributes to atmospheric mercury concentration and deposition in other regions. Similarly, mercury from the global pool also plays a role in the chemical transport of mercury in East Asia. Annual simulations of atmospheric mercury in East Asia were performed using the STEM-Hg modeling system to study the mass budgets of mercury in the region. The model results showed strong seasonal variation in mercury concentration and deposition, with signals from large point sources. The annual mean concentrations for gaseous elemental mercury, reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury in central China and eastern coastal areas were 1.8 ng m(-3), 100 pg m(-3) and 150 pg m(-3), respectively. Boundary conditions had a strong influence on the simulated mercury concentration and deposition, contributing to 80% of the concentration and 70% of the deposition predicted by the model. The rest was caused by the regional emissions before they were transported out of the model domain. Using different oxidation rates reported for the Hg(0)-O(3) reaction (i.e., by Hall, 1995 vs. by Pal and Ariya, 2004) led to a 9% difference in the predicted mean concentration and a 40% difference in the predicted mean deposition. The estimated annual dry and wet deposition for East Asia in 2001 was in the range of 590-735 Mg and 482-696 Mg, respectively. The mercury mass outflow caused by the emissions in the domain was estimated to be 681-714 Mg yr(-1). This constituted 70% of the total mercury emission in the domain. The greatest outflow occurred in spring and early summer. PMID:20483447

Pan, Li; Lin, Che-Jen; Carmichael, Gregory R; Streets, David G; Tang, Youhua; Woo, Jung-Hun; Shetty, Suraj K; Chu, Hsing-Wei; Ho, Thomas C; Friedli, Hans R; Feng, Xinbin

2010-07-15

134

Statistical downscaing of daily temperature and precipitation over East Asia from CMIP5 models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the future changes in East Asia using Constructed Analogues (CA) method. The CA statistical forecast method is based on the premise that an analogue for a given coarse-scale daily weather (target) pattern can be constructed by combining the weather patterns for several days (predictors) from a library of previously observed patterns. It can be used to study impacts of climate changes and climate variability, so this study statistically downscales and corrects the bias of daily temperature, maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and daily surface downwelling shortwave radiation data from CMIP5 model over East Asia using CA method. Based on these downscaled historical (1979~2005), rcp4.5, rcp8.5 (2021~2047) data from nine CGCMs, we analyze the changes in future climate. To gain a reliable result, the raw and statistically downscaled model outputs for the current climate are compared with observations. The result shows that the linearly downscaled constructed patterns are similar to observed patterns. In other words, the downscaled result reasonably captures the temporal and spatial distribution of the current temperature and precipitation associated with topography. This provides reliability in assessments of regional changes over East Asia. In the future climate, the results for downscaled temperatures and precipitation display an increasing trend over East Asia, especially the most significant increase in rcp8.5. In order to quantify the future changes, ensemble of nine CGCMs are compared against current observations, which shows an increase in the entire region. The spatial patterns in future climate predicts by all CGCMs are similar ensembles

Kang, S.; Jo, H.; Shim, K.

2013-12-01

135

A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison–Gettelman\\u000a two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical\\u000a experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over\\u000a East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the

Xiaodong Liu; Xiaoning Xie; Zhi-Yong Yin; Changhai Liu; Andrew Gettelman

136

Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the effects of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations over East Asia using wet deposition fluxes observed at Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model together with a new below-cloud-scavenging scheme. Typical air quality models, including CMAQ, assume below-cloud scavenging as a simple first-order process with a constant or simple form depending on rain intensity. The scheme used here accounts for the collection efficiency, terminal velocity of raindrops, raindrop-size distributions, and particle-size distributions, which are important factors affecting below-cloud scavenging. We conduct model simulations for spring 2001, including baseline and sensitivity simulations. Our analysis mainly focuses on May 2001 to rule out the effect of dust aerosols. Simulated wet deposition fluxes of SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ by the new scheme are increased by 103, 16, and 108%, respectively, relative to the baseline simulation and show better agreement with observations. The effect of below-cloud scavenging on coarse particles is even greater, producing wet deposition fluxes two orders of magnitude higher than the baseline. The resulting changes in the model indicate the considerable impacts of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations over East Asia, where both anthropogenic emissions and natural sources of aerosols are present throughout the year. An accurate wet scavenging simulation is critical to simulate the atmospheric burden and wet deposition fluxes of both fine-mode and coarse-mode aerosols over East Asia.

Bae, Soo Ya; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Yong Pyo; Woo, Jung-Hun

2012-10-01

137

Familial capitalism in global institutional contexts: Implications for corporate governance and entrepreneurship in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the world’s firms have a familial dimension; including some of the most dynamic and emerging markets of East Asia.\\u000a However, this important aspect of organizing economic activity remains understudied and misunderstood. A central theme of\\u000a this article is that while families matter in economic activity throughout the world, they matter in different ways depending\\u000a on the institutional context.

Lloyd P. Steier

2009-01-01

138

Aerosol optical properties over east Asia determined from ground-based sky radiation measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical thickness, Ångström exponent, size distribution, and single scattering albedo) over east Asia were examined using long-term measurements of sky radiation at Mandalgovi, Dunhuang, Yinchuan, and Sri-Samrong sites of the Skyradiometer Network (SKYNET). Also included were sky radiation measurements at Anmyon, Gosan in Korea, and Amami-Oshima in Japan during April for examining optical properties of Asian

Do-Hyeong Kim; Byung-Ju Sohn; Teruyuki Nakajima; Tamio Takamura; Toshihiko Takemura; Byoung-Cheol Choi; Soon-Chang Yoon

2004-01-01

139

Sensitivity analysis of photochemical ozone to its precursor emissions over East Asia by CMAQ-DDM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past three decades, anthropogenic emissions in East Asia have increased dramatically in parallel with the economic growth, and the trans-boundary air pollution arose as a concerning issue. For instance, high photochemical oxidant (over 120 ppbv) was observed at the remote clean island in Japan during 2007 springtime. In this event, many studies concluded that the high possibility of the impact of Asian-scale trans-boundary pollutants. To investigate the source-receptor relationships, modeling study is useful, however, if the chemical reaction involves the nonlinear response (e.g., ozone), to estimate its S-R relationships is quite difficult. The decoupled direct method (DDM) which was implemented in CMAQ ver. 4.7.1 is an efficient and accurate way of performing sensitivity analysis to model inputs. CMAQ-DDM has been extended to higher-order (HDDM) for gas-phase, and calculates first and second-order sensitivity coefficients representing the responsiveness of atmospheric chemical concentrations to perturbations in a model input or parameter (e.g., emission, reaction rate, initical condition, or boundary condition). This applications are well conducted in the U.S., whereas it is not fully examined in East Asia. In this study, we apply CMAQ-DDM technique for ozone and its precursor pollutants in East Asia. In the case of trans-boundary air pollution episode occurred on 7-9 May, 2007, the 1st order ozone sensitivity to the anthropogenic NOx emissions from China show the positive value in almost part over East Asia, namely represent the NOx-sensitive region, whereas in the large-point sources in China (e.g., Beijing and Shanghai), it shows the negative value due to the ozone titration by NO. We will also report more detailed region specified S-R analysis and cross-sensitivity analysis between NOx and VOC over China, Korea and Japan.

Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; Kim, S.

2011-12-01

140

Model analysis of seasonal variations in tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal-spatial variations in tropospheric ozone concentrations over East Asia in the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December\\u000a 2004 were simulated by using the Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with meteorological fields\\u000a calculated by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The simulated concentrations of ozone and carbon monoxide were\\u000a compared with ground level observations at two

Lijie Gao; Meigen Zhang; Zhiwei Han

2009-01-01

141

Plate tectonic reconstruction of South and East Asia since 43 Ma using seismic tomographic constraints: role of the subducted ';East Asia Sea' (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithosphere that subducts at convergent plate boundaries provides a potentially decipherable plate tectonic record. In this study we use global seismic tomography to map subducted slabs in the upper and lower mantle under South and East Asia to constrain plate reconstructions. The mapped slabs include the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and Banda Sea, the Molucca Sea, Celebes Sea, the Philippine Sea and Eurasia, New Guinea and other lower mantle detached slabs. The mapped slabs were restored to the earth surface and used with Gplates software to constrain a globally-consistent, fully animated plate reconstruction of South and East Asia. Three principal slab elements dominate possible plate reconstructions: [1] The mapped Pacific slabs near the Izu-Bonin and the Marianas trenches form a subvertical slab curtain or wall extending down to 1500 km in the lower mantle. The ';slab curtain' geometry and restored slabs lengths indicate that the Pacific subduction zone has remained fixed within +/- 250 km of its present position since ~43 Ma. In contrast, the Tonga Pacific slab curtain records at least 1000 km trench rollback associated with expansion of back-arc basins. [2] West of the Pacific slab curtain, a set of flat slabs exist in the lower mantle and record a major 8000km by 2500-3000km ocean that existed at ~43 Ma. This now-subducted ocean, which we call the ';East Asian Sea', existed between the Ryukyu Asian margin and the Lord Howe hotspot, present-day eastern Australia, and fills a major gap in Cenozoic plate reconstructions between Indo-Australia, the Pacific Ocean and Asia. [3] An observed ';picture puzzle' fit between the restored edges of the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Indian Ocean slabs suggests that the Philippine Sea was once part of a larger Indo-Australian Ocean. Previous models of Philippine Sea plate motions are in conflict with the location of the East Asian Sea lithosphere. Using the mapped slab constraints, we propose the following 43 Ma to 0 plate tectonic reconstruction. At ~43 Ma a major plate reorganization occurred in South and East Asia marked by Indian Ocean Wharton ridge extinction, initiation of Pacific Ocean WNW motions and the rapid northward motion of the Australian plate. The Philippine Sea and Molucca Sea were clustered at the northern margin of Australia, northwest of New Guinea. During the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with Australia, accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. The East Asian Sea was subducted under the northward-moving Philippine Sea and Australia plates, and the expanding Melanesian and Shikoku-Parece Vela backarc basins. At ~20 to 25 Ma the Philippine Sea and Molucca Sea were fragmented from Indo-Australia and began to have a westward component of motion due to partial Pacific capture. Around 1-2 Ma the Philippine Sea was more fully captured by the Pacific and now has rapid Pacific-like northwestward motions.

Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V.

2013-12-01

142

Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations  

PubMed Central

Background The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the Andaman Islands, is inconsistent with this scenario. Results In this study, we collected more than 5,000 male samples from 73 East Asian populations and reconstructed the phylogeography of the D-M174 lineage. Our results suggest that D-M174 represents an extremely ancient lineage of modern humans in East Asia, and a deep divergence was observed between northern and southern populations. Conclusion We proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages. The Neolithic expansion of Han culture and the last glacial maximum are likely the key factors leading to the current relic distribution of D-M174 in East Asia. The Tibetan and Japanese populations are the admixture of two ancient populations represented by two major East Asian specific Y chromosome lineages, the O and D haplogroups.

Shi, Hong; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Dong, Yong-Li; Qi, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lu-Fang; Tan, Si-Jie; Ma, Runlin Z; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Wells, R Spencer; Jin, Li; Su, Bing

2008-01-01

143

Characterization of aerosol pollution over East Asia with PARASOL space-borne observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explore aerosol optical characteristics and evaluate satellite aerosol retrievals over East Asia, we compare the fine mode Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with a cut-off radius of 0.30 ?m from 14 AERONET sites located in this large area with PARASOL and MODIS aerosol observations. These analyses show that PARASOL AOD is quite consistent with the AERONET AOD of fine fraction, so that this sensor is well suited for remote sensing of fine mode particles. Based on the empirical relationship established between daily fine particle mass (PM2.5) concentration measured at surface and column AOD derived from POLDER-2 satellite sensor over France [Kacenelenbogen et al., 2006], we derive PM2.5 concentration from the whole data set of PARASOL AOD (2005-2008) over East Asia and then estimate associated air quality categories, as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, this approach allows an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of air pollution events over this large region, with special interest for China. However, it should be noted that the applicability of the relationship derived by Kacenelenbogen et al. [2006] requires further validation over different parts of East Asia with available ground-based PM2.5 measurements.

Su, X. L.; Goloub, P.; Chiapello, I.; Chen, H. B.; Li, Z. Q.

2009-04-01

144

Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive ‘species pumps’ particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10–17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region.

Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

2013-01-01

145

Emissions of halogenated compounds in East Asia determined from measurements at Jeju Island, Korea.  

PubMed

High-frequency in situ measurements at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) during November 2007 to December 2008 have been combined with interspecies correlation analysis to estimate national emissions of halogenated compounds (HCs) in East Asia, including the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)), and other chlorinated and brominated compounds. Our results suggest that overall China is the dominant emitter of HCs in East Asia, however significant emissions are also found in South Korea, Japan and Taiwan for HFC-134a, HFC-143a, C(2)F(6), SF(6), CH(3)CCl(3), and HFC-365mfc. The combined emissions of CFCs, halon-1211, HCFCs, HFCs, PFCs, and SF(6) from all four countries in 2008 are 25.3, 1.6, 135, 42.6, 3.6, and 2.0 kt/a, respectively. They account for approximately 15%, 26%, 29%, 16%, 32%, and 26.5% of global emissions, respectively. Our results show signs that Japan has successfully phased out CFCs and HCFCs in compliance with the Montreal Protocol (MP), Korea has started transitioning from HCFCs to HFCs, while China still significantly consumes HCFCs. Taiwan, while not directly regulated under the MP, is shown to have adapted the use of HFCs. Combined analysis of emission rates and the interspecies correlation matrix presented in this study proves to be a powerful tool for monitoring and diagnosing changes in consumption of HCs in East Asia. PMID:21649439

Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Mühle, Jens; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Stohl, Andreas; Kang, Dong-Jin; Arnold, Tim; Harth, Christina M; Salameh, Peter K; Weiss, Ray F

2011-07-01

146

The rise of Coastal China and inter-regional relations among core economic regions of East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the changing industrial landscape of East Asia by focusing on the eight core economic regions (Kanto,\\u000a Kinki and Chubu of Japan, Zhujiang, Changjiang and Jing-Jin-Ji of China, and Korea’s Seoul capital and Yeongnam region). The\\u000a three Japanese regions have been leading the formation of industrial geography of East Asia in the past three decades. Since\\u000a the reform

Won Bae Kim

2012-01-01

147

Transport and distribution of primary and secondary nonmethane volatile organic compounds in east Asia under continental outflow conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional scale three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model is used to study the transport and chemistry of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in east Asia. A springtime episode during the month of May 1987 is investigated. The emission estimates of ethane, propane, and ethene from our calculations in east Asia are ~1.6, ~1.3, and ~5.2 Tg C\\/yr, respectively. The model calculated

Mahesh J. Phadnis; Gregory R. Carmichael

2000-01-01

148

Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

2003-01-01

149

Is an Optimum Currency Area Feasible in East and South East Asia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the backdrop of the recent economic crisis in the European Union, this study attempts to assess the degree of regional integration and the suitability of a monetary union in the East and South-East Asian (ESEA) region. For this purpose, we analyse the issue in a variety of ways. First, a long-run linkage of real output of the countries is

Chandan Sharma; Ritesh Kumar Mishra

2012-01-01

150

Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than precipitations for both mean and extreme. Near-term future projections for 2024-2049 from four available RCMs suggest that temperature and precipitation are expected to increase in both mean and extremes over East Asia.

Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

2014-05-01

151

Observations of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols in East and South Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), brown carbon and mineral dust, typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we investigate the optical and radiative properties of light-absorbing aerosols from ground-based and aircraft measurements in East and South Asia within the framework of UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud-Asia (ABC-Asia) project and Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) campaign (December 2012 ~ February 2013). BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements and radiative forcing calculations were performed at four sites: Gosan (Korea), Anmyeon (Korea), Hanimaadhoo (Maldives) and Pyramid (Nepal). No significant seasonal variations of aerosol properties, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at Hanimaadhoo during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at Gosan and Anmyeon is higher than that in Hanimaadhoo due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at Pyramid is 0.14, which is two times great than that in Hanimaadhoo and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at Pyramid is the lowest among four sites. Throughout the unmanned aerial vehicle experiment in Jeju, Korea during August-September 2008, long-range transport of aerosols from Beijing, Shanghai and Marine plumes are sampled in aerosol layers up to 3-4 km above sea level. The diurnal mean solar heating rate, calculated from the observed solar fluxes in shortwave regime (0.3 to 2.8 ?m), at 3 to 4 km altitudes for Beijing and marine plume conditions are about 1.0 and 0.75 K/day, respectively. On the other hand, BC concentration at Kathmandu during SusKat campaign is found to be maximum in the morning (09LST) as well as in the late evening (20LST). Around noon time lowest amount of BC is recorded. Increased vehicular movement and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to higher amount of BC. In addition the wind direction contributes to the variation in BC concentration.

Yoon, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, W.

2013-05-01

152

Impact of the November/December Arctic Oscillation on the following January temperature in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

investigated the impacts of the preceding Arctic Oscillation (AO) on winter East Asian temperature (TEA) and the possible mechanisms. It was found that the correlation of the November AO (Nov AO) with the following January TEA is more significant than that with the following December and February TEA. Moreover, the January TEA is also closely related to the preceding December AO (Dec AO). Further analysis revealed that a Rossby wave associated with the Nov AO is confined to high latitudes in December but shifts southeastward to East Asia in January. Similarly, the Dec AO-related wave activities propagating southeastward to East Asia could persist into the following January. Consequently, the signals of the Nov/Dec AO could be transmitted to the following January. Besides, an air-sea interaction might exist over the North Pacific (NP). The sea surface temperature (SST) over the central subtropical NP (west coast of North America) often rapidly rises (drops) a month later and peaks in the following January when the preceding Nov/Dec AO is in positive phase, causing horseshoe SST anomalies (SSTAs) to form in the NP, with positive SSTAs located in the central subtropical NP and surrounded by negative ones. Such a horseshoe SSTA could lead to a strengthening of the air temperature gradient in the north and a weakening in the south due to effective turbulent mixing in the boundary layer. A huge anomalous anticyclone therefore emerges in the NP and favors a weaker East Asian winter monsoon. Warmer January TEA is eventually generated.

He, Shengping; Wang, Huijun

2013-12-01

153

Regional modeling of dust climatic impact over East Asia using WRF-Chem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asian dust can affect climate and hydrological cycle by modulating the radiation budget, microphysical properties of clouds, and surface albedo of the ground covered by snow or glacier. The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the impact of dust on regional climate and its seasonal variation over East Asia. Over the Tibetan Plateau, dust modifies the atmospheric heating profiles and cloud properties, leading to a decrease of snowfall and hence snow coverage on the ground. These results are from a reduction of surface albedo and increased surface temperature, further accelerating snowmelt. This impact is smallest in summer, when the snow coverage is relative low. Over the East China-Korea-Japan regions, dust modifies the atmospheric heating profiles and cloud properties. Dust induces significant changes in the magnitudes and diurnal variations of surface temperature. Cloud liquid water content is also significantly impacted, as reflected in changes of cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) with a maximum in summer. The dust impacts on spatial distribution of precipitation and wind circulation are also investigated, showing distinct seasonality of dust impact on the regional climate over East Asia.

chen, S.; Zhao, C.; Qian, Y.; Leung, L.; Huang, J.

2013-12-01

154

Constraints on the evolution of East Asia's mantle from P-wave travel time tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution tomographic images of the mantle structure beneath East Asia have been obtained through inversion of travel time data from global and regional seismograph stations and regional (temporary) arrays. These data resolve three-dimensional (3-D) upper mantle heterogeneity in unprecedented detail. In the west, high velocity anomalies are dominant beneath the Himalayas and the western portion of the Tibetan plateau to 300 km depth, which we interpret as the image of the northeastward subducting Indian lithospheric mantle. In contrast, P-wave tomography does not provide evidence for underthrusting of the Indian lithosphere beneath much of central and eastern Tibet. Beneath East China, slabs subducting from the Japan and Izu-Bonin trenches are deflected in the mantle transition zone. These stagnant slabs likely influence upper mantle convection beneath East Asia and might be related to volcanism in Korea and northeast China (such as the Changbai volcanic area). Low wavespeed structures in the shallow mantle beneath the Red River fault region connect to deep, slow anomalies beneath the South China Foldbelt. Tomographic imaging also reveals high wavespeed continental roots of the Precambrian Ordos block and Sichuan Basin (to 250-300 km depth) and strong heterogeneity between the latter and the Burma ranges further to the west. Together these structures may mark a transition in tectonic regime from the continental collision control in the west to control by subduction of Pacific, Philippine Sea and Indonesia plates to the east and the southeast.

Li, C.; van der Hilst, R.; Sun, R.; Burchfiel, B.; Royden, L. H.

2007-12-01

155

Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012  

PubMed Central

This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

2014-01-01

156

Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.  

PubMed

This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

2014-01-01

157

A multivariate analysis of measurements recorded in early and more modern crania from East Asia and Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stepwise discriminant function analysis and Mahalanobis' generalized distance are applied to 28 land- mark measurements recorded in 38 prehistoric and modern cranial series from Eastern Asia for inter- preting biological relationships and population history. The cranial series are from Japan, China, Northern Asia, mainland Southeast Asia, and island Southeast Asia. The results of this analysis indicate a marked separation of

Michael Pietrusewsky

2009-01-01

158

East is east and West is west: perspectives on the menopause in Asia and The West.  

PubMed

There is a school of thought that believes that menopausal symptoms are a peculiarly 'Western' phenomenon, not experienced by women from other regions and particularly not from Asia where, it has been claimed, dietary, social and cultural factors afforded protection for women living in that region. More recently, studies conducted in multi-ethnic communities living in Western countries as well as in Asian communities have found that the menopause and its consequences are similar world-wide. Ethnic differences within Asia account for small differences in endogenous hormone levels and age at menopause between Asian and Western women, and the type of menopause symptoms and their prevalence also differ between those two communities. However, like in the West and perhaps because of a Western influence, the long-term health problems of postmenopausal women including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and breast cancer are of major importance to Asian women and health services in the 21st century. PMID:23931652

Baber, R J

2014-02-01

159

Summer rain events in south-east Asia: Spatial and temporal variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer monsoon period in south-east Asia marine airstreams normally prevail at the south China coast. However, when tropical cyclones approach then polluted airmasses from south-eastern China can impart high ionic concentrations and high acidity to rainwater. This is illustrated by two examples and the small-scale horizontal variations in rainwater composition are minor during these episodes. Since long-term quality-assured studies of the composition of rainwater in south-east Asia are scarce, the results at three sampling sites in Hong Kong during summer monsoon periods are compared with previous data from the same season. The results for the mid- to end-1990's show a similar trend to those for the ambient concentrations of sulphate and nitrate in aerosol in Hong Kong, which show flattened trends from 1995 to 1999. A marked increase in acidity is found in the summer monsoon period of 2004 which is attributed to the greater proportion of approaching cyclone weather systems in the dataset, reflecting both the increased local emission sources and the burgeoning economic growth of the Pearl River Delta Region. Comparison of the rainwater composition with that at other south-east Asian cities during the summer monsoon period shows that it is most acidic in Hong Kong.

Yeung, Ming Chee; Lee, Sze Chung; Lun, Bit Hon; Tanner, Peter A.

2007-12-01

160

Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust emissions from the Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia have a major impact on the air quality in the East Asian region. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 ?g/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in Korea. The mineral dusts also modifies the formation mechanism of inorganic aerosols via the chemical interactions with atmospheric gas species. The performance of available dust emission schemes to depict not only the high PM10 concentration and onset time for the dust storm period but also the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event were evaluated against the surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia) and satellite measurements over East Asia. The US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v5.0 by modifying the fugitive dust modules was used to simulate the chemical transport including the mineral aerosols. The results show that the Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) and DEAD are relatively good dust emission schemes in this region and influence of mineral dusts on the sulfate and nitrate formations is significant when the dust mixes with anthropogenic emissions over China. Details of modifications of dust emission schemes and annual background PM10 concentrations by the soil fugitive dust in Korea will be discussed in the presentation.

Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.

2012-12-01

161

Changing Patterns of HIV Epidemic in 30 Years in East Asia.  

PubMed

The HIV epidemic in East Asia started relatively late compared to the rest of the world. All countries or areas, except for North Korea, had reported HIV and AIDS cases, with China being the major contributor to the epidemic. Though initially driven by injecting drug use in China, East Asia did not experience an explosive spread. Strong commitment in China and early harm reduction programs in Taiwan managed to reduce transmission substantially among injecting drug users. In contrast to China and Taiwan, injection drug use has accounted just a little, if not at all, for the spread of HIV in other East Asian counties. However, following a global trend, sexual contact has become a major route of infection across the region. While much progress has been achieved in this region, with the epidemic among other key populations relatively stable, the emerging epidemic through sex between men is a growing concern. Recent estimates suggest that HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) has reached 6.3 % in China, 7.5 % in Mongolia, and ranges between 8.1 %-10.7 % in Taiwan and between 2.7 %- 6.5 % in South Korea. In Japan, 74 % of male HIV cases were among MSM in 2012, while Hong Kong has witnessed a sharp increase of HIV cases among MSM since 2004. There is urgent need to address issues of discrimination and stigma toward homosexuality, and to strengthen the strategies to reach and care for this population. PMID:24664878

Suguimoto, S Pilar; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-Saaidi, Christina; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

2014-06-01

162

Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)  

PubMed Central

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

Gonzalez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simon, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpcio

2012-01-01

163

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-01-01

164

Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes over East Asia through AsiaFlux and improved MODIS gross primary production data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate estimation of carbon fluxes over terrestrial ecosystems provides useful information in studying the global carbon cycle. Estimates of carbon fluxes such as gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) have been commonly used as indicators of the global carbon budgets. Eddy covariance (EC) flux towers are operating all over the world, networking each other. The towers provide temporally continuous measurements of carbon, water and energy over terrestrial ecosystems as being the best way to estimate ecosystem fluxes up to date. However, the EC flux towers only cover the scale of footprint, having difficulty in representing fluxes at the regional or continental scale. For upscaling flux tower data, satellite products that cover vast areas at high temporal resolution can be used. While many studies were conducted to estimate carbon fluxes from satellite products using process-based modeling and empirical modeling approaches, there are still great uncertainties in carbon flux estimation due to biases and errors associated with in-situ measurements, spatio-temporal discrepancy between satellite products and in-situ measurements, and relatively less accurate satellite products. In this paper, NEE and GPP were estimated using machine learning techniques including random forest, Cubist, and support vector regression. Various satellite products were used as independent variables such as land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, leaf area index, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, GPP, evapotranspiration, rainfall, normalized difference water index obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). However, MODIS GPP based on the light use efficiency (LUE) model has some uncertainties derived from input data used in this model such as coarse spatial resolution of the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) meteorological data, upstream data of MODIS land cover use, FPAR, LAI, and model parameters. MODIS GPP data was improved using enhanced input variables by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data with high spatial resolution instead of DAO data, reflecting topographic characteristics over East Asia. GPP estimated using the enhanced input variables was compared with original MODIS GPP and in situ GPP to analyze the degree of improvements. Finally, improved GPP data were incorporated into the machine learning empirical models to estimate NEE. The spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP and NEE) over East Asia were also examined considering vegetation type and topography.

Kim, Miae; Im, Jungho; Lee, Junghee; Shin, Minso; Lee, Sanggyun

2014-05-01

165

Aerosol optical properties over east Asia determined from ground-based sky radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical thickness, Ångström exponent, size distribution, and single scattering albedo) over east Asia were examined using long-term measurements of sky radiation at Mandalgovi, Dunhuang, Yinchuan, and Sri-Samrong sites of the Skyradiometer Network (SKYNET). Also included were sky radiation measurements at Anmyon, Gosan in Korea, and Amami-Oshima in Japan during April for examining optical properties of Asian dust. Results show that the seasonal average of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) generally exhibits a maximum in spring and a minimum in autumn over east Asia. At Sri-Samrong and Yinchuan, relatively distinct seasonal cycles are noted, in comparison to the arid desert regions of Dunhuang and Mandalgovi. In general, aerosol size distributions are characterized by a bimodal pattern, with a fine mode around 0.2 ?m and a coarse mode around 2-5 ?m. Similar to AOT and ?, volume spectra are also much dependent on geographical location and season. Dunhuang mostly shows coarse mode particles in all seasons, while Mandalgovi and Sri-Samrong show large seasonal variations in the total volume of fine mode particles. The single scattering albedos of dust particles over east Asia are around 0.9 at 0.5 ?m, which are larger than the previously known values of 0.63-0.89 but similar to those found in the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) analysis. It is noted that the optical properties of Asian dust around Korea and Japan are quite similar to those found in dust source regions such as Dunhuang and Mandalgovi. However, the single scattering albedo appears to be smaller than those observed in Dunhuang and Mandalgovi. Furthermore, single scattering albedo tends to become smaller during the dust outbreak period. Considering that aerosols in Korean and Japanese areas are much influenced by anthropogenic aerosols emitted in China particularly under the westerly conditions, the mixing processes between different aerosol species may be the cause of the different optical properties of Asian dust.

Kim, Do-Hyeong; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Takamura, Tamio; Takemura, Toshihiko; Choi, Byoung-Cheol; Yoon, Soon-Chang

2004-01-01

166

Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over the East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the East Asia. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 ?g/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in the SMA (Seoul Metropolitan Area). The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency of underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) scheme for the dust emission with CAMx was tested for its applicability in assessing impact of the fugitive dust on air quality in the China region and SMA. The performance of ADMS2 dust emission was evaluated to depict not only onset times of the dust storm event but also to estimate the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event against the surface measurements and satellite measurements over East Asia. The surface observations were from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) monitoring sites in China and the intensive monitoring stations in the SMA. The results show that the CAMx predictions of PM10 with ADAM2 scheme were relatively in a good agreement with the observations. They, however, occasionally over-predicted the PM10 concentrations during non-dust event periods and under-predicted the PM10 concentrations during dust event periods. Details of model comparison for other chemical species and implication of dust emission schemes on the air quality will be discussed in the presentation. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The Eco-technopia 21 project'.

Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.; choi, D.

2013-12-01

167

Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded); CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya) by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and diploids indicates that triploids are not composed of a single independent lineage. The ancient origins and evolutionary uniqueness of the seven lineages warrant their conservation. An overall phylogenetic framework obtained from the present study will be of use for estimating the phylogenetic relationships of Carassius fishes on the Eurasian continent.

2010-01-01

168

World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle East, Africa and Asia/Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle East, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the Asia and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

Not Available

1982-01-01

169

WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 ?m or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40-50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby

2014-08-01

170

Natural positive selection and north-south genetic diversity in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have identified a north–south cline in genetic variation in East and South-East Asia, but these studies have not formally explored the basis of these clinical differences. Understanding the origins of these variations may provide valuable insights in tracking down the functional variants in genomic regions identified by genetic association studies. Here we investigate the genetic basis of these differences with genome-wide data from the HapMap, the Human Genome Diversity Project and the Singapore Genome Variation Project. We implemented four bioinformatic measures to discover genomic regions that are considerably differentiated either between two Han Chinese populations in the north and south of China, or across 22 populations in East and South-East Asia. These measures prioritized genomic stretches with: (i) regional differences in the allelic spectrum for SNPs common to the two Han Chinese populations; (ii) differential evidence of positive selection between the two populations as quantified by integrated haplotype score (iHS) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH); (iii) significant correlation between allele frequencies and geographical latitudes of the 22 populations. We also explored the extent of linkage disequilibrium variations in these regions, which is important in combining genetic association studies from North and South Chinese. Two of the regions that emerged are found in HLA class I and II, suggesting that the HLA imputation panel from the HapMap may not be directly applicable to every Chinese sample. This has important implications to autoimmune studies that plan to impute the classical HLA alleles to fine map the SNP association signals.

Suo, Chen; Xu, Haiyan; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Ong, Rick TH; Sim, Xueling; Chen, Jieming; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Kar-Seng; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Jianjun; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien-Yin; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

2012-01-01

171

Evaluation of simulated precipitation: Recent trends in extreme indices over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate research, particularly application studies for water, agriculture, forestry, fishery and energy management require fine scale multi-decadal information of meteorological, oceanographic and land states. Unfortunately, spatially and temporally homogeneous multi-decadal observations of these variables in high horizontal resolution are non-existent. Some long term surface records of temperature and precipitation exist, but the number of observation is very limited and the measurements are often contaminated by changes in instrumentation over time. Some climatologically important variables, such as soil moisture, surface evaporation, and radiation are not even measured over most of East Asia. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to provide valuable regional finescale information, especially in regions where the climate variables are strongly regulated by the underlying topography and the surface heterogeneity. We investigated the ability of a regional climate model to provide the characteristics of East Asian climate focusing on summer and winter monsoon using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system [GRIMs; Hong et al. 2013]. The model can reproduce large scale features associated the East Asian summer and winter monsoon in terms of 30-year (1979-2008) seasonal mean climate. However, accurate prediction of monsoon precipitation is still a challenging task. Precipitation is one of the most important results generated during the model simulation. It is also generally the most difficult variable to simulate correctly in a regional model. Therefore, we will focus on precipitation to examine variability and uncertainty over East Asia in terms of extreme indices. The assessment of simulated precipitation is expected to provide the high-quality data that can be used in various application areas such as hydrology or environmental model forcing.

Yhang, Yoo-Bin

2014-05-01

172

Marine sedimentary evidence for monsoon strengthening, Tibetan uplift and drainage evolution in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau has caused an increased flux of clastic material from Asia into the surrounding marginal seas. This flux reflects increased regional erosion, partially caused by topographic uplift of Tibet, but dominantly by higher precipitation linked to monsoon intensification. Using regional seismic profiles from East Asia as proxies for the Cenozoic accumulation history we constrain the timing of enhanced erosion and thus climate change and plateau uplift. Most of the seas show sedimentation increasing after ˜45 Ma following India-Asia collision. Rates rose sharply at ˜33 Ma, and again around 18 Ma, possibly caused by stages in monsoon strengthening enhancing regional erosion. Erosion of gorges in eastern Tibet is a modest source of sediment to the marginal seas. The late Miocene (5-11 Ma) is a time of reduced sedimentation in all basins except in the Mekong area, which alone is influenced by exhumation of the Vietnamese Central Highlands. The slower regional erosion reflects a drier climate and strong winter monsoon during the late Miocene, while the Plio-Pleistocene (<5 Ma) sees a return to fast accumulation rates, possibly triggered by global climatic deterioration. Single grain Pb and bulk sediment Nd isotopic characteristics of modern river and Eocene sediments from the Gulf of Tonkin support models of drainage capture in the Red River system since the Eocene. This drainage has lost flux from sources similar to the Yangtze Block, possibly reflecting capture of flow from the middle and lower Yangtze from the Red River linked to Tibetan uplift.

Clift, Peter D.; Layne, Graham D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy

173

Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia.  

PubMed

The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia. PMID:20974952

Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

2010-11-01

174

Pleistocene loess in the humid subtropical forest zone of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

deposits in Asia have been used as indicators of palaeoclimate, because they are usually found bordering deserts. This paper reports extensive and thick deposits of loess in tropical southwest China, between latitudes 18 and 23°30'N, which is 1300 km south of known, and extensively researched loess deposits in north China. The present climate of the reported loess areas is hot and humid, with mean annual rainfall of 1000-2000 mm, and vegetation of subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest. This compares with less than 400 mm rainfall and vegetation of semi-desert steppe, in areas of current loess accumulation on desert margins in north China. The source area of the loess, which is dated by optical luminescence to the late Pleistocene, from 90-222 ka, is thought to be the exposed East Asian Shelf, which was up to 140 m below present sea level during Quaternary arid phases. Recent research on the nature of the shelf environment, and the relatively large particle size of the loess, suggests a local origin. The reported loess is not interbedded with palaeosols, and small amounts of soil cover the loess, compared with well developed soils in loess in semiarid regions in north China. This is explained by elimination of the supply source by sea level rise following each arid phase, as continued dust supply appears necessary for soil to form. This preliminary report of loess in southwest China conflicts with palynological evidence, and suggests that recent reconstructions of Pleistocene aridity in east Asia may be conservative.

Nichol, Janet E.; Nichol, Douglas W.

2013-05-01

175

Technological options for the removal of arsenic with special reference to South East Asia.  

PubMed

Arsenic contamination in ground water, used for drinking purpose, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. However, arsenic contamination of ground water in parts of South East Asia is assuming greater proportions and posing a serious threat to the health of millions of people. A variety of treatment technologies based on oxidation, co-precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange and membrane process are available for the removal of arsenic from ground water. However, question remains regarding the efficiency and applicability/appropriateness of the technologies, particularly because of low influent arsenic concentration and differences in source water composition. Some of these methods are quite simple, but the disadvantage associated with them is that they produce large amounts of toxic sludge, which needs further treatment before disposal into the environment. Besides, the system must be economically viable and socially acceptable. In this paper an attempt has been made to review and update the recent advances made in the technological development in arsenic removal technologies to explore the potential of those advances to address the problem of arsenic contamination in South East Asia. PMID:22579769

Jain, C K; Singh, R D

2012-09-30

176

The Effects of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in ChinaRegions on East Asia Monsoons  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we examine the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China on East Asia monsoons and its precipitation processes by using the CAM3.0 model. It is demonstrated that sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China both have the effects to weaken East Asia monsoons in both summer and winter seasons. However, they certainly differ from each other in affecting vertical structures of temperature and atmospheric circulations. Their differences are expected because of their distinct optical properties, i.e., scattering vs. absorbing. Even for a single type of aerosol, its effects on temperature structures and atmospheric circulations are largely season-dependent. Applications of T-test on our results indicate that forcing from black carbon aerosols over China is relatively weak and limited. It is also evident from our results that the effects of synthetic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon together) on monsoons are not simply a linear summation between these two types of aerosols. Instead, they are determined by their integrated optical properties. Synthetic aerosols to a large degree resemble effects of sulfate aerosols. This implies a likely scattering property for the integration of black carbon and sulfate aerosols in China.

Yang, Bai [ORNL; Liu, Yu [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China; Sun, Jiaren [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Guangzhou, China

2009-01-01

177

Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia  

PubMed Central

The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia.

Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

2010-01-01

178

Source contributions of sulfate aerosol over East Asia estimated by CMAQ-DDM.  

PubMed

We applied the decoupled direct method (DDM), a sensitivity analysis technique for computing sensitivities accurately and efficiently, to determine the source-receptor relationships of anthropogenic SO(2) emissions to sulfate aerosol over East Asia. We assessed source contributions from East Asia being transported to Oki Island downwind from China and Korea during two air pollution episodes that occurred in July 2005. The contribution from China, particularly that from central eastern China (CEC), was found to dominate the sulfate aerosols. To study these contributions in more detail, CEC was divided into three regions, and the contributions from each region were examined. Source contributions exhibited both temporal and vertical variability, largely due to transport patterns imposed by the Asian summer monsoon. Our results are consistent with backward trajectory analyses. We found that anthropogenic SO(2) emissions from China produce significant quantities of summertime sulfate aerosols downwind of source areas. We used a parametric scaling method for estimating anthropogenic SO(2) emissions in China. Using column amounts of SO(2) derived from satellite data, and relationships between the column amounts of SO(2) and anthropogenic emissions, 2009 emissions were diagnosed. The results showed that 2009 emissions of SO(2) from China were equivalent to 2004 levels. PMID:22642816

Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae

2012-06-19

179

Understanding the coupled natural and human systems in Dryland East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stressors including regional climate change, economic development effects upon land use and an increasing demand for food production have resulted in significant impacts on the dryland ecosystems in the East Asia (DEA) region. Ecosystem services, such as its provisional services in providing forage for grazing as well as its functional services in regulating water and carbon fluxes, have been significantly altered over the past three decades. Conversely, changes in the landscape, particularly land cover types, have also been blamed for intensified climatic events such as dust storms and severe and frequent droughts within the region. The interactive nature of climate, ecosystems and society is complex and not fully understood, making it difficult, if not impossible, to develop effective adaptation strategies for the region. A special synthesis workshop on ‘Dryland Ecosystems in East Asia: State, Changes, Knowledge Gaps, and Future’ was held from 18-20 July 2011 in Kaifeng, Henan Province, China, with the aim of identifying knowledge gaps, quantifying impacts and developing a future research agenda for the region. The specific objectives of this workshop were to answer some key socio-environmental questions, including the following. (1) What do we know about the drylands in DEA? (2) What are the knowledge gaps? (3) What are the solutions to these issues? This paper provides a synthesis of the workshop consensus and findings on the state of knowledge and challenges in addressing these science issues for the DEA region.

Qi, Jiaguo; Chen, Jiquan; Wan, Shiqian; Ai, Likun

2012-03-01

180

Model analysis of seasonal variations in tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal-spatial variations in tropospheric ozone concentrations over East Asia in the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2004 were simulated by using the Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with meteorological fields calculated by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The simulated concentrations of ozone and carbon monoxide were compared with ground level observations at two remote sites, Ryori (39.03°N, 141.82°E) and Yonagunijima (24.47°N, 123.02°E). The comparison shows that the model reproduces their seasonal variation patterns reasonably well, and simulated ozone levels are generally in good agreement with the observed ones, but carbon monoxide concentrations are underestimated. Analysis of horizontal distributions of monthly averaged ozone mixing ratios in the surface layer indicates that ozone concentrations have noticeable differences among the four seasons; they are generally higher in the spring and summer while lower in the winter, reflecting the seasonal variation of solar intensity and photochemical activity and the fact that the monsoons over East Asia are playing an important role in ozone distributions.

Gao, Lijie; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei

2009-03-01

181

Three species of Heterobasidion (Basidiomycota, Hericiales), H. parviporum, H. orientale sp. nov. and H. ecrustosum sp. nov. from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and illustrate three Heterobasidion species distributed in East Asia, based on both dried specimens and cultures. Heterobasidion parviporum, formerly known as H. annosum from Asia, is characterized by effused-reflexed basidiocarps with cuticulate pilei, small round pores, thin context and short\\u000a tubes in each layer. Examination of the type specimen of Trametes insularis revealed that this is distinct from

Sawako Tokuda; Tsutomu Hattori; Yu-Cheng Dai; Yuko Ota; Peter K. Buchanan

2009-01-01

182

Model study on acidifying wet deposition in East Asia during wintertime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional air quality model (RAQM) has been developed and applied together with an aerosol model to investigate the states and characteristics of wet deposition in East Asia in December 2001. Model simulation is performed with monthly based emission inventory [Streets, D.G., Bond, T.C., Carmichael, G.R., Fernandes, S.D., Fu, Q., He, D., Klimont, Z., Nelson, S. M., Tsai, N.Y., Wang, M.Q., Woo, J.-H., Yarber, K.F., 2003. An inventory of gaseous and primary emissions in Asia in the year 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D21), 8809] and meteorological fields derived from MM5. Model results are compared with extensive monitoring data including relevant gaseous species and ions in precipitation. The validation demonstrates that this model system is able to represent most of the major physical and chemical processes involved in acid deposition and reproduces concentrations reasonably well, within a factor of 2 of observations in general. The study shows that the regions with pH less than 4.5 are mainly located in southwestern China, parts of the Yangtze Delta, the Yellow Sea and the Korean peninsula, indicating wide regions of acid precipitation in East Asia in wintertime. Japan islands mainly exhibit pH values of 4.5-5.0, whereas over wide areas of northern China, pH values are relatively high (?5.0) due to neutralization by alkaline materials such as calcium-laden particles and ammonia, which are more abundant in northern China than that in southern China. While acid rain over most of China is still characterized by sulfur-induced type, considerable areas of eastern China and the western Pacific Rim are found to be more affected by nitric acid than sulfuric acid in acidification of precipitation, which is supposed to result from a combined effect of variations in photochemistry and emission, suggesting the increasing importance of NO x emission in these regions.

Han, Zhiwei; Ueda, Hiromasa; Sakurai, Tatsuya

183

Seasonal prediction experiments of the summer droughts and floods during the early 1990?s in east asia with numerical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown by the observed data that during the early 1990?s, the severe disastrous climate occurred in East Asia. In the summer of 1991, severe flood occurred in the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River basin of China and in South Korea, and it also appeared in South Korea in the summer of 1993. However, in the summer of 1994, a dry and hot summer was caused in the Huaihe River basin of China and in R. O.K.. In order to investigate the seasonal predictability of the summer droughts and floods during the early 1990?s in East Asia, the seasonal prediction experiments of the summer droughts and floods in the summers of 1991-1994 in East Asia have been made by using the Institute of Atmopsheric Physics-Two-Level General Circulation Model (IAP-L2 AGCM), the IAP-Atmosphere / Ocean Coupled Model (IAP-CGCM) and the IAP-L2 AGCM including a filtering scheme, respectively. Compared with the observational facts, it is shown that the IAP-L2 AGCM or IAP-CGCM has some predictability for the summer droughts and floods during the early 1990?s in East Asia, especially for the severe droughts and floods in China and R. O. K.. In this study, a filtering scheme is used to improve the seasonal prediction experiments of the summer droughts and floods during the early 1990?s in East Asia. The predicted results show that the filtering scheme to remain the planetary-scale disturbances is an effective method for the improvement of the seasonal prediction of the summer droughts and floods in East Asia.

Huang, Ronghui; Li, Xu; Yuan, Chongguang; Lu, Riyu; Moon, Sung-Euii; Kim, Ung-Jun

1998-12-01

184

Development of the STEM-mercury model to study the fate and transport of mercury in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, the atmospheric mercury distributions in East Asia are studied using methods: model simulations with the backward trajectory analysis; 4D-Var data assimilation approach using adjoint inverse model simulations. The main purposes of this study are to evaluate current estimate of mercury emissions, which inventory have huge uncertainties that lead to model predict which underestimate mercury observations measured over the Yellow Sea and Japan Sea during the ACE-Asia campaign on April 2001. The chemical and physical mechanisms of mercury in the atmosphere are studied in this thesis by developing a detailed chemical box model. Finally mercury mechanisms are incorporated into STEM (Sulfur Transport and dEposition model) to generate STEM-Hg, which is applied to East Asia to estimate mercury ambient concentration distributions, to predict mercury dry and wet depositions and to calculate mercury exports from the East Asia. The results from this work identify that anthropogenic emission emitted from China are three times higher than the estimate. During the month of April, 77% of total emitted mercury is deposited in the East Asia areas due to the quick oxidation reactions of mercury in the gas phase.

Pan, Li

185

Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region.  

PubMed

East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. PMID:23596197

Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami

2014-07-01

186

East Asia Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in East Asia. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in East Asia. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of East Asia DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in East Asia. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of water. DEP imagery shows along the rim of the Tarim Basin three areas of concentrated point sources can be found: 1.) in the west the area that lies between the cities of Kashi, Shache, and Xakur, 2.) in the north the area located between the cities of Wensu, Xinhe, Qiman, to Awat, and 3.) in the east the region stretching from Lop Nur northwest to Tikanlik and southeast to Miran. A remarkable result we found is the frequency of dust plume generation in the Turpan basin. Previous studies do not identify this basin as a major dust source area. With the high resolution of the DEP imagery we can identify the dust plumes that originate along the slopes of and at the foot of the Bogda Shan and Karlik mountains. Cross referencing the location of the point sources with an atlas and maps shows the point sources correlate to ephemeral streams, saltpans, and farmed land. Further discussion will be given on dust sources areas in other parts of China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Russia.

Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

2011-12-01

187

Extended Y chromosome investigation suggests postglacial migrations of modern humans into East Asia via the northern route.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity data, from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA as well as recent genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms, suggested that mainland Southeast Asia was the major geographic source of East Asian populations. However, these studies also detected Central-South Asia (CSA)- and/or West Eurasia (WE)-related genetic components in East Asia, implying either recent population admixture or ancient migrations via the proposed northern route. To trace the time period and geographic source of these CSA- and WE-related genetic components, we sampled 3,826 males (116 populations from China and 1 population from North Korea) and performed high-resolution genotyping according to the well-resolved Y chromosome phylogeny. Our data, in combination with the published East Asian Y-haplogroup data, show that there are four dominant haplogroups (accounting for 92.87% of the East Asian Y chromosomes), O-M175, D-M174, C-M130 (not including C5-M356), and N-M231, in both southern and northern East Asian populations, which is consistent with the proposed southern route of modern human origin in East Asia. However, there are other haplogroups (6.79% in total) (E-SRY4064, C5-M356, G-M201, H-M69, I-M170, J-P209, L-M20, Q-M242, R-M207, and T-M70) detected primarily in northern East Asian populations and were identified as Central-South Asian and/or West Eurasian origin based on the phylogeographic analysis. In particular, evidence of geographic distribution and Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) diversity indicates that haplogroup Q-M242 (the ancestral haplogroup of the native American-specific haplogroup Q1a3a-M3) and R-M207 probably migrated into East Asia via the northern route. The age estimation of Y-STR variation within haplogroups suggests the existence of postglacial (?18 Ka) migrations via the northern route as well as recent (?3 Ka) population admixture. We propose that although the Paleolithic migrations via the southern route played a major role in modern human settlement in East Asia, there are ancient contributions, though limited, from WE, which partly explain the genetic divergence between current southern and northern East Asian populations. PMID:20837606

Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Tan, Ping-Ping; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Ma, Runlin Z

2011-01-01

188

Simulations of the 100-hPa South Asian High and precipitation over East Asia with IPCC coupled GCMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Asian High (SAH) and precipitation over East Asia simulated by 11 coupled GCMs associated with the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report are evaluated. The seasonal behavior of the SAH is presented for each model. Analyses of the results show that all models are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle of the SAH. Locations of the SAH center are also basically reproduced by these models. All models underestimate the intensity and the extension of coverage in summer. The anomalous SAH can be divided into east and west modes according to its longitudinal position in summer on the interannual timescale, and the composite anomalies of the observed precipitation for these two modes tend to have opposite signs over East Asia. However, only several coupled GCMs can simulate the relationship between rainfall and SAH similar to the observed one, which may be associated with the bias in simulation of the subtropical anticyclone over the West Pacific (SAWP) at 500 hPa. In fact, it is found that any coupled GCM, that can reproduce the reasonable summer mean state of SAWP and the southward (northward) withdrawal (extension) for the east (west) mode of SAH as compared to the observed, will also simulate similar rainfall anomaly patterns for the east and west SAH modes over East Asia. Further analysis indicates that the observed variations in the SAH, SAWP and rainfall are closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial tropical Pacific. Particularly, some models cannot simulate the SAWP extending northward in the west mode and withdrawing southward in the east mode, which may be related to weak major El Niño or La Niña events. The abilities of the coupled GCMs to simulate the SAWP and ENSO events are associated partly with their ability to reproduce the observed relationship between SAH and the rainfall anomaly over East Asia.

Zhou, Ningfang; Yu, Yongqiang; Qian, Yongfu

2006-05-01

189

Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.  

PubMed

This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio-cultural acceptance of tobacco use is still a major challenge in tobacco control efforts for the governments and stakeholders in the South-East Asia Region. The myth that chewing tobacco is less harmful than smoking tobacco needs to be addressed with public awareness campaigns. Advocacy on the integration of tobacco control with poverty alleviation campaigns and development programs is urgently required. Law enforcement is a critical area to be strengthened and supported by WHO and the civil society organizations working in the area of tobacco control. PMID:22089683

Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

2011-01-01

190

Influence of model grid resolution on NO2 vertical column densities over East Asia.  

PubMed

NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) over East Asia in June and December 2007 were simulated by the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.7.1 using an updated and more elaborate version of the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) version 2. The modeling system could reasonably capture observed spatiotemporal changes of NO2 VCDs by satellite sensors, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY), and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), even at the coarsest horizontal resolution of 80 km. The CMAQ simulations were performed in a sequence of three horizontal resolutions (80 km, 40 km, and 20 km) for June and December 2007 to investigate the influence of changes of horizontal resolution on the obtained NO2 VCDs. CMAQ-simulated NO2 VCDs generally increased with improvements in resolution from 80 km to 40 km and then to 20 km. Increases in the CMAQ-simulated NO2 VCDs were greater for the change from 80 km to 40 km than for those from 40 km and 20 km, in which the increases of NO2 VCDs due to the improvement of horizontal resolution were approached convergence at the horizontal resolution of approximately 20 km. Conversely, no clear convergences in NO2 VCDs changes were found at near Tokyo and over the East China Sea. The biases of the NO2 VCDs simulated at a resolution of 20 km against the satellite retrievals were -36% near Beijing (CHN1) and -78% near Shanghai (CHN2) in summer; these errors were found to be comparable to the horizontal resolution-dependent errors, which were 18-25% at CHN1 and 44-58% at CHN2 from 80 km to 40 km. Conversely, the influence of changes of horizontal resolution in winter was relatively less compared to that in summer. Implications: NO2 VCDs over East Asia in June and December 2007 were simulated using CMAQ version 4.7.1 and REAS version 2. The modeling system could reasonably capture observed spatiotemporal changes of NO2 VCDs by satellite sensors. The CMAQ simulations were performed in a sequence of three horizontal resolutions, 80, 40, and 20 km, to investigate the influence of changes of horizontal resolution on the obtained NO2 VCDs. The results suggested that the influence of changes of horizontal resolution was larger in summer compared to that in winter. The magnitude of the influence was comparable to the biases of the NO2 VCDs simulated at a resolution of 20 km against the satellite retrievals. PMID:24843914

Yamaji, Kazuyo; Ikeda, Kohei; Irie, Hitoshi; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

2014-04-01

191

Origins and chemical characteristics of fine aerosols during the northeastern Asia regional experiment (Atmospheric Brown Cloud-East Asia Regional Experiment 2005)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of ABC-EAREX 2005 (Atmospheric Brown Cloud-East Asia Regional Experiment 2005), trace gases and compositions of PM2.5 were measured at Gosan supersite in Jeju Island during 13-30 March 2005. Aerosol constituents were determined continuously on site at 1-a intervals. The mean concentrations of gases were 56 ppbv for O3, 297 ppbv for CO, 3.2 ppbv for SO2, and

Meehye Lee; Mijung Song; Kwang J. Moon; Jin S. Han; Gangwoong Lee; Kyung-Ryul Kim

2007-01-01

192

Origins and chemical characteristics of fine aerosols during the northeastern Asia regional experiment (Atmospheric Brown Cloud–East Asia Regional Experiment 2005)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of ABC-EAREX 2005 (Atmospheric Brown Cloud–East Asia Regional Experiment 2005), trace gases and compositions of PM2.5 were measured at Gosan supersite in Jeju Island during 13–30 March 2005. Aerosol constituents were determined continuously on site at 1-a intervals. The mean concentrations of gases were 56 ppbv for O3, 297 ppbv for CO, 3.2 ppbv for SO2, and

Meehye Lee; Mijung Song; Kwang J. Moon; Jin S. Han; Gangwoong Lee; Kyung-Ryul Kim

2007-01-01

193

Resilience and Well-Being Among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia—a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment.

Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

2012-01-01

194

Changes of extreme events in regional climate simulations over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes of extreme events due to greenhouse effects (2 x CO2) over East Asia, with a focus on the China region its simulated by it regional climate model (RegCM2), are investigated, The model is nested to a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model (CSIRO R21L9 AOGCM). Analysis of the control run of the regional model indicates that it can reproduce well the extreme events in China. Statistically significant changes of the events are analyzed Results show that both daily maximum and daily minimum temperature increase in 2 x CO2 conditions, while the diurnal temperature range decreases. The number of hot spell days increases while the number of cold spell days decreases. The number of rainy days and heavy rain days increases over some sub-regions of China. The 2 x CO2 conditions also cause some changes in the tropical storms affecting China.

Gao, X. J.; Zhao, Z. C.; Giorgi, F.

195

Resilience and well-being among children of migrant parents in South-East Asia.  

PubMed

There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia-a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N=1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment. PMID:22966930

Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

2012-01-01

196

Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

2002-10-09

197

A numerical study of tropospheric ozone in the springtime in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is applied to East Asia to study the transport and photochemical transformation of tropospheric ozone in March 1998. The calculated mixing ratios of ozone and carbon monoxide are compared with ground level observations at three remote sites in Japan and it is found that the model reproduces the observed features very well. Examination of several high episodes of ozone and carbon monoxide indicates that these elevated levels are found in association with continental outflow, demonstrating the critical role of the rapid transport of carbon monoxide and other ozone precursors from the continental boundary layer. In comparison with available ozonesonde data, it is found that the model-calculated ozone concentrations are generally in good agreement with the measurements, and the stratospheric contribution to surface ozone mixing ratios is quite limited.

Zhang, Meigen; Xu, Yongfu; Itsushi, Uno; Hajime, Akimoto

2004-04-01

198

[Tsunami in South-East Asia--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].  

PubMed

On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-East Asia. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection. PMID:18399180

Streuli, Rolf A

2008-01-01

199

The impact of the Gulf war on migration and remittances in Asia and the Middle East.  

PubMed

The author discusses the impact of the 1990 Gulf war on the migrant worker populations in the region, with a focus on migration and remittances in Asia and the Middle East. Both immediate and long-term effects are considered. "From the perspective of foreign migrant communities living in the Gulf...the war...was much more of a disaster for Arabs than for Asians....Arab migrant populations...were dramatically affected by the Gulf crisis. In contrast, the Asian migrant community was largely concentrated in Saudi Arabia and the [United Arab Emirates] and remained relatively less affected by the crisis. Subsequent polarization in the Arab world gives Asian labor-exporting countries an unexpected opportunity to increase their share of Gulf labor markets still further in the coming years." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12159608

Addleton, J

1991-12-01

200

Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.  

PubMed

The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-East Asia Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities. PMID:23442393

Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N

2012-01-01

201

Variability of East Asia dust events and their long-term trend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to examine the decadal variations of the dust events over East Asia, we analyze surface observations from 701 meteorological stations for the period 1960-2004 to obtain spatial and temporal distributions of dust events. Since the Taklamakan Desert in western China and the Gobi Desert in Inner Mongolia are the two major sources of dust storms, we have defined two dust indices, one for the Taklamakan Desert Index (TDI) and one for the Gobi Desert Index (GDI), to characterize the statistical nature of the dust events over these two regions. Both of these indices are well correlated with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI). TDI and GDI time series exhibit a decreasing trend since the mid-1980s, and is likely caused by an enhanced geopotential height over the Mongolian plateau and the middle Siberian region, as well as by an anomalous shift in the phase and intensity of the stationary wave over.

Wang, Xin; Huang, Jianping; Ji, Mingxia; Higuchi, Kaz

202

Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

2013-01-01

203

Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia: Observations and model results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December

Zifa Wang; Hajime Akimoto; Itsushi Uno

2002-01-01

204

Alkalization of yellow sand and its long-term effects on acid rain in East Asia: Observed Evidence and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been one of the serious environmental problems in East Asia for the rapid industrialization in the last two decades. The contour line of pH value less than 5 has come up to the Yellow River region (35 deg N) from the southern China bounded by the Yangtze River (25 deg N) during these ten years. The objective

Z. Wang; I. Uno; H. Akimoto

2001-01-01

205

Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

2005-01-01

206

Curie point depth based on spectrum analysis of the magnetic anomaly data in East and Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bottom of the magnetized crust determined from the spectral analysis of residual magnetic anomalies is generally interpreted as the level of the Curie point isotherm. A method to estimate the depth extent of magnetic sources (Curie point depth analysis) was applied to the magnetic anomalies of East and Southeast Asia. Although the geologic and physiographic complexities of this area

A. Tanaka; Y Okubo; O Matsubayashi

1999-01-01

207

Creating Instability in Dangerous Global Regions: North Korean Proliferation and Support to Terrorism in the Middle East and South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Korea contributes to instability in the Middle East and South Asia through its proliferation of missiles and other weapons systems used as delivery platforms for chemical (and the production of chemical munitions) or biological weapons, including long-range artillery. Evidence also shows that North Korea has collaborated in the nuclear programs of Syria, Iran, Libya, and Pakistan and has provided

Bruce E. Bechtol Jr

2009-01-01

208

Betel Nut: A Common Drug Used by Naturalized Citizens From India, Far East Asia, and the South Pacific Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betel nut is a common masticatory drug used in Far East Asia, India, and the South Pacific. It is used daily by 600 million people worldwide, yet is unknown to most Western physicians. As the world becomes more culturally and ethnically interconnected, emergency physicians will encounter the use of betel nut. Significant illness can be associated with its use, including

Brett S Nelson; Bruce Heischober

1999-01-01

209

Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

2011-01-01

210

Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine particle (aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) samples were collected during six intensive measurement periods from November 2001 to August 2003 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in East Asia. Chemical composition of these aerosol samples including major ion components, trace elements, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

K. J. Moon; J. S. Han; Y. S. Ghim; Y. J. Kim

2008-01-01

211

Industrial Agglomeration and Development: A Survey of Spatial Economic Issues in East Asia and a Statistical Analysis of Chinese Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explore the issue of industrial agglomeration and its relationship to economic development and growth in the less-developed countries of East Asia. We present theoretical arguments and secondary empirical evidence as to why we should have strong expectations about finding a positive relationship between agglomeration and economic performance. We also review evidence from the literature on the

C. Cindy Fan; Allen J. Scott

2003-01-01

212

Tidal loading along a profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precision measurements of earth tides along a profile stretching from Europe to Polynesia through East Africa, Asia and Australia are used to characterize ocean tides in different basins and thus provide a check on proposed cotidal maps. Ocean tide information was extracted from tidal gravity profiles made with correctly intercalibrated gravimeters at 91 tidal gravity stations by the subtraction of

P. Melchior; M. Moens; B. Ducarme; M. van Ruymbeke

1981-01-01

213

Mathematics Education in Different Cultural Traditions: A Comparative Study of East Asia and the West. ICMI Comparative Study. Discussion Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is influenced by the social environment as well as cultural effects. This study investigates the differing cultural traditions' role in mathematics education in East Asia and the West. Investigated issues in mathematics education include curriculum, assessment, policy, influences of information and communication technology (ICT) and…

International Commission on Mathematical Instruction.

214

Regional forecast of the UV index with optimized total ozone prediction using satellite observations over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional forecast model of the ultraviolet (UV) index has been developed by using a radiative transfer model and a multiple linear regression model to forecast total ozone over East Asia. This is a difficult and challenging task because of frequent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. The new, improved total ozone forecast model was constructed over each grid point in

Yun Gon Lee; Jhoon Kim; Hi-Ku Cho; Chul H. Song

2009-01-01

215

Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report data for unmarried adolescents and report age-disaggregated data for some indicators. Further research is required to better understand the barriers that both married and unmarried adolescents face accessing reproductive health information and services, and their information and service delivery preferences.

2011-01-01

216

Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand in east Asia—a numerical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were investigated numerically by an Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new deflation module of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from the previous ones for Sahara and Australian deserts, this new one includes three major predictors, i.e., the friction velocity, the surface humidity and the predominant weather system, while this module was linked to the AQPMS. For model validation, the predicted pH values and sulfate- and nitrate-ion levels of precipitation, together with the surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants, were compared with the measured values at atmospheric monitoring stations, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Firstly, the trend of the acid rain in East Asia due to the rapid increase of Chinese pollutants emission was investigated, and a remarkably rapid increase of acid rain area was predicted in the period from 1985 to 1995, the monthly mean pH values showing the decrease of 0.3-0.8 in the area from the center to northeast in China, and 0.1-0.2 even in Japan and Korea. Secondly, the simulation results of April 1995 exhibited a strong neutralization of the precipitation by the yellow sand. The monthly mean pH values in the northern China showed a remarkable increase of 0.6-1.8 by neutralization effect of the yellow sand, while the increases in the southern China were less than 0.1. Even in Korea and Japan the yellow sand caused the increase of the pH value of rain by 0.1-0.2.

Terada, Hiroaki; Ueda, Hiromasa; Wang, Zifa

217

Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.  

PubMed

According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970

Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

2014-01-01

218

Social capital and health and well-being in East Asia: a population-based study.  

PubMed

How individual-level social capital relates to adult health and well-being was examined using data from a cross-sectional interview survey in East Asia (Japan, South Korea, Singapore, five areas in Mainland China, and Taiwan) in 2002-2004. The number of self-reported somatic symptoms, subjective health satisfaction, life satisfaction and social capital indicators, as well as socio-economic status (SES), were analyzed by a logistic regression model. Adjusting for SES, social capital measured by belonging to organizations and weakness in "norms of reciprocity" were related to a greater number of self-reported somatic symptoms (p<0.001 for both). Lack of trust in organizations (p<0.001) and of a person to consult (p=0.012) were related to poor health satisfaction. Lower "interpersonal trust" (p=0.016), weakness in "norms of reciprocity" (p<0.001) and lack of trust in organizations (p<0.001) were related to poor life satisfaction. Gender inequality was observed across countries, but the relationships varied according to the health indicator. Specifically, self-reported somatic symptoms were more numerous and health satisfaction was worse in women (p<0.001), but life satisfaction was worse in men (p=0.017). The analyses provide evidence that dimensions of social capital are positively associated with self-reported somatic symptoms and overall well-being in East Asian countries. PMID:18158206

Yamaoka, Kazue

2008-02-01

219

Dissolved platinum in major rivers of East Asia: Implications for the oceanic budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved platinum concentrations of eleven large pristine river systems in East Asia (˜200 samples) were determined to better constrain the oceanic platinum budget. Most samples had concentrations less than 1.4 pM; relatively high concentrations up to 5.8 pM were measured in only approximately 6% of the samples. The median Pt concentrations of the individual river systems had only a small range, from 0.18 pM (Duman) to 0.63 pM (Huang He), and the difference in Pt yield mainly resulted from the difference in runoff. The rivers draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau - the Salween, Mekong, Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Hong (Red), and Huang He (Yellow) - had higher Pt yield than the rivers of the Russian Far East - the Amur, Lena, Yana, Indigirka, and Kolyma. If the discharge-weighted mean Pt concentration of our samples (0.36 pM) is extrapolated globally, the estimated riverine flux of dissolved Pt to the ocean is 13 × 103 mol y-1. Based on this riverine flux, the estimated oceanic residence time of Pt is 24 ± 10 kyrs. A 50% release and 50% uptake of Pt in estuaries would modify this to 16 kyrs and 45 kyrs, respectively.

Soyol-Erdene, Tseren-Ochir; Huh, Youngsook

2012-06-01

220

Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b  

PubMed Central

Background Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. Results A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study) pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Conclusions Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s). The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam.

2011-01-01

221

February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from Petropavlosk (Kamchatka), Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir), Kurilsk (Iturup, coast of the Okhotsk sea), Malokurilskoe (Shikotan), Korsakov, Kholmsk and Aniva Bay (Sakhalin). These records and also other offshore DART records are analyzed and used for comparison of the modeling results with offshore and nearshore records. The transmission of tsunami waves through Sakhalin and Kuril straits and their propagation to nearby coasts are investigated. The spectral analysis of records in settlements of Sakhalin and Kurile Islands are investigated. The performance and capabilities of NAMI DANCE is also presented together with comparisons between the model, observations and discussions.

Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

2010-05-01

222

Fossil molecules reveal decoupled warming and monsoon precipitation in East Asia over the last deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of past continental climate in East Asia is mainly based on loess-paleosol sequences and summer monsoon precipitation reconstructions based on oxygen isotopes (?18O) of stalagmites from several Chinese caves. They show that the intensity of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) precipitation generally follows Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. However, not much is known about the magnitude and timing of deglacial warming on the East Asian continent. We here present an absolute continental air temperature record for this region, using the novel Methylation of Branched Tetraethers/Cyclisation of Branched Tetraethers (MBT/CBT) proxy [1], based on the distribution of fossil membrane lipids of soil bacteria, in a loess-paleosol sequence from the Mangshan loess plateau. Our continuous, high resolution temperature record covers the last 34,000 years, and shows that air temperatures varied in phase with NH summer insolation. The onset of deglacial warming at ~17.5 kyr BP is parallel in timing with known continental records from e.g. Antarctica, Africa and South America. Strikingly, comparison of the MBT/CBT-derived temperature record with other loess-paleosol proxy records and stalagmite ?18O records shows that the strengthening of EASM precipitation lagged that of deglacial warming by ca. 2 kyrs. Moreover, soil formation in the loess deposits, caused by substantial increases in summer monsoon precipitation, only started around 12 kyr BP (>5 kyrs lag). Our results thus show that the intensification of EASM precipitation unambiguously lagged deglacial warming and NH summer insolation. We are currently analysing n-alkane distributions throughout the same loess-paleosol sequence to see how the vegetation responded on the difference in timing between atmospheric warming and the intensification of the summer monsoon during the last deglaciation. Reference: [1] Weijers et al., 2007, GCA 71, 703-713.

Peterse, F.; Prins, M. A.; Beets, C. J.; Troelstra, S. R.; Zheng, H.; Gu, Z.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.

2010-12-01

223

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2437 ± 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per-capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China increased rapidly and emissions from South Korea increased slightly, while emissions from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.

Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

2013-08-01

224

Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

2013-07-01

225

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2404 ± 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China and from South Korea increased, while emissions from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.

Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

2014-05-01

226

Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic) stretching, rifting and postrift subsidence were widely shown with the formation of oil and gas sedimentary basins with a thick sedimentary cover (West Siberian, Turan, Caspian, Middle Amur, Songliao), large igneous provinces (South Urals, West and East Siberian, Central Kazakhstan, Trans-Baikal, etc.) and rift systems (Mongol-Transbaikal, Baikal, etc.). The aim of further research under the existing joint projects should be identifying and tracing the boundaries of the Arctic-Asian mobile belt, study and correlation of geological complexes-indicators of major tectonic events, reconstruction of the history of the accretionary belt with superimposed oil and gas bearing sedimentary basins as a tectonic structure of the global level.

Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

2014-05-01

227

Long-range transport of acidifying substances in East Asia—Part I. Model evaluation and sensitivity studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has conducted a comprehensive model evaluation to help identify major uncertainties of regional air quality model in predicting long-range transport and deposition of acidifying substances in East Asia. Annual predictions of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model are carried out at two horizontal scales: an 81 km domain over East Asia and a 27 km domain over Northeast Asia. The model successfully reproduces the magnitudes and diurnal variations of SO 2 mixing ratios at most sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). Through the comparison with tropospheric NO 2 columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the model is shown to be able to capture major spatial and seasonal variations of NO 2 observed from space over East Asia. Regarding the magnitudes, however, CMAQ underpredicts the GOME retrieval over industrial area of eastern China in March and December, and over the remote western China in July. Primary reasons for the discrepancy over eastern China are the uncertainties both in emission inventory and in the GOME retrieval in wintertime. For the wet season the soil-biogenic NO emission estimates need to be reviewed regarding the intensity and timing of fertilizer applications, and the magnitude of rain-induced pulsing. The sensitivities of predicted NO 2 columns, NOx mixing ratios, and wet nitrate deposition to 50% increase of NOx emissions are studied. Due to the underpredictions of NOx and also to the uncertainty in modeled precipitation and nitrate formation, CMAQ has a tendency to underpredict annual wet deposition loads of nitrate observed by the EANET network.

Lin, Meiyun; Oki, Taikan; Holloway, Tracey; Streets, David G.; Bengtsson, Magnus; Kanae, Shinjiro

228

Higashi Asia no energy dengen mix. Shigen shikin kankyo no seiyaku to kongo no tenbo (yoyaku). (Energy and power mixing in East Asia. Restriction of resources, capital, and environment, and future prospect (summary)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, eleven East Asian countries that consist of the People's Republic of China, Asia NIES (the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong), and ASEAN (Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, and Vietnam) were treated for an...

1997-01-01

229

Phylogeography of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia: Pleistocene isolation, population expansion and secondary contact.  

PubMed

We examined the impact of Pleistocene glacial cycles on geographical distribution and genetic structure of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia using sequence variation of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and cytochrome b gene segments. Phylogenies revealed four distinct but shallow structured lineages in Eriocheir s. s. Three lineages dominated the East China Sea-Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan and the South China Sea on the margins of the region, and one lineage occurred on Okinawa Island. This geographical distribution represents a general phylogeographic pattern in East Asia, which is closely associated with the fluctuations of marginal seas and islands during the Pleistocene. The four lineages are estimated to have diverged during the mid-Pleistocene. Demographic expansions were observed in each lineage, starting within the second-to-latest interglacial period in the marginal sea lineages ( approximately 70-130ka) and within the last glacial period in the Okinawa lineage ( approximately 25-80ka). Expansions have probably taken place northward along the coast of the East China Sea-Yellow Sea, following the rise of sea levels. Centered on the southern Korean Peninsula, expansions have likely occurred northward along the west coast and eastward along the south coast of the Sea of Japan. Each marginal sea has served as a single refugium during glacial periods. Two secondary contact regions were identified, one of the East China Sea-Yellow Sea and South China Sea lineages, and another of the East China Sea-Yellow Sea and Sea of Japan lineages. Phylogeography of Eriocheir s. s. provides insights into the evolutionary history and mechanism for generating biodiversity in East Asia. PMID:19236929

Xu, Jiawu; Chan, Tin-Yam; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou

2009-07-01

230

Transport of NOx in East Asia identified by satellite and in situ measurements and Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dioxide (NO2) columns observed from space have been useful in detecting the increase of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in East Asia, particularly China, coinciding with rapid economic growth during the past several decades. NO2 columns retrieved above a particular location reflect a combination of local NOx emissions and transported NOx from upwind sources. In this study, we demonstrate the transport of NOx emitted in East Asia using satellite and surface in situ measurements and Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations. Enhanced satellite NO2 columns in the Yellow Sea (between China and South Korea) and the East Sea (between South Korea and Japan), and different seasonal variations of NO2 in China, North and South Korea, and Japan, suggest the importance of NOx transport in understanding the local NOx budget. Lagrangian transport model simulations with tracers of different chemical lifetimes identify source-receptor relationships that explain high NO2 over the oceans and springtime peaks in Korea and Japan, with China being the most likely source region. Our results have important implications for studies using satellite NO2 retrievals to derive NOx emissions at local scales in regions adjacent to large sources, such as in East Asia, Europe, and the Eastern U.S.

Lee, H.-J.; Kim, S.-W.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, C.-H.; Park, R. J.; Trainer, M.; Woo, J.-H.

2014-03-01

231

Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean.  

PubMed

Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5° N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1° N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from East Asia. The air-sea gas exchange of CUPs was generally dominated by net deposition. Latitudinal trends of fugacity ratios of ?-endosulfan, chlorothalonil, and dacthal showed stronger deposition of these compounds in East Asia than in Chukchi Sea, while trifluralin showed stronger deposition in Chukchi Sea (-455 ± 245 pg/m(2)/day) than in the North Pacific (-241 ± 158 pg/m(2)/day). Air-sea gas exchange of chlorpyrifos varied from net volatilizaiton in East Asia (<40° N) to equilibrium or net deposition in the North Pacific and the Arctic. PMID:22103582

Zhong, Guangcai; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

2012-01-01

232

Tectonics of the Ailao Shan-Red River Fault Belt in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault belt is one of the most profound active strike-slip faults in East Asia. It is generally believed that the Cenozoic India-Eurasia collision caused the southeastward extrusion of Indochina along the ASRR fault belt (left-lateral displacement) in mid Tertiary. However, geomorphologic evidences and earthquake focal mechanism solutions do indicate a present-day right-lateral slip of the ASRR. Structural analyses and field observation along the ASRR in northern Vietnam revealed that the ASRR has undergone multiple phases and styles of deformation (three ductile folding events with a younger brittle deformation) possibly since Triassic to Pliocene. The deformation history, combined with offshore exploration data and igneous activities, enabled us to better constrain the tectonic evolution of the ASRR. A previously unrecognized deformation event (D1) with foliations showing dextral sense of shear possibly formed during the Triassic Indosinian orogeny or during Eocene post India-Eurasia collision. D2 is the strongest deformation event within the ASRR forming large-scale horizontal folds possibly commenced since Eocene-Oligocene as the thickened ductile crust flowed eastwardly away from the Tibetan Plateau under SE Asia, and extended to Early Miocene till termination of sinsitral strike-slip movement of the ASRR. D3 continuously uplifted most of the ASRR and formed current antiformal domes in northern Vietnam with NW-SE subvertical fold axial planes parallel to the trend of ASRR, possibly due to the right-lateral movement of the ASRR during Late Miocene to Pliocene. Continuous denudation uplifted the ASRR crossing the brittle-ductile transition zone forming brittle structures (D4) as the right-lateral movement of the ASRR continued.

Lee, T.; Yeh, M.; Lo, C.; Chung, S.; Lan, C.; Wu, H.; Tsai, Y.; Hu, J.

2003-12-01

233

Emergence and diversity of begomoviruses infecting solanaceous crops in East and Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Over the past three decades diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) have emerged to be important constraints to the production of solanaceous crops, particularly tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and peppers (Capsicum spp.), in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The most studied of these is Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which has spread to many other areas from its likely origin in the Mediterranean basin region. The virus is usually associated with the polyphagous and virus-vectoring-efficient B-biotype of its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). However, in Southeast and East Asia, a wide variety of distinct local begomovirus species have been identified from tomato and pepper crops over this period, and TYLCV was detected in Japan only in about 1996, China in 2006 and Korea in 2008, despite B-biotype whiteflies being present in several of the countries of the region since at least the early 1990s. Continental Southeast Asia appears to be a major center of diversity for begomoviruses and some species may have spread across the region; Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Myanmar region into southern China and is now displacing the local tomato-infecting species in Taiwan, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLCKaV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Vietnam region to Java, Indonesia. Since many of the native tomato- or pepper-infecting begomoviruses and associated satellite DNAs have also been detected in local weed species, it seems likely that their ancestors originated in these weed hosts, but with the expansion and intensification of tomato and pepper production in the region, there was selection for recombinant or mutant forms with greater virulence on tomato and/or pepper. Expansion and intensification of these crops may also have resulted in increased populations of local, and if present, B- or Q-biotype whiteflies, aiding the increase and spread of local begomovirus species. PMID:24440320

Kenyon, Lawrence; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Shih, Su-Ling; Lee, Li-Mei

2014-06-24

234

On Estimating Crop Coefficients and Decoupling Factors of Forest Ecosystems in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For effective water management, the quantification of evapotranspiration (ET) is imperative. Considering the difficulty of measurement and adequate simulation of ET in large areas, the crop coefficients (Kc=ETc adj/ETo/Ks; where ETc adj is the adjusted evapotranspiration, ETo is the reference crop evapotranspiration estimated by the FAO56-PM method, and Ks is the water stress coefficient) and the decoupling factors (?=ETa/ETp; where ETa is the actual evapotranspiration, and ETp is the potential evapotranspiration estimated by the Penman-Monteith equation) are valuable information for the assessment of regional ET. In this study, we determined the Kc and ? of seven forest ecosystems in East Asia (i.e., temperate and coniferous forests in Gwangneung, Korea, GDK and GCK, respectively; cool temperate forests in Changbaishan, China, CBS, in Takayama and Teshio, Japan, TKY and TSE, respectively; subtropical forest in Xishuangbanna, Southern China, BNS; tropical forest in Palangkaraya, Indonesia, PDF) using the multi-year observed ET by eddy covariance technique. Annual ETo ranged from 443 mm at the TKY site to 1368 mm at the PDF site. Annual ETp ranged from 835 mm at the TSE site to 2466 mm at the PDF site. The Kc and ? for the (cool) temperate forests showed a clear seasonality with the minimum (~0.3 of Kc and ~0 of ?) in winter and the maximum in summer or early autumn. The maxima of Kc were different among the sites and ranged from 0.6 at the TSE site to 1.2 at the BNS site. Unlike the maximum Kc, the maxima of ? were similar among the temperate forests (0.4~0.5) and between the tropical forests (~0.6). Implications of the results are discussed in terms of usefulness and accuracy of using Kc and ?. Acknowledgement - This study was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER 2012-3030. The flux database was provided by CarboEastAsia - A3 Foresight Program and KoFlux.

Kang, M.; Kim, J.; Kwon, H.; Hirano, T.; Saigusa, N.; Takagi, K.; Yu, G.

2012-12-01

235

Low Molecular-Weight Dicarboxylic and Fatty Acids Over the Northwestern Pacific and the Sea off East Asia During the ACE-Asia Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sampling of dicarboxylic and fatty acids was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2001 on R/V NOAA Ronald H. Brown over the Northwestern Pacific, East China Sea and the Sea of Japan, as part of the ACE-Asia campaign. During the cruise, aerosol particles were collected on pre-combusted quartz fiber filters using a high volume air sampler, and organic acids in gas and particles were collected separately using an annular denuder with a backup quartz filter. In addition, MOUDI impactor was used for size-segregated aerosols. The collected samples were analyzed for water and ethyl-acetate extractable organic compounds such as low molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids and fatty acids using capillary GC and GC/MS. Throughout the cruise, oxalic acid, followed by malonic and succinic acids, was found to be the most dominant species. For oxalic acid, concentrations as high as 1 ? g m-3 was observed occasionally at sea off East Asia. Chemical transport model calculations predicted high sulfate concentrations in the regions where oxalic acid concentrations were high, suggesting that oxalic acid should have been strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from the Asian continent. This is consistent with our hypothesis that the main source of oxalic and some other dicarboxylic acids are anthropogenic in the East Asia region. The relative abundances of dicarboxylic acids and fatty acids between gas and particles were obtained by analyses of denuder samples. For oxalic acid, 65-90 % were present in particles, whereas some fatty acids were detected only in particles. Molecular compositions, gas to particle ratios, and size distributions of the organic aerosol particles obtained by this study would provide information of sources, chemical processes and transport, which will be discussed in this presentation.

Mochida, M.; Umemoto, N.; Matsunaga, S.; Kawamura, K.; Uematsu, M.; Bates, T. S.

2001-12-01

236

Impact assessment of biomass burning on air quality in Southeast and East Asia during BASE-ASIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in March-April when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K+, OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via long-range transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

2013-10-01

237

Assessment of dynamic downscaling of the extreme rainfall over East Asia using a regional climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the capability of the dynamic downscaling method (DDM) in an East Asian climate study for June 1998 using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (MM5). Sensitivity experiments show that MM5 results at upper atmospheric levels cannot match reanalyses data, but the results show consistent improvement in simulating moisture transport at low levels. The downscaling ability for precipitation is regionally dependent. During the monsoon season over the Yangtze River basin and the pre-monsoon season over North China, the DDM cannot match observed precipitation. Over Northwest China and the Tibetan Plateau (TP), where there is high topography, the DDM shows better performance than reanalyses. Simulated monsoon evolution processes over East Asia, however, are much closer to observational data than reanalyses. The convection scheme has a substantial impact on extreme rainfall over the Yangtze River basin and the pre-monsoon over North China, but only a marginal contribution for Northwest China and the TP. Land surface parameterizations affect the locations and pattern of rainfall bands. The 10-day re-initialization in this study shows some improvement in simulated precipitation over some sub-regions but with no obvious improvement in circulation. The setting of the location of lateral boundaries (LLB) westward improves performance of the DDM. Including the entire TP in the western model domain improves the DDM performance in simulating precipitation in most sub-regions. In addition, a seasonal simulation demonstrates that the DDM can also obtain consistent results, as in the June case, even when another two months consist of no strong climate/weather events.

Gao, Yanhong; Xue, Yongkang; Peng, Wen; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Waliser, Duane

2011-09-01

238

Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over East Asia  

SciTech Connect

A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.

Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

2012-01-16

239

Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the East Asia region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent destructive earthquakes in East-Asia claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in East Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).

Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.

2013-12-01

240

In Vitro Susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis Isolates from Canine Skin with Atopic Dermatitis to Ketoconazole and Itraconazole in East Asia  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Topical or oral azole antifungals are commonly used in canine atopic dermatitis (AD), as the lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis exacerbates canine AD. To examine whether canine AD lesions harbor azole-resistant M. pachydermatis isolates in East Asia, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) obtained from AD lesions of canines in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of KTZ and ITZ were measured by the E-test using Sabouraud dextrose agar with 0.5% Tween 40. The MICs of KTZ and ITZ for isolates from canines with AD were significantly higher than the MICs for isolates from healthy canines. Our findings suggested that the clinical isolates from canine AD skin lesions were less susceptible to azoles than those from normal canine skin in East Asia.

WATANABE, Shion; KOIKE, Anna; KANO, Rui; NAGATA, Masahiko; CHEN, Charles; HWANG, Cheol-Yong; HASEGAWA, Atsuhiko; KAMATA, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

241

In Vitro Susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis Isolates from Canine Skin with Atopic Dermatitis to Ketoconazole and Itraconazole in East Asia.  

PubMed

Topical or oral azole antifungals are commonly used in canine atopic dermatitis (AD), as the lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis exacerbates canine AD. To examine whether canine AD lesions harbor azole-resistant M. pachydermatis isolates in East Asia, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) obtained from AD lesions of canines in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of KTZ and ITZ were measured by the E-test using Sabouraud dextrose agar with 0.5% Tween 40. The MICs of KTZ and ITZ for isolates from canines with AD were significantly higher than the MICs for isolates from healthy canines. Our findings suggested that the clinical isolates from canine AD skin lesions were less susceptible to azoles than those from normal canine skin in East Asia. PMID:24334863

Watanabe, Shion; Koike, Anna; Kano, Rui; Nagata, Masahiko; Chen, Charles; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

242

The intraseasonal oscillations of precipitation and circulations from January to March in 2010 in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rainfall from January to March in 2010 in East Asia is positive anomaly and the temporal evolution characteristics present the cycle of 20-40 days. In the present paper, the low-frequency circulations and its formation mechanism are analyzed. The results show that during the peak rainfall phase, the upstream of the rainfall regions is controlled by low-frequency cyclone, and the downstream is controlled by low-frequency anticyclone in the middle and low troposphere. In the upper troposphere, the westerly jet presents the oscillation characteristics between the north and the south. Both the integrated (from the surface to 100 hPa) diabatic heating and the horizontal vorticity advection contribute to the vertical velocity. In addition, the vorticity vertical advection has effects on the vertical speed, which is a self-feedback process. The latent heating in the precipitation has influences on the westerly jet in the upper troposphere. The interactions between the precipitation and the westerly jet are mainly manifested as the intraseasonal oscillations.

Yao, Suxiang; Huang, Qian; Li, Tim; Zhang, Chunying

2014-01-01

243

Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedli?ka, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedli?ka, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records.

Anichtchenko, Alexander

2011-01-01

244

The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants  

PubMed Central

South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority.

Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

2011-01-01

245

Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.  

PubMed

The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements. PMID:25000779

Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

2014-04-01

246

Overview of radiation safety in the tin by-product (amang) industry of South East Asia.  

PubMed

Processing of by-product heavy minerals (amang) from tin mining involves potential exposure to external and internal sources of radioactivity. The radioactivity arises through the presence of thorium and uranium series radionuclides in the various minerals. Monazite is the most radioactive mineral, containing 3% to 7% thorium by weight, while ilmenite is generally the least radioactive mineral containing typically less than 0.05% thorium. External exposure occurs when workers are in close proximity to accumulations or stockpiles of the radioactive minerals, whereas internal exposure occurs when workers are involved in dusty processes. This paper summarizes the nature of the amang industry in South East Asia and presents the results of preliminary measurements of external radiation and airborne radioactivity in twelve Malaysian and Thai plants. Although constrained by a paucity of exposure data, it is concluded that radiation doses to some amang plant workers may approach or exceed international standards and that appropriate control measures are required as a matter of priority, Radiation doses may approach or exceed 100 mSv in situations where workers are exposed to excessive levels of ambient dust and no protective measures are used. Observations and recommendations are made relating to monitoring and surveillance, instruction and training, and engineering and administrative protection measures. PMID:8690608

Hewson, G S

1996-08-01

247

Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in the Western Pacific and South East Asia.  

PubMed Central

The Western Pacific and South East Asia regions are the largest and most populous of the six World Health Organisation regions and include more than 40 countries. More than 75% of the world's estimated 350 million carriers are located here. The region has therefore provided many insights into the epidemiology, natural history, and control of hepatitis B infection and has been home to the first national control programmes. Hepatitis B is hyperendemic in most countries of the region, with carrier rates ranging from 5-35% except in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, where the mean carrier rate is less than 2%. Patterns of infection vary considerably from country to country, city to city, and even village to village, and can change with time. Most infections are acquired early in childhood or in early adult life. A variety of control measures are in place and many countries in the region have introduced widespread or universal childhood immunisation policies with significant success. While it is theoretically possible that hepatitis B infection could be eradicated by universal childhood immunisation, there are several biological and practical issues that make this extremely difficult, suggesting that, for the foreseeable future, control may be a more realisable goal.

Gust, I D

1996-01-01

248

Interventions to improve the use of antimalarials in south-east Asia: an overview.  

PubMed Central

There are few drugs for malaria, and those which are available for use are subject to rapid development of resistance. Curiously, little effort has been made to improve drug use in malaria-endemic countries and to assess the benefits of such improvements. Advances can be made in public understanding of the value of ingesting a full regimen of antimalarials, in order to achieve complete cure, and in improving simple technologies (blister packaging) to achieve the same result. Better efforts can be made to reduce the availability of fake or substandard drugs in the marketplace. In this article, we describe the outcome of a concerted effort to improve drug compliance and drug quality in an area of multidrug resistance for malaria. These research efforts, guided by the Task Force for Improved Use of Antimalarials, characterized the problems in drug compliance in South-East Asia, and developed interventions to improve drug use in the various countries. Interventions involved drug packaging, public information campaigns, and assessments of drug quality. Results show that blister packaging worked best to improve drug compliance and that the increased cost of packaged medication did not limit its use. Drug quality was a major problem in unregulated countries and should be improved.

Gomes, M.; Wayling, S.; Pang, L.

1998-01-01

249

Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.  

PubMed Central

Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah.

Douglas, I

1999-01-01

250

[Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].  

PubMed

The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641

Wang, Fei

2012-06-01

251

What caused a recent increase in dust outbreaks over East Asia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decadal change in the frequency of dust outbreaks for April over East Asia using World Meteorological Organization (WMO) synoptic data was identified. The causes of the decadal change can be defined in terms of aeolian erosivity (i.e., ability of wind to cause erosion represented by wind speed) and erodibility (i.e., susceptibility of soil and land surface to wind erosion represented by the threshold wind speed for dust outbreak). Dust outbreak frequency (fDO) increased at many stations in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northeastern China, and the Hexi Corridor from the 1990s to the 2000s. Especially, remarkable increases were observed for Mongolia. Strong wind frequency (fu>ut5%) decreased or changed little over the period of study, and the 5th percentile of the threshold wind speed for dust outbreak (ut5%) decreased at many stations in Mongolia, eastern Inner Mongolia, and northeastern China. This suggests changes in erodibility factors increased fDO in these regions. There are stations where fu>ut5% increased and ut5% remained relatively constant in western Inner Mongolia and the Hexi Corridor. This suggests changes in the erosivity factor increased fDO at these locations. The change in erodibility is linked, in part, to the effect of dead leaves of grasses in spring, which are the residue of vegetation in summer from the previous year, which can cause an increase in the threshold wind speed.

Kurosaki, Yasunori; Shinoda, Masato; Mikami, Masao

2011-06-01

252

How can food extracts consumed in the Mediterranean and East Asia suppress prostate cancer proliferation?  

PubMed

We have developed a blend of food extracts commonly consumed in the Mediterranean and East Asia, named blueberry punch (BBP), with the ultimate aim to formulate a chemoprevention strategy to inhibit prostate cancer progression in men on active surveillance protocol. We demonstrated previously that BBP inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for the suppression of prostate cancer cell proliferation by BBP. Treatment of lymph node-metastasised prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and bone-metastasised prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and MDA-PCa-2b) with BBP (up to 0·8 %) for 72 h increased the percentage of cells at the G0/G1 phase and decreased those at the S and G2/M phases. The finding was supported by the reduction in the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells and of DNA synthesis measured by the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine. Concomitantly, BBP treatment decreased the protein levels of phosphorylated retinoblastoma, cyclin D1 and E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 2, and pre-replication complex (CDC6 and MCM7) in LNCaP and PC-3 cells, whereas CDK inhibitor p27 was elevated in these cell lines. In conclusion, BBP exerts its anti-proliferative effect on prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression and phosphorylation of multiple regulatory proteins essential for cell proliferation. PMID:22067725

Yao, Mu; Xie, Chanlu; Constantine, Maryrose; Hua, Sheng; Hambly, Brett D; Jardine, Greg; Sved, Paul; Dong, Qihan

2012-08-01

253

Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions  

PubMed Central

Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n?=?49 studies), mortality (n?=?28), nutrition (n?=?24), and infectious diseases (n?=?33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n?=?56 studies), socioeconomic (n?=?50) and biological sampling (n?=?25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries.

McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry

2011-01-01

254

Combined Dust Detection Algorithm by Using MODIS Infrared Channels over East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new dust detection algorithm is developed by combining the results of multiple dust detectionmethods using IR channels onboard the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) between two wavelength channels has been used widely in previous dust detection methods. However, BTDmethods have limitations in identifying the offset values of the BTDto discriminate clear-sky areas. The current algorithm overcomes the disadvantages of previous dust detection methods by considering the Brightness Temperature Ratio (BTR) values of the dual wavelength channels with 30-day composite, the optical properties of the dust particles, the variability of surface properties, and the cloud contamination. Therefore, the current algorithm shows improvements in detecting the dust loaded region over land during daytime. Finally, the confidence index of the current dust algorithm is shown in 10 × 10 pixels of the MODIS observations. From January to June, 2006, the results of the current algorithm are within 64 to 81% of those found using the fine mode fraction (FMF) and aerosol index (AI) from the MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The agreement between the results of the current algorithm and the OMI AI over the non-polluted land also ranges from 60 to 67% to avoid errors due to the anthropogenic aerosol. In addition, the developed algorithm shows statistically significant results at four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites in East Asia.

Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Lee, Sukjo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seok; Ou, Steve

2014-01-01

255

Derivation of regression coefficients for sea surface temperature retrieval over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the regression-based algorithms for deriving SST from satellite measurements, regionally optimized algorithms normally perform better than the corresponding global algorithm. In this paper, three algorithms are considered for SST retrieval over the East Asia region (15° 55°N, 105° 170°E), including the multi-channel algorithm (MCSST), the quadratic algorithm (QSST), and the Pathfinder algorithm (PFSST). All algorithms are derived and validated using collocated buoy and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5) observations from 1997 to 2001. An important part of the derivation and validation of the algorithms is the quality control procedure for the buoy SST data and an improved cloud screening method for the satellite brightness temperature measurements. The regionally optimized MCSST algorithm shows an overall improvement over the global algorithm, removing the bias of about -0.13°C and reducing the root-mean-square difference (rmsd) from 1.36°C to 1.26°C. The QSST is only slightly better than the MCSST. For both algorithms, a seasonal dependence of the remaining error statistics is still evident. The Pathfinder approach for deriving a season-specific set of coefficients, one for August to October and one for the rest of the year, provides the smallest rmsd overall that is also stable over time.

Ahn, Myoung-Hwan; Sohn, Eun-Ha; Hwang, Byong-Jun; Chung, Chu-Yong; Wu, Xiangqian

2006-05-01

256

Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an East Asian domain containing 164 × 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 ± 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE Asia field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G.G., Woo, J.-H., Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., 2007a. Top-down estimate of mercury emissions in China using four-dimensional variational data assimilation. Atmospheric Environment 41, 2804-2819) in China for the year 2001. The estimated natural emission helps explain the gap between the anthropogenic emission estimates based on activity data (e.g., Pacyna, J.M., Pacyna, E., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S., 2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4048-4063; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) and the emission inferred from field observations (e.g., Jaffe, D., Prestbo, E., Swartzendruber, P., Weiss-Penzias, P., Kato, S., Takami, A., Hatakeyama, S., Kajii, Y., 2005. Export of atmospheric mercury from Asia. Atmospheric Environment 39, 3029-3038; Weiss-Penzias, P., Jaffe, D., Swartzendruber, P., Hafner, W., Chand, D., Prestbo, E., 2007. Quantifying Asian and biomass burning sources of mercury using the Hg/CO ratio in pollution plumes observed at the Mount Bachelor observatory. Atmospheric Environment 41, 4366-4379) in the region.

Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey

257

Alkalization of yellow sand and its long-term effects on acid rain in East Asia: Observed Evidence and Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain has been one of the serious environmental problems in East Asia for the rapid industrialization in the last two decades. The contour line of pH value less than 5 has come up to the Yellow River region (35 deg N) from the southern China bounded by the Yangtze River (25 deg N) during these ten years. The objective of EANET ( Acid Deposition Moniroring Network in East Asia) is to create a common understanding of the state of the acid deposition problems in East Asia. There are 38 monitoring sites for wet deposition monitoring and data was collected since January 1999. The analysis of datasets in 1999 shows that aerosol has alkalization effects on pH of rain, especially in spring. An Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS) was used to investigate the neutralization of acid rain by the yellow-sand in East Asia. The AQPMS includes all the major processes such as emission, advection, diffusion, chemistry, dry deposition, wet deposition and micro-physical processes. A new deflation module for the dust uptake is designed to estimate the dust loading (Wang et. al.,2000). The gas-phase chemical reaction scheme is a slightly modified version of the CBM-IV. Changes in trace species concentrations due to chemical reactions of soluble and reactive gases in in-cloud and below-cloud droplets are computed using a box aqueous chemical model. Numerical simulation was performed for two cases, that is, with and without the neutralization effects of Kosa in 1999. The predicted pH values and sulfate- and nitrate-ion levels of precipitation, together with the surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants, were compared with measured datasets of EANET and a reasonable agreement was obtained. The simulation results of 1999 exhibited a strong neutralization of the precipitation by the yellow-sand in the spring. The aerosol has alkalization effects on pH of rain, which reduces the H+ of rain.

Wang, Z.; Uno, I.; Akimoto, H.

2001-05-01

258

Acid-rain monitoring in East Asia with a portable-type ion-exclusion–cation-exchange chromatographic analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitoring system consisting of a portable-type conductimetric ion-exclusion–cation-exchange chromatographic (CEC) analyzer and a meteorological satellite data analyzer has been investigated for the evaluation of the effects of acid precipitation on natural and urban environments in East Asia. The portable ion-exclusion–CEC analyzer uses a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column in the H+-form and a weak-acid eluent (tartaric acid–methanol–water) and

K. Tanaka; K. Ohta; P. R. Haddad; J. S. Fritz; K.-P. Lee; K. Hasebe; A. Ieuji; A. Miyanaga

1999-01-01

259

High frequency measurements of HFCs at a remote site in east Asia and their implications for Chinese emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

High frequency monitoring of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and some other halocarbons in the atmosphere has been performed at Hateruma Island (lat. 24.1°N, long. 123.8°E), a background site in east Asia. The observed concentrations showed occasional short-term enhancement events over hours to days as well as a clear seasonal variation, being lower in summer than in other seasons. We found that HFC-23

Y. Yokouchi; S. Taguchi; T. Saito; Y. Tohjima; H. Tanimoto; H. Mukai

2006-01-01

260

Cenozoic East Asia plate tectonic reconstructions using constraints of mapped and unfolded slabs from mantle seismic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subducted slabs were mapped in the mantle under East Asia using MITP08 global seismic tomography (Li et al., 2008), Benioff zone seismicities and published local tomography. 3D gridded slab surfaces were constructed by manually picking and correlating the midpoint of fast seismic anomalies along variable cross-section orientations. The mapped slabs were structurally 'unfolded' and restored to the spherical Earth surface to assess their pre-subduction geometries. Gplates software was used to constrain plate tectonic reconstructions using the unfolded slabs. The unfolded SE Asia upper mantle slabs reveal a 'picture puzzle' fit along their edges that suggests a larger NE Indo-Australian ocean once existed that included the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea. Deeper lower mantle detached slabs indicate an early to mid-Cenozoic 'East Asia Sea' between east Sundaland and the Pacific that stretched from the Ryukyu Islands north of present-day Taiwan southward to Sulawesi. The unfolded slab constraints produced gap and overlap incompatibilities when used in published plate tectonic reconstructions. Here a plate tectonic reconstruction incorporating the unfolded slab constraints is proposed that has the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea clustered at the northern margin of Australia during the early Cenozoic. At the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with 'Australia-like' plate motions and overrode the 'East Asia Sea'. Plate motions were accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. Between 25 to 15 Ma the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea plates were fragmented from the greater Indo-Australian ocean. The Philippine Sea was captured by the Pacific plate and now has Pacific-like westward motions.

Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.

2012-12-01

261

Pre-zygotic embryological characters of Platycrater arguta , a rare and endangered species endemic to East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platycrater arguta Sieb. et Zucc. is a rare and endangered species endemic to East Asia. It produces two floral morphs viz. bisexual and male\\u000a flowers. For bisexual flowers, simultaneous cytokinesis in the microsporocyte meiosis leads to a tetrahedral tetrad. The mature\\u000a pollen grain is shed at 2-cell stage. The young anther wall is composed of epidermis, endothecium that develops fibrous

Cheng Qi Ao

2008-01-01

262

Preliminary results from measurement of methane at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea for understanding emissions in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Importance of methane (CH4) to the global biogeochemical cycle and climate change has been well documented, and while the total global methane emissions are relatively well known, the strength of each source component and their trends are not, due to the varied biological and anthropogenic sources of emissions. This is especially true in East Asia, where strong expected emissions of CH4 from fossil fuel mining and burning as well as rice agriculture remain less understood. In this study, we present atmospheric measurements of methane and preliminary analysis of the results. Measurement site for this study is at Gosan, a remote background site located on Jeju Island, Korea. Due to its central location in East Asia, monitoring of both background and pollution from the surrounding regions is possible, thus ideal for monitoring methane emissions in East Asia. To facilitate high-quality continuous measurements, an automated measurement system with a GC-FID has been created and tested at Seoul National University. Identification of the dominant CH4 emission sources could be better understood by analyzing correlation with other anthropogenically and biogenically emitted compounds such as CO (important indicator for fossil fuel burning) and chlorinated compounds (emitted from biomass burning and the use of coal). Advanced air mass transport modeling will also be used to analyze different emission patterns by region.

Lee, E.; Kim, J.; Ahn, K.; Park, M.; Kim, K.

2010-12-01

263

Influence of aerosol hygroscopic growth parameterization on aerosol optical depth and direct radiative forcing over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of aerosol hygroscopic growth parameterization on aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) over East Asia is investigated by using an online coupled regional climate-chemistry/aerosol model (RIEMS-Chemaero) focusing on the period of summer 2006. Three aerosol hygroscopic growth schemes are tested in this study. Model performances are evaluated with ground observations and satellite retrievals. Comparison with observations of aerosol concentration demonstrates that the model is able to reproduce the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol components over East Asia. Model comparison with AOD measurements shows that AOD is best predicted by the aerosol hygroscopic growth scheme developed based on observations in China (Case B), and the aerosol hygroscopic growth affects AOD simulation significantly. In this study, the domain and seasonal mean AOD, ADRF at the top of the atmosphere, and ADRF at the surface over East Asia are estimated to be 0.31, ? 9 W/m2, and ? 29 W/m2 by Case B, respectively. Compared with Case B, the estimations from Case A (scheme from CCM3 radiation package) differ by + 71%, + 100%, and + 17%, respectively, while those from Case C (? parameterization) differ by ? 16%, + 11%, and ? 17%. The large differences in AOD and ADRF among cases suggest the necessity to develop appropriate hygroscopic growth parameterization with geographical characteristics in climate model for estimating regional aerosol optical properties and radiative effects.

Li, Jiawei; Han, Zhiwei; Zhang, Renjian

2014-04-01

264

Changes in relationships between surface air temperature and precipitation over East Asia associated with the 1976/1977climate shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in surface air temperature and precipitation are closely associated because of their thermodynamic relations. The climate shift in the late 1970s and associated changes in precipitation over East Asia have been well reported. However, how the relationships between surface air temperature and precipitation respond to the climate shift is not yet well understood. The issue is explored in the study by using the observed mean (Tmean ), daily maximum (Tmax ) and minimum (Tmin ) surface air temperatures and precipitation during the period of 1953-2000. Results show that relationships between Tmean and precipitation experienced remarkable changes over certain areas of East Asia after the climate shift with evident seasonal dependencies. In winter, after the climate shift significant negative correlations occupied more areas over Mongolia and China. By contrast, in summer significant negative correlations which existed over almost entire East Asia during the pre-shift period were mostly weakened with exception of enhanced correlations over some small isolated areas. While the changes in the relationships Tmax and precipitation showed a similar spatial pattern to that of Tmean , the Tmin -precipitation correlation did not. The results are useful for further testing climate simulations of the relationships between surface air temperature and precipitation.

Wu, L.

2013-12-01

265

Assessment of the RegCM4 over East Asia and future precipitation change adapted to the RCP scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

this study, we investigated spatial and temporal changes in precipitation over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) East Asia domain, for present (1986-2005) and future (2031-2050) periods using the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4). Future meteorology produced by the Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2 coupled with the Atmosphere-Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) following global climate change scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5) was used as meteorological boundary conditions for the RegCM4. Six subregions (South Korea, North China, South China, Japan, Mongolia, and India) in the CORDEX East Asia domain were considered for analysis. The RegCM4 simulated spatial distributions of precipitation over East Asia with a correlation coefficient of 0.7 against Climate Research Unit data. The simulation skills of its temporal variability varied based on geographical regions and seasons, showing relatively poorer performance (underestimation in rainfall amount) in summer than in winter, in general. The future climate simulations by the RegCM4 presented that the East Asian continental regions will be warmer and more humid, leading to increased precipitation amounts, especially in the summer. The summer precipitation amount was projected to increase by about 5%, on average, over the East Asian domain, 5-15% in most subregions, and even higher (44% and 24%) in the South Korean region for the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, respectively. It was also expected that heavy rainfall (> 50 mm/d) events may occur more frequently in the future possibly owing to meteorological changes that are favorable to convective heavy precipitation.

Oh, Seok-Geun; Park, Ju-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok

2014-03-01

266

Work in Progress: Proposal for Comparative Studies on East Asia STS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, a new STS field, East Asian Science, Technology and Society (EASTS), has been developed. However, the EASTS perspectives\\u000a have not been clear. In order to develop EASTS, it is necessary to understand each other more for much active STS in East\\u000a Asian Community. Thus, we examine the current situation of EASTS by conducting a network analysis on highly frequent

Ryuma Shineha; Arisa Ema; Togo Tsukahara

2010-01-01

267

Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol measurements over tropical rainforests are important in order to understand their sources and sinks, and hence the rainforests' influence on local and regional climate. To date, there have been no published studies in South-East Asia, which, compared to the African and South American continents, represents a unique mixture of tropical seas and islands. Aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-east Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Ultrafine particle fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to entrainment of particles into the growing mixed layer. In-canopy measurements were conducted at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1 - 20 µm) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. Number concentrations in this size range in the canopy understory correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5 - 1.0 µm) between above and below canopy showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites, which varied according to time of day. This lag time was shortest during the middle of the day by a significant margin. This was not observed for coarse mode (> 1.0 µm) aerosols. Further evidence of daytime coupling between above and below canopy in terms of aerosol measurements is implied by comparison of measurements from an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at the GAW tower and simultaneous bag sampling at the in-canopy site, subsequently analysed with the AMS. The transport of particles through the canopy, and fluxes above canopy, will be discussed in terms of mechanisms and diurnal variation, and the results of this study will be examined in order to build up a picture of the dynamics of aerosols above and within the rainforest canopy.

Whitehead, James; Gallagher, Martin; Robinson, Niall; Gabey, Andrew; Dorsey, James; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Ryder, James; Nemitz, Eiko; Davies, Fay

2010-05-01

268

WHO framework convention on tobacco control and its implementation in South-East Asia region.  

PubMed

The birth of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took place in response to the global tobacco epidemic and it became the most important global tobacco control instrument. Duly recognizing tobacco use as an important public health problem and in the wake of rising prevalence of and mortality related to tobacco use, almost all Member States of the South-East Asia Region signed and ratified the WHO FCTC. Following the ratification, Member countries have enacted comprehensive national tobacco control laws and regulations. Most countries have covered some important provisions, such as tax and price measures, smoke-free places, health warnings, a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, and a ban on tobacco sales to minors. In spite of innumerable constraints and challenges, particularly human, infrastructural and financial resources, Member countries have been doing their best to enforce those legislations and regulations as effectively as possible. In order to educate the general public on the harmful effects of tobacco, mass health campaigns have been organized which are being continued and sustained. However, some of the important areas that need attention in due course of time are tax raises, illicit trade, tobacco industry interference and alternate cropping systems. All Member States in the Region are striving harder to achieving the goals and provisions of the Framework Convention through actively engaging all relevant sectors and addressing the tobacco issue holistically, and thus protecting the present and future generations from the devastating health, social, economic and environmental consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:22089686

Sinha, Dhirendra N; Narain, Jai P; Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Rinchen, Sonam

2011-01-01

269

A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. Methods and Findings With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to ? 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. Conclusions An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation. International cross-disciplinary collaborations may be appropriate in the investigation of other serious counterfeit medicine public health problems elsewhere, but strengthening of international collaborations and forensic and drug regulatory authority capacity will be required.

Newton, Paul N; Fernandez, Facundo M; Plancon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

2008-01-01

270

Health systems in East Asia: what can developing countries learn from Japan and the Asian Tigers?  

PubMed

The health systems of Japan and the Asian Tigers (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan), and the recent reforms to them, provide many potentially valuable lessons to East Asia's developing countries. All five systems have managed to keep a check on health spending despite their different approaches to financing and delivery. These differences are reflected in the progressivity of health finance, but the precise degree of progressivity of individual sources and the extent to which households are vulnerable to catastrophic health payments depend on the design features of the system - the height of any ceilings on social insurance contributions, the fraction of health spending covered by the benefit package, the extent to which the poor face reduced copayments, whether there are caps on copayments, and so on. On the delivery side, too, Japan and the Tigers offer some interesting lessons. Singapore's experience with corporatizing public hospitals - rapid cost and price inflation, a race for the best technology, and so on - illustrates the difficulties of corporatization. Korea's experience with a narrow benefit package illustrates the danger of providers shifting demand from insured services with regulated prices to uninsured services with unregulated prices. Japan, in its approach to rate setting for insured services, has managed to combine careful cost control with fine-tuning of profit margins on different types of care. Experiences with DRGs in Korea and Taiwan point to cost-savings but also to possible knock-on effects on service volume and total health spending. Korea and Taiwan both offer important lessons for the separation of prescribing and dispensing, including the risks of compensation costs outweighing the cost savings caused by more 'rational' prescribing, and cost-savings never being realized because of other concessions to providers, such as allowing them to have onsite pharmacists. PMID:17066428

Wagstaff, Adam

2007-05-01

271

Vitamin D status and food security in North-East Asia.  

PubMed

The functions of vitamin D are pleiotropic affecting all body organs and systems in some way. Its adequacy depends principally on sunshine for UV light to stimulate its synthesis in skin and on foods which contain it, either animal-derived or obtained from fungi or mushrooms, with the UV-responsive substrates dehydrocholesterol for vitamin D-3 or ergosterol for vitamin D-2, respectively. Thus, vitamin D health is very environmentally dependent. With ecosytem degradation, whether by atmospheric pollution or food systems which do not derive UV irradiation, as with fish farming or mushroom processing, then this nutrient input into human biology may falter. Vitamin D deficiency is now common and widespread in North-East Asia as elsewhere. When discovered early in the 20th century it was linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and, for a generation or so, children were given fish, usually cod, liver oil to prevent bone disease. Now cod as a species and many edible fish are threatened. Over-exposure to sun-light increases the risk of skin cancer. We may tackle this problem by vitamin D supplementation with an alternative to fish liver. But the demographic pressures of population size and ageing (when the skin is less UV responsive) make the clinical and public health decisions and strategies demanding. Vitamin D health has become indicative of food security whose usual indicator is food diversity; such diversity may allow lesser concentrations to be more effective in organ and system function, but we have little evidence to support this at present. PMID:23353604

Wahlqvist, Mark L

2013-01-01

272

Intraseasonal Cold Air Outbreak over East Asia and the preceding atmospheric condition over the Barents-Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent occurrence of cold air outbreak is a dominant feature of the East Asian winter monsoon. A contributing factor for the this cold air outbreak is the role of stationary Rossby waves over the Eurasian continent which intensifies the surface Siberian High and the accompanying cold air outflow. Reduced sea ice and increase in turbulence heat flux is hypothesized as a source of such stationary waves (Honda et al. 2009). In particular, the winter of 2009/2010 saw a strong correlation of high pressure anomaly over the Barents/Kara sea and the following cold air buildup over the Eurasian continent and its advection towards East Asia (Hori et al. 2011). The lag correlation of surface temperature over Japan and the 850hPa geopotential height shows a cyclonic anomaly appearing over the Barents/Kara sea which creates a cold air advection over the Eurasian continent. The pressure anomaly subsequently shifted westward to mature into a blocking high which created a wave- train pattern downstream advecting the cold air buildup eastward toward East Asia and Japan (Fig1). We further examine this mechanism for other years including the 2005/2006, 2010/2011 winter and other winters with extreme cold air outbreaks. Overall, the existence of an anticyclonic anomaly over the Barents/Kara sea correlated well with the seasonal dominance of cold air over the Eurasian continent thereby creating a contrast of a warm Arctic and cold Eurasian continent.In the intraseasonal timescale, the existence of this anticyclone corresponds to a persisting atmospheric blocking in the high latitudes. In the presentation, we address the underlying chain of events leading up to a strong cold air outbreak over East Asia from an atmosphere - sea ice - land surafce interaction point of view for paritular cold winter years.

Hori, M. E.; Inoue, J.

2011-12-01

273

Numerical simulation of the relationship between the anomaly of subtropical high over East Asia and the convective activities in the western tropical Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a close relationship between the intraseasonal variation of subtropical high over East Asia and the convective activities around the South China Sea and the Philippines is analysed from OLR data. This relationship is studied by using the theory of wave propagating in a slowly varying medium and by using a quasi-geostrophic, linear, spherical model and the IAP-GCM, respectively. The results show that when the SST is warming around the western tropical Pacific or the Philippines, the convective activities are intensified around the Philippines. As a consequence, the subtropical high will be intensified over East Asia. The computed results also show that when the anomaly of convective activities are caused around the Philippines, a teleconnection pattern of circulation anomalies will be caused over South Asia, East Asia and North America.

Ronghui, Huang; Li, Lu

1989-06-01

274

Estimating absorbing black carbon and organic carbon optical properties from AERONET and MISR data over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative forcing due to carbonaceous aerosols is one of the largest source of uncertainties in global and regional climate change. Black carbon and organic carbon from biomass and fossil fuel are two major types of carbonaceous aerosols. In this study we use available ground based and satellite observations to infer the optical properties of black and organic carbon. NASA's AERONET and MISR data over East Asia provide the observational basis. We use the spectral variations in the observed aerosol extinction optical depth and absorption optical depth to categorize the optical properties including their mixing state with other aerosols such as dust and other inorganic aerosols. We create 8 different categories of aerosol mixtures: Dust, Biomass Burning, Fossil Fuel, Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Dust with Biomass Burning, Mixed Dust with Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Biomass Burning with Fossil Fuel, and Mixed Dust, Biomass Burning, with Fossil Fuel, over the following 6 regions of East Asia: Nepal, Gobi, North Industrial China, South Industrial China, Southeast Asia, and Korea/Japan. Our results are compared with independent surface observations over China using Aethalometers and Single Particle Soot Photometers.

Chen, B.; Ramanathan, V.; Huang, J.; Zhang, G. J.; Xu, Y.

2011-12-01

275

East Asia in Crisis: The Security Implications of the Collapse of Economic Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The financial crisis that began in Thailand in mid-1997 has now become a global one. It has consumed governments upset defense planning and the regional standing of major powers in Asia, and is forcing us to rethink Asia's entire past and future political...

S. J. Blank

1999-01-01

276

Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare simulated precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) from 1980 to 2007 under different cumulus parameterization schemes with the observed data. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of precipitation and SAT, but that the model overestimates precipitation with the rainfall center moving northwestward and underestimates SAT for annual simulations. Annual, interannual variations and the anomalies in precipitation and SAT for different climate subregions are well captured by the model. Therefore, RIEMS2.0 shows good stability and does well in simulating the long-term climate and climate changes in China. Further analysis on RIEMS2.0’s performance in East Asia shows that the model can reproduce the characteristics of the East Asia Monsoon system, as well the rain belt movement. Simulated results and observed data for the monthly mean precipitation and SAT correlate well. There is nice consistency for the anomalies between the simulation and observation. RIEMS2.0 can disclose regional climate characteristics in East Asia in a certain degree.

Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

2010-12-01

277

A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.  

PubMed

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

Yokoyama, Shinji

2014-04-01

278

Reconstruction of the thermal environment evolution from subsurface temperature distribution in large cities in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature changes at the ground surface propagate into the underground and disturb the subsurface temperature structure. Analyzing disturbances in the subsurface temperature structure, we can reconstruct the past ground surface temperature (GST) change, which is closely related to the past surface air temperature change. This method can be applied to studies of thermal environment evolution in urban areas such as the development of “heat islands”. As part of an international multidisciplinary research project “Human Impacts on Urban Subsurface Environments”, we have been investigating GST histories in and around several large cities in East Asia, including Bangkok and Tokyo. We have also started a study on the subsurface thermal environment in Saitama prefecture, located on the north of Tokyo, as a research project of CESS (Center for Environmental Science in Saitama). The eastern part of Saitama prefecture is densely populated and considered to be a part of Tokyo Metropolitan area. In this presentation, we show the results of GST history reconstruction in the both areas. In Bangkok area, we conducted measurements of temperature profiles in groundwater monitoring wells at 45 sites in 2004, 2006, and 2008. In Saitama, we measured temperature profiles at 15 sites in 2009. We examined the shapes of the temperature profiles and selected ones that are not significantly disturbed by groundwater flow. Reconstruction of GST history for the last several hundred years was made at six sites in the Bangkok area and at two sites in the Saitama area. We used a multi-layer model that allows layers with different thermal properties, determining layer boundaries based on lithology of the formations around the wells. All of the reconstructed GST histories show surface warming in the last century. In the Bangkok area, the amount of the temperature increase ranges from 0.4 to 2.6 K and is larger in the city than in the area to the west of Bangkok and in the northern rural area. This tendency may reflect difference in the degree of urbanization or human activities. In the Saitama area, the GST increased by more than 2.5 K at both of the two sites, which are located in the densely populated part. The two sites in Saitama and the site at the center of Bangkok all show large GST increase, whereas the onset time of warming appears to be different among the three sites. These results should be combined with other information on development of the two large cities to investigate the main cause of the surface warming, e.g., increase in the surface air temperature and land use change. We also estimated the amount of heat stored in the subsurface after 1900 based on the reconstructed GST histories.

Hamamoto, H.; Goto, S.; Vuthy, M.; Nishijima, J.; Yamano, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Miyakoshi, A.; Hachinohe, S.; Sasaka, K.; Shiraishi, H.

2009-12-01

279

A case of chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) in East Asia.  

PubMed

Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome is a clinically and radiologically distinct pontine-predominant perivascular neuroinflammation showing T lymphocyte infiltration. It is assumed to have an autoimmune or other inflammatory mediated pathogenesis. We report the first known case of CLIPPERS in East Asia, characterized by multiple punctate enhancement of the brainstem extending to the bilateral posterior limb of the internal capsule and caudal to the spinal cord conus. The patient had elevated IgE levels and a history of allergies, suggesting that lesions may arise from neuroinflammation in response to T lymphocyte infiltration into perivascular spaces. PMID:22576399

Tohge, Rie; Nagao, Masahiro; Yagishita, Akira; Matsubara, Shiro

2012-01-01

280

Seasonal and regional aerosol characteristics in East Asia investigated with model-predicted and remotely-sensed aerosol properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the spatio-temporal and seasonal distributions of EOS/Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia were analyzed in conjunction with US EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) v4.3 modeling system. In this study, two MODIS AOD products (?mODIS: ?m-BAER and ?NASA) retrieved through a modified Bremen Aerosol Retrieval (M-BAER) algorithm and NASA collection 5 (C005) algorithm were compared with the AOD (?CMAQ) that was calculated from the US EPA Models-3/CMAQ model simulations. In general, the CMAQ-predicted AOD values captured the spatial and temporal variations of the two MODIS AOD products over East Asia reasonably well. Since ?mODIS cannot provide information on the aerosol chemical composition in the atmosphere, different aerosol formation characteristics in different regions and different seasons in East Asia cannot be described or identified by ?mODIS itself. Therefore, the seasonally and regionally varying aerosol formation and distribution characteristics were investigated by the US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v4.3 model simulations. The contribution of each particulate chemical species to ?mODIS and ?CMAQ showed strong spatial, temporal and seasonal variations. For example, during the summer episode, ?mODIS and ?CMAQ were mainly raised due to high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 over Chinese urban and industrial centers and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) over the southern parts of China, whereas during the late fall and winter episodes, ?mODIS and ?CMAQ were higher due largely to high levels of NH4NO3 formed over the urban and industrial centers, as well as over Chinese agricultural and livestock farming areas with high NH3 emissions. ?CMAQ was in general larger than ?mODIS during the year, except for spring. The high biases (?CMAQ > ?mODIS) may be due to the excessive formation of both (NH4)2SO4 (summer episode) and NH4NO3 (fall and winter episodes) over China, possibly from the use of overestimated values for NH3 emissions in the CMAQ modeling. According to CMAQ modeling, particulate NH4NO3 made a 14% (summer) to 54% (winter) contribution to ?ext and ?CMAQ. Therefore, the importance of NH4NO3 in estimating ?should not be ignored, particularly in studies of the East Asian air quality. In addition, the accuracy of ?m-BAER and ?NASA was evaluated by a comparison with the AOD (?AERONET) from the AERONET sites in East Asia. Both ?m-BAER and ?NASA showed a strong correlation with ?AERONET around the 1:1 line (R=0.79), indicating promising potential for the application of both the M-BAER and NASA aerosol retrieval algorithms to satellite-based air quality monitoring studies in East Asia.

Song, C. H.; Park, M. E.; Lee, K. H.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Ghim, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.

2010-05-01

281

Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia: Observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December 1998 to 31 December 1999. Wet deposition monitoring data at 17 sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in east Asia in addition to State Environmental Protection Agency data were used to evaluate the model, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Observed evidence clearly shows that in northern China acid deposition is heavily influenced and buffered by natural soil dust from desert and semiarid areas. The observed mean rainwater pH value in northern China is the highest, between 6.0 and 7.2, while in southern China, where many areas severely impacted by acid precipitation are located, the pH value is much lower, between 3.5 and 5. In Japan the mean pH value is 4.7, significantly higher than that in southern China, while in South Korea the pH value is intermediate between those in northern China and Japan. The model is capable of reproducing this geographical distribution of rainwater pH over east Asia. The simulation results for 1999 demonstrated strong neutralization of precipitation by soil aerosols over northeast Asia, and the distribution pattern of acid rain was also altered. The annual mean pH values in northern China and Korea show a remarkable increase of 0.8-2.5, while the increase in mean pH values over southern China and Japan are less than 0.1. The neutralization effects vary by season, with the greatest influence in spring, when pH values increased by 0.1-0.4 in Japan, 0.5-1.5 in Korea, and more than 2 in northern China.

Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Uno, Itsushi

2002-10-01

282

Evaluation of modeled vertical aerosol distributions over east-Asia using in-situ and satellite data during summer 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the EU ECLIPSE project, which aims to quantify the climate impact of short lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including aerosols, black carbon and ozone, regional models are being used to evaluate global model performance for specific case studies. Here, we present results using regional WRF-Chem simulations over east-Asia. Results are compared to data from field campaigns which took place in summer 2008 and from long-term measurement stations. This study will, in a first step, evaluate the ability of the model to simulate aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, with a focus on pollution layers. In a second step, the radiative impact of such layers over east-Asia will be investigated as a function of their position relative to clouds. The WRF-Chem regional model was run using MOZART gas phase chemistry and the MOSAIC aerosol scheme and was evaluated against available measurements for the period August to September 2008. The model was run using ECLIPSE anthropogenic and GFEDv3.1 fire emissions for 2008, while initial and boundary conditions were specified from the TM4 global chemical transport model. The radiative impact of pollution aerosol layers has already been investigated but less is known about the influence of vertical layering in the atmosphere. Such layers might have different radiative impacts whether they are below or above clouds and in that sense, a better understanding of their spatial extent is critical. Information about pollution aerosol layers and clouds optical properties and positions over East-Asia are determined using observations from CALIPSO. The radiative impact of these layers is simulated and compared to the observations. In addition to satellite observations, model results are evaluated against trace gas and aerosol data from aircraft campaigns over eastern Asia in summer 2008 (e.g., CAREBEIJING and CAPMEX) and ground-based measurements (e.g., NIES and ABC). In this study, we assess aerosol total concentrations and size distributions simulated by the model. Aerosol aging is also evaluated with the ratio between elementary and organic carbon (EC:OC), while origins of plumes with enhanced aerosol and pollutants such as CO are investigated with Lagrangian back-trajectories.

Quennehen, Boris; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Ancellet, Gérard; Bazureau, Ariane; Daskalakis, Nikos; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Zhu, Tong; Pelon, Jacques

2013-04-01

283

The Role of Aerosol Absorption in Solar Dimming over East Asia and Its Implications for Regional Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-based observations have identified statistically significant trends in clear-sky surface solar radiation (SSR) over South and East Asia since the 1960s. The trends are generally negative, indicating a reduction in clear-sky SSR or a 'dimming.' The dimming is strongly driven by aerosol emissions over the region, but little work has been done to quantify the particular aerosol mechanisms that produce the trend or the contribution to the surface values from aerosol absorption within the atmospheric column. The redistribution of shortwave radiation that these aerosol effects imply has the potential to significantly impact regional circulation and precipitation. We conduct experiments over East Asia in two generations of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Atmospheric General Circulation Model, AM2.1 and AM3, in order to analyze the characteristics of the SSR trends that the models produce and to understand the particular aerosol mechanisms responsible. AM2.1 and AM3 have significantly different aerosol treatments, including differences in aerosol mixing and interactivity with model meteorology. We use the models' standalone radiation module to analyze how various aerosol characteristics in the two models (such as aerosol mixing state, hygroscopicity, and seasonal distribution) contribute to the trends produced. We find that the two models produce similar trends in clear-sky SSR, comparable to the observed trend, but via significantly different aerosol mechanisms with different regional climate implications. Both models' dimming trends, however, are strongly driven by increased aerosol absorption since 1960. The implications of this redistribution of solar heating between the surface and atmosphere for Asia's regional climate will be discussed.

Persad, G.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

2013-12-01

284

A new P wave velocity model beneath East Asia: insights on the relationship between intraplate volcanism and Pacific subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pacific plate subducted beneath the East China since the Middle Mesozoic and it went through several different stages of subduction. Knowing its detailed configuration in the mantle can help better understand the geological events happened in the East Asia. Here we combine P-wave traveltime data from the EHB (Engdahl, van der Hilst, and Buland 1998) catalog of 1964-2007, and manually picks from the regional networks of the China Earthquake Administration (CEArray) consisting of more than one thousand stations from 2007 to 2010 as well as the NorthEast China Extended Array (NECESSArray) with 127 broadband stations from 2009 to 2011 in order to produce a global P-wave velocity model with a focus on the velocity structure beneath the East Asia. The mantle is parameterized into irregular blocks and the size of each block depends on the number of the rays penetrating the block. The minimum block size is 1.25°x1.25°. The large dataset and the adaptive block size yield a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model beneath Asia. Our tomographic model shows high velocity roots under Archean cratons, such as the Ordos and the Sichuan basin. Our model also displays low velocity anomalies at a depth from 50km to 350km beneath the Changbaishan and Datong volcanoes. Massive basaltic volcanism occurred in these places in the Cenozoic. There is also a pronounced slow anomaly that extends to the transition zone beneath the South China block, but it is only limited in the upper mantle. The Cenozoic basaltic magmatism in Hainan Island might be related with this slow anomaly. Our model also shows clear segments of slabs inside the transition zone, which could be imaged as flat slabs with insufficient data sampling. Different segments also appear to have different intensity and may correspond to different episodes of the Pacific subduction. The fragmented nature of the subducted Pacific plate also implies that several slab detachment events may have occurred during the subduction. The detachments trigger upward return flows that are likely the sources of the magmatism in the area.

Huang, T.; Niu, F.; Obayashi, M.

2013-12-01

285

An evaluation of aeolian erodibility over East Asia for the recent two decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many researchers have shown spatial distributions and inter-annual variations of frequency in the occurrences of dust storm and dust outbreak, which is a category of present weather included in WMO SYNOP report defined in Kurosaki and Mikami (2003GL017261) that indicates injection of soil particles from the surface to the atmosphere. These frequencies do not directly express the amount of emitted soil particles from land surface, but we can recognize that they work as good indices of intensity of wind erosion. Wind erosion depends on the relationship between aeolian erosivity and erodibility. The erosivity is the ability of the wind to cause erosion, and the erodibility is characterized as the susceptibility of a soil and land surface to wind erosion, which is influenced by soil and land surface characteristics, particularly the soil particle size distribution, soil water content, vegetation coverage, soil crust, snow cover, soil freeze/thaw processes, and land use. The erosivity is expressed by one parameter, wind friction speed or simplistically wind speed as a substitute. On the other hand, we have difficulties in expression of erodibility due to a huge number of factors as above and different units of them. However, threshold wind speed, which is the minimum wind speed initiating wind erosion, can be a unified index of a variety of erodibility factors. Weather condition such as a dust storm and wind speed have been observed at synoptic meteorological stations, which widely distribute in the world, but threshold wind speed is not included in items of synoptic observation. However, Kurosaki et al. (2011GL047494) developed a methodology to obtain a frequency distribution of threshold wind speed from a combination of SYNOP present weather and wind speed. In this presentation, we will show decadal changes in dust outbreak frequency, strong wind frequency, and the 5th-percentile of threshold wind speed from 1990s (1990-1999) to 2000s (2000-2009) over East Asia. Here, a strong wind is defined as a wind whose speed is higher than the 5th-percentile of threshold wind speed for 1970 to 2009. The results are (1) Dust outbreak frequency increased at many stations in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northeastern China, and the Hexi Corridor from the 1990s to the 2000s, and especially remarkable increases were observed for Mongolia; (2) Strong wind frequency decreased or changed little over the period and the 5th-percentile of threshold wind speed decreased at many stations in Mongolia, eastern Inner Mongolia, and northeastern China. This suggests changes in erodibility factors increased dust outbreak frequency in these regions; (3) there are stations where strong wind frequency increased and the 5th-percentile of threshold wind speed remained relatively constant in western Inner Mongolia and the Hexi Corridor. This suggests changes in the erosivity factor increased dust outbreak frequency at these locations.

Kurosaki, Y.; Shinoda, M.; Mikami, M.

2011-12-01

286

Spatial distributions of oxygenated organic compounds (dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids, and levoglucosan) in marine aerosols over the western Pacific and off the coast of East Asia: Continental outflow of organic aerosols during the ACE-Asia campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol sampling for major oxygenated organic compounds (dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids, and levoglucosan) was conducted from 15 March to 19 April 2001 on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration R\\/V Ronald H. Brown over the western North Pacific, the East China Sea, and the Sea of Japan, as part of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) campaign.

Michihiro Mochida; Kimitaka Kawamura; Nobuhiko Umemoto; Minoru Kobayashi; Sou Matsunaga; Ho-Jin Lim; Barbara J. Turpin; Timothy S. Bates; Bernd R. T. Simoneit

2003-01-01

287

The impact of Confucianism on interpersonal relationships and communication patterns in east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that East Asian communication patterns differ from those of North America because of the Eastern emphasis on social relationships as opposed to the North American emphasis on individualism. This East Asian preoccupation with social relationships stems from the doctrines of Confucianism, which considers proper human relationships to be the basis of society. The cardinal principle of Confucianism

June-ock Yum

1988-01-01

288

South East Asia to America: Links in a Chain (Part Two).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the transfer of Indochinese refugees from Southeast Asia to the United States, their stay in interim refugee camps, the voyage by plane, bureaucratic problems, and their first encounter with American life. Provides an anecdotal account of one family's experiences and reactions. (GC)

Rose, Peter I.

1981-01-01

289

West Meets East in Central Asia: Competing Discourses on Secondary Education Reform in the Kyrgyz Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kyrgyz Republic--a remote mountainous region--is one of five former Soviet states in central Asia. This case study begins with a brief overview of the political and economic situation of the Kyrgyz Republic and its relation to aims of Soviet schooling in the 20th century. A critique of the Soviet schooling model by foreign academics before and…

De Young, Alan J.

290

Seasonal characteristics of tropospheric ozone production and mixing ratios over East Asia: A global three-dimensional chemical transport model analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine seasonal and geographical distributions of tropospheric ozone production and mixing ratios over East Asia with a global three-dimensional chemical transport model called Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 1 (MOZART 1). Net ozone production within the East Asian boundary layer exhibits three distinct seasonal cycles depending on region (north of 20°N, 5-20°N and south of 5°N). North

Denise L. Mauzerall; Daiju Narita; Hajime Akimoto; Larry Horowitz; Stacy Walters; Didier A. Hauglustaine; Guy Brasseur

2000-01-01

291

Higher education in East Asia and Singapore: rise of the Confucian Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews Asia–Pacific higher education and university research, focusing principally on the “Confucian” education\\u000a nations Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong China, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam. Except for Vietnam, these systems exhibit a special\\u000a developmental dynamism—still playing out everywhere except Japan—and have created a distinctive model of higher education\\u000a more effective in some respects than systems in North America, the

Simon Marginson

2011-01-01

292

Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…

Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

2005-01-01

293

PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION Thirty-First Annual Convention and Exhibition, May 2007 PSC TERM AND CONDITION AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN SOUTH EAST ASIA REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing the implementation of fiscal term and condition for South East Asia countries is very interesting effort in order to study how oil and gas industry benefit to the host country and how they attract foreign investment through its different competitiveness aspects. In general, the oil and gas industry has been the main source of government income for this region

Rovicky Dwi Putrohari; Anggoro Kasyanto; Heri Suryanto; Ida Marianna; Abdul Rashid

294

Program of Research in the Field of Human Resources Development with Special Reference to Asia and the Far East; Annotated List of Research Projects Completed and Proposed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summaries of nine research projects completed and 26 research projects proposed or in progress, titles of papers produced in coordinated research and teaching programs, and a list of 13 international, national, or regional, seminars, conferences, or expert working group meetings contributing to human resources development in Asia and the Far East…

Mehta, M.M.

295

Conservation value of cacao agroforestry for amphibians and reptiles in South-East Asia: combining correlative models with follow-up field experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Although agricultural expansion is a primary threat to tropical biodiversity, experimental stud- ies evaluating the conservation value of tropical agricultural habitats are scarce. In particular, little is known about the sensitivity of amphibians and reptiles to habitat disturbance in areas of very high diversity such as South-East Asia. 2. We used a two-step approach to determine the relationship

Thomas C. Wanger; Akbar Saro; Djoko T. Iskandar; Barry W. Brook; Navjot S. Sodhi; Yann Clough; Teja Tscharntke

2009-01-01

296

Statistical properties of moisture transport in East Asia and their impacts on wetness/dryness variations in North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dryness and wetness variations in east China were analyzed using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) based on monthly precipitation data for 1961-2005. A drying trend over North China was observed, which can be attributed to decreasing precipitation since the late 1970s. Moreover, NCAR/NCEP reanalysis dataset was used to investigate causes behind the drying trend in North China. The moisture flux on the regional boundaries of East China was calculated and a higher wavelet power spectrum for low-latitude boundaries (based on 20 and 25°N) occurred with significant periods in a 1-year band during 1961-2005; however, since 1977, a significant 1-year period can no longer be detected on the northern boundary of South China (based on 35°N). The summer moisture flux during 1961-1977, when compared to the same during 1978-2005, has increased in East China. Good matches are found between moisture alterations and precipitation changes, and are also confirmed by the periods of moisture transport along different latitudes. The significant 1-year periods of moisture transport along the mid-latitude boundary (based on 35°N) have disappeared since 1977, which could be the causes behind the drought in North China. The disappearance of the significant 1-year band of moisture transport along the mid-latitude boundary (based on 35°N) in the late 1970s could be a result of the significantly decreased moisture transport in North China in summer. When southerly winds are weakened in East Asia, the southwesterly winds can only reach the south of the lower Yangtze River, which is the major cause behind the frequent summer droughts in North China in the recent years.

Zhang, Zengxin; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Jinchi; Zhou, Jianwei

2011-06-01

297

Origins of domestic dog in Southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA  

PubMed Central

Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in Asia South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog–wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West Asia but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14?437?bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to East Asia. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13–24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog–wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog–wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool.

Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P

2012-01-01

298

Satellite-Based Assessment of Possible Dust Aerosols Semi-Direct Effect on Cloud Water Path over East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The semi-direct effects of dust aerosols are analyzed over eastern Asia using 2 years (June 2002 to June 2004) of data from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, and 18 years (1984 to 2001) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. The results show that the water path of dust-contaminated clouds is considerably smaller than that of dust-free clouds. The mean ice water path (IWP) and liquid water path (LWP) of dusty clouds are less than their dust-free counterparts by 23.7% and 49.8%, respectively. The long-term statistical relationship derived from ISCCP also confirms that there is significant negative correlation between dust storm index and ISCCP cloud water path. These results suggest that dust aerosols warm clouds, increase the evaporation of cloud droplets and further reduce cloud water path, the so-called semi-direct effect. The semi-direct effect may play a role in cloud development over arid and semi-arid areas of East Asia and contribute to the reduction of precipitation.

Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick; Wang, Tainhe; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yongxiang; Yi, Yuhong; Ayers, J. Kirk

2006-01-01

299

Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

2013-12-01

300

A Projection of the Impact of the Climate Change induced by Increased Greenhouse Gases on the Hydroclimate of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present a projection of the regional-scale climate change signals in East Asia induced by increased atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) obtained by downscaling the global climate change scenarios generated by HadAM3P using the MAS model. The impact of the climate change induced by the increases in the atmospheric GHGs on the water cycle in East Asia is an important concern. The large population base and rapidly growing industrial activities in the region have been susceptible to the variations in water cycle that affect the frequency of weather-related natural disasters as well as water resources to sustain them. Hence, projections of future water cycle are crucial for planning for sustainable developments in the region. We compare the results from three 30-year long simulations. One represents today's climate (1961-1990) and the other two represent the future climate for the period 2071-2100 based on the SRES-A2/B2 emission scenarios (Nakicenovic et al. 2000), respectively. The downscaled control climate represents reasonably the characteristics of the climatology from observational data. In particular, the dynamical downscaling could improve warm season rainfall in the region compared to the GCM simulations. The seasonal mean temperature signal ranges 1-8 K, with larger increases in the high latitude regions which is consistent with other studies (e.g., IPCC 2001). The rainfall signals suggest increases (decreases) in summer rainfall in southern China, northern Mongolia, northern Manchuria, Korean Peninsula and Japan Islands (northern China and the South China Sea). We will also present the impact of increased GHGs on important hydrological characteristics such as the frequency of extreme events.

Kim, J.; Jung, H.; Mechoso, C. R.; Jones, R.; Hein, D.

2005-12-01

301

Realities of Revolutionary Violence in Southeast Asia: Challenges and Responses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subregion of East Asia known as Southeast Asia, sometimes labeled the 'Balkans' of East Asia, is a collection of linguistic, sociocultural, and political entities. Vast differences exist between the 10 countries in Southeast Asia, and the area has no ...

L. E. Grinter

1990-01-01

302

Culture and mental health of women in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the impact of cultural factors on mental health of South Asian women. Marked gender discrimination in South Asia has led to second class status of women in society. Their mobility, work, self-esteem and self-image, in fact their worth and identity, seem to depend upon the male members of a patriarchal society. Women's lack of empowerment and both financial and emotional dependence have restricted their self-expression and choices in life. This, along with family, social and work pressures, has a definite impact on women's mental health.

NIAZ, UNAIZA; HASSAN, SEHAR

2006-01-01

303

Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented that exchanges of water and energy between the vegetation and the atmosphere play an important role in east Asian and West African monsoon development and are among the most important mechanisms governing the development of the monsoon. The results were obtained by conducting simulations for five months of 1987 using a general circulation model (GCM) coupled with

Yongkang Xue; H.-M. H. Juang; W.-P. Li; S. Prince; R. DeFries; Y. Jiao; R. Vasic

2004-01-01

304

Factors Influencing the Higher Education of International Students from Confucian East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education, especially that leading to a degree from a high-prestige university, is strongly related to social status and employment opportunities in East Asian countries. This is a consequence of both traditional Confucian attitudes to education and the social and economic changes accompanying industrialisation. Since the number of places…

Choi, Serene H.-J.; Nieminen, Timo A.

2013-01-01

305

Corporate Ownership Structure and the Informativeness of Accounting Earnings in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relations between earnings informativeness, measured by the earnings-return relation, and the ownership structure of 977 companies in seven East Asian economies. Our results are consistent with two complementary explanations. First, concentrated ownership and the associated pyramidal and cross-holding structures create agency conflicts between controlling owners and outside investors. Consequently, controlling owners are perceived to report accounting

Joseph P. H. Fan; T. J. Wong

2000-01-01

306

Globalization and Wage Inequality in South and East Asia, and Latin America: A Gender Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyse the reasons behind the evolution of the gender gap and wage inequality in South and East Asian and Latin American countries. Health human capital improvements, the exposure to free market openness and equal treatment enforcement laws seem to be the main exogenous variables affecting womens economic condition. During the second globalization era (in the years

Enriqueta Camps; Maria Camou; Silvana Maubrigades; Natalia Mora-Sitja

2006-01-01

307

Education and Cultural Pluralism in South East Asia, with Special Reference to Peninsular Malaysia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines educational policies in certain culturally plural South East Asian societies in relation to hypotheses concerning differences in educational policies resulting from the threat felt by the dominant elite and the effects of educational and national language policies on the assimilation or alienation of different ethnic groups.…

Watson, J. K. P.

1980-01-01

308

Pleistocene paleoenvironmental reconstructions and mammalian evolution in South-East Asia: focus on fossil faunas from Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammalian faunal studies have provided various clues for a better reconstruction of hominid Quaternary paleoenvironments. In this work, two methods were used: (1) the cenogram method, based on a graphical representation of the mammalian community structure, and (2) the species richness of murine rodents to estimate climatic parameters. These methods were applied to Middle and Late Pleistocene mammalian faunas of South-East Asia, from South China to Indonesia. Special emphasis was laid on a fauna from north-east Thailand dated back to approximately 170,000 years (i.e. a glacial period). This Thai fauna seems characteristic of a slightly open forested environment intermediate between those of present-day central Myanmar and the northern part of South China. In the Thai fauna, the occurrence of both cool-loving mammalian taxa, currently living further north, and species of larger body size than their living counterparts, indicates cooler and probably drier climatic conditions than present-day climates in Thailand. These results are quite consistent with Middle Pleistocene palynological records from South China and eastern Java. From other less well-documented Pleistocene faunas, taken into account in this work, humid climatic conditions of interglacial periods were revealed from large mammalian taxa.

Tougard, C.; Montuire, S.

2006-01-01

309

Origins and chemical characteristics of fine aerosols during the northeastern Asia regional experiment (Atmospheric Brown Cloud-East Asia Regional Experiment 2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of ABC-EAREX 2005 (Atmospheric Brown Cloud-East Asia Regional Experiment 2005), trace gases and compositions of PM2.5 were measured at Gosan supersite in Jeju Island during 13-30 March 2005. Aerosol constituents were determined continuously on site at 1-a intervals. The mean concentrations of gases were 56 ppbv for O3, 297 ppbv for CO, 3.2 ppbv for SO2, and 2.2 ppbv for NOx. For PM2.5, the average mass concentration was 27.3 ?g/m3, and mean concentrations of nss-SO42-, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) were 3.34 ?g/m3, 4.22 ?g/m3, and 1.00 ?g/m3, respectively. The simultaneous measurements of gaseous and aerosol species revealed that the composition of PM2.5 was mainly determined by anthropogenic plumes from nearby lands. Most of pollution plumes were associated with the passage of cold frontal systems, when all major species were greatly enhanced. Of these, two episodes were followed by dust incidents. In general, EC and nss-SO42- were well correlated with CO while OC was in good agreement with O3. Particularly, the variations of OC/EC ratios exhibited a maximum in the afternoon corresponding to the peak of O3/CO ratios, suggesting OC/EC as a marker representing the degree of chemical processing of fine aerosol. The ratios of OC/CO for all measurements fell between emission ratios of China and South Korea. For pollution episodes, the correlations of CO with nss-SO42- and EC were significant and their relative enhancement was suggested as an indicator to distinguish different types of pollution plumes.

Lee, Meehye; Song, Mijung; Moon, Kwang J.; Han, Jin S.; Lee, Gangwoong; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

2007-11-01

310

The impact on the present and future East Asia climate of the land cover changes simulated by dynamic vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface properties are important because of their known impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. Historical and future changes in land cover changes give influences on the monsoon rainfall and circulation over the Asian summer monsoon region. The dynamic vegetation model, as one of the key process of the Earth System model, simulates the terrestrial biosphere where the fraction of tree and grass species is a function of the local climate state. The potential effect of the simulated land cover distribution needs to be individually evaluated in present and future climate simulations. Since it is reported that the simulated land surface properties could give influence on the systematic biases in monsoon rainfall and add an impact in the future projection via feedback with the dust loading of the atmosphere [Martin and Levine, 2012]. Motivated by the previous study, we investigate the impact of land cover change generated by the interactive terrestrial carbon cycle in the HadGEM2 Earth System configuration over East Asia under present-day and possible future climate condition. Data in this study is HadGEM2-A runs using HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution in Martin and Levine [2012]. In present-day run, over the northern China region to the west of Korea, bare soil increase distinctly in HadGEM2-ES rather than HadGEM2-AO. ES land cover by interactive vegetation model gives influences on JJA rainfall and temperature. There is interaction with model systematic biases in the present-day climate. JJA dry bias is larger when HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution was used for Korea. Dust aerosol effect contributes to the dry bias. As bare soil fraction increases, more emitted dust aerosol has direct effect of negative net downward SW, cooling the land surface, weakening monsoon inflow, inducing dry bias over Korea. In the other hand, over bare soil expanded area, changes in roughness length and soil evaporation, the subsequent latent heat flux changes contribute to local surface warming in JJA. In global warming, warmer and wetter climate in JJA is expected in East Asia. Relative to global warming, ES land cover and dust direct effects are small and the details are presented. Acknowledgements. This study is supported by the National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration (NIMR-2012-B-2).

Boo, Kyung-On; Cho, Mee-Hyun; Martin, Gill; Lee, Johan

2014-05-01

311

Forest biomass carbon sinks in East Asia, with special reference to the relative contributions of forest expansion and forest growth.  

PubMed

Forests play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. With extensive afforestation and reforestation efforts over the last several decades, forests in East Asia have largely expanded, but the dynamics of their C stocks have not been fully assessed. We estimated biomass C stocks of the forests in all five East Asian countries (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Mongolia) between the 1970s and the 2000s, using the biomass expansion factor method and forest inventory data. Forest area and biomass C density in the whole region increased from 179.78 × 10(6) ha and 38.6 Mg C ha(-1) in the 1970s to 196.65 × 10(6) ha and 45.5 Mg C ha(-1) in the 2000s, respectively. The C stock increased from 6.9 Pg C to 8.9 Pg C, with an averaged sequestration rate of 66.9 Tg C yr(-1). Among the five countries, China and Japan were two major contributors to the total region's forest C sink, with respective contributions of 71.1% and 32.9%. In China, the areal expansion of forest land was a larger contributor to C sinks than increased biomass density for all forests (60.0% vs. 40.0%) and for planted forests (58.1% vs. 41.9%), while the latter contributed more than the former for natural forests (87.0% vs. 13.0%). In Japan, increased biomass density dominated the C sink for all (101.5%), planted (91.1%), and natural (123.8%) forests. Forests in South Korea also acted as a C sink, contributing 9.4% of the total region's sink because of increased forest growth (98.6%). Compared to these countries, the reduction in forest land in both North Korea and Mongolia caused a C loss at an average rate of 9.0 Tg C yr(-1), equal to 13.4% of the total region's C sink. Over the last four decades, the biomass C sequestration by East Asia's forests offset 5.8% of its contemporary fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. PMID:24464906

Fang, Jingyun; Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Kato, Tomomichi; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Son, Yowhan

2014-06-01

312

Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.  

PubMed

This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war. PMID:10330595

Ismail, R

1999-01-01

313

The oriental fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. in East Asia: disentangling the different forces promoting the invasion and shaping the genetic make-up of populations.  

PubMed

The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, is one of the most economically destructive pests of fruits and vegetables especially in East Asia. Based on its phytophagous life style, this species dispersed with the diffusion and implementation of agriculture, while globalization allowed it to establish adventive populations in different tropical and subtropical areas of the world. We used nine SSR loci over twelve samples collected across East Asia, i.e. an area that, in relatively few years, has become a theatre of intensive agriculture and a lively fruit trade. Our aim is to disentangle the different forces that have affected the invasion pattern and shaped the genetic make-up of populations of this fruit fly. Our data suggest that the considered samples probably represent well established populations in terms of genetic variability and population structuring. The human influence on the genetic shape of populations and diffusion is evident, but factors such as breeding/habitat size and life history traits of the species may have determined the post introduction phases and expansion. In East Asia the origin of diffusion can most probably be allocated in the oriental coastal provinces of China, from where this fruit fly spread into Southeast Asia. The spread of this species deserves attention for the development and implementation of risk assessment and control measures. PMID:24816716

Aketarawong, N; Guglielmino, C R; Karam, N; Falchetto, M; Manni, M; Scolari, F; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R

2014-06-01

314

Food Security - Global Trends and Region Perspective with Reference to East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sharp increase in global food prices during 2007?2008 has triggered the awareness of food insecurity problems and their impacts on the low income, food?deficit countries many of which are located in the East Asian countries. The food?security situation was good in relative terms given that the percentage of carbohydrates consumed is slightly lower than the world average while proteins

Ching-Cheng Chang; Shih-Hsun Hsu

2011-01-01

315

Phylogeography of Quercus variabilis based on chloroplast DNA sequence in East Asia: multiple glacial refugia and Mainland-migrated island populations.  

PubMed

The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern Asia. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Korea Peninsular as well as Japan, Zhoushan and Taiwan Islands) was collected, and three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments were sequenced using universal primers. A total of 26 haplotypes were detected, and it showed a weak phylogeographical structure in eastern Asia populations at species level, however, in the central-eastern region of Mainland China, the populations had more haplotypes than those in other regions, with a significant phylogeographical structure (N(ST=?)0.751> G(ST=?)0.690, P<0.05). Q. variabilis displayed high interpopulation and low intrapopulation genetic diversity across the distribution range. Both unimodal mismatch distribution and significant negative Fu's F(S) indicated a demographic expansion of Q. variabilis populations in East Asia. A fossil calibrated phylogenetic tree showed a rapid speciation during Pleistocene, with a population augment occurred in Middle Pleistocene. Both diversity patterns and ecological niche modelling indicated there could be multiple glacial refugia and possible bottleneck or founder effects occurred in the southern Japan. We dated major spatial expansion of Q. variabilis population in eastern Asia to the last glacial cycle(s), a period with sea-level fluctuations and land bridges in East China Sea as possible dispersal corridors. This study showed that geographical heterogeneity combined with climate and sea-level changes have shaped the genetic structure of this wide-ranging tree species in East Asia. PMID:23115642

Chen, Dongmei; Zhang, Xianxian; Kang, Hongzhang; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Shan; Du, Hongmei; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Gapare, Washington; Wu, Harry X; Liu, Chunjiang

2012-01-01

316

Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic migration is a common geological process of basin formation and evolution. However, little is known about tectonic migration in the western Pacific margins. This paper focuses on the representative Cenozoic basins of East China and its surrounding seas in the western Pacific domain to discuss the phenomenon of tectonic jumping in Cenozoic basins, based on structural data from the Bohai Bay Basin, the South Yellow Sea Basin, the East China Sea Shelf Basin, and the South China Sea Continental Shelf Basin. The western Pacific active continental margin is the eastern margin of a global convergent system involving the Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indian Plate. Under the combined effects of the India-Eurasia collision and retrogressive or roll-back subduction of the Pacific Plate, the western Pacific active continental margin had a wide basin-arc-trench system which migrated or ‘jumped’ eastward and further oceanward. This migration and jumping is characterized by progressive eastward younging of faulting, sedimentation, and subsidence within the basins. Owing to the tectonic migration, the geological conditions associated with hydrocarbon and gashydrate accumulation in the Cenozoic basins of East China and its adjacent seas also become progressively younger from west to east, showing eastward younging in the generation time of reservoirs, seals, traps, accumulations and preservation of hydrocarbon and gashydrate. Such a spatio-temporal distribution of Cenozoic hydrocarbon and gashydrate is significant for the oil, gas and gashydrate exploration in the East Asian Continental Margin. Finally, this study discusses the mechanism of Cenozoic intrabasinal and interbasinal tectonic migration in terms of interplate, intraplate and underplating processes. The migration or jumping regimes of three separate or interrelated events: (1) tectonism-magmatism, (2) basin formation, and (3) hydrocarbon-gashydrate accumulation are the combined effects of the Late Mesozoic extrusion tectonics, the Cenozoic NW-directed crustal extension, and the regional far-field eastward flow of the western asthenosphere due to the India-Eurasia plate collision, accompanied by eastward jumping and roll-back of subduction zones of the Pacific Plate.

Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming

2014-07-01

317

Predictors and consequences of adherence to the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Central Europe and East Asia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess baseline predictors and consequences of medication non-adherence in the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from Central Europe and East Asia. Patients and methods Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 1-year prospective, observational study that included a total of 1,068 newly-diagnosed pediatric patients with ADHD symptoms from Central Europe and East Asia. Medication adherence during the week prior to each visit was assessed by treating physicians using a 5-point Likert scale, and then dichotomized into either adherent or non-adherent. Clinical severity was measured by the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD) scale and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) Checklist. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was measured using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE). Regression analyses were used to assess baseline predictors of overall adherence during follow-up, and the impact of time-varying adherence on subsequent outcomes: response (defined as a decrease of at least 1 point in CGI), changes in CGI-ADHD, CSI-4, and the five dimensions of CHIP-CE. Results Of the 860 patients analyzed, 64.5% (71.6% in Central Europe and 55.5% in East Asia) were rated as adherent and 35.5% as non-adherent during follow-up. Being from East Asia was found to be a strong predictor of non-adherence. In East Asia, a family history of ADHD and parental emotional distress were associated with non-adherence, while having no other children living at home was associated with non-adherence in Central Europe as well as in the overall sample. Non-adherence was associated with poorer response and less improvement on CGI-ADHD and CSI-4, but not on CHIP-CE. Conclusion Non-adherence to medication is common in the treatment of ADHD, particularly in East Asia. Non-adherence was associated with poorer response and less improvement in clinical severity. A limitation of this study is that medication adherence was assessed by the treating clinician using a single item question.

Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Treuer, Tamas; Montgomery, William; Haynes, Virginia S; Wu, Shenghu; Haro, Josep Maria

2013-01-01

318

Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall. Oppositely, for inactive years, drier-than-normal atmosphere appeared and consequently sluggish snowfall seasons followed. A SVD (singular value decomposition) analysis of the Asian synoptic circulation indicated that the connection between the pressure dipoles and the position of EAT is strong in 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2010, and 2011. It significantly affects both of the snowfall and dust activities. In summary, snowfall active years usually occurred when the East Asian dust storm was inactive. Nevertheless, the snowfall activity increased in Taiwan if there was dust event and the dust aerosol successfully transported to Taiwan. This finding is also demonstrated in the model simulation of this study.

Tsai, L.

2013-12-01

319

Maternal and perinatal guideline development in hospitals in South East Asia: the experience of the SEA-ORCHID project  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are commonly used to support practitioners to improve practice. However many studies have raised concerns about guideline quality. The reasons why guidelines are not developed following the established development methods are not clear. The SEA-ORCHID project aims to increase the generation and use of locally relevant research and improve clinical practice in maternal and perinatal care in four countries in South East Asia. Baseline data highlighted that development of evidence-based CPGs according to recommended processes was very rare in the SEA-ORCHID hospitals. The project investigators suggested that there were aspects of the recommended development process that made it very difficult in the participating hospitals. We therefore aimed to explore the experience of guideline development and particularly the enablers of and barriers to developing evidence-based guidelines in the nine hospitals in South East Asia participating in the SEA-ORCHID project, so as to better understand how evidence-based guideline development could be facilitated in these settings. Methods Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were undertaken with senior and junior healthcare providers (nurses, midwives, doctors) from the maternal and neonatal services at each of the nine participating hospitals. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and a thematic analysis undertaken. Results Seventy-five individual, 25 pair and eleven group interviews were conducted. Participants clearly valued evidence-based guidelines. However they also identified several major barriers to guideline development including time, lack of awareness of process, difficulties searching for evidence and arranging guideline development group meetings, issues with achieving multi-disciplinarity and consumer involvement. They also highlighted the central importance of keeping guidelines up-to-date. Conclusion Healthcare providers in the SEA-ORCHID hospitals face a series of barriers to developing evidence-based guidelines. At present, in many hospitals, several of these barriers are insurmountable, and as a result, rigorous, evidence-based guidelines are not being developed. Given the acknowledged benefits of evidence-based guidelines, perhaps a new approach to supporting their development in these contexts is needed.

Turner, Tari J; Short, Jacki

2009-01-01

320

ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation  

PubMed Central

Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the ‘ELSI 2.0’ initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries.

2014-01-01

321

ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation.  

PubMed

Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the 'ELSI 2.0' initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

Yoshizawa, Go; Ho, Calvin Wai-Loon; Zhu, Wei; Hu, Chingli; Syukriani, Yoni; Lee, Ilhak; Kim, Hannah; Tsai, Daniel Fu Chang; Minari, Jusaku; Kato, Kazuto

2014-01-01

322

Optimising reproductive and child health outcomes by building evidence-based research and practice in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Disorders related to pregnancy and childbirth are a major health issue in South East Asia. They represent one of the biggest health risk differentials between the developed and developing world. Our broad research question is: Can the health of mothers and babies in Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia be improved by increasing the local capacity for the synthesis of research, implementation of effective interventions, and identification of gaps in knowledge needing further research? Methods/Design The project is a before-after study which planned to benefit from and extend existing regional and international networks. Over five years the project was designed to comprise five phases; pre-study, pre-intervention, intervention, outcome assessment and reporting/dissemination. The study was proposed to be conducted across seven project nodes: four in South East Asia and three in Australia. Each South East Asian study node was planned to be established within an existing department of obstetrics and gynaecology or neonatology and was intended to form the project coordinating centre and focus for evidence-based practice activities within that region. Nine hospitals in South East Asia planned to participate, representing a range of clinical settings. The three project nodes in Australia were intended to provide project support. The intervention was planned to consist of capacity-strengthening activities targeted at three groups: generators of evidence, users of evidence and teachers of evidence. The primary outcome was established as changes in adherence to recommended clinical practices from baseline to completion of the project and impact on health outcomes. Discussion The SEA-ORCHID project was intended to improve care during pregnancy and the perinatal period of mothers and their babies in South East Asia. The possible benefits extend beyond this however, as at the end of this project there is hoped to be an existing network of South East Asian researchers and health care providers with the capacity to generalise this model to other health priority areas. It is anticipated that this project facilitate ongoing development of evidence-based practice and policy in South East Asia through attracting long-term funding, expansion into other hospitals and community-based care and the establishment of nodes in other countries.

Henderson-Smart, David J; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Mohammad, Hakimi; McDonald, Steve J; Green, Sally; Crowther, Caroline A

2007-01-01

323

Characteristics of atmospheric carbon monoxide at a high-mountain background station in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric CO were monitored at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) with an elevation of 2862 m AMSL from April 2006 to April 2011 by the in-situ non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectrometer and weekly flask sample collections via collaboration with NOAA/ESRL/GMD. In general very coherent results were observed between the two datasets, despite a slight difference between the two. A distinct seasonal pattern of CO was noticed at the LABS with a springtime maximum and a summertime minimum, which was predominately shaped by the long-range transport of biomass burning air masses from Southeast Asia and oceanic influences from the Pacific, respectively. Diurnal cycles were also observed at the LABS, with a maximum in late afternoon and a minimum in early morning. The daytime CO maximum was most likely caused by the up-slope transport of lower elevation air. After filtering out the possibly polluted data points from the entire dataset with a mathematic procedure, the mean background CO level at the LABS was assessed as 129.3 ± 46.6 ppb, compared to 149.0 ± 72.2 ppb prior to the filtering. The cluster analysis of the backward trajectories revealed six possible source regions, which shows that air masses originating from the Westerly Wind Zone were dominated in spring and winter resulting in higher CO concentrations. As a contrast, the oceanic influences from the Pacific were found mostly in summer, contributing a lower seasonal CO concentration throughout a year.

Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lin, Chia-Ching; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te; Schnell, Russell C.; Lang, Patricia M.; Kawasato, Taro; Wang, Jia-Lin

2014-06-01

324

Comparison of Gosat CAI and SPOT Vgt Ndvi Data with Different Season and Land Cover in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has become one of the most widely used indices in remote sensing applications in a variety of fields. Many studies have compared the NDVI values for different satellite sensors. Nowadays, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched on January 23, 2009. It is used to monitor greenhouse gases on the Earth's surface and also has a sensor, the Cloud Aerosol Imager (CAI), that senses red and near infrared spectrums. It can also process NDVI data. Therefore, we are first compare GOSAT CAI and SPOT VGT NDVI data in different seasonal and land cover in East Asian, to explore the relationship between the two types of datasets, and to discuss the possibility of extending SPOT VGT data using GOSAT CAI NDVI data for the same area. We used GOSAT CAI Level 3 data to derive 10-day composite NDVI values for the East Asia region for November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 using the maximum value composite (MVC) method. We compared these values with 10-day composite SPOT VGT NDVI data for the same period. The results show that the correlation coefficients of regression analysis generally revealed a strong correlation between NDVI from the two sensors in November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 (0.88, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively). The differences place may be affected by cloud cover. From the combined analysis of seasonal changes and land cover, we found that the correlations between the SPOT VGT and the GOSAT CAI NDVI data are less affected by seasonal change and the SPOT VGT data is more sensitive to high vegetation coverage than the GOSAT CAI data. In the future, through continued monitoring and processing by cloud removal technology, the accuracy of GOSAT CAI NDVI data will be further improved and thus be more widely used.

Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Guo, M.; Tani, H.

2011-08-01

325

Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms  

SciTech Connect

Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-03-01

326

Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

1997-09-01

327

Antipsychotic polypharmacy in patients with schizophrenia: a multicentre comparative study in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Aims Previous studies of the prescription patterns of psychotropic medications in patients with schizophrenia have highlighted a high rate of antipsychotic polypharmacy, but data in Asia are sparse. This study seeks to examine the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy in patients with schizophrenia and compare the differences between patients receiving one vs. those receiving more than one antipsychotic. Methods Antipsychotic prescription for a sample of 2399 patients with schizophrenia from six countries and territories was evaluated. Daily doses of antipsychotic medications were converted to standard chlorpromazine equivalents (CPZ). Results Antipsychotic polypharmacy was found in 45.7% (n = 1097) of the patients with wide intercountry variations. Polypharmacy was associated with male gender [odds ratio (OR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06, 1.46, P < 0.01], advanced age (t = ?7.81, d.f. = 2396, P < 0.001), psychiatric hospital setting (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.11, 1.62) as well as higher daily CPZeq doses (411.47 vs. 983.10 CPZeq day?1, z = ?25.94, P < 0.001), anticholinergic use (OR 3.17, 95% CI 2.65, 3.79, P < 0.001) and less use of an atypical antipsychotic drug (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71, 0.98, P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, country, age and duration of illness were significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion This study highlighted the wide intercountry variations of antipsychotic polypharmacy which are likely to be influenced by a complex combination of clinical, setting, cultural and personal practice factors, requiring more research.

Sim, Kang; Su, Alex; Fujii, Senta; Yang, Shu-yu; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Ungvari, Gabor S; Si, Tianmei; Chung, Eun K; Tsang, Hin-Yeung; Chan, Yiong H; Heckers, Stephan; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay H

2004-01-01

328

A Delay Differential Equation Model for Dengue Fever Transmission in Selected Countries of South-East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue Fever is a dangerous viral disease that is transmitted by female Aedes mosquitoes and is common in more than 100 countries in the world and in all countries of South-East Asia. Mathematical models of Dengue Fever transmission are useful for studying the causes of the spread of the disease and to try to develop methods for reducing the spread of the disease. In this paper, a mathematical model for Dengue fever is analyzed consisting of a system of four nonlinear differential equations with two time delays. The model includes infected humans, infectious humans, infected mosquitoes and infectious mosquitoes. The model has disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. The asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points are studied analytically. The Matlab computer program is used to obtain numerical solutions of the model for both zero and nonzero time delays for a range of parameter values. It is found that for some reasonable estimates of parameter values the endemic equilibrium point is asymptotically stable, but the approach to equilibrium is very slow, suggesting that this equilibrium point may not be of practical importance for these parameter values. Some comparisons are made between the model results and the actual data for Dengue Fever in Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

Sakdanupaph, Werapong; Moore, Elvin J.

2009-08-01

329

A regional air-sea coupled model and its application over East Asia in the summer of 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional air-sea coupled model, comprising the Regional Integrated Environment Model System (RIEMS) and the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was developed to simulate summer climate features over East Asia in 2000. The sensitivity of the model’s behavior to the coupling time interval (CTI), the causes of the sea surface temperature (SST) biases, and the role of air-sea interaction in the simulation of precipitation over China are investigated. Results show that the coupled model can basically produce the spatial pattern of SST, precipitation, and surface air temperature (SAT) with five different CTIs respectively. Also, using a CTI of 3, 6 or 12 hours tended to produce more successful simulations than if using 1 and 24 hours. Further analysis indicates that both a higher and lower coupling frequency result in larger model biases in air-sea heat flux exchanges, which might be responsible for the sensitivity of the coupled model’s behavior to the CTI. Sensitivity experiments indicate that SST biases between the coupled and uncoupled POM occurring over the China coastal waters were due to the mismatch of the surface heat fluxes produced by the RIEMS with those required by the POM. In the coupled run, the air-sea feedbacks reduced the biases in surface heat fluxes, compared with the uncoupled RIEMS, consequently resulted in changes in thermal contrast over land and sea and led to a precipitation increase over South China and a decrease over North China. These results agree well observations in the summer of 2000.

Fang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yaocun; Tang, Jianping; Ren, Xuejuan

2010-05-01

330

Nutrition leadership training in North-East Asia: an IUNS initiative in conjunction with nutrition societies in the region.  

PubMed

Food for humans is one of the most important of all global issues. It is a critical determinant of planetary and individual health, of economic development, of how sustainable energy and water supplies are, and its security a powerful determinant of peace or conflict. Those who assume leadership for the integrity of food and health systems have great responsibility. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), regional and national nutrition science and food technology organizations have concern about the leadership capacity available and required in what are rapidly changing and increasingly demanding circumstances. These include persistent poverty and hunger, climate change which threatens the sustainability of food production and fragile financial systems which are making food less affordable for many. North East Asia (NEA) is a major region for its population size, its economic wealth and disparities, its food production, its life expectancies among the best and its global reach. In 2008, for those of Chinese ancestry and of wider Asian origin, Nutrition Leadership training has been conducted in Hangzhou, Shanghai, Seoul and Taiwan (Hsinchu and Zhunan). Ninety prospective young leaders participated in all. Several successful early career Asian nutrition scientists and professionals served as role models. Senior colleagues acted as mentors for groups of 2 or 3. With mentors, the concept of leadership has been examined, careers and roles explored, knowledge and skills honed for a different future, and plans made to network in mutual support. Early feedback indicates that new opportunities have been created and seized. PMID:19114408

Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo; Sun, Jiang-Qin; Ge, Keyou; Paik, Hee-Young; Cho, Sung Hee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

2008-01-01

331

Satellite-based analysis of evapotranspiration and water balance in the grassland ecosystems of Dryland East Asia.  

PubMed

The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr(-1) over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr(-1) from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

2014-01-01

332

Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia  

PubMed Central

The conversion of natural forest to oil palm plantation is a major current threat to the conservation of biodiversity in South East Asia. Most animal taxa decrease in both species richness and abundance on conversion of forest to oil palm, and there is usually a severe loss of forest species. The extent of loss varies significantly across both different taxa and different microhabitats within the oil palm habitat. The principal driver of this loss in diversity is probably the biological and physical simplification of the habitat, but there is little direct evidence for this. The conservation of forest species requires the preservation of large reserves of intact forest, but we must not lose sight of the importance of conserving biodiversity and ecosystem processes within the oil palm habitat itself. We urgently need to carry out research that will establish whether maintaining diversity supports economically and ecologically important processes. There is some evidence that both landscape and local complexity can have positive impacts on biodiversity in the oil palm habitat. By intelligent manipulation of habitat complexity, it could be possible to enhance not only the number of species that can live in oil palm plantations but also their contribution to the healthy functioning of this exceptionally important and widespread landscape.

Foster, William A.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.; Fayle, Tom M.; Cockerill, Timothy D.; Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Broad, Gavin R.; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Eggleton, Paul; Khen, Chey Vun; Yusah, Kalsum M.

2011-01-01

333

Tackling the malaria problem in the South-East Asia Region: Need for a change in policy?  

PubMed Central

Malaria is largely neglected in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR), although it has the highest number of people susceptible to the disease. Malaria in the SEAR exhibits special epidemiological characteristics such as “forest malaria” and malaria due to migration across international borders. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has been a focal-point for the emergence of drug resistant malaria. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, coupled with the limited availability of insecticides, malaria control efforts in the SEAR face a steep challenge. Indirect man-made factors such as climate change, as well as direct man-made factors such as the circulation of counterfeit drugs have added to the problem. Increased monitoring, surveillance, pharmacovigilance as well as cross-border collaboration are required to address these problems. Regional networking and data-sharing will keep all stakeholders updated about the status of various malaria control programmes in the SEAR. Cutting-edge technologies such as GIS/GPS (geographical information system/global positioning system) systems and mobile phones can provide information in “real-time”. A holistic and sustained approach to malaria control by integrated vector management (IVM) is suggested, in which all the stakeholder countries work collaboratively as a consortium. This approach will address the malaria problem in a collective manner so that malaria control can be sustained over time.

Bharati, Kaushik; Ganguly, N. K.

2013-01-01

334

Indirect prediction of surface ozone concentration by plant growth responses in East Asia using mini-open top chambers.  

PubMed

We developed small and mobile open top chambers (mini-OTC) measuring 0.6 m (W)?×?0.6 m (D)?×?1.2 m (H) with an air duct of 0.6 m (W)?×?0.23 m (D)?×?1.2 m (H). The air duct can be filled with activated charcoal to blow charcoal filtered air (CF) into the chamber, as opposed to non-filtered ambient air (NF). Ozone sensitive radish Raphanus sativus cv. Red Chime and rosette pakchoi Brassica campestris var. rosularis cv. ATU171 were exposed to NF and CF in mini-OTCs at different locations in East Asia. A total of 29 exposure experiments were conducted at nine locations, Shanghai, China, Ha Noi, Vietnam, Lampang, Phitsanulok and Pathumtani, Thailand, and Hiratsuka, Kisai, Abiko and Akagi, Japan. Although no significant relationships between the mean concentrations of ambient O(3) during the experimental period and the growth responses were observed for either species, multiple linear regression analysis suggested a good relationship between the biomass responses in each species and the O(3) concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. The cumulative daily mean O(3) (ppb/day) could be indirectly predicted by NF/CF based on the dry weight ratio of biomass, mean air temperature, and relative air humidity. PMID:22752963

Kohno, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Miwa, Makoto; Yonekura, Tetsushi; Aihara, Keiji; Umponstira, Chanin; Le, Vo Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Viet, Phanm Hung; Wei, Ma

2013-03-01

335

Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia.  

PubMed

Fine particle (aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm) samples were collected during six intensive measurement periods from November 2001 to August 2003 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in East Asia. Chemical composition of these aerosol samples including major ion components, trace elements, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed to study the impact of long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosol. Aerosol chemical composition data were then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) technique in order to identify the possible sources and estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. Fourteen sources were then resolved including soil dust, fresh sea salt, transformed natural source, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, secondary organic carbon, diesel vehicle, gasoline vehicle, fuel oil combustion, biomass burning, coal combustion, municipal incineration, metallurgical emission source, and volcanic emission. The PMF analysis results of source contributions showed that the natural sources including soil dust, fresh and aged sea salt, and volcanic emission contributed to about 20% of the measured PM(2.5) mass. Other primary anthropogenic sources such as diesel and gasoline vehicle, coal and fuel oil combustion, biomass burning, municipal incineration, metallurgical source contributed about 34% of PM(2.5) mass. Especially, the secondary aerosol mainly involved with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon contributed to about 39% of the PM(2.5) mass. PMID:18255146

Moon, K J; Han, J S; Ghim, Y S; Kim, Y J

2008-07-01

336

Satellite-Based Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Water Balance in the Grassland Ecosystems of Dryland East Asia  

PubMed Central

The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr?1 over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr?1 from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions.

Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

2014-01-01

337

Does Having a Migrant Parent Reduce the Risk of Undernutrition for Children Who Stay Behind in South-East Asia?  

PubMed Central

Many parents from South-East Asia who go overseas to work are motivated by a desire to secure a better future for their children, yet the health consequences for children who stay behind are poorly understood. This study is the first cross-country comparison to explore the relationships between parental migration and the risk of undernutrition (stunting) for primary school-aged children. The analysis uses data from the CHAMPSEA Project for children aged 9 to 11 years in the Philippines (N = 480) and Vietnam (N = 482). A series of logistic regression models compares outcomes for children living in transnational households and children living with both parents in non-migrant households in the same communities. We find no general advantage of having a migrant parent. Rather there is a reduced risk of stunting only for some left-behind children in the Philippines, whereas having a caregiver with low educational attainment is a major risk factor for all children. The findings point to a complex set of relationships between parental migration and child nutrition, possibly reflecting differential opportunities for accumulating household wealth through overseas earnings. Moreover, differences between the two countries caution against generalizing across national or cultural groups. We conclude by considering the implications of the findings for theories of transnationalism and for the UN Millennium Development Goal of reducing childhood undernutrition.

Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P.

2014-01-01

338

Climatological assessment of desert targets over East Asia — Australian region for the solar channel calibration of geostationary satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desert targets for solar channel calibration of geostationary satellites in the East Asia — Australian region were selected and their qualities were assessed with aid of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data (i.e., white-sky surface albedo, aerosol optical thickness, and cloud fraction) from 2002 to 2008. The magnitude, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability of the white-sky surface albedo are examined in order to select bright and stable targets. Subsequently those selected targets over China, India, and Australia are further checked for their qualities in terms of data yielding ratio, aerosol optical thickness, cloud fraction, satellite viewing angle, and solar zenith angle. Results indicate that Chinese targets are found to be not adequate as calibration targets in spite of excellent surface conditions because of high percentage of cloud, possibly heavy aerosol loading, and lower solar elevation angle in particular during winter time. Indian site should be take care about relatively high temporal variation of surface condition and heavy aerosol loading. On the other hand, Australian desert targets are considered to be best when surface brightness, spatial and temporal stability, data yielding ratio, aerosol, and cloud are counted.

Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Sohn, B. J.

2014-02-01

339

Kidnappings, Missiles, and Nukes!: Outlooks and recommendations for the next President to make sure our strongest ally in East Asia...stays our strongest ally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has been, and continues to be, the United States? strongest ally in East Asia. In spite of significant constitutional restrictions and domestic opposition, Japan has actively contributed to America?s counter-terrorism efforts, providing rear end support for US operations in Afghanistan, and even deploying peacekeepers to Iraq. The US-Japan Relationship, while being one of the closest in the world, is

Mathew Mikuni

2008-01-01

340

Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constraints on volatile organic compound emissions in east and south Asia and implications for ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a continuous 6-year record (1996-2001) of GOME satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) columns over east and south Asia to improve regional emission estimates of reactive nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), including isoprene, alkenes, HCHO, and xylenes. Mean monthly HCHO observations are compared to simulated HCHO columns from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model using state-of-science, ``bottom-up'' emission inventories from

Tzung-May Fu; Daniel J. Jacob; Paul I. Palmer; Kelly Chance; Yuxuan X. Wang; Barbara Barletta; Donald R. Blake; Jenny C. Stanton; Michael J. Pilling

2007-01-01

341

Seasonal and monthly variations of columnar aerosol optical properties over east Asia determined from multi-year MODIS, LIDAR, and AERONET Sun\\/sky radiometer measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-year records of MODIS, micro-pulse lidar (MPL), and aerosol robotic network (AERONET) Sun\\/sky radiometer measurements were analyzed to investigate the seasonal, monthly and geographical variations of columnar aerosol optical properties over east Asia. Similar features of monthly and seasonal variations were found among the measurements, though the observational methodology and periods are not coincident. Seasonal and monthly cycles of MODIS-derived

Sang-Woo Kim; Soon-Chang Yoon; Jiyoung Kim; Seung-Yeon Kim

2007-01-01

342

Identification of hepatitis B virus-specific CTL epitopes presented by HLA-A*2402, the most common HLA class I allele in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) epitopes presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*2402, most common HLA class I allele in East Asia.Methods: HLA-A*2402-restricted CTL epitopes were identified by reverse immunogenetics. Immunogenecity of these epitopes was investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from HLA-A24+ patients with acute

Yuji Sobao; Kazuhiro Sugi; Hiroko Tomiyama; Satoru Saito; Shigetoshi Fujiyama; Manabu Morimoto; Satoru Hasuike; Hirohito Tsubouchi; Katsuaki Tanaka; Masafumi Takiguchi

2001-01-01

343

Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-East Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Here, aerosol fluxes and diurnal variability in and above the rainforest canopy were examined in order to gain an understanding of their behaviour in the surface layer of the South-East Asian rainforest. Aerosol fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to venting of the nocturnal boundary layer as it broke up in the morning. Measurements were also conducted within the canopy and trunk space at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy and trunk space, as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1-20 ?m) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. At ground level, number concentrations in this size range correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5-1.0 ?m) between above canopy and the trunk space showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites, which varied according to time of day. This lag time was shortest during the middle of the day by a significant margin. This was not observed for aerosols larger than 1.0 ?m. Further evidence of daytime coupling between above canopy and the trunk space in terms of aerosol measurements is implied by comparison of measurements from an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at the GAW tower and simultaneous bag sampling at the in-canopy site, subsequently analysed with the AMS. Transport of particles through the canopy seems to occur through large-scale, sporadic turbulent events, suggesting that the coupling between the canopy space and the air above is due to these ventilation events.

Whitehead, J. D.; Gallagher, M. W.; Dorsey, J. R.; Robinson, N.; Gabey, A. M.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Flynn, M. J.; Ryder, J.; Nemitz, E.; Davies, F.

2010-10-01

344

Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-East Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Here, aerosol fluxes and diurnal variability in and above the rainforest canopy were examined in order to gain an understanding of their dynamics in the surface layer of the South-East Asian rainforest. Aerosol fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to venting of the nocturnal boundary layer as it broke up in the morning. Measurements were also conducted below and within canopy at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1-20 ?m) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. At ground level, number concentrations in this size range correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5-1.0 ?m) between above and below canopy showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites, which varied according to time of day. This lag time was shortest during the middle of the day by a significant margin. This was not observed for aerosols larger than 1.0 ?m. Further evidence of daytime coupling between above and below canopy in terms of aerosol measurements is implied by comparison of measurements from an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at the GAW tower and simultaneous bag sampling at the in-canopy site, subsequently analysed with the AMS. Transport of particles through the canopy seems to occur through large-scale, sporadic turbulent events, suggesting that the coupling between the canopy space and the air above is due to these ventilation events.

Whitehead, J. D.; Gallagher, M. W.; Dorsey, J. R.; Robinson, N.; Gabey, A. M.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Flynn, M. J.; Ryder, J.; Nemitz, E.; Davies, F.

2010-05-01

345

Future changes in seasonal development in East Asia: southward strengthening of the jet stream in summer in CMIP3 and CMIP5 models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future changes in seasonal development in East Asia as a result of global warming in the late 21st century are investigated using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5) multi-model dataset. The future projections of CMIP3 and CMIP5 are based on the SRES A1B and RCP4.5 scenarios, respectively. We mainly focus on the seasonal progress of the westerly jet in the upper troposphere since the jet is one of the key components which control the seasonal development in East Asia. To reduce uncertainties in future projection, we first evaluate model performance and select models which have high ability to reproduce the current seasonal progress of the jet. Future projection by the selected models indicate that in summer the westerly jet will intensify to the south of the current jet axis, while the jet shift northward in winter as pointed out by many previous studies. The former is associated with weakening of the upper tropospheric divergence in the western North Pacific and shrinking of the Tibetan high as the response to the tropical circulation change (i.e. Matsuno-Gill pattern). The change of the jet position in the late 21st century act to weaken the seasonal contrast in East Asia: the end of the rainy season in Japan will be obscure and the temperature difference between summer and winter will be smaller.

Harada, M.; Hirahara, S.; Ohno, H.; Hagiya, S.; Murai, H.; Oikawa, Y.; Maeda, S.

2012-12-01

346

Safety of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors use for rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia: focus on severe infections and tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Multiple studies of patients in Western countries with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have indicated increased risk for active tuberculosis (TB) and other infections among these individuals. It has also been consistently reported that patients receiving tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors for these conditions have higher rates of active TB and other infections than RA or AS patients not receiving these medications. These issues have been studied less extensively in the Asia and Africa-Middle East regions, and information from these regions is important because of higher rates of TB in the general population. This paper reviews studies of RA and AS patients from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East who received TNF inhibitors. A literature search was conducted using http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed to collect and report these data. The years included in the PubMed literature search ranged from January 2000 to October 2011. Additionally, information from the China Hospital Knowledge Database was used to report data from Chinese patients with RA and AS treated with TNF inhibitors. Results from these studies indicate that the risk for active TB and other infections in AS and RA patients from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East are increased in patients receiving TNF inhibitors and that the risk is higher among those treated with monoclonal antibodies versus soluble TNF receptor. PMID:23242389

Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Alarfaj, Abdurhman; Chen, Der-Yuan; Djoudi, Hachemi; Youseif, Ehab; Zhu, Jian

2013-03-01

347

International study on antidepressant prescription pattern at 20 teaching hospitals and major psychiatric institutions in East Asia: Analysis of 1898 cases from China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to review the prescription patterns of antidepressants in different countries in East Asia. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan from October 2003 to March 2004 using the unified research protocol and questionnaire. Twenty teaching hospitals and major psychiatric hospitals participated and a total of 1898 patients receiving antidepressants were analyzed. The survey provided a number of interesting characteristics on the prescription patterns of antidepressant in East Asia. Out of 56 antidepressants listed in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) index by the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Drug Statistics Methodology (Oslo), only 26 antidepressants were prescribed in participating countries in East Asia. On average 38.4% of prescriptions of antidepressants were for patients with diagnoses other than depressive disorders. The availability and commonly prescribed antidepressants varied greatly by country. The selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) and other newer antidepressants were prescribed in approximately 77.0% of all cases. At the time of the survey, only two SSRI medications were available in Japan. However, five types of SSRI were available and were often prescribed in Korea. PMID:17875031

Uchida, Naoki; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Tan, Chay Hoon; Nagai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Mariko; Lee, Min-Soo; Fujii, Senta; Yang, Shu-Yu; Si, Tainmei; Sim, Kang; Wei, Hao; Ling, He Yan; Nishimura, Ryoji; Kawaguchi, Yoshichika; Edwards, Glen; Sartorius, Norman; Shinfuku, Naotaka

2007-10-01

348

Quaternary environments and the evolution of primates in East Asia, with notes on two new specimens of fossil Cercopithecidae from China.  

PubMed

Primate faunas in East Asia since the mid-Tertiary have undergone a series of major changes in response to a complex sequence of environmental changes. As a consequence of the Himalayan orogeny and the rapid, episodic uplift of the Tibetan plateau, the climate of East Asia during the late Tertiary became monsoonal and thus more strongly seasonal. This led to the expansion of seasonal tropical forests and, in some areas, grasslands. During the Pleistocene, the climatic consequences of continued rapid uplift of the Tibetan plateau and other land masses (e.g. the Qinling mountains) were combined with those of glaciations, resulting in dramatic climatic oscillations between warm-humid and cold-dry phases. The contraction of tropical environments that began in the late Tertiary reached its peak at the last glacial maximum (LGM) and was responsible for the decline in the distribution and diversity of hominoids in East Asia. Cercopithecids, which were only minor elements of the late Tertiary primate faunas, colonized tropical, subtropical and temperate environments in the Pleistocene and were able to reradiate into those environments after the LGM. The abilities of monkeys to populate a wide range of terrestrial environments (eurytopy) contrast with those of apes, which are restricted to tropical forest environments (stenotopy). PMID:8335289

Jablonski, N G

1993-01-01

349

Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Land Properties from MODIS: Applications to the East Asia Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999 and the Aqua satellite in May 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and surface properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on (i) the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, (ii) cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals, (iii) aerosol optical thickness and size characteristics both over land and ocean, and (iv) ecosystem classification and surface spectral reflectance. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations to the east Asian region. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 min (Level-3 products).

King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Moody, Eric G.

2002-01-01

350

Southeast Asia Report. No. 1296.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on Southeast Asia. Titles include: MIC to Weed Out Opposition Sympathizers; Columnist Decries 'Evils of Strong Presidency'; Senator, Priest Attend Anti-Fascist Symposium; issua...

1983-01-01

351

Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Land Properties from MODIS: Applications to the East Asia Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (two bands), 500 m (five bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this presentation we review the comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms that have been developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS data, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of (i) developing a cloud mask for distinguishing clear sky from clouds, (ii) retrieving global cloud radiative and microphysical properties, including cloud top pressure and temperature, effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, thermodynamic phase, and effective radius, (iii) monitoring tropospheric aerosol optical thickness over the land and ocean and aerosol size distribution over the ocean, (iv) determining atmospheric profiles of moisture and temperature, and (v) estimating column water amount. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations to the east Asian region in Spring 2001. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 degree (Level-3 products). An overview of the MODIS atmosphere algorithms and products, status, validation activities, and early level-2 and -3 results will be presented.

King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Chu, D. Allen; Moody, Eric G.

2001-01-01

352

Failure of Miltefosine Treatment for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Children and Men in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background High frequency of relapse in miltefosine-treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients in India and Nepal followed up for twelve months. Objective To identify epidemiological and clinical risk factors for relapse of VL in patients recently treated with standard dosing of miltefosine in India and Nepal. Design Prospective observational study in three Primary Health Centers and one reference center in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India; and two zonal hospitals and a university hospital in South-east Nepal; records of all consenting patients diagnosed with VL and treated with miltefosine according to the current treatment guidelines of the Kala azar elimination program between 2009 and 2011. Results We compared the clinical records of 78 cases of relapse with those of 775 patients who had no record of subsequent relapse. Relapse was 2 times more common amongst male patients (IRR 2.14, 95% CI 1.27–3.61), and 2 to 3 times more frequent in the age groups below 15 compared to the over 25 year olds (age 10 to 14: IRR 2.53; 95% CI 1.37–4.65 and Age 2 to 9: IRR 3.19; 95% CI 1.77–5.77). History of earlier VL episodes, or specific clinical features at time of diagnosis such as duration of symptoms or spleen size were no predictors of relapse. Conclusions Young age and male gender were associated with increased risk of VL relapse after miltefosine, suggesting that the mechanism of relapse is mainly host-related i.e. immunological factors and/or drug exposure (pharmacokinetics). The observed decrease in efficacy of miltefosine may be explained by the inclusion of younger patients compared to the earlier clinical trials, rather than by a decreased susceptibility of the parasite to miltefosine. Our findings highlight the importance of proper clinical trials in children, including pharmacokinetics, to determine the safety, efficacy, drug exposure and therapeutic response of new drugs in this age group.

Ostyn, Bart; Hasker, Epco; Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Boelaert, Marleen

2014-01-01

353

Shortwave Aerosol Radiative Forcing over East-Asia Determined from Satellite and Ground based observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite of heavy loading and strong absorbing characteristics, the aerosol radiative effect (ARE) over East Asian region is largely unknown. In this study, we attempt to estimate the ARE by using integrated data from ground-based measurement, satellite observation, radiative transfer model (RTM) calculation, and discuss its implications. The uncertainties of the radiative flux calculations used in this study are investigated due to the uncertainties in the RTM input parameters, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent, single scattering albedo (SSA), surface reflectance, ozone, and relative humidity (RH). It is found that the anticipated overall uncertainty in radiative flux calculation is 8.56±3.24W/m2. The calculation results are consistent with AERONET inversion products and fluxes measured by the broadband radiometer and CERES. ARE is estimated as the difference in flux calculations with and without aerosols. The diurnal-mean aerosol radiative forcing efficiency, the slope of the linear fit line through the diurnal-mean ARE versus AOT plot, was found to be -35.1W/m2/?550 (surface), -0.5 W/m2/?550 (TOA), and 34.5 W/m2/?550 (atmosphere). The national and annual mean aerosol radiative forcing values is - 15.7±8.9 W/m2 (surface), 0.3±1.6 W/m2 (TOA), and 16.0±9.2 W/m2 (atmosphere). Atmospheric aerosol forcing is highly responsible for negative forcing at surface. The maximum heating rate for hazy conditions (AOT>0.2) was 5.16°K/day, which is almost double the value in clean days (AOT<0.2) during the spring 2005. Furthermore, absorbing aerosols increased by 3 times larger during hazy conditions with respect to the integrated heating rate estimated during clean periods.

Lee, K.; Li, Z.

2008-12-01

354

Multi-Locus Analysis Reveals A Different Pattern of Genetic Diversity for Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA between Wild and Domestic Pigs in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background A major reduction of genetic diversity in mtDNA occurred during the domestication of East Asian pigs. However, the extent to which genetic diversity has been lost in the nuclear genome is uncertain. To reveal levels and patterns of nucleotide diversity and to elucidate the genetic relationships and demographic history of domestic pigs and their ancestors, wild boars, we investigated 14 nuclear markers (including 8 functional genes, 2 pseudogenes and 4 intergenic regions) from 11 different chromosomes in East Asia-wide samples and pooled them with previously obtained mtDNA data for a combined analysis. Principal Findings The results indicated that domestic pigs and wild boars possess comparable levels of nucleotide diversity across the nuclear genome, which is inconsistent with patterns that have been found in mitochondrial genome. Conclusions This incongruence between the mtDNA and nuclear genomes is suggestive of a large-scale backcross between male wild boars and female domestic pigs in East Asia. Our data reveal the impacts of founder effects and backcross on the pig genome and help us better understand the complex demographic histories of East Asian pigs, which will be useful for future work on artificial selection.

Ji, Yin-Qiu; Wu, Dong-Dong; Wu, Gui-Sheng; Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2011-01-01

355

UCLA Asia Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UCLA Asia Institute "promotes Asian Studies at UCLA and fosters greater understanding of Asia through a wide variety of research support, public programs, and community outreach on East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia." On their homepage, visitors can read their monthly newsletter, read about their project announcements, and upcoming conferences, such as the "Asia in LA: Musical Treasures of Asia", which was held in May 2011. Moving along, the "Podcasts" area includes talks from 2006 to the present. Here visitors will find thoughtful presentations titled "South Asian Entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan: The Silk Road Reborn?" and "Entwinements of Islam Modernity in Central Asia". Scholars in the field won't want to miss the "Joint Research Initiatives" section, which includes synopsis of the Institute's partnerships with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and the East China Normal University in Shanghai.

356

Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise regarding whether agriculture sectoral policy is coherent with public health sectoral policy across the region. PMID:21859775

Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

2012-08-01

357

Genetic variation and relationships of four species of medically important echinostomes (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to genetically compare four species of echinostomes of human health importance. Fixed genetic differences among adults of Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma malayanum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum and Hypoderaeum conoideum were detected at 51-75% of the enzyme loci examined, while interspecific differences in CO1 sequence were detected at 16-32 (8-16%) of the 205 alignment positions. The results of the MEE analyses also revealed fixed genetic differences between E. revolutum from Thailand and Lao PDR at five (19%) of 27 loci, which could either represent genetic variation between geographically separated populations of a single species, or the existence of a cryptic (i.e. genetically distinct but morphologically similar) species. However, there was no support for the existence of cryptic species within E. revolutum based on the CO1 sequence between the two geographical areas sampled. Genetic variation in CO1 sequence was also detected among E. malayanum from three different species of snail intermediate host. Separate phylogenetic analyses of the MEE and DNA sequence data revealed that the two species of Echinostoma (E. revolutum and E. malayanum) did not form a monophyletic clade. These results, together with the large number of morphologically similar species with inadequate descriptions, poor specific diagnoses and extensive synonymy, suggest that the morphological characters used for species taxonomy of echinostomes in South-East Asia should be reconsidered according to the concordance of biology, morphology and molecular classification. PMID:21129506

Saijuntha, Weerachai; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Duenngai, Kunyarat; Kiatsopit, Nadda; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

2011-03-01

358

Comparison of the diurnal variations of warm-season precipitation for East Asia vs. North America downstream of the Tibetan Plateau vs. the Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wavenumber-frequency spectral decomposition technique is used to analyze the high-resolution NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) precipitation dataset and to explore the differences and similarities of the diurnal variation of warm-season precipitation in the East Asia and North America downstream of big topography. The predominant phase speed of precipitation at different time scales for North America, averaged over all warm-season months (May-August) for 2003-2010, is ∼20 m s-1, which is faster than the speed of ∼14 m s-1 calculated for East Asia. Consistent with the recent studies of the precipitation diurnal cycles for these two regions, the difference in the diurnal phase propagation is likely due to the difference in the mean steering level wind speed for these two regions. The wavenumber-frequency spectral analysis further reveals the complex, multi-scale, multi-modal nature of the warm-season precipitation variation embedded within the diurnal cycle over both continents, with phase speeds varying from 10 to 30 m s-1 and wave periods varying from diurnal to a few hours. At the diurnal frequency regulated by the thermodynamically driven Mountains-Plains Solenoids (MPS), increased precipitation for both continents first originates in the afternoon from the eastern edge of big topography and subsequently moves downslope in the evening and reaches the broad plains area at night. More complex diurnal evolutions are observed in East Asia due to more the complex, multistep terrains east of the Tibetan Plateau and the associated localized MPS circulations. Nevertheless, increased variation of precipitation at smaller spatial and temporal scales is evident in the active phase of the dominant diurnal cycle for both continents.

Zhang, Yuanchun; Zhang, Fuqing; Sun, Jianhua

2014-05-01

359

Investigation of NOx emissions and NOx-related chemistry in East Asia using CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the estimation accuracy of NOx emissions over East Asia with particular focus on North China and South Korea due to their strong source (North China)-receptor (South Korea) relationship. In order to determine contributions of North China emissions to South Korean air quality accurately, it is important to examine the accuracy of the emission inventories of both regions. In this study, NO2 columns from the US EPA Models-3/CMAQ model simulations carried out using the 2001 ACE-ASIA (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) emission inventory over East Asia were compared with the GOME-derived NO2 columns. There were large discrepancies between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns in the fall and winter seasons. In particular, while the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced larger values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over South Korea (receptor region) for all four seasons, the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced smaller values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over North China (source region) for all seasons with the exception of summer. It is believed that there might be some estimation error in the NOx emissions as well as large uncertainty in NOx loss rates over North China and South Korea. Regarding the latter, this study further focused on the biogenic VOC emissions that were strongly coupled with NOx chemistry in East Asia. It was found that the rates of NOx loss determined by CMAQ modeling studies might be significantly low due to the possible overestimation of biogenic isoprene emissions during summer, particularly in China. In addition, due to the possible overestimation of isoprene emissions, the CMAQ-modeled NO2/NOx ratios might show an incorrectly high level, compared with the actual NO2/NOx ratios. In addition to the retarded NOx chemical loss rates and overestimated NO2/NOx ratios, the omission of soil NOx emissions over North China during summer can lead to an underestimation of NOx emissions over North China during summer. Overall, it is estimated that the NOx emissions in North China are underestimated possibly by ~50% over an entire year. In order to confirm the uncertainty in NOx emissions, the NOx emission over South Korea was further investigated using the ACE-ASIA inventory, REAS (Regional Emission inventory in ASia) and CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) by NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research) in Korea. The NOx emissions from ACE-ASIA and the REAS inventories appear to be approximately 2 times larger for mega-cities in Korea than that from the CAPSS inventory. In contrast, the NOx emissions of ACE-ASIA and REAS inventories are only 10% smaller for North China than the recently-estimated "date-back" ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) inventory. A comparison between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns indicated that both the ACE-ASIA and REAS inventories have some uncertainty in NOx emissions over North China (A) and South Korea (C), which can lead to some error in modeling the formation of ozone and secondary aerosols in South Korea and North China.

Han, K. M.; Song, C. H.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, C. K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Woo, J. H.; Hong, J. H.

2008-09-01

360

Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces an international regional experiment, East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 (EAREX 2005), carried out in March-April 2005 in the east Asian region, as one of the first phase regional experiments under the UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) project, and discusses some outstanding features of aerosol characteristics and its direct radiative forcing in the east Asian region, with some

Teruyuki Nakajima; Soon-Chang Yoon; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; Guang-Yu Shi; Toshihiko Takemura; Akiko Higurashi; Tamio Takamura; Kazuma Aoki; Byung-Ju Sohn; Sang-Woo Kim; Haruo Tsuruta; Nobuo Sugimoto; Atsushi Shimizu; Hiroshi Tanimoto; Yousuke Sawa; Neng-Huei Lin; Chung-Te Lee; Daisuke Goto; Nick Schutgens

2007-01-01

361

Evaluation of anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide in East Asia derived from the observations of atmospheric radon-222 over the western North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the observed CO/222Rn ratio in the Asian outflows at Minamitorishima (MNM), Yonagunijima (YON), and Ryori (RYO) in the western North Pacific from 2007 to 2011, together with a three-dimensional chemical transport model (STAG), in order to estimate anthropogenic emissions of CO in East Asia. The measurements captured high-frequency synoptic variations of enhanced 222Rn (ERN) events associated with the long-range transport of continental air masses. 222Rn and CO showed high correlation during the ERN events observed at MNM and YON in the winter and spring, but not at RYO. The STAG transport model reproduced well the concentrations of observed 222Rn when forced with a constant and uniform flux density of 1.0 atom cm-2 s-1, but underestimated the associated enhancement of synoptically variable CO caused by the underestimated flux values in the EDGAR ver. 4.1 emission database used in the model for East Asia. Better estimates for the East Asian emission were derived using a radon tracer method based on the difference in the enhancement ratio of CO/222Rn between the observation and the model. The anthropogenic emissions of CO for China, Japan, and Korea were estimated to be 203 Tg CO yr-1, 91% of which originated in China. When compared with other estimated emissions of CO, our estimated result showed consistency with those of the inverse method, whereas the emission database of EDGAR was about 45% smaller than our anthropogenic estimation for China.

Wada, A.; Matsueda, H.; Murayama, S.; Taguchi, S.; Kamada, A.; Nosaka, M.; Tsuboi, K.; Sawa, Y.

2012-12-01

362

Evaluation of anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide in East Asia derived from observations of atmospheric radon-222 over the Western North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the observed CO/222Rn ratio in Asian outflows at Minamitorishima (MNM), Yonagunijima (YON), and Ryori (RYO) over the Western North Pacific from 2007 to 2011, together with a three-dimensional chemical transport model (STAG), in order to estimate anthropogenic emissions of CO in East Asia. The measurements captured high-frequency synoptic variations of enhanced 222Rn (ERN) events associated with long-range transport of continental air masses. 222Rn and CO showed high correlation during the ERN events observed at MNM and YON in the winter and spring, but not at RYO. The STAG transport model reproduced well the concentration of observed 222Rn when forced with constant and uniform flux density of 1.0 atom cm-2 s-1, but underestimated the associated enhancement of synoptically variable CO caused by the underestimated flux values in the EDGAR ver. 4.1 emission database used in the model for East Asia. Better estimates for the East Asian emission were derived using a radon tracer method based on the difference in the enhancement ratio of CO/222Rn between observation and model. The anthropogenic emission of CO for China, Japan, and Korea was estimated to be 203 Tg CO yr-1, 93% of which originated in China. When compared with other estimated emissions of CO, our estimated result showed consistency with those of the inverse method, whereas the emission database of EDGAR was about 45% smaller than our anthropogenic estimation for China.

Wada, A.; Matsueda, H.; Murayama, S.; Taguchi, S.; Kamada, A.; Nosaka, M.; Tsuboi, K.; Sawa, Y.

2012-06-01

363

A strong 'filter' effect of the East China Sea land bridge for East Asia's temperate plant species: inferences from molecular phylogeography and ecological niche modelling of Platycrater arguta (Hydrangeaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background In East Asia, an increasing number of studies on temperate forest tree species find evidence for migration and gene exchange across the East China Sea (ECS) land bridge up until the last glacial maximum (LGM). However, it is less clear when and how lineages diverged in this region, whether in full isolation or in the face of post-divergence gene flow. Here, we investigate the effects of Quaternary changes in climate and sea level on the evolutionary and demographic history of Platycrater arguta, a rare temperate understorey shrub with disjunct distributions in East China (var. sinensis) and South Japan (var. arguta). Molecular data were obtained from 14 P. arguta populations to infer current patterns of molecular structure and diversity in relation to past (Last Interglacial and Last Glacial Maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modelling (ENM). A coalescent-based isolation-with-migration (IM) model was used to estimate lineage divergence times and population demographic parameters. Results Combining information from nuclear/chloroplast sequence data with nuclear microsatellites, our IM analyses identify the two varieties as genetically distinct units that evolved in strict allopatry since the mid-Pleistocene, c. 0.89 (0.51–1.2) Ma. Together with Bayesian Skyeline Plots, our data further suggest that both lineages experienced post-divergence demographic growth, followed by refugial isolation, divergence, and in the case of var. arguta post-glacial admixture. However, past species distribution modelling indicates that the species’ overall distribution has not greatly changed over the last glacial cycles. Conclusions Our findings highlight the important influence of ancient sea-level changes on the diversification of East Asia’s temperate flora. Implicitly, they challenge the notion of general temperate forest expansion across the ECS land bridge, demonstrating instead its ‘filter’ effect owing to an unsuitable environment for certain species and their biological (e.g., recruitment) properties.

2014-01-01

364

Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal the Pleistocene history of a semi-aquatic bug (Microvelia douglasi douglasi) in East Asia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the Pleistocene history of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia douglasi douglasi Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Veliidae) in East Asia. We used M. douglasi douglasi as a model species to explore the effects of historical climatic fluctuations on montane semi-aquatic invertebrate species. Two hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENMs). First, we hypothesized that M. douglasi douglasi persisted in suitable habitats in southern Guizhou, southern Yunnan, Hainan, Taiwan and southeast China during the LIG. After that, the populations expanded (Hypothesis 1). As the spatial prediction in the LGM was significantly larger than in the LIG, we then hypothesized that the population expanded during the LIG to LGM transition (Hypothesis 2). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial data (COI+COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S+ITS2). Young lineages, relatively deep splits, lineage differentiation among mountain ranges in central, south and southwest China and high genetic diversities were observed in these suitable habitats. Evidence of mismatch distributions and neutrality tests indicate that a population expansion occurred in the late Pleistocene. The Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) revealed an unusual population expansion that likely happened during the cooling transition between LIG and LGM. The results of genetic data were mostly consistent with the spatial predictions from ENM, a finding that can profoundly improve phylogeographic research. The ecological requirements of M. douglasi douglasi, together with the geographical heterogeneity and climatic fluctuations of Pleistocene in East Asia, could have shaped this unusual demographic history. Our study contributes to our knowledge of semi-aquatic bug/invertebrate responses to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in East Asia. PMID:24845196

Ye, Zhen; Zhu, Gengping; Chen, Pingping; Zhang, Danli; Bu, Wenjun

2014-06-01

365

South-East Asia.  

PubMed

This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV infections in the Mekong Region countries of Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The HIV/AIDS situation is profiled in each country. The populations at risk include legal and undocumented cross-border migrants, internal migrants, sex workers, and mobile occupational persons, such as truck drivers, fishermen, seafarers, and cross-border traders. Currently, there is little regional cooperation on the issue of HIV among migrants. Prevalence is high in most of the region. Programs range from being very developed in Thailand to minimal in China. Recently, nongovernmental organizations have created innovative models. AIDSCAP studies have focused on river trade routes along the Thai-Lao border and fishing ports in Thailand and Cambodia. The Asian Research Center for Migration has researched fishermen in 6 countries; Burmese women in Thailand; migrants along the Thai-Myanmar borders; and the impact of transportation routes on the spread of HIV/AIDS along six main inter-country routes. Coordination of Action Research has engaged in research and action projects in 8 southeast Asian countries. The region would benefit from information exchanges about lessons learned and best practices. Field researchers could use better technical support. Regional strategies are useful for providing support from origin to destination. PMID:12295096

Bain, I

1998-01-01

366

Early Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia based on food-web and energy-flow models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years, there has been global interest in the environments and ecosystems around the world. It is helpful to reconstruct past environments and ecosystems to help understand them in the present and the future. The present environments and ecosystems are an evolving continuum with those of the past and the future. This paper demonstrates the contribution of geology and paleontology to such continua. Using fossils, we can make an estimation of past population density as an ecosystem index based on food-web and energy-flow models. Late Mesozoic nonmarine deposits are distributed widely on the eastern Asian continent and contain various kinds of fossils such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, dinosaurs, mammals, bivalves, gastropods, insects, ostracodes, conchostracans, terrestrial plants, and others. These fossil organisms are useful for late Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystem reconstruction using food-web and energy-flow models. We chose Early Cretaceous fluvio-lacustrine basins in the Choyr area, southeastern Mongolia, and the Tetori area, Japan, for these analyses and as a potential model for reconstruction of other similar basins in East Asia. The food-web models are restored based on taxa that occurred in these basins. They form four or five trophic levels in an energy pyramid consisting of rich primary producers at its base and smaller biotas higher in the food web. This is the general energy pyramid of a typical ecosystem. Concerning the population densities of vertebrate taxa in 1 km2 in these basins, some differences are recognized between Early Cretaceous and the present. For example, Cretaceous estimates suggest 2.3 to 4.8 times as many herbivores and 26.0 to 105.5 times the carnivore population. These differences are useful for the evaluation of past population densities of vertebrate taxa. Such differences may also be caused by the different metabolism of different taxa. Preservation may also be a factor, and we recognize that various problems occur in past ecosystem reconstructions. Counts of small numbers of confirmed species and estimates of maximum numbers of species present in the basin are used for the analysis and estimation of energy flow. This approach applies the methods of modern ecosystem analysis. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Matsukawa, M.; Saiki, K.; Ito, M.; Obata, I.; Nichols, D. J.; Lockley, M. G.; Kukihara, R.; Shibata, K.

2006-01-01

367

Late tectonic uplift of an inverted oceanic basin in South East Asia: the case of Palawan Island (western Philippines)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elongated island of Palawan, bounded by two marginal basins, the South China Sea to the North and the Sulu Sea to the South is composed of remnants of an inverted basin (Proto-South China Sea) thrusted onto the margin of a continental terrane which rifted away from the Chinese-Vietnamese margin. Based on field observations coupled with seismic and drill-holes data, our study focuses on the structural architecture of the island in order to decipher the geodynamic evolution of the southern margin of the South China Sea. Structurally, the Palawan Island consists of: (i) the Palawan wedge, which extends towards the South China Sea is composed of deformed slope to deep ocean deposits of Cretaceous (north Palawan) to Tertiary (central and south Palawan) ages. This accretionnary wedge is characterized by small wavelength folds of mainly NE-SW trend. Offshore, the unconformable Middle-Late Miocene Tabon limestones unit postdates the last stages of the Palawan wedge growth/setting; (ii) On top of this wedge lie thrust slices of ophiolite bodies comprising ribbon cherts of Albian age as indicated by radiolarians.; these bodies are likely to be relicts of the now-subducted Proto South China Sea; (iii) The central and southern parts of the Palawan island are characterized by a large wavelength antiform of NE-SW trend. This structure is sealed by the slightly tilted Early Pliocene marls unit; (iv) The island also presents necking zones bordered by N-S trending transform faults. This area witnessed the geodynamic evolution of the South East Asia which consists of a succession of opening/closure of oceanic basins and block accretions. The Palawan Island therefore results of the closing of the Proto-South China Sea which once formed both the Palawan accretionary wedge and the overlying ophiolite tectonic slices. During a later compressive event, the rifted continental margin which composes the basement of the Island was inverted, inducing the uplift and the large scale folding of the Palawan Island. In a final stage, the strain relaxing results in the formation of the necking zones, probably reactivating the inherited transform faults of the Proto-South China Sea. Keywords: Palawan Island; South China Sea; oceanic basin; inverted margin; Ophiolite.

Meresse, F.; Savva, D.; Pubellier, M.; Steuer, S.; Franke, D.; Cordey, F.; Muller, C.; Sapin, F.; Mouly, B.; Auxiètre, J.-L.

2012-04-01

368

Mapping occupational heat exposure and effects in South-East Asia: ongoing time trends 1980-2011 and future estimates to 2050.  

PubMed

A feature of climate impacts on occupational health and safety are physiological limits to carrying out physical work at high heat exposure. Heat stress reduces a workers work capacity, leading to lower hourly labour productivity and economic output. We used existing weather station data and climate modeling grid cell data to describe heat conditions (calculated as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, WBGT) in South-East Asia. During the hottest month in this region (March) afternoon WBGT levels are already high enough to cause major loss of hourly work capacity and by 2050 the situation will be extreme for many outdoor jobs. PMID:23411757

Kjellstrom, Tord; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias

2013-01-01

369

Quantitative bedrock geology of east and Southeast Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, eastern and southeastern China, East Timor, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, far-eastern Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantitatively analyze the area-age distribution of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic bedrock based on data from the most recent digital geologic maps of East and Southeast Asia (Coordinating Committee for Coastal and Offshore Geosciences Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) and the Geologic Survey of Japan, 1997; 1:2,000,000), published as Digital Geoscience Map G-2 by the Geological Survey of Japan. Sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks, plutonic rocks, ultramafic rocks and metamorphic rocks cover 73.3%, 8.5%, 8.8%, 0.9%, and 8.6% of the surface area, respectively. The average ages of major lithologic units, weighted according to bedrock area, are as follows: sedimentary rocks (average stratigraphic age of 123 Myr/median age of 26 Myr), volcanic rocks (84 Myr/20 Myr), intrusive rocks (278 Myr/195 Myr), ultramafic rocks (unknown) and metamorphic rocks (1465 Myr/1118 Myr). The variability in lithologic composition and age structure of individual countries reflects the complex tectonic makeup of this region that ranges from Precambrian cratons (e.g., northeast China and North Korea) to Mesozoic-Cenozoic active margins (e.g., Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia and New Guinea). The spatial resolution of the data varies from 44 km2 per polygon (Japan) to 1659 km2 per polygon (Taiwan) and is, on average (490 km2/polygon), similar to our previous analyses of the United States of America and Canada. The temporal and spatial resolution is sufficiently high to perform age-area analyses of individual river basins larger than ˜10,000 km2 and to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between bedrock geology and river chemistry. As many rivers draining tropical, mountainous islands of East and Southeast Asia have a disproportionate effect on the dissolved and particulate load delivered to the world oceans, bedrock geology in such river drainage basins disproportionately affect ocean chemistry.

Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Miller, Mark W.

2004-01-01

370

Seasonal variation of spherical aerosols distribution in East Asia based on ground and space Lidar observation and a Chemical transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthropogenic aerosols largely impact on not only human health but also global climate system, therefore air pollution in East Asia due to a rapid economic growth has been recognized as a significant environmental problem. Several international field campaigns had been conducted to elucidate pollutant gases, aerosols characteristics and radiative forcing in East Asia. (e.g., ACE-Asia, TRACE-P, ADEC, EAREX 2005). However, these experiments were mainly conducted in springtime, therefore seasonal variation of aerosols distribution has not been clarified well yet. National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been constructing a lidar networks by automated dual wavelength / polarization Mie-lidar systems to observe the atmospheric environment in Asian region since 2001. Furthermore, from June 2006, space-borne backscatter lidar, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), onboard NASA/CALIPSO satellite, measures continuous global aerosol and cloud vertical distribution with very high spatial resolution. In this paper, we will show the seasonal variation of aerosols distribution in East Asia based on the NIES lidar network observation, Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) chemical transport model simulation and CALIOP observation over the period from July 2006 to December 2008. We found that CMAQ result explains the typical seasonal aerosol characteristics by lidar observations. For example, CMAQ and ground lidar showed a summertime peak of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at Beijing, an autumn AOT peak at Guangzhou and summertime AOT trough at Hedo, Okinawa. These characteristics are mainly controlled by seasonal variations of Asian summer/winter monsoon system. We also examined the CMAQ seasonal average aerosol extinction profiles with ground lidar and CALIOP extinction data. These comparisons clarified that the CMAQ reproduced the observed aerosol layer depth well in the downwind region. Ground lidar and CALIOP seasonal aerosol profiles also showed good agreement with the aerosol layer depth and concentration level. We are also quite successful to present the Asian-scale 3-D seasonal horizontal/vertical distributions of spherical aerosol extinction coefficient based on the composite analysis of CMAQ and CALIOP, which clarify the variation of transport pathway and spherical aerosol layer thickness for each season.

Hara, Y.; Yumimoto, K.; Uno, I.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Ohara, T.

2009-12-01

371

Evaluation of NOx emission inventory over East Asia using satellite observations and the WRF-Chem model simulated NO2 columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted in large quantities by anthropogenic activity mainly from fossil fuel combustion and play a key role in the photochemically induced catalytic production of ozone. Rapid industrial and urban development in East Asia and specifically in China has resulted in unprecedented growth in NOx emissions. Remote sensing instruments have measured NO2 columns continuously during the past two decades. Spatial-temporal variations derived from these data sets provide important resources for identifying large sources and quantifying NOx emissions in this region. In addition to strong source areas, we also found the enhanced NO2 columns over Yellow Sea located between China and Korea, which imply a potentially important role of transport in local NOx budgets in this region. In order to quantify transport and emissions of NOx within East Asia, we carry out model simulations with a regional chemical transport model, the WRF-Chem model with different emission scenarios. The WRF-Chem model along with satellite measurements has been successfully used for the evaluations of bottom-up NOx emission inventories in the U.S. Finally, we evaluate and adjust the bottom-up NOx emission inventory by comparing the results of WRF-Chem simulations with the satellite NO2 columns and considering the roles of transport and emission.

Kim, C.; Lee, H.; Kim, S.; Lamsal, L. N.; Richter, A.; Ahmadov, R.; Burrows, J. P.; Frost, G. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.

2012-12-01

372

Changes in precipitation intensity over East Asia during the 20th and 21st centuries simulated by a global atmospheric model with a 60 km grid size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted three-member ensemble simulations using a global atmospheric model with a high horizontal resolution of a 60 km grid size for the period 1872-2099 (228 years). Between 1872 and 2005, the model was forced with observed historical sea surface temperatures (SST), while between 2006 and 2099, the boundary SST data were estimated using the multimodel ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 models and assuming A1B emission scenario. Annual mean precipitation (PAVE), the Simple Daily Precipitation Intensity Index (SDII), and the maximum 5 day precipitation total (R5d) averaged over East Asia increase almost monotonically through the 21st century. The statistically significant area of precipitation intensity increase is larger for 2080-2099 than for 2046-2065. In particular, intense rainfall will increase over northern and southern China during 2080-2099. The conversion rate from water vapor to precipitation per 1°C rise in surface air temperature for SDII and R5D is much larger than that for PAVE during the 21st century. This suggests that extreme rainfall events will occur more frequently than moderate rainfall events even if the amount of temperature rise is same. Future changes in the horizontal transport of water vapor also lead to more intense precipitation over East Asia. In particular, the increase in clockwise water vapor transport due to intensification of the subtropical high contributes to increased intense precipitation over southern China.

Kusunoki, Shoji; Mizuta, Ryo

2013-10-01

373

Chemical, physical and radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols measured at Mt. Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in East Asia during biomass burning seasons (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the chemical, physical and radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols measured at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) which is located at Mt. Lulin (2,862 m MSL; 23o 28'07"N, 120o52'25"E) in central Taiwan, East Asia, and has been operated since 13 April, 2006. LABS is unique because its location and altitude enhances the global network of GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) in the Southeast Asian region, where no high-elevation baseline station is available. Our site is located between the GAW Waliguan station (3,810 m) on the Tibetan plateau and the Mauna Loa Observatory (3,397m) in Hawaii. We will particularly focus on the results obtained during the spring season, when biomass burning activities prevail in northern Southeast Asia. Chemical characterization of fine and coarse aerosol particles, including water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon, and trace elements, will be presented. Aerosol optical properties, including scattering, absorption, extinction, single scattering albedo, Ångström exponent, and aerosol optical depth, as well as the derived radiative forcing efficiency, will be discussed. Results of cloud condensation nuclei measurements, made intermittently, will also be presented. Trajectory studies indicate that this site experiences a variety of air masses originating from contaminated and clean source regions, giving a distinctive contrast of atmospheric changes. To summarize the results, the maximum values (and monthly means) of these chemical, physical and radiative parameters generally occurred during spring time, especially in March, corresponding to prevailing biomass burning activities in SE Asia. Besides, LABS is also one of the supersites during the 2010-2013 spring campaigns of the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) for studying the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate over Southeast Asian region. Results of source (northern Thailand) and receptor (LABS) sites will be briefly discussed.

Lin, N.; Lee, C.; Wang, S.; Chuang, M.; Chia, E.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Lin, J.; Hung, H.; Hsiao, T.; Liang, S.

2013-12-01

374

Asynchronous marine-terrestrial signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia associated with low- and high-latitude climate changes.  

PubMed

A high-resolution multiproxy record, including pollen, foraminifera, and alkenone paleothermometry, obtained from a single core (DG9603) from the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (ECS), provided unambiguous evidence for asynchronous climate change between the land and ocean over the past 40 ka. On land, the deglacial stage was characterized by rapid warming, as reflected by paleovegetation, and it began ca. 15 kaBP, consistent with the timing of the last deglacial warming in Greenland. However, sea surface temperature estimates from foraminifera and alkenone paleothermometry increased around 20-19 kaBP, as in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Sea surface temperatures in the Okinawa Trough were influenced mainly by heat transport from the tropical western Pacific Ocean by the Kuroshio Current, but the epicontinental vegetation of the ECS was influenced by atmospheric circulation linked to the northern high-latitude climate. Asynchronous terrestrial and marine signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia were thus clearly related to ocean currents and atmospheric circulation. We argue that (i) early warming seawater of the WPWP, driven by low-latitude insolation and trade winds, moved northward via the Kuroshio Current and triggered marine warming along the ECS around 20-19 kaBP similar to that in the WPWP, and (ii) an almost complete shutdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation ca. 18-15 kaBP was associated with cold Heinrich stadial-1 and delayed terrestrial warming during the last deglacial warming until ca. 15 kaBP at northern high latitudes, and hence in East Asia. Terrestrial deglacial warming therefore lagged behind marine changes by ca. 3-4 ka. PMID:23720306

Xu, Deke; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Zhenxia; Li, Tiegang; Shen, Caiming; Wang, Luo

2013-06-11

375

Asynchronous marine-terrestrial signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia associated with low- and high-latitude climate changes  

PubMed Central

A high-resolution multiproxy record, including pollen, foraminifera, and alkenone paleothermometry, obtained from a single core (DG9603) from the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (ECS), provided unambiguous evidence for asynchronous climate change between the land and ocean over the past 40 ka. On land, the deglacial stage was characterized by rapid warming, as reflected by paleovegetation, and it began ca. 15 kaBP, consistent with the timing of the last deglacial warming in Greenland. However, sea surface temperature estimates from foraminifera and alkenone paleothermometry increased around 20–19 kaBP, as in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Sea surface temperatures in the Okinawa Trough were influenced mainly by heat transport from the tropical western Pacific Ocean by the Kuroshio Current, but the epicontinental vegetation of the ECS was influenced by atmospheric circulation linked to the northern high-latitude climate. Asynchronous terrestrial and marine signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia were thus clearly related to ocean currents and atmospheric circulation. We argue that (i) early warming seawater of the WPWP, driven by low-latitude insolation and trade winds, moved northward via the Kuroshio Current and triggered marine warming along the ECS around 20–19 kaBP similar to that in the WPWP, and (ii) an almost complete shutdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation ca. 18–15 kaBP was associated with cold Heinrich stadial-1 and delayed terrestrial warming during the last deglacial warming until ca. 15 kaBP at northern high latitudes, and hence in East Asia. Terrestrial deglacial warming therefore lagged behind marine changes by ca. 3–4 ka.

Xu, Deke; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Zhenxia; Li, Tiegang; Shen, Caiming; Wang, Luo

2013-01-01

376

Use of Evidence-Based Practices in Pregnancy and Childbirth: South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing Countries Project  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of mortality and morbidity related to pregnancy and childbirth remains concentrated in developing countries. SEA-ORCHID (South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health In Developing countries) is evaluating whether a multifaceted intervention to strengthen capacity for research synthesis, evidence-based care and knowledge implementation improves adoption of best clinical practice recommendations leading to better health for mothers and babies. In this study we assessed current practices in perinatal health care in four South East Asian countries and determined whether they were aligned with best practice recommendations. Methodology/Principal Findings We completed an audit of 9550 medical records of women and their 9665 infants at nine hospitals; two in each of Indonesia, Malaysia and The Philippines, and three in Thailand between January-December 2005. We compared actual clinical practices with best practice recommendations selected from the Cochrane Library and the World Health Organization Reproductive Health Library. Evidence-based components of the active manage