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1

Cranes in East Asia; proceedings of the symposium held in Harbin, People's Republic of China, June 9-18, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introductory Remarks (R.C. Stendell) I appreciate the opportunity to be in Harbin and participate in the international scientific workshop on Cranes in East Asia. I would like to provide some background information on how this meeting came to be. Almost one year ago, in July 1997, Dr. Kun John of the Seoul National University contacted the U.S. Geological Surveya??s Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) requesting that we host a meeting of scientists from the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic Peoplea??s Republic of Korea (DPRK) to discuss the biology and ecology of cranes on the Korean peninsula. Dr. John and his colleagues expressed concern about three species of cranes that migrate up and down the Korean Peninsula and use the Demilitarized Zone. The species of interest are the Red-crowned Crane, White-naped Crane, and the Hooded Crane. The primary question was the conservation of these species in this part of the world. Another concern involved exploring potential economic values and opportunities associated with these species. Dr. Richard Johnson, and economist at MESC, assumed responsibility as the primary MESC contact to help bring about this meetinga?|

Johnson, R. L., (Edited By); Hongfei, Zou; Stendell, R.C.

2001-01-01

2

Asia Materials symposium May 24, 2014  

E-print Network

4th Asia Materials symposium May 24, 2014 South Building No. 8, 6F, room 623 Tokyo Institute of Technology (Ookayama Campus) Program 9:30 Opening (Martin Vacha, Editor-in-Chief, NPG Asia Materials) Session 1: Invited talks by young researches from TokyoTech 9:35 Nobuhiro Matsushita (Materials & Structures

Furui, Sadaoki

3

Economic Outlook for East Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An Institute for Developing Economies (IDE) publication, the 1999 Economic Outlook for East Asia analyzes the East Asian countries in 1998 and presents forecasts for 1999 (in English and Japanese). According to IDE, Thailand and South Korea will begin to see signs of recovery in the coming year, as the impact of the new Miyazawa Initiative is felt, although Hong Kong will remain "afflicted" by recession. Malaysia and Singapore are also expected to recover as will the Philippines, Vietnam, and Taiwan. As a whole, the growth rate for the East Asian economies is predicted to rise to 3.1 percent in 1999 from 0.1 percent, and general prices are forecast to "swing back" to a single-digit inflation rate of 6.6 percent.

1998-01-01

4

Asia Pacific Clean Energy International OTEC Symposium  

E-print Network

· Invests in green related industries, products and services ­ property, new energy, aviation, agricultureAsia Pacific Clean Energy Summit International OTEC Symposium Developer's Perspective Round Table, financing for such plants remains a daunting challenge." (Vega, 2010) · Environmental data collection

5

Tropospheric ozone in east Asia  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the observed data for the tropospheric ozone at mid latitudes in east Asia is done. There are three ways by which the tropospheric ozone is calculated, namely: (1) Ozonesonde measurements, (2) Fishman`s method of Residual Ozone and (3) TOMS measurements - an indirect method of calculating tropospheric ozone. In addition the surface ozone values at the network sites in Japan is also considered. The analysis of data is carried out for a period of twelve years from 1979 to 1991. In general it is observed that the tropospheric ozone is more in summer than winter, obviously because of the larger tropopause height in summer. On an average for the period of the analysis, the ozone values are at a high of about 60 DU (dobson units). While in winter the values go down to around 30 DU. Also a time series analysis shows an increasing trend in the values over the years. The ozonesonde values are correlated more to the TOMS tropospheric ozone values. For the stations analyzed in Japan, the TOMS tropospheric ozone values are generally greater than the ozonesonde values. The analysis of the average monthly surface ozone in Japan shows highs in spring and lows in summer. This can be attributed to movement of pollutant laden fronts towards Japan during spring. The highs for surface ozone are about 50 DU while the lows are around 20 DU.

Phadnis, M.J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1996-12-31

6

East and Southeast Asia..........................................................................................................7  

E-print Network

Disclaimer: This document has not been formally edited. The boundaries, names and designations used do not imply of ? cial endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Patterns and Trends of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants and Other Drugs: Asia and the Paci?c

Global Smart Programme; Dr. Justice Tettey; East Asia Team; Mr. Shawn Kelley; The Global; Smart Programme; South Asia

2010-01-01

7

Higher Education in South-East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers

Online Submission, 2006

2006-01-01

8

Education and Growth in East Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies production functions with education externalities to East Asia, testing for net effects of policy differences concerning enrollments vs. expenditures and for feedbacks through education's effects on rates of physical and capital investment. Since most countries had universal primary education early, the rate of secondary-education

McMahon, Walter W.

1998-01-01

9

Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to

Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

10

Facing East: Portraits From Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we understand the individual? And perhaps equally importantly, how does the world of portraiture provide insight into individuals? These are thorny questions that have occupied the minds of some of the world's philosophers and artists for millennia. Across the continent of Asia, this meditative and artful process has created thousands of interesting portraits. A few of them have been placed on display by the curators at the Freer & Sackler Galleries in this online exhibit, which also has a real-life analog currently on display. In this exhibit, visitors can move around various parts of Asia as they examine various images of people (both well known and unknown), accompanied by brief text passages. Additionally, visitors can view thematic introductions to the objects featured here that include "Likeness & Identity" and "Portraits & Memory".

2006-01-01

11

East Asia's Recovery Gathering Force: An Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest World Bank regional brief describes East Asia's recovery from the 1997 economic crisis as "remarkable," but cautions that the region is still susceptible to another downturn. Presented by Masahiro Kawai, the bank's chief economist for East Asia and the Pacific, the 116-page report notes several signs of improvement, including high rates of economic growth, rising employment and labor earnings, increasing foreign investment, lower interest rates, and recovering currencies. The East Asian countries, Kawai concludes in the press release, "can at last return to the medium term development agenda," assisted, of course, by the World Bank. Users can download the full text of the report by section or in its entirety at the World Bank site.

12

Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes  

PubMed Central

East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

2013-01-01

13

East Asia: The Road to Recovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book by the World Bank Group examines factors contributing to East Asia's financial collapse and makes suggestions for economic recovery. Seven chapters spanning East Asian trade and competition and the sector at the heart of the crisis--the financial sector, may be downloaded individually. Figures displaying the evolution of interest rates in Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand (January 1996-July 1998) and a discussion of social effects are provided in the final chapter entitled "Priorities for a Sustainable Recovery."

1998-01-01

14

Traditional Architecture of East Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed by graduate students in architecture at Yale and the University of Virginia, this Website presents an online collection of East Asian architectural photos, featuring China, Japan, North and South Korea, Cambodia, and Thailand. The site currently offers over 1,400 photographs covering interior, exterior, close-up, and long-shot views of 115 architectural sites, including such places as China's Forbidden City and the Great Wall, Japan's Kyoto Imperial Palace and Osaka Castle, South Korea's Munmyo Confucian Shrine and selected streets of Seoul, North Korea's War Cemetery, Cambodia's Angor Wat Temple, and many more. The pictures come in thumbnail and full-frame sizes and have brief, descriptive captions. (Some proceed in a manner that creates a kind of "virtual tour"; others are somewhat more haphazard.)

15

Call for Papers Asia Pacific Symposium on Information Visualisation 2005  

E-print Network

Visualisation Symposium provides an opportunity for the community of researchers in the Asia-Pacific region to share the progress that has been made toward the fulfilment of this promise with colleagues from other research. The topics include, but are not limited to: Interaction techniques Display and interaction

Hong,Seokhee

16

59 FR- Exchange Programs Promoting Conflict Resolution in Africa, the Middle East, East Asia and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exchange Programs Promoting Conflict Resolution in Africa, the Middle East, East Asia and American Republics...for audiences in the following geographical areas: Africa (Sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa only), the Middle East...

1994-02-24

17

NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to develop a better understanding of the impacts of aerosols on regional-to-global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

2005-01-01

18

Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

2005-01-01

19

Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum  

E-print Network

across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1- M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7 resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small

Xu, Shuhua

20

East Asia Institute April 5th Aging Issues in Korea  

E-print Network

, South Korea is home to the fastest growing rate. He stated that 15East Asia Institute April 5th , 2012 Aging Issues in Korea There is also years in Korea. This poses problems when considering life after retirement

Dodla, Ramana

21

Energy Scenarios for East Asia: 2005-2025  

E-print Network

We describe several scenarios for economic development and energy use in East Asia based on the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. Historic ...

Paltsev, Sergey

22

CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA)  

E-print Network

to the European Union: Some Perspectives from the European Parliament', Camiel Eurlings, Member of the EuropeanCENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA) VOLUME 12 NUMBER 1 (2005) ISSN

23

Preliminary Bibliography on East Asia for Undergraduate Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classified bibliography on East Asia and similar bibliographies on Africa south of the Sahara (LI 000 882) and South Asia (LI 000 061) have been compiled under the first phase of a three-year cooperative project to strengthen bibliographical resources for undergraduate libraries on "neglected" foreign areas. The bibliography in its present

Ehrman, Edith; Morehouse, Ward

24

China's emergence in East Asia under alternative trading arrangements  

E-print Network

China's emergence in East Asia under alternative trading arrangements Hiro Leea,* , David Roland China's accelerated global emergence has changed trade patterns in the Asia-Pacific region and exerted to China, Japan, and the United States using a dynamic global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model

Kammen, Daniel M.

25

Regional Trade Policy Cooperation and Architecture in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial and economic crisis has affected East Asia mainly through the trade channel. The region remains heavily dependent on export markets in Europe and North America through both direct exports to these destinations and indirect exports via the export of parts and components to other East Asian countries, particularly the Peoples Republic of China, which are then assembled

Siow Yue Chia

2010-01-01

26

Regional Trade Policy Cooperation and Architecture in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial and economic crisis has affected East Asia mainly through the trade channel. The region remains heavily dependent on export markets in Europe and North America through both direct exports to these destinations and indirect exports via the export of parts and components to other East Asian countries, particularly the People's Republic of China, which are then assembled

Siow Yue Chia

2010-01-01

27

Characteristics of ionospheric storms in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

???The ionosphere experiences intense response during the geomagnetic storm and it varies with latitude and longitude. The DPS-4 digisonde measurements and GPS-TEC data of ionospheric stations located at different latitudes in the longitudinal sector of 90-130E during 2002 to 2012 were analyzed to investigate the ionospheric effects in the different latitude of East Asia during geomagnetic storm. About 70 geomagnetic storms are selected according to the Dst index and observed data and they are in different seasons and different solar activity levels. A few quiet days averages of data before geomagnetic storm were used as the undisturbed level. Results show that for the middle and high latitude, the short-lived positive disturbance associated with the initial phase of the every storm was observed in each season and then the disturbances were negative till the termination of storm. At the low latitude, storm-time disturbances of foF2 have obvious diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics. Generally, geomagnetic activity will cause foF2 to increase at daytime and decrease at nighttime except for the summer in low solar activity period. The intensity of response of foF2 is stronger at nighttime than that at daytime. The negative ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in summer and the positive ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in winter. In high solar activity period, the diurnal variation of the response of foF2 is very pronounced in each season, and the strong ionospheric response can last several days. In low solar activity period, ionospheric response has very pronounced diurnal variation in winter only. Its notable that geomagnetic activities occurred at local time nighttime can cause stronger and longer responses of foF2 at the low latitude. All in all, the obvious negative phase ionospheric storms often occurred at the low latitude. Moreover a notable phenomenon was observed for the low latitude, there are the intensive oscillations of foF2 occurring during the main storm phase of enhanced storm in Hainan, and it occurred in the morning generally. For the TEC data, strong disturbances can be observed simultaneously from high latitude to low latitude during the main phase of some storms. Generally strong/weak storms can cause the negative/positive phase storms of TEC in the low latitude and which are obvious in the daytime for the summer and winter and in the period from noon to midnight for the equinox. The differences of the responses of foF2 and TEC are also investigated.

Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guojun; Shi, Jiankui

28

Reduced genome size of Helicobacter pylori originating from East Asia  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major pathogen colonizing the human stomach, shows great genetic variation. Comparative analysis of strains from different H. pylori populations revealed that the genome size of strains from East Asia decreased to 1.60 Mbp, which is significantly smaller than that from Europe or Africa. In parallel with the genome reduction, the number of protein coding genes was decreased, and the guanine-cytosine content was lowered to 38.9%. Elimination of non-essential genes by mutations is likely to be a major cause of the genome reduction. Bacteria with a small genome cost less energy. Thus, H. pylori strains from East Asia may have proliferation and growth advantages over those from Western countries. This could result in enhanced capacity of bacterial spreading. Therefore, the reduced genome size potentially contributes to the high prevalence of H. pylori in East Asia. PMID:24914326

Dong, Quan-Jiang; Wang, Li-Li; Tian, Zi-Bing; Yu, Xin-Jun; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Xuan, Shi-Ying

2014-01-01

29

Hepatolithiasis in East Asia retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatolithiasis is a major disease in Asia but differences in operative incidence between countries have not been examined. A retrospective study was conducted in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, and the results were compared with those in Japan with the aim of defining factors involved in the etiology of the condition. In order to ensure uniformity of the data collected,

Fumio Nakayama; Roger D. Soloway; Terutsugu Nakama; Kohji Miyazaki; Hitoshi Ichimiya; P. C. Sheen; C. G. Ker; G. B. Ong; T. K. Choi; J. Boey; W. C. Foong; E. C. Tan; K. H. Tung; C. N. Lee

1986-01-01

30

South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,

Laird, John

1991-01-01

31

Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West Africa  

E-print Network

Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West Africa Yongkang Xue,1,2 H, and R. Vasic (2004), Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West Africa, J

Xue, Yongkang

32

17.433 / 17.434 International Relations of East Asia, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

The aim of this lecture course is to introduce and analyze the international relations of East Asia. With four great powers, three nuclear weapons states and two of the world's largest economies, East Asia is one of the ...

Fravel, M. Taylor

33

The Cultural Context of Human Resource Management in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over recent decades there has been phenomenal growth in foreign direct investment in the countries of East Asia. This investment has come from coun tries both within the region and outside the region. The implications for HRM have been twofold: first, corporations have often found themselves managing workforces in countries with very different political and economic systems and cultures; and,

Bruce W. Stening; Evelina F. Ngan

1997-01-01

34

Respect for Elders: Myths and Realities in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend in East Asia from authoritarian and patriarchal relationships to egalitarian and reciprocal patterns of mutual respect between generations is eroding the willingness of younger generations to respect the elderly in traditional ways. Have the Confucian teachings on respect for elders become myths? This article reviews traditional ways of treating parents and elders prescribed in Confucian literature and examines

Kyu-taik Sung; E. P. Andrus

2000-01-01

35

Economic Governance, Accountability and Accounting Change in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of economic governance is now thought to require the remaking of respective accountabilities along with significant corresponding accounting change. On the basis of key discourses about a particular critical period in East Asia's recent history, this article considers whether certain regional and individual country accountabilities were actually remade and whether the role of accounting changed accordingly. It finds

John Ritchie

2008-01-01

36

History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues

Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

2012-01-01

37

Developments in Container Port Competition in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ports of Hong Kong, Busan and Kaohsiung have long dominated container handling in East Asia. However, the emergence of new transhipment and gateway hub candidates, which include Shanghai, Shenzhen, Kwangyang and Qingdao, among others, will vie with these incumbents for a greater share of container traffic. Some might even unseat the incumbents. This study finds, through evidences from container

Wei Yim Yap; Jasmine S. L. LAM; Theo Notteboom

2006-01-01

38

Network effects in the East Asia container ports industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an integrated set of 4Cs indices, namely, centrality index, competition index, congestion index and concentration index to examine network effects in the East Asia container port industry. Empirical analysis confirms that larger ports enjoy greater direct network effects related to economies of scale, whereas, smaller ports leverage on indirect network effects to widen their scopes of influence

Joyce M. W. Low; Loon Ching Tang

2012-01-01

39

Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful

Lee, Hyuk-Jin

2010-01-01

40

Competition dynamics between container ports in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper unveils the competitive dynamics between the major container ports in East Asia by analyzing their extent and intensity. Time series data, with the longest series dating back to 1970 ending 2001, on container throughput for the ports of Hong Kong, Kaohsiung, Keelung, Kobe, Nagoya, Osaka, Pusan, Taichung, Tokyo and Yokohama are computed. Cointegration tests are employed to determine

Wei Yim Yap; Jasmine S. L. Lam

2006-01-01

41

East Asia Institute March 31, 2011 UTSA Cares about Japan  

E-print Network

East Asia Institute March 31, 2011 UTSA Cares about Japan Donation Drive for the Japan Tsunami currently studying Communications at UTSA. "I am very glad that our campus has organized a fundraiser helping out started off small. Gradually, more and more people offered Donation drive at UTSA to help

Dodla, Ramana

42

An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine ozone dry deposition in East Asia, which is an important but uncertain research area because of insufficient observation and numerical studies focusing on East Asia. Here we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, the Wesely and M3DRY schemes, which are used in the WRF-Chem and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models, respectively. Simulated ozone dry deposition velocities with the two schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) owing to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. Resulting ozone concentrations differ by up to 10 ppbv for a monthly mean in May when the peak ozone typically occurs in East Asia. An evaluation of the simulated dry deposition velocities shows that the Wesely scheme calculates values with more pronounced diurnal variation than the M3DRY and results in a good agreement with the observations. However, we find significant changes in simulated ozone concentrations using the Wesely scheme but with different surface type data sets, indicating the high sensitivity of ozone deposition calculations to the input data. The need is high for observations to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and its input data to improve the use of air quality models for East Asia.

Park, R. J.; Hong, S. K.; Kwon, H.-A.; Kim, S.; Guenther, A.; Woo, J.-H.; Loughner, C. P.

2014-08-01

43

An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia  

SciTech Connect

We used a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine processes that determine O3 in East Asia; in particular, we focused on O3 dry deposition, which is an uncertain research area due to insufficient observation and numerical studies in East Asia. Here, we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, Wesely and M3DRY, which are used in the WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. The O3 dry deposition velocities simulated using the two aforementioned schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) due to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. The O3 concentration differed by up to 10 ppbv for the monthly mean. The simulated and observed dry deposition velocities were compared, which showed that the Wesely scheme model is consistent with the observations and successfully reproduces the observed diurnal variation. We conduct several sensitivity simulations by changing the land use data, the surface resistance of the water and the models spatial resolution to examine the factors that affect O3 concentrations in East Asia. As shown, the model was considerably sensitive to the input parameters, which indicates a high uncertainty for such O3 dry deposition simulations. Observations are necessary to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and input data to improve the East Asia air quality models.

Park, R.; Hong, Seungkyu K.; Kwon, Hyoung-Ahn; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Loughner, C. P.

2014-08-11

44

University Restructuring in East Asia: Trends, Challenges and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This concluding article aims to pull together the analysis undertaken in the preceding articles in this special issue. By sketching an overview of the university reforms and developments revealed in the sectoral articles, it draws out the trends of university restructuring in East Asia. It then projects the significances of these trends in terms

Chan, David; Lo, William

2008-01-01

45

Recent Human Evolution in East Asia and Australasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In both East Asia and Australasia arguments for evolutionary continuity between middle-late Pleistocene hominid populations and modern Homo sapiens are of long standing. In both regions, however, problems of chronological distribution, dating and preservation of hominid skeletal materials provide an effective barrier to extending regional sequences back to `archaic' Homo sapiens or Homo erectus. The earliest securely dated modern Homo

Peter Brown

1992-01-01

46

Future regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia: Energy security costs and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth in East Asia has rapidly increased regional energy, and especially, electricity needs. Many of the countries of East Asia have sought or are seeking to diversify their energy sources and bolster their energy supply and\\/or environmental security by developing nuclear power. Rapid development of nuclear power in East Asia brings with it concerns regarding nuclear weapons proliferation associated

David von Hippel; Peter Hayes; Jungmin Kang; Tadahiro Katsuta

2011-01-01

47

Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

Schatz, David Beck; Liu, Chia-Yih

2012-01-01

48

Inverse modeling analysis of soil dust emissions over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil dust is the most important aerosol by mass concentrations in the troposphere and has considerable effects on air quality and climate. East Asia including southern Mongolia and northern China is one of important source regions. Accurate simulations of dust storm outbreak would be thus crucial for protecting human health as well as for better assessing its climatic impacts. However, huge uncertainties in soil dust simulations especially for dust sources in East Asia are still present in the state-of-the-art aerosol models. We here attempt to reduce uncertainty with simulated dust sources by applying inverse modeling technique and gain better understanding on physical processes determining dust mobilization over East Asia. We used a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with DEAD dust mobilization scheme in 2001. In addition we implemented in the model a Shao dust emission scheme which uses different threshold friction velocity as a function of particle sizes. We first evaluated the model by comparing simulated aerosol concentrations against observations in China, Korea, and Japan. The model with the DEAD scheme overestimated PM10 mass concentrations close to dust source regions in China but underestimated observed PM10 in downwind regions such as Korea and Japan during dust storm breaks. These simulated discrepancies, however, were much reduced in the model with Shao scheme resulting from spatial changes in dust sources. To examine determining parameters of dust sources in those two schemes and underlying physical processes we conduct an inverse modeling analysis of dust emissions from 4 source regions (Inner Mongolia, Gobi, Taklamakan desert, Mongolian plateau). Our analysis yields optimized dust sources over East Aisa, which enable us to better quantify spatial and temporal distributions of dust aerosol concentrations and their contributions to both air quality and climate over East Asia.

Ku, B.; Park, R.

2009-12-01

49

Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes.  

PubMed

Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

2011-01-01

50

Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

2011-01-01

51

Simulated Seasonal Variations in Wet Acid Depositions over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling SystemCommunity Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4 , NO3 , and NH4 concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater

Cui Ge; Meigen Zhang; Lingyun Zhu; Xiao Han; Jun Wang

2011-01-01

52

Food in health security in South East Asia.  

PubMed

With a global economic crisis, undernourished peoples in South East Asia, as elsewhere, face even greater food insecurity. Future challenges to food availability include increasing food prices, increasing population size and climate change. National policies are required which emphasise improved intersectoral coordination, enhanced government credibility and accountability, as well as a shift in food aid to investment in agriculture and the empowerment of independent institutions. PMID:19965337

Tuyen, Le Danh

2009-01-01

53

Quantitative analyses of biogeography and faunal evolution of middle to late Eocene mammals in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeography and faunal evolution of middle to late Eocene mammals throughout East Asia is assessed. Appearance Event Ordination was used to get a reliable temporal ordination of 92 Paleogene faunas from East Asia. Results from this analysis are generally consistent with the faunal sequence of traditional East Asian Land Mammal Ages (EALMAs). Exceptions are that the Arshantan Fauna fell

Takehisa Tsubamoto; Masanaru Takai; Naoko Egi

2004-01-01

54

Language and visual imagery: Issues of corporate identity in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asian companies are increasingly positioning themselves as international players, carrying their corporate and brand identities across East Asia and beyond. Companies in the U.S. and Europe have, meanwhile, sought to compete for business in East Asia, with regionally targeted marketing campaigns of their own. The author points out that corporate identitythe names and symbols that businesses use to represent

Bernd H. Schmitt

1995-01-01

55

The Impact of External Shocks in East Asia: Lessons from a Structural VAR Model  

E-print Network

The Impact of External Shocks in East Asia: Lessons from a Structural VAR Model with BlockXhttp://economix.fr UMR 7235 #12;1 The Impact ofExternal Shocks in East Asia: Lessonsfrom a Structural VAR Model examine the relative importance of external shocks in domestic fluctuations of East Asian countries

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.  

PubMed

Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

2014-05-01

57

Volatility and Contagion in a Financially Integrated World: Lessons from East Asia's Recent Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1998Recent events in East Asia highlighted the risks of weak financial institutions and distorted incentives in a financially integrated world. These weaknesses led to two sources of vulnerability: East Asia's rapid buildup of contingent liabilities, and overreliance on short-term foreign borrowing.The buildup of vulnerabilities in East Asia is shown here to be mainly the result of weaknesses in financial

Leonardo Hernandez; Pedro Alba; Amar Bhattacharya; Swati Ghosh; Stijn Claessens

1999-01-01

58

The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented and discussed their contribution to better understand the impacts of aerosols on regional-to- global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

2003-01-01

59

Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars: Asia, Asian Studies and the National Security State: A Symposium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars has placed online the full text of a recent symposium on "Asia, Asian Studies and the National Security State." The symposium consists of a powerful article by Bruce Cumings, challenging the ideological roots of Asian Studies, with eight responses by a wide range of people active in the profession. The symposium focuses on two moments in the creation and development of Asian studies in the United States. "First, the symposium examines the birth of the field -- during the height of the Cold War -- as a creation of the national-security state, or what Cumings calls the state/intelligence/foundation nexus, which structured, financed, and set formative research agendas and methodologies at the time. Second, the symposium assesses how the sea changes in the contemporary Asian regional and global situations relate to emerging scholarly trends."

Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars.

1997-01-01

60

Aerosol retrieval over East Asia from GOSAT-CAI measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aerosol retrieval algorithm for East Asia was developed from Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) launched in January 2009 onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). In this study, surface reflectance is determined from 45-day composite of Rayleigh and gas corrected reflectance and the reflectance data of channel 2 and 3 of CAI were used. To distinguish aerosol absorptivity, Two methods waere considered using blue channels from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) launched in March 2012 onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) and single scattering albedo method using channel 1 of TANSO-CAI. To investigate aerosol optical properties over the East Asia, inversion products from AERONET sun-photometer observation using the method from Kim et al. (2007) were analyzed and look-up table approach to retrieve optical properties of aerosol was adopted. The algorithm provides aerosol optical depth (AOD) and size information where AOD were compared with those of AERONET from March 2012 to February 2013 in this study. The comparison results show that performance of the algorithm has reasonable agreements with coefficients of determination show range from 0.71 to 0.86 and regression slope ranged from 0.69 to 0.88, depending on season. Based on the obtained results with CAI algorithm developed continuous updates are carried out for the further improvement.

Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Mijin; Choi, MyungJe; Go, Su Jung; Lim, HyunKwang

2014-05-01

61

SYMPOSIUM REPORT SUPPLEMENT Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma in Asia Pacific  

E-print Network

SYMPOSIUM REPORT SUPPLEMENT Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma in Asia Pacific and the ARIA: The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma are markedly increasing to epidemic asthma, about 50% of whom live in developing countries, and about 400 million people suffer from AR. AR

Boyer, Edmond

62

Multinational enterprises in China, East Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine whether multinational corporations moving into China have a negative impact on the extent of foreign firms moving into other developing countries in East Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The paper controls for a comprehensive set of determinants of why multinational enterprises enter the economies of East Asia,

Hitomi Iizaka

63

Tibetan Plateau warming and precipitation changes in East Asia Bin Wang,1,2  

E-print Network

troposphere around the globe. The TP warming will not only melt glaciers that feed the rivers but alsoTibetan Plateau warming and precipitation changes in East Asia Bin Wang,1,2 Qing Bao,3 Brian of precipitation variations in East Asia (EA). Numerical experiments with atmospheric general circulation models

Wang, Bin

64

Quest for Middle East oil: the US versus the Asia-Pacific region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two very powerful geopolitical factors will decisively determine whether the quest for Middle East oil (mainly Gulf oil) could enhance the global oil security or could lead to oil supply disruptions and also instability and conflict in the Asia-Pacific region. The two factors are the United States growing dependence on oil imports from the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region's

Mamdouh G. Salameh

2003-01-01

65

Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.  

PubMed

The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental outflow from Eurasia. The same tendency is not found for SO4(2-). PMID:22168108

Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

2011-11-01

66

Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

2013-12-01

67

Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective  

PubMed Central

Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia. PMID:22664492

Ghimire, M.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Narain, J.P.

2012-01-01

68

Dynamically Downscaled Future Climate Change over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses the future climate change over East Asia using the Global/Regional Integrated Model System (GRIMs) - Regional Model Program (RMP). The RMP is forced by two types of future climate scenarios produced by the Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2; the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Analyses for the current (1980-2005) climate are performed to evaluate the RMP's ability to reproduce precipitation and temperature. Two different future (2006-2050) simulations are compared with the current climatology to investigate the climatic change. The RMP reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of precipitation and temperature satisfactorily. The spatial distribution of the simulated climatology is generally worse in RMP than those from the HG2, but the distributions of monsoonal precipitation are adequately captured. Furthermore, the RMP shows higher reproducibility of climate extreme accompanying excessive heat wave and precipitation. In the future, the strong warming is distinct with intensified monsoonal precipitation. In particular, extreme weather conditions are increased and intensified over South Korea. The heat wave is increased by twice with decreased variability. In RCP 8.5 downscaling, frequency and variability of heavy rainfall are increased by 24% and 31.5%, while they are similar to current climate in RCP 4.5 downscaling. This study indicates that future climate projection accompanying climate extreme and its variability over East Asia can be adequately addressed on the RMP test-bed, and the climatic change progressed without stabilization increases occurrence and intensity of extreme weather conditions.

Lee, J.; Hong, S.; Chang, E.; Suh, M.; Kang, H.

2012-12-01

69

Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang

2013-05-01

70

Food in health security in North East Asia.  

PubMed

Food and health security in North East Asia including South Korea, North Korea, China and Japan was compared. Because this region contains countries with many complex problems, it is worthwhile to study the current situation. With about 24% of the world's population, all North East Asian countries supply between 2400 and 3000 Kcal of energy. Regarding health status, two extreme problems exist. One is malnutrition in North Korea and China and the other is chronic degenerative disease in Japan, South Korea and China. Because quality, quantity and safety of the food supply have to be secured for health security, some topics are selected and discussed. 1) World food price can have an effect on food security for countries with a low food self sufficiency rate such as Japan and Korea; specially, for the urban poor. 2) Population aging can increase the number of aged people without food security. An aged population with less income and no support from their off-spring, because of disappearing traditional values, may have food insecurity. 3) Population growth and economic growth in this region may worsen food problems. Since a quarter of the world's population resides in this region, populations will continue to increase. With economic growth, people will consume more animal products. 4) Climate change generates food production problems. As the progress of industry continues, there will be less land for food and more pollutants in the environment. 5) Political instability will cause food insecurity and conflict will cause problems with regard to food aid. PMID:19965336

Moon, Hyun-Kyung

2009-01-01

71

Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

2014-01-01

72

Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

2002-01-01

73

Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more northerly flora are a subset of the genera present in a more southerly flora. Main conclusions: The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

2003-01-01

74

The humanitarian relief supply chain : analysis of the 2004 South East Asia earthquake and Tsunami  

E-print Network

Humanitarian relief supply chains are not well documented. This thesis describes humanitarian relief supply chains in general and those specifically utilized in the 2004 South East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami relief effort. ...

Russell, Timothy Edward

2005-01-01

75

Evolution of upper mantle beneath East Asia and the Tibetan Plateau from P-wave tomography  

E-print Network

The main objective of the research presented in this thesis is to improve our understanding for the evolution of the upper mantle beneath East Asia and the Tibetan Plateau through high resolution P-wave tomography. The ...

Li, Chang, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

76

Women's cardiovascular health: perspectives from South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented. PMID:22525668

Rajadurai, Jeyamalar; Lopez, Eleanor A; Rahajoe, Anna Ulfah; Goh, Ping Ping; Uboldejpracharak, Yingnoi; Zambahari, Robaayah

2012-08-01

77

Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?  

PubMed Central

The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the lengthwidththickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 90008600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

2011-01-01

78

BANKS, FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION AND THE 'INTEREST RATE PREMIUM PUZZLE' IN EAST ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simple theoretical framework to explorethe role of banks, bank inefficiencies and financial liberalization inexplaining the sustained interest rate premium offered in a number ofemerging economies in East Asia despite evidence of fairly credibleex-ante fixed exchange rates (Thailand in particular).Key words: banks, currency crisis, East Asia, financial liberalization,interest rates, ThailandJEL Classification: F30, F32, F4121. Background and Introduction...

Ramkishen S. Rajan

1999-01-01

79

After the Crisis: The Social Contract and the Middle Class in East Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace recently placed online the complete text of After the Crisis: The Social Contract and the Middle Class in East Asia, authored by Nancy Birdsall and Stephan Haggard and published in July. The text examines the impact of the Asian financial crisis of 1997 upon an emergent, urban middle class and considers the key role this class is likely to play in the ongoing construction of the social contract in East Asia.

80

Spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts in the East Asian region (105-150E, 20-50N) are quantified using the effective drought index (EDI) over a period of 43 years, from 1962 to 2004, and the East Asian region was classified into six subregions on the basis of similarity in drought climate: (D1) South China; (D2) lower region of the Yangtze River, South Korea, and Central/South Japan; (D3) Central China and North Korea; (D4) Northwest China and middle region of the Yangtze River; (D5) North China; and (D6) Northeast China and North Japan. The EDI time series was then summarized for the different drought subregions and a drought map was created that shows the spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia. The map shows that in subregions, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and D6, there were 50 (11.63 per decade), 36 (8.37 per decade), 30 (6.98 per decade), 28 (6.51 per decade), 29 (6.74 per decade), and 33 (7.67 per decade) drought occurrences, respectively. The most common characteristic of droughts in the subregions is that short-term droughts (<200 days) which mainly occur in spring and summer, whereas long-term droughts (?200 days) mainly occur in autumn and winter. D1 shows the highest frequency of short-term droughts. Short-term droughts occur more frequently than long-term droughts in D2 and D3, but D4 and D6 showed a higher frequency of long-term droughts than short-term droughts. D5 showed a similar frequency of short- and long-term droughts. Drought onset dates are evenly distributed throughout the year for D1, D2, and D3, but distributed mostly in spring and summer in D4, D5, and D6. All the differences are linked to variations in the precipitation cycle of each subregion. In terms of annual variations in drought occurrence, D2 showed weakening droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a positive trend), whereas the other subregions showed intensifying droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a negative trend). The greatest intensifying trend was observed in D5, followed by D3, D6, D4, and D1.

Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

2014-07-01

81

Resources and Resource Centers: Africa, Korea, Latin America, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Soviet Union & Eastern Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The East Asian Curriculum Project (EACP) of Columbia University is a national effort whose goal is to support education about Asia at the secondary and elementary levels. The project has developed a variety of curriculum resources and collaborated with state and local educators in designing teaching units about various countries. Each of these

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. East Asian Inst.

82

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-01-01

83

Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":

Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

84

Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education

Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

2011-01-01

85

An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia. Situated on

Lindow, Megan

2007-01-01

86

Democratization and Civil-military Relations in East Asia: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent wave of democratization in East Asia predominantly struck countries in which the armed forces had played a dominant political role under the authoritarian regimes. This article analyzes how and how successful governments in emerging East Asian democracies have crafted civilian control over the military. Starting from theoretical findings of recent research on democratic transition and in military sociology,

Aurel Croissant; David Khn

2007-01-01

87

The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in

Lin, Han-Yi

2014-01-01

88

FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices. Aubert et al introduce a novel technique of synthesizing composite nanomaterials and Cross and coworkers characterize Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films co-doped with Bi and Fe to enhance PZT capacitor ferroelectric properties. These articles are closely related to the global environmental load and energy issues that require solutions in modern ceramics technology. We hope that this focus issue will help advance not only ceramics-related but also other fields of materials science.

Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

2010-10-01

89

School of East Asian Studies Employability Statement Graduates of the School of East Asian Studies go on to rewarding careers East Asia  

E-print Network

to reflect the rapid pace of change in East Asian societies, and to emphasise the understanding of East Asia and communication skills, research in critical, independent study, and writing and oral presentation for a range of audiences, and time and project management; these skills are drawn together in the final year dissertation

Martin, Stephen John

90

Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter temperature distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

2013-01-01

91

Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia. PMID:25080928

Zhu, Yao; Wang, Hong-Kai; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Ye, Ding-Wei

2015-01-01

92

Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

Moore, Malcolm A.

2014-01-01

93

A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

2011-12-01

94

Emerging markets of South-East and Central Asia: Do they still offer a diversification benefit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to check whether, despite the growing world economic integration and progressive lifting of capital controls, emerging markets still offer international investors a diversification benefit. The study covers emerging markets from South-East Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia) and Central Asia (Korea, Taiwan, China and India) over the period 31\\/08\\/1999-29\\/08\\/2003 (a period characterized by both

Christian L. Dunis; Gary Shannon

2005-01-01

95

Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem  

SciTech Connect

The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

2014-12-01

96

Evaluation of biogenic emission flux and its impact on oxidants and inorganic aerosols in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a major precursor during the summer season, biogenic species are of primary importance in the ozone and SOAs (secondary organic aerosols) formations. Isoprene and mono-terpene also influence the level of inorganic aerosols (i.e. sulfate and nitrate) by controlling OH radicals. However, biogenic emission fluxes are highly uncertain in East Asia. While isoprene emission fluxes from the GEIA (Global Emissions Inventory Activity) and POET (Precursors of Ozone and their Effects in the Troposphere) inventories estimate approximately 20 Tg yr-1 in East Asia, those from the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) and MOHYCAN (MOdel for Hydrocarbon emissions by the CANopy) estimate approximately 10 Tg yr-1 and 5 Tg yr-1, respectively. In order to evaluate and/or quantify the magnitude of biogenic emission fluxes over East Asia, the tropospheric HCHO columns obtained from the GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) observations were compared with the HCHO columns from the CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) simulations over East Asia. In this study, US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v4.5.1 model simulation using the ACE-ASIA (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) emission inventory for anthropogenic pollutants and GEIA, POET, MEGAN, and MOHYCAN emission inventories for biogenic species was carried out in conjunction with the Meteorological fields generated from the PSU/NCAR MM5 (Pennsylvania state University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Meso-scale Model 5) model for the summer episodes of the year 2002. In addition to an evaluation of the biogenic emission flux, we investigated the impact of the uncertainty in biogenic emission inventory on inorganic aerosol formations and variations of oxidants (OH, O3, and H2O2) in East Asia. In this study, when the GEIA and POET emission inventories are used, the CMAQ-derived HCHO columns are highly overestimated over East Asia, particularly South China compared with GOME-derived HCHO columns. The CMAQ-derived HCHO columns using the MOHYCAN emission inventory have similar values with the GOME-derived HCHO columns over East Asia. Also, differences in biogenic emission fluxes lead to changes in the levels of nitrates by changing the OH radical concentrations.

Han, K. M.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Woo, J.; Kim, H.

2010-12-01

97

Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up to 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 % and 11%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large scale deployment of FGD for China's power plants, and the promotion of high-efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25% and 15%, driven by the rapid increase in the emissions from China owing to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17% mainly due to the implementation of tight vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current legislation and current implementation status, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are estimated to increase by about one quarter by 2030 from the 2010 levels, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28%, 36%, 28%, and 15% respectively compared with the baseline case. The implementation of the "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures is expected to lead to another one third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one quarter reduction for SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. With the full implementation of maximum feasible reduction measures, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia are expected to account for only about one quarter and NMVOC for one third of the levels of the baseline projection. Compared with previous projections, this study projects larger reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions by considering aggressive govermental plans and standards scheduled to be implemented in the next decade, and quantifies the significant effects of detailed progressive control measures on NMVOC emissions up to 2030.

Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

2014-01-01

98

Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia would account for only about one-quarter, and NMVOC for one-third, of the levels of the baseline projection. Compared with previous projections, this study projects larger reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions by considering aggressive governmental plans and standards scheduled to be implemented in the next decade, and quantifies the significant effects of detailed progressive control measures on NMVOC emissions up until 2030.

Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

2014-07-01

99

A(H5N1) Virus Evolution in South East Asia  

PubMed Central

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is an ongoing public health and socio-economic challenge, particularly in South East Asia. H5N1 is now endemic in poultry in many countries, and represents a major pandemic threat. Here, we describe the evolution of H5N1 virus in South East Asia, the reassortment events leading to high genetic diversity in the region, and factors responsible for virus spread. The virus has evolved with genetic variations affecting virulence, drug-resistance, and adaptation to new host species. The constant surveillance of these changes is of primary importance in the global efforts of the scientific community. PMID:21994553

Gutirrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Naughtin, Monica Jane; Horm, Srey Viseth; San, Sorn; Buchy, Philippe

2009-01-01

100

Undernutrition among children in South and South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Undernutrition remains a major public health problem among children living in Asia. Although the burden is maximal among poorer, rural and Indigenous communities, the problem affects the majority in many Asian countries, especially in South Asia. In order to prevent the pervasive consequences of undernutrition, strategies that address this burden are required. Successful implementation of strategies may be limited by the complex aetiology of undernutrition, including the political setting. Rising food insecurity because of climate change, land use for biofuel production and the recent global financial crisis threaten to exacerbate childhood malnutrition. In this review, we describe the burden of undernutrition among Asian children and discuss contributing factors and potential solutions. PMID:20854320

Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

2010-09-01

101

Climate change and food security in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change causes serious food security risk for East Asian countries. The United Nations Framework Con- vention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has recognized that the climate change will impact agriculture and all nations should prepare adaptations to the impacts on food security. This article reviews the context of adaptation rules and current policy development in East Asian region. The UNFCCC

Yi-Yuan Su SJD; Yi-Hao Weng; Ya-Wen Chiu

102

The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and

Mok, Ka Ho

2013-01-01

103

Review of knowledge on Grouper aquaculture in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grouper is a popular marine food fish of high market value in Southeast Asia. Groupers have been farmed in netcages in coastal water for a longtime. The species which have been reared in tropical countries are estuarine grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, black spotted grouper, E. salmoides and brown spotted grouper, E. tauvina. Some countries, like Indonesia and Singapore have attempted

S. TOOKWINAS

104

Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project entitled

Menton, Linda K.

2007-01-01

105

China and arms control: Transition in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Asian security environment in transition from the Cold War structure to whatever replaces it, prospects for arms control initiatives in the region and the attitudes and cooperative mechanisms to implement effective regimes are in a state of flux. Within Asia, Beijing`s conventional and nuclear defense modernization programs, combined with its active arms export program, make China a central

P. H. B. Godwin; J. J. Schulz

1994-01-01

106

Energetics and dynamics associated with two typical mobile trough pathways over East Asia in boreal winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two dominant types of East Asian mobile trough (EAMT) are identified by a novel mobile trough detection algorithm. The two major EAMTs likely pass through to the north and the south of Lake Baikal. In this study, both of synoptic and planetary time scales influences on East Asia are studied. For synoptic scale, southern path of mobile trough shows a higher rate of intensification that of northern path. Southern path has stronger impact on Southeast Asia temperature fluctuation because of more southern pathway and stronger magnitude of wave train. But duration of fluctuation is shorter in southern due to the downstream development. For planetary scale, the northern path shows a large warm anomaly over Southeast Asia and a cold anomaly over Northeast Asia, which is associated with the northward shift of the jet stream. The southern path shows a cold anomaly over East Asia due to a northwesterly anomaly. The forcing of high frequency eddy on low frequency eddy is estimated in terms of momentum and energy. The reinforcement of high frequency eddy flux on low frequency variation can be observed in northern path, but not in southern path. The energy difference for two paths is also caused by the variations of barotropic and baroclinic conversion. The energy tendency of interaction between two frequency eddies is only responsible for sustention of energy anomaly over southwestern Japan.

Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Cheung, Hoffman Ho-Nam; Zhou, Wen

2015-03-01

107

The future of Russian gas exports to East Asia: Feasibility and market implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time, the Russian government has aimed to diversify gas exports to East Asian countries. This gearing of Russia towards Asia will have great consequences on world energy, the global economy, and geopolitics in the coming years. This paper analyzes the growth potential of Russia's diversification strategy and the impact this policy would have on sales to Europe.

Rafael Fernndez; Enrique Palazuelos

2011-01-01

108

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) NUMBER 1 (2007)  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) VOLUME 14, NUMBER 1 (2007) ISSN 1322 0462 CONTENTS CENTRE NEWS 2 NEW PHD STUDENTS 4 IRAQ AND THE FUTURE OF POLITICAL ISLAM 5 James Piscatori of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies and Wadham College, University of Oxford, has

2007-01-01

109

Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand in east Asiaa numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were investigated numerically by an Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new deflation module of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from

Hiroaki Terada; Hiromasa Ueda; Zifa Wang

2002-01-01

110

Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach 5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

2013-07-01

111

The East Asia Regional Advisory Board The Fuqua School of Business  

E-print Network

and then in India. In 2003, he launched into entrepreneurship by creating his own company in the field of technologyThe East Asia Regional Advisory Board The Fuqua School of Business Richard FRANCIS China Dean SKEMA an international career in 1987 working in Taiwan for the trading arm of a manufacturing and engineering company

Zhou, Pei

112

Determinants of Business Cycle Synchronization in East Asia: An Extreme Bound Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the determinants of business cycle synchronization in East Asia by testing the robustness of the potential candidates, using the technique of Extreme Bound Analysis in an OLS regression framework with Newey-West correction for heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation. We find that trade openness and intra-industry trade are major channels of business cycle synchronization. Although the similarity of monetary policies is

Toan Nguyen

2007-01-01

113

Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;

Hayden, Howard

114

Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational

Hayden, Howard; And Others

115

Arsenic in groundwater: A threat to sustainable agriculture in South and South-east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of arsenic pollution of groundwater used for domestic water supplies is now well recognised in Bangladesh, India and some other countries of South and South-east Asia. However, it has recently become apparent that arsenic-polluted water used for irrigation is adding sufficient arsenic to soils and rice to pose serious threats to sustainable agricultural production in those countries and

Hugh Brammer; Peter Ravenscroft

2009-01-01

116

Ambient temperature and mortality: An international study in four capital cities of East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme ambient temperature has been associated with increased daily mortality across the world. We describe the ambient temperaturemortality association for four capital cities in East Asia, Seoul, Beijing, Tokyo, and Taipei, and identify a threshold temperature for each city and the percent increase in mortality. We adapted generalized linear modeling with natural cubic splines (GLM+NS) to examine the association between

Joo-Youn Chung; Yasushi Honda; Yun-Chul Hong; Xiao-Chuan Pan; Yue-Leon Guo; Ho Kim

2009-01-01

117

Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This

Ho, Laina

118

DOES FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT PROMOTE ECONOMIC GROWTH? EVIDENCE FROM EAST ASIA AND LATIN AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is considerable evidence on the link between foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic growth in developing countries, causal patterns of the two variables has not been investigated yet with a reliable procedure. This article provides an empirical assessment of the issue by using data for 11 economies in East Asia and Latin America. Although FDI is expected to

K. H. Zhang

2001-01-01

119

Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market

Kim, Terri

2007-01-01

120

Energy Market Integration in East Asia: A Regional Public Goods Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies a regional public goods approach to the study of energy market integration (EMI) in East Asia, with a view to clarifying the outlook for such integration and the likely obstacles to be encountered. In addition to drawing on theoretical ideas relating to regional public goods, the paper will also draw on the experience of the European Union

Philip ANDREWS-SPEED

2011-01-01

121

Developing a Knowledge Base for Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of school leadership in educational reform has reached the status of a truism, and led to major changes in school leader recruitment, selection, training and appraisal. While similar policy trends are evident in East Asia, the empirical knowledge base underlying these measures is distorted and lacking in validation. This paper begins by

Hallinger, Philip

2011-01-01

122

Contemporary crustal deformation in east Asia constrained by Global Positioning System measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements collected since the early 90's allow us to derive geodetic velocities at 16 permanent stations in east Asia and 68 campaign mode sites in north China. The resulting velocity field shows the following: (1) Contrary to the early inferences that the Shanxi Rift has accommodated significant right-slip motion, our results suggest that the rift system,

Zheng-kang Shen; Chengkun Zhao; An Yin; Yanxing Li; David D. Jackson; Peng Fang; Danan Dong

2000-01-01

123

Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from

Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

2008-01-01

124

North-East Asia interconnection scenario map, and power reserve strategy in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of This work is to obtain the reserve power for the future power shortages faced by the metropolitan areas of the Korean Peninsula and by the southeastern area of the South Korea in North-East Asia. The assumed scenarios will be proposed in the cases of without or with connection to the Sinpo nuclear power plant which is to

Sang-Seung Lee; Jong-Keun Park; Seung-Il Moon; Jong-Fil Moon; Jae-Chul Kim; Seul-Ki Kim; Ho-Yong Kim

2004-01-01

125

Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate

Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

2012-01-01

126

Promoting Learner Autonomy: Student Perceptions of Responsibilities in a Language Classroom in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of communicative language teaching in East Asia, the idea of learner autonomy has become a topic of discussion and a goal among language teachers. The idea of autonomy raises important questions that need to be further explored, particularly in terms of students taking responsibility for learning. While examining the English

Sakai, Shien; Takagi, Akiko; Chu, Man-Ping

2010-01-01

127

Mapping the Terrain of Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain perspective on the extent to which the vision for knowledge production in East Asia set forth by Bajunid, Cheng, Hallinger, Walker, Dimmock and others almost 20 years ago has been fulfilled. The authors undertook an effort to map the terrain of knowledge production in educational leadership and

Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren

2013-01-01

128

Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South East Asia for action planning and surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South East Asia for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and

F Stillman; M Hoang; R Linton; B Ritthiphakdee; W Trochim

2008-01-01

129

Learner Centered Higher Education in East Asia: Assessing the Effects on Student Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The global expansion of higher education has brought about more ambitious educational goals that require new approaches to curriculum, teaching, and learning. While higher education in East Asia is no exception to this trend, it has been observed that both teachers and learners in the region have adhered to a strong tradition of

Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang

2013-01-01

130

New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

131

The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This

Mok, Ka Ho

2012-01-01

132

University Outreach Programs on East Asia: Linkages with School and Community. Wingspread Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wingspread conference was convened by the National Committee on United States-China Relations, Inc. and the Asia Society to consider how universities and centers for East Asian studies might make knowledge of Asian affairs more available. The intended audiences were secondary schools, the business community, persons interested in world affairs

Oxnam, Robert B.

133

Viruses associated with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) of fish in south-east Asia  

E-print Network

Viruses associated with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) of fish in south-east Asia GN with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in the past decade. The heterogeneous nature of these isolates, together. birnavirus / rovirus / rhabdovirus lAsie / SUE l poisson INTRODUCTION Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

134

Scaling Innovation in South East Asia: Empirical Evidence from Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diez J. R. and Kiese M. (2006) Scaling innovation in South East Asia: empirical evidence from Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok, Regional Studies40, 119. Our survey of 1600 manufacturing firms in Singapore, Penang (Malaysia) and Bangkok shows that the breadth and efficiency of innovative activities still lag considerably behind those found in 11 European regions. Cooperations are virtually indispensable for

Javier Revilla Diez; Matthias Kiese

2006-01-01

135

Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation.  

PubMed

This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps. PMID:24818109

Parikh, Purvish M; Raja, T; Mula-Hussain, L; Baral, R P; Ingle, P; Narayanan, P; Tsikai, N; Baki, M O; Satyapal, N; Adusei, K O; Popoola, A; Musibi, A; Nyaim, E; Tsomo, U; Opio, C; Jamshed, A; Reddy, P

2014-04-01

136

SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS

MOREHOUSE, WARD

137

East and Southeast Asia: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Asian Studies program at the University of Redlands, this easy-to-navigate directory allows users to access annotated links by country and by political, historical, and cultural topics. The site specifies seventeen East and Southeast Asian countries and hundreds of specific subjects, including sections on academic and library research sites. The homepage also offers direct links to current "hot topics," such as the crackdown on Falun Gong, the Asian financial crisis, the famine in North Korea, and East Timor's "Road to Independence." Frequently link-checked and updated, this is an excellent place to begin preliminary research on the region.

Eng, Robert Y.

138

English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent

Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

2012-01-01

139

ICT Experience in East Asia and Modelling for Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The remarkable development in ICT (Information and Communication Technology) was observed in the past decades that it has an increasing impact on economic and social activities in the world. ICT have had a significant role in the economic growth for developed and developing countries. The countries have been very dynamic in recent years in East

Okur Dincsoy, Meltem

2010-01-01

140

Genetic counseling/consultation in South-East Asia: a report from the workshop at the 10th Asia pacific conference on human genetics.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the workshop 'Genetic Counseling/Consultations in South-East Asia' at the 10(th) Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in December 2012. The workshop brought together professionals and language/communication scholars from South-East Asia, and the UK. The workshop aimed at addressing culture- and context-specific genetic counseling/consultation practices in South-East Asia. As a way of contextualizing genetic counseling/consultation in South-East Asia, we first offer an overview of communication-oriented research generally, drawing attention to consultation and counseling as part of a communicative continuum with distinctive interactional features. We then provide examples of genetic counseling/consultation research in Hong Kong. As other countries in South-East Asia have not yet embarked on communication-oriented empirical research, we report on the current practices of genetic counseling/consultation in these countries in order to identify similarities and differences as well as key obstacles that could be addressed through future research. Three issues emerged as 'problematic': language, religion and culture. We suggest that communication-oriented research can provide a starting point for evidence-based reflections on how to incorporate a counseling mentality in genetic consultation. To conclude, we discuss the need for creating a platform for targeted training of genetic counselors based on communication-oriented research findings. PMID:24048708

Zayts, Olga; Sarangi, Srikant; Thong, Meow-Keong; Chung, Brian Hon-yin; Lo, Ivan Fao-man; Kan, Anita Sik-yau; Lee, Juliana Mei-har; Padilla, Carmencita David; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Faradz, Sultana M H; Wasant, Pornswan

2013-12-01

141

Assembly of forest communities across East Asia insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling  

PubMed Central

Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present the first study applying this approach to forest tree communities across East Asia, focusing on community phylogenetic structure and using data from a global network of tropical, subtropical and temperate forest plots. We found that Net Relatedness Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI) values were generally lower with geographically broad species pools (global and Asian species pools) than with an East Asian species pool, except that global species pool produced higher NTI than the East Asian species pool. The lower NRI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool may indicate an important role of intercontinental migration during the Neogene and Quaternary and climatic conservatism in shaping the deeper phylogenetic structure of tree communities in East Asia. In contrast, higher NTI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool is consistent with recent localized diversification determining the shallow phylogenetic structure. PMID:25797420

Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Jin, Guangze; Sang, Weiguo; Lu, Zhijun; Wang, Xihua; Li, Xiankun; Li, Buhang; Sun, Ifang; Ma, Keping; Svenning, Jens-Christian

2015-01-01

142

Assembly of forest communities across East Asia - insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling.  

PubMed

Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present the first study applying this approach to forest tree communities across East Asia, focusing on community phylogenetic structure and using data from a global network of tropical, subtropical and temperate forest plots. We found that Net Relatedness Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI) values were generally lower with geographically broad species pools (global and Asian species pools) than with an East Asian species pool, except that global species pool produced higher NTI than the East Asian species pool. The lower NRI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool may indicate an important role of intercontinental migration during the Neogene and Quaternary and climatic conservatism in shaping the deeper phylogenetic structure of tree communities in East Asia. In contrast, higher NTI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool is consistent with recent localized diversification determining the shallow phylogenetic structure. PMID:25797420

Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Jin, Guangze; Sang, Weiguo; Lu, Zhijun; Wang, Xihua; Li, Xiankun; Li, Buhang; Sun, Ifang; Ma, Keping; Svenning, Jens-Christian

2015-01-01

143

The United States Security Strategy for the East Asia-Pacific Region 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Defense recently released a review of security arrangements in East Asia and the Pacific, where close to 100,000 military personnel are currently stationed. Despite criticisms that the permanent stationing of these troops and another 100,000 in Europe is costly and unnecessary, the report argues, "our military presence in Asia serves as an important deterrent to aggression, often lessening the need for a more substantial and costly US response later." The report, which is available online and in .pdf format, outlines the key concepts behind the US presence in the region and discusses security and strategy issues for the next century.

144

Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia  

SciTech Connect

Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

2012-05-01

145

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.  

SciTech Connect

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO{sub 2} emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

2010-01-01

146

Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50 of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

Hutchison, Charles S.

2010-12-01

147

An unrecognized major collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia during the Late Cretaceous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions at plate boundaries induce stresses that constitute critical controls on the structural evolution of intraplate regions. However, the traditional tectonic model for the East Asian margin during the Mesozoic, invoking successive episodes of paleo-Pacific oceanic subduction, does not provide an adequate context for important Late Cretaceous dynamics across East Asia, including: continental-scale orogenic processes, significant sinistral strike-slip faulting, and several others. The integration of numerous documented field relations requires a new tectonic model, as proposed here. The Okhotomorsk continental block, currently residing below the Okhotsk Sea in Northeast Asia, was located in the interior of the Izanagi Plate before the Late Cretaceous. It moved northwestward with the Izanagi Plate and collided with the South China Block at about 100 Ma. The indentation of the Okhotomorsk Block within East Asia resulted in the formation of a sinistral strike-slip system in South China, formation of a dextral strike-slip system in North China, and regional northwest-southeast shortening and orogenic uplift in East Asia. Northeast-striking mountain belts over 500 km wide extended from Southeast China to Southwest Japan and South Korea. The peak metamorphism at about 89 Ma of the Sanbagawa high-pressure metamorphic belt in Southwest Japan was probably related to the continental subduction of the Okhotomorsk Block beneath the East Asian margin. At about 89 Ma, the north-northwestward change of motion direction of the Izanagi Plate led to the northward movement of the Okhotomorsk Block along the East Asian margin, forming a significant sinistral continental transform boundary similar to the San Andreas fault system in California. Sanbagawa metamorphic rocks in Southwest Japan were rapidly exhumed through the several kilometers wide ductile shear zone in the lower crust and upper mantle level. Accretionary complexes successively accumulated along the East Asian margin during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous were subdivided into narrow and subparallel belts by the upper crustal strike-slip fault system. The departure of the Okhotomorsk Block from the northeast-striking Asian margin resulted in the occurrence of an extensional setting and formation of a wide magmatic belt to the west of the margin. In the Campanian, the Okhotomorsk Block collided with the Siberian margin, in Northeast Asia. At about 77 Ma, a new oceanic subduction occurred to the south of the block, ending its long-distance northward motion. Based on the new tectonic model, the abundant Late Archean to Early Proterozoic detrital zircons in the Cretaceous sandstones in Kamchatka, Southwest Japan, and Taiwan are interpreted to have been sourced from the Okhotomorsk Block basement which possibly formed during the Late Archean and Early Proterozoic.

Yang, Y.

2013-12-01

148

Clinical nutrition in East Asia and the Pacific.  

PubMed

Identifying the nutrition problems of Asia and the Pacific is made difficult by the enormous geographic, socioeconomic and cultural diversity that exists in these areas. With increasing longevity and reduced infant mortality, the more chronic diseases are becoming increasingly important. For almost 90% of the countries that keep such data in the Western Pacific Region of WHO, at least three of the five leading causes of death are noncommunicable diseases. Nevertheless undernutrition is still the most important nutritional problem in the Region. Even though there have been some encouraging declines in the proportion of malnourished under 5-year-olds, increasing populations have meant the actual numbers have not declined. Vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency anaemia remain major public health problems in many countries. There is evidence that vitamin A deficiency is appearing in countries in which it has not previously been a problem. New challenges are occurring, such as childhood obesity, the susceptibility of undernourished populations to the human immunodeficiency virus and the increase in noncommunicable diseases. The three arms of clinical nutrition: therapeutic, research and public health will need to work closely to meet the considerable and continuing threat posed by the nutrition-related diseases. PMID:24323002

Darnton-Hill, I; Cavalli-Sforza, L T; Volmanen, P V

1992-03-01

149

Tropospheric air pollution modeling on a regional scale: Case studies for east and southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia has seen a phenomenal industrial growth in the past few decades resulting in significant increases in pollutant emissions. In this work, a 3-D regional-scale numerical investigation with the STEM - III model is carried out to explore and assess the environmental impacts of these tropospheric pollutants. Several case scenarios are studied to understand the influence of each on the tropospheric chemistry. A typical springtime episode (May 1987) is chosen during which maximum continental outflow occurs in east Asia. Model simulations are performed to assess the relative importance of transport and chemical sources of tropospheric ozone. The model accurately captures most of the observed features in surface ozone. Ozone levels are strongly influenced by continental outflow of precursors and downward transport of ozone-rich air from the upper troposphere. Calculations for NMVOCs distribution give emission estimates of ethane, propane and ethene in east Asia ~2.5, ~2 and ~7.5 Tg/yr respectively. Sensitivity analysis to increase in precursor emissions indicates ozone production over east Asia to be NOx limited. Transport calculations for mineral dust show two major dust events with levels exceeding 500 ?g/m3 and a monthly net continental outflow of ~6 Tg of dust. Gas/particle heterogeneous interactions are also considered. Particulate sulfate and nitrate, existing in the 4-5 ?m diameter coarse mode, agree favorably with observations. 5-10% decrease in surface ozone is predicted closer to source regions of dust. HNO3 /NOx over marine boundary layer decreases by a factor 1-2 and >2 in the free troposphere due to aerosol processes. Modeling forest fire impacts on the photochemical oxidant cycle in east Asia indicate a ~30% increase in surface ozone close to the fire source. Consistent synoptic variability is obtained over source regions for calculated aerosol column loading and satellite data. Measurements during the Fall 1997 El Nio induced forest fires in southeast Asia show substantial ozone elevations in the middle and upper troposphere and decreases in the lower troposphere. Surface measurements indicate large aerosol increases (>500 ?g/m 3). Numerical calculations show ozone partly originates from the upper troposphere and is also insitu produced chemically.

Phadnis, Mahesh Jayawant

1999-11-01

150

Impact of particle nonsphericity on the development and properties of aerosol models for East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the effects of aerosol nonsphericity information on the classification of aerosol models and the associated radiative properties over East Asia are investigated. The radiance measurements and inversions of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are used. Four aerosol models over East Asia are obtained by adding the shape information to the clustering analysis. These four aerosols are identified on the basis of their optical properties. Compared to the results without sphericity parameter, adding the sphericity parameter in the clustering process contributes to the extraction of a strongly absorbing aerosol. Furthermore, the effect of the physical and optical properties of the aerosol on the top of atmospheric (TOA) total reflectance and polarized reflectance are investigated. The results indicate that the addition of the sphericity parameter in the clustering process leads to a change in the total reflectance by up to 16% and a change in the polarized reflectance by up to 100%.

Chen, Hao; Cheng, Tianhai; Gu, Xingfa; Wu, Yu

2015-01-01

151

Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

PubMed Central

It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

152

Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

2014-02-01

153

Remittances Channel and Fiscal Impact in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies a remittances channel that transmits exogenous shocks, such as business cycles in remittance-sending countries, to the public finances of remittance-receiving countries. Using panel data for remittance-receiving countries in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia, three types of results emerge. First, remittances appear to be strongly procyclical vis- -vis sending country income. Second, remittances tend to

Yasser Abdih; Christian Ebeke; Adolfo Barajas; Ralph Chami

2012-01-01

154

Impacts of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions on Climate Change in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate impact by anthropogenic drivers gives high concerns in climate change simulation. IPCC AR4 emphasized the role of aerosol on climate besides the GHGs due to its negative significant radiative forcing. We find that climate feedback of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia through direct and indirect (aerosol-cloud interaction) radiative process using HadGEM2-AO developed by the UK Met office. Due to the industrial revolution and population growth, total anthropogenic aerosol emissions have grown dramatically over East Asia; sulfate aerosol is the dominant component accounting for about 50% of total aerosol optical depth at 550nm (Figure 1). An increased amount of aerosols might increase the CCN number concentration and lead to more, but smaller, cloud droplets for fixed liquid water content. This increases the albedo of the cloud, resulting in enhance reflection and a cooling effect. And smaller drops require longer growth times to reach size at which they easily fall as precipitation. This effect called the cloud lifetime effect may enhance the cloud cover (Figure 2), with a persistent positive correlation between cloud cover and aerosol optical depth. Particularly, aerosols have an influence on the amount of cloud cover (SC, ST, and NS) through the interaction with precipitation efficiency of low level clouds. As a result of perturbations of East Asia aerosols from preindustrial to present day, a net radiative flux at the top of atmosphere is estimated to be -4 W/m2, with a regional mean surface cooling of 1.2 K. More detailed analysis will be shown at the conference. Fig. 1. (a) Total AOD distributions (b) Changes in decadal mean AOD over East Asia. Fig 2. Cloud cover distributions classified by ISCCP cloud types.

Shim, S.; Jung, Y.; Baek, H.; Cho, C.

2013-12-01

155

Integrated assessment of CO 2 and SO 2 policies in North East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantifies the costs and impacts of six scenarios for carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions in North East Asia (NEA) within an integrated probabilistic analysis. The inclusion of the cooling effect of sulphates means that CO2 control in China would be likely to increase the regional temperature in NEA in the short-term. This is because CO2

Yeora Chae; Chris Hope

2003-01-01

156

Rice Production Changes over East Asia in a CO2 Doubled Climate Induced by PNU CGCM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, simulated future agro-climate indices under the assumption of doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration have been compared with those of present climate in order to investigate the possible changes in agricultural production, particularly for rice, in East Asia. The agro-climate change is analyzed focused on the agro-climate indices such as vegetable and crop periods, frost days, climatic production index (CPI) for rice (Shim et al., 2008). In this study, any biological changes associated with the increase of CO2 are not considered. For this, a high-resolution regional climate in the domain of East Asia (105-150E, 21-50N) was produced by applying the low-resolution climate change scenario of the 250km of horizontal grid produced by the Pusan National University Coupled General Circulation Model (PNU CGCM) to Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, a regional model, through a dynamical downscaling method. The analysis was for March to November of the 10-year period between 51 and 60 after the initiation of the doubling experiment. According to our results, increases in the vegetable and crop periods are projected in the entire domain of East Asia in the CO2 doubled climate. Also last frost date in Spring and first frost day in Autumn are expected to be early and late, respectively, in the analysis region. However, decreasing in the CPI is found throughout most of East Asia, indicating that the agricultural environment do not become good particularly for rice growth in spite of warm climate.

Ahn, J.; Hong, J.; Shim, K.; Lee, D.

2010-12-01

157

WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia  

SciTech Connect

This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2014-08-01

158

Characteristics and dynamic settings of the Central-east Asia multi-energy minerals metallogenetic domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

That more than 82 percent of proved sandstone-type uranium deposits coexist with proved oil-gas or coalfields in the world\\u000a reflects the fact of coexistence and accumulation of multi-energy minerals including oil, gas, coal and uranium in the same\\u000a basin. Especially, this phenomenon is most typical in the Central-east Asia energy basins. Across China, Mongolia and some\\u000a central Asian countries, the

ChiYang Liu; XinWei Qiu; BoLin Wu; HongGe Zhao

2007-01-01

159

Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the effects of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations over East Asia using wet deposition fluxes observed at Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model together with a new below-cloud-scavenging scheme. Typical air quality models, including CMAQ, assume below-cloud scavenging as a simple first-order process with a constant or simple form depending on rain intensity. The scheme used here accounts for the collection efficiency, terminal velocity of raindrops, raindrop-size distributions, and particle-size distributions, which are important factors affecting below-cloud scavenging. We conduct model simulations for spring 2001, including baseline and sensitivity simulations. Our analysis mainly focuses on May 2001 to rule out the effect of dust aerosols. Simulated wet deposition fluxes of SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ by the new scheme are increased by 103, 16, and 108%, respectively, relative to the baseline simulation and show better agreement with observations. The effect of below-cloud scavenging on coarse particles is even greater, producing wet deposition fluxes two orders of magnitude higher than the baseline. The resulting changes in the model indicate the considerable impacts of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations over East Asia, where both anthropogenic emissions and natural sources of aerosols are present throughout the year. An accurate wet scavenging simulation is critical to simulate the atmospheric burden and wet deposition fluxes of both fine-mode and coarse-mode aerosols over East Asia.

Bae, Soo Ya; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Yong Pyo; Woo, Jung-Hun

2012-10-01

160

Clashes and dialogues of civilizations revisited the case of contemporary East Asia and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to inquire whether or notpolitical desiderata apartgenuine intercultural dialogue is feasible between\\u000a Europe and East Asia, and if so, in which subject areas this could be done productively. It therefore examines the underlying\\u000a value patterns which are grounded in religious traditions on both sides. It retraces the consequences which Communist rule\\u000a had (and continues to have)

Albrecht Rothacher

2008-01-01

161

A palaeo-hydrogeological model for arsenic contamination in southern and south-east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An argument is presented in which areas of natural arsenic contamination of modern groundwaters throughout Asia have a common\\u000a origin. Arsenic originally accumulated in oceanic ferro-manganoan sediments of the eastern Palaeo-Tethys. This was further\\u000a concentrated through oceanic crustal extinction in what later became the south-east Chinese accreted mineralised terrain.\\u000a Proto-Himalayan uplift of this area created the palaeo-drainage systems of the

Gordon Stanger

2005-01-01

162

Three major lineages of Asian Y chromosomes: implications for the peopling of east and southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA variation on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome was examined in 610 male samples from 14 global populations in north, east, and southeast Asia, and other regions of the world. Eight haplotypes were observed by analyses of seven biallelic polymorphic markers (DYS257108, DYS287, SRY4064, SRY10831, RPS4Y711, M9, and M15) and were unevenly distributed among the populations. Maximum parsimony

Atsushi Tajima; I-Hung Pan; Goonnapa Fucharoen; Supan Fucharoen; Masafumi Matsuo; Katsushi Tokunaga; Takeo Juji; Masanori Hayami; Keiichi Omoto; Satoshi Horai

2002-01-01

163

Multiannual Top-Down Estimate of HFC-23 Emissions in East Asia.  

PubMed

Trifluoromethane (CHF3, HFC-23), with a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of 12400, is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. HFC-23 emissions in East Asia, especially in China, are currently thought to represent the majority of global HFC-23 emissions. This study provides both a bottom-up emission inventory and the multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia during 2007-2012. The new bottom-up inventory yields improved simulated HFC-23 mixing ratios compared to previous bottom-up inventories. The top-down estimate uses inverse modeling to further improve the model-measurement agreement. Results show that China contributed 94-98% of all HFC-23 emissions in East Asia. Annual a posteriori emissions from China were around 6.3 Gg/yr during the period 2007-2010 after which they increased to 7.1 0.7 Gg/yr in 2011 and 8.8 0.8 Gg/yr in 2012. For the first time, this study also provides a top-down estimate of HFC-23/HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) coproduction ratios in non-CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) HCFC-22 production plants as well as in all HCFC-22 production plants in China. PMID:25785483

Fang, X; Stohl, A; Yokouchi, Y; Kim, J; Li, S; Saito, T; Park, S; Hu, J

2015-04-01

164

Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity.  

PubMed

Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive 'species pumps' particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10-17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region. PMID:23446524

Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

2013-04-22

165

Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene.  

PubMed

Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25-10?kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2015-01-01

166

Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 2510?kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2015-01-01

167

Donor issues in Indonesia: A developing country in South East Asia.  

PubMed

In most developing countries in South East Asia blood services have not been treated properly as an important service to support health program. Indonesia as a large archipelago country in South East Asia has specific obstacles in managing a blood service. To position the country blood service profile especially in term of donor issues, we compared our blood service with that in other South East Asia countries. Indonesia has 17 thousand islands with 220 million inhabitants. Blood services have been mostly run by the Indonesian Red Cross as a government assignment since 1950. Donor recruitment programs have been directed toward 100% of Voluntary Non Remunerated Blood Donor (VNRD), which now have reached 81.3%. Dissemination of information on VNRD, donor recruiter's training and VNRD appreciation programs are strategies to increase and maintain the VNRD. Limited female donors and insufficient blood supply during the fasting month and holidays constitute major challenges. Low hemoglobin level, low body weight and fear are reasons for low number of female donors. Poor management of blood stock during fasting month, long holidays and also poor networking of blood supply are reasons for insufficient blood supply during the year. Considering the great size of Indonesia with different ethnic groups and cultures, worsened by lack of infrastructure, decisive and effective strategies in donor recruitment and retention programs are needed. PMID:20211426

Soedarmono, Yuyun S M

2010-01-01

168

Emissions of halogenated compounds in East Asia determined from measurements at Jeju Island, Korea.  

PubMed

High-frequency in situ measurements at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) during November 2007 to December 2008 have been combined with interspecies correlation analysis to estimate national emissions of halogenated compounds (HCs) in East Asia, including the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)), and other chlorinated and brominated compounds. Our results suggest that overall China is the dominant emitter of HCs in East Asia, however significant emissions are also found in South Korea, Japan and Taiwan for HFC-134a, HFC-143a, C(2)F(6), SF(6), CH(3)CCl(3), and HFC-365mfc. The combined emissions of CFCs, halon-1211, HCFCs, HFCs, PFCs, and SF(6) from all four countries in 2008 are 25.3, 1.6, 135, 42.6, 3.6, and 2.0 kt/a, respectively. They account for approximately 15%, 26%, 29%, 16%, 32%, and 26.5% of global emissions, respectively. Our results show signs that Japan has successfully phased out CFCs and HCFCs in compliance with the Montreal Protocol (MP), Korea has started transitioning from HCFCs to HFCs, while China still significantly consumes HCFCs. Taiwan, while not directly regulated under the MP, is shown to have adapted the use of HFCs. Combined analysis of emission rates and the interspecies correlation matrix presented in this study proves to be a powerful tool for monitoring and diagnosing changes in consumption of HCs in East Asia. PMID:21649439

Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Mhle, Jens; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Stohl, Andreas; Kang, Dong-Jin; Arnold, Tim; Harth, Christina M; Salameh, Peter K; Weiss, Ray F

2011-07-01

169

Plate tectonic reconstruction of South and East Asia since 43 Ma using seismic tomographic constraints: role of the subducted ';East Asia Sea' (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithosphere that subducts at convergent plate boundaries provides a potentially decipherable plate tectonic record. In this study we use global seismic tomography to map subducted slabs in the upper and lower mantle under South and East Asia to constrain plate reconstructions. The mapped slabs include the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and Banda Sea, the Molucca Sea, Celebes Sea, the Philippine Sea and Eurasia, New Guinea and other lower mantle detached slabs. The mapped slabs were restored to the earth surface and used with Gplates software to constrain a globally-consistent, fully animated plate reconstruction of South and East Asia. Three principal slab elements dominate possible plate reconstructions: [1] The mapped Pacific slabs near the Izu-Bonin and the Marianas trenches form a subvertical slab curtain or wall extending down to 1500 km in the lower mantle. The ';slab curtain' geometry and restored slabs lengths indicate that the Pacific subduction zone has remained fixed within +/- 250 km of its present position since ~43 Ma. In contrast, the Tonga Pacific slab curtain records at least 1000 km trench rollback associated with expansion of back-arc basins. [2] West of the Pacific slab curtain, a set of flat slabs exist in the lower mantle and record a major 8000km by 2500-3000km ocean that existed at ~43 Ma. This now-subducted ocean, which we call the ';East Asian Sea', existed between the Ryukyu Asian margin and the Lord Howe hotspot, present-day eastern Australia, and fills a major gap in Cenozoic plate reconstructions between Indo-Australia, the Pacific Ocean and Asia. [3] An observed ';picture puzzle' fit between the restored edges of the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Indian Ocean slabs suggests that the Philippine Sea was once part of a larger Indo-Australian Ocean. Previous models of Philippine Sea plate motions are in conflict with the location of the East Asian Sea lithosphere. Using the mapped slab constraints, we propose the following 43 Ma to 0 plate tectonic reconstruction. At ~43 Ma a major plate reorganization occurred in South and East Asia marked by Indian Ocean Wharton ridge extinction, initiation of Pacific Ocean WNW motions and the rapid northward motion of the Australian plate. The Philippine Sea and Molucca Sea were clustered at the northern margin of Australia, northwest of New Guinea. During the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with Australia, accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. The East Asian Sea was subducted under the northward-moving Philippine Sea and Australia plates, and the expanding Melanesian and Shikoku-Parece Vela backarc basins. At ~20 to 25 Ma the Philippine Sea and Molucca Sea were fragmented from Indo-Australia and began to have a westward component of motion due to partial Pacific capture. Around 1-2 Ma the Philippine Sea was more fully captured by the Pacific and now has rapid Pacific-like northwestward motions.

Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V.

2013-12-01

170

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 RE and Islamic Studies and the Asia-Pacific College of Diplomacy conducted a training program for Afghan Amin Saikal, Director of the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies, and Professor William Maley, Director

171

Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5 x 0.5 grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than precipitations for both mean and extreme. Near-term future projections for 2024-2049 from four available RCMs suggest that temperature and precipitation are expected to increase in both mean and extremes over East Asia.

Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

2014-05-01

172

Observations of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols in East and South Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), brown carbon and mineral dust, typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we investigate the optical and radiative properties of light-absorbing aerosols from ground-based and aircraft measurements in East and South Asia within the framework of UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud-Asia (ABC-Asia) project and Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) campaign (December 2012 ~ February 2013). BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements and radiative forcing calculations were performed at four sites: Gosan (Korea), Anmyeon (Korea), Hanimaadhoo (Maldives) and Pyramid (Nepal). No significant seasonal variations of aerosol properties, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at Hanimaadhoo during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at Gosan and Anmyeon is higher than that in Hanimaadhoo due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at Pyramid is 0.14, which is two times great than that in Hanimaadhoo and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at Pyramid is the lowest among four sites. Throughout the unmanned aerial vehicle experiment in Jeju, Korea during August-September 2008, long-range transport of aerosols from Beijing, Shanghai and Marine plumes are sampled in aerosol layers up to 3-4 km above sea level. The diurnal mean solar heating rate, calculated from the observed solar fluxes in shortwave regime (0.3 to 2.8 ?m), at 3 to 4 km altitudes for Beijing and marine plume conditions are about 1.0 and 0.75 K/day, respectively. On the other hand, BC concentration at Kathmandu during SusKat campaign is found to be maximum in the morning (09LST) as well as in the late evening (20LST). Around noon time lowest amount of BC is recorded. Increased vehicular movement and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to higher amount of BC. In addition the wind direction contributes to the variation in BC concentration.

Yoon, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, W.

2013-05-01

173

Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

2003-01-01

174

Impact of the November/December Arctic Oscillation on the following January temperature in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

investigated the impacts of the preceding Arctic Oscillation (AO) on winter East Asian temperature (TEA) and the possible mechanisms. It was found that the correlation of the November AO (Nov AO) with the following January TEA is more significant than that with the following December and February TEA. Moreover, the January TEA is also closely related to the preceding December AO (Dec AO). Further analysis revealed that a Rossby wave associated with the Nov AO is confined to high latitudes in December but shifts southeastward to East Asia in January. Similarly, the Dec AO-related wave activities propagating southeastward to East Asia could persist into the following January. Consequently, the signals of the Nov/Dec AO could be transmitted to the following January. Besides, an air-sea interaction might exist over the North Pacific (NP). The sea surface temperature (SST) over the central subtropical NP (west coast of North America) often rapidly rises (drops) a month later and peaks in the following January when the preceding Nov/Dec AO is in positive phase, causing horseshoe SST anomalies (SSTAs) to form in the NP, with positive SSTAs located in the central subtropical NP and surrounded by negative ones. Such a horseshoe SSTA could lead to a strengthening of the air temperature gradient in the north and a weakening in the south due to effective turbulent mixing in the boundary layer. A huge anomalous anticyclone therefore emerges in the NP and favors a weaker East Asian winter monsoon. Warmer January TEA is eventually generated.

He, Shengping; Wang, Huijun

2013-12-01

175

Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.  

PubMed

This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Nio-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

2014-01-01

176

Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Nio-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

2014-07-01

177

Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012  

PubMed Central

This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Nio-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

2014-01-01

178

Regional modeling of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and inter-annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and its direct radiative forcing. A variety of in situ measurements and satellite observations have been used to evaluate the simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reasonably reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions. In addition, the dust lifecycle and processes that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance are investigated over seven sub-regions of desert dust sources (Taklimakan Desert (TD) and Gobi Desert (GD)), the Tibetan Plateau (TP), Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan. Over the two major dust source regions of East Asia (TD and GD), transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks with contributing of ?25% and ?36%, respectively. Dust direct radiative forcing in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 9 and 2 W m-2, and TOA (Top of atmospheric) cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2, respectively. Dust transported from the TD is the dominant dust source over the TP with a peak in summer. Over the identified outflow regions (the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan), maximum dust column concentration in spring is contributed by transport. Dry and wet depositions are comparable dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The ability of WRF-Chem to capture the measured features of dust optical and radiative properties and dust mass balance over East Asian provides confidence for future investigation of East Asia dust impact on regional or global climate.

Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, L. Ruby; Huang, Jianping; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

2014-12-01

179

East is east and West is west: perspectives on the menopause in Asia and The West.  

PubMed

There is a school of thought that believes that menopausal symptoms are a peculiarly 'Western' phenomenon, not experienced by women from other regions and particularly not from Asia where, it has been claimed, dietary, social and cultural factors afforded protection for women living in that region. More recently, studies conducted in multi-ethnic communities living in Western countries as well as in Asian communities have found that the menopause and its consequences are similar world-wide. Ethnic differences within Asia account for small differences in endogenous hormone levels and age at menopause between Asian and Western women, and the type of menopause symptoms and their prevalence also differ between those two communities. However, like in the West and perhaps because of a Western influence, the long-term health problems of postmenopausal women including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and breast cancer are of major importance to Asian women and health services in the 21st century. PMID:23931652

Baber, R J

2014-02-01

180

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

Chowdhury, 13 June 2007. Reviving the Middle East Peace Process: An Arab Perspective, dr Ezzedine ChoukriCentre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 IRAn communities and the broader community in Western European countries. Roundtable on `Islam In the modeRn wo

181

Aerosol retrieval over East Asia from GOSAT-CAI measurements during the DRAGON campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In East Asia, ground and satellite observation is important because aerosols are very complex in this region. For this reason, we developed an algorithm for the East Asia where optical properties of aerosol are integrated from AERONET sun-photometers to generate lookup table (LUT). Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation -Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) launched in January 2009 onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) iprovides unique channels in UV, visible and NIR to retrieve aerosol informations. This algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol type in 0.1 degree x 0.1 degree and 1.1 degree x 1.0 degree resolutions. To distinguish aerosol absorptivity, we also utilized blue channels from of Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) launched in March 2010 onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). Surface reflectance of this region is determined from 45-day composite of Rayleigh and gas corrected reflectance. Particularly we compared the retrieved AOD with those of AERONET during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) - Asia campaign period and the found reasonalbe agreements between the two results.

Lee, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Choi, M.; Go, S.; Lim, H.

2013-12-01

182

Changing patterns of HIV epidemic in 30 years in East Asia.  

PubMed

The HIV epidemic in East Asia started relatively late compared to the rest of the world. All countries or areas, except for North Korea, had reported HIV and AIDS cases, with China being the major contributor to the epidemic. Though initially driven by injecting drug use in China, East Asia did not experience an explosive spread. Strong commitment in China and early harm reduction programs in Taiwan managed to reduce transmission substantially among injecting drug users. In contrast to China and Taiwan, injection drug use has accounted just a little, if not at all, for the spread of HIV in other East Asian counties. However, following a global trend, sexual contact has become a major route of infection across the region. While much progress has been achieved in this region, with the epidemic among other key populations relatively stable, the emerging epidemic through sex between men is a growing concern. Recent estimates suggest that HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) has reached 6.3 % in China, 7.5 % in Mongolia, and ranges between 8.1 %-10.7 % in Taiwan and between 2.7 %- 6.5 % in South Korea. In Japan, 74 % of male HIV cases were among MSM in 2012, while Hong Kong has witnessed a sharp increase of HIV cases among MSM since 2004. There is urgent need to address issues of discrimination and stigma toward homosexuality, and to strengthen the strategies to reach and care for this population. PMID:24664878

Suguimoto, S Pilar; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-saaidi, Christina; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

2014-06-01

183

A palaeo-hydrogeological model for arsenic contamination in southern and south-east Asia.  

PubMed

An argument is presented in which areas of natural arsenic contamination of modern groundwaters throughout Asia have a common origin. Arsenic originally accumulated in oceanic ferro-manganoan sediments of the eastern Palaeo-Tethys. This was further concentrated through oceanic crustal extinction in what later became the south-east Chinese accreted mineralised terrain. Proto-Himalayan uplift of this area created the palaeo-drainage systems of the Ganges - Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Mekong, and Red Rivers, with consequent headwater erosion of arsenic-rich sediments. Their downstream deposition as immature and easily redistributed Neogene sandstones, silts, and iron-rich clays has created secondary and tertiary reservoirs of adsorbed and authigenic arsenic, from which the current arsenic-rich groundwaters have evolved. Considering river basins within the above palaeo-hydrogeological framework provides a basis for assessing the risk of arsenic in groundwater basins of south and south-eastern Asia. PMID:16027970

Stanger, Gordon

2005-12-01

184

A climatology of extratropical cyclones over East Asia during 1958-2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climatology of extratropical cyclones (ECs) over East Asia (20-75N, 60-160E) is analyzed by applying an improved objective detection and tracking algorithm to the 4-time daily sea level pressure fields from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data. A total of 12914 EC processes for the period of 1958-2001 are identified, with an EC database integrated and EC activities reanalyzed using the objective algorithm. The results reveal that there are three major cyclogenesis regions: West Siberian Plain, Mongolia (to the south of Lake Baikal), and the coastal region of East China; whereas significant cyclolysis regions are observed in Siberia north of 60N, Northeast China, and Okhotsk Sea-Northwest Pacific. It is found that the EC lifetime is largely 1-7 days while winter ECs have the shortest lifespan. The ECs are the weakest in summer among the four seasons. Strong ECs often appear in West Siberia, Northeast China, and Okhotsk Sea-Northwest Pacific. Statistical analysis based on k-means clustering has identified 6 dominating trajectories in the area south of 55N and east of 80E, among which 4 tracks have important impacts on weather/climate in China. ECs occurring in spring (summer) tend to travel the longest (shortest). They move the fastest in winter, and the slowest in summer. In winter, cyclones move fast in Northeast China, some areas of the Yangtze-Huaihe River region, and the south of Japan, with speed greater than 15 m s-1. Explosively-deepening cyclones are found to occur frequently along the east coast of China, Japan, and Northwest Pacific, but very few storms occur over the inland area. Bombs prefer to occur in winter, spring, and autumn. Their annual number and intensity in 1990 and 1992 in East Asia (EA) are smaller and weaker than their counterparts in North America.

Zhang, Yingxian; Ding, Yihui; Li, Qiaoping

2012-06-01

185

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

Gonzlez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simn, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpci

2012-01-01

186

Changbai intraplate volcanism and deep earthquakes in East Asia: a possible link?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of intraplate volcanoes in Northeast Asia is considered to be associated with upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Among these intraplate volcanoes, Changbai is the largest and most active one, and very deep earthquakes (500-650 km depths) in the Pacific slab under East Asia occur 300 km to the east of the Changbai volcano. Integrating the findings of geophysical, geochemical and petrologic studies so far, we suggest a link between Changbai volcanism and the deep earthquakes in the Pacific slab. Many large shallow earthquakes occurred in the Pacific Plate in the outer-rise areas close to the oceanic trench, and sea water may enter down to a deep portion of the oceanic lithosphere through the active normal faults which generated the large outer-rise earthquakes. Sea water or fluids may be preserved in the active faults even after the Pacific Plate subducts into the mantle. Many large deep earthquakes are observed that took place in the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asian margin. At least some of the large deep earthquakes are caused by the reactivation of faults preserved in the subducting slab, and the fluids preserved in the faults within the slab may cause the observed non-double-couple components of the deep earthquake faulting. Fluids preserved in the slab may be released to the overlying mantle wedge through large deep earthquakes. Because large deep earthquakes occur frequently in the vicinity of the Changbai volcano, many more fluids could be supplied to this volcano than in other areas in Northeast Asia, making Changbai the largest and most active intraplate volcano in the region.

Zhao, Dapeng; Tian, You

2013-11-01

187

Characteristics of atmospheric circulation over East Asia associated with summer blocking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boreal summer-blocking regions were defined using the reanalysis data over the three decades of 1981-2010, and the influence of the blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode.

Park, Yong-Jun; Ahn, Joong-Bae

2014-01-01

188

Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes over East Asia through AsiaFlux and improved MODIS gross primary production data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate estimation of carbon fluxes over terrestrial ecosystems provides useful information in studying the global carbon cycle. Estimates of carbon fluxes such as gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) have been commonly used as indicators of the global carbon budgets. Eddy covariance (EC) flux towers are operating all over the world, networking each other. The towers provide temporally continuous measurements of carbon, water and energy over terrestrial ecosystems as being the best way to estimate ecosystem fluxes up to date. However, the EC flux towers only cover the scale of footprint, having difficulty in representing fluxes at the regional or continental scale. For upscaling flux tower data, satellite products that cover vast areas at high temporal resolution can be used. While many studies were conducted to estimate carbon fluxes from satellite products using process-based modeling and empirical modeling approaches, there are still great uncertainties in carbon flux estimation due to biases and errors associated with in-situ measurements, spatio-temporal discrepancy between satellite products and in-situ measurements, and relatively less accurate satellite products. In this paper, NEE and GPP were estimated using machine learning techniques including random forest, Cubist, and support vector regression. Various satellite products were used as independent variables such as land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, leaf area index, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, GPP, evapotranspiration, rainfall, normalized difference water index obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). However, MODIS GPP based on the light use efficiency (LUE) model has some uncertainties derived from input data used in this model such as coarse spatial resolution of the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) meteorological data, upstream data of MODIS land cover use, FPAR, LAI, and model parameters. MODIS GPP data was improved using enhanced input variables by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data with high spatial resolution instead of DAO data, reflecting topographic characteristics over East Asia. GPP estimated using the enhanced input variables was compared with original MODIS GPP and in situ GPP to analyze the degree of improvements. Finally, improved GPP data were incorporated into the machine learning empirical models to estimate NEE. The spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP and NEE) over East Asia were also examined considering vegetation type and topography.

Kim, Miae; Im, Jungho; Lee, Junghee; Shin, Minso; Lee, Sanggyun

2014-05-01

189

WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 ?m or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40-50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby

2014-08-01

190

Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded); CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya) by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and diploids indicates that triploids are not composed of a single independent lineage. The ancient origins and evolutionary uniqueness of the seven lineages warrant their conservation. An overall phylogenetic framework obtained from the present study will be of use for estimating the phylogenetic relationships of Carassius fishes on the Eurasian continent. PMID:20064277

2010-01-01

191

Aerosol impacts on cloud thermodynamic phase change over East Asia observed with CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impacts of aerosols on subfreezing cloud thermodynamic phase change over East Asia are studied by using 4 year combined CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar measurements. The mean occurrence frequencies of supercooled-liquid, mixed-phase, and glaciated clouds over East Asia are 10.4%, 10.3%, and 16.9%, respectively. Over northwest of East Asia (32-44N, 75-100E), subfreezing clouds are dominated by glaciated clouds with a mean relative cloud fraction (RCF) of ~60% and over southeast (16-32N, 95-120E) are dominated by supercooled-liquid clouds with a mean RCF of ~50%. Although cloud top temperature (CTT) differences contribute largely to the thermodynamic phase differences, northwest of East Asia has ~20% larger glaciated (smaller mixed-phase) RCFs than those of southeast at the same CTT. Seasonal anomalies of glaciated and mixed-phase RCFs correlate well with the seasonal variations of dust occurrence frequency. In addition, subfreezing clouds associated with mineral dust contain approximately 5%, 10%, and 20% larger glaciated (smaller mixed-phase) RCFs than those associated with polluted dust, smoke, and background aerosols at any given CTT. It is suggested that dust impacts on subfreezing clouds over East Asia by providing abundant effective ice nuclei to glaciate mixed-phase clouds, although the impacts of large-scale dynamics and water supply mechanisms cannot be ruled out.

Zhang, Damao; Liu, Dong; Luo, Tao; Wang, Zhien; Yin, Yan

2015-02-01

192

East Asia Crisis Workshop at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 13 and 14, 1998, the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) held an international workshop on the financial crisis in East Asia. Held in Brighton, UK, the workshop had contributors from leading academic institutions, private financial institutes, and international organizations such as the OECD. Commissioned papers in full text include "The East Asian Financial Crisis: A Year Later," by Yung Chul Park and Chi-Young Song of Kookmin University, "How to Protect Developing Countries from Volatility of Capital Flows?" by Stephany Griffith-Jones, Senior Fellow at IDS, and "Domestic Causes of Currency Crises: Policy Lessons for Crisis Avoidance," by Helmut Reisen, Head of Research at the OECD Development Centre, among others. Selected short contributions are also available on topics such as the macroeconomy in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

1998-01-01

193

Evaluation of simulated precipitation: Recent trends in extreme indices over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate research, particularly application studies for water, agriculture, forestry, fishery and energy management require fine scale multi-decadal information of meteorological, oceanographic and land states. Unfortunately, spatially and temporally homogeneous multi-decadal observations of these variables in high horizontal resolution are non-existent. Some long term surface records of temperature and precipitation exist, but the number of observation is very limited and the measurements are often contaminated by changes in instrumentation over time. Some climatologically important variables, such as soil moisture, surface evaporation, and radiation are not even measured over most of East Asia. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to provide valuable regional finescale information, especially in regions where the climate variables are strongly regulated by the underlying topography and the surface heterogeneity. We investigated the ability of a regional climate model to provide the characteristics of East Asian climate focusing on summer and winter monsoon using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system [GRIMs; Hong et al. 2013]. The model can reproduce large scale features associated the East Asian summer and winter monsoon in terms of 30-year (1979-2008) seasonal mean climate. However, accurate prediction of monsoon precipitation is still a challenging task. Precipitation is one of the most important results generated during the model simulation. It is also generally the most difficult variable to simulate correctly in a regional model. Therefore, we will focus on precipitation to examine variability and uncertainty over East Asia in terms of extreme indices. The assessment of simulated precipitation is expected to provide the high-quality data that can be used in various application areas such as hydrology or environmental model forcing.

Yhang, Yoo-Bin

2014-05-01

194

Methane emission estimates in East Asia from a Bayesian atmospheric inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) is the second most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas. The atmospheric mole fraction of CH4 has been increasing throughout the 20th and into the 21st century. Despite a short respite in the growth of CH4 in the early 2000s, the atmospheric mole fraction has been increasing again since 2007. The reason for this increase is still not fully understood but is likely due to a combination of increased anthropogenic emissions as well as climate-driven variability in natural sources. Higher emissions of CH4 from East Asia, in particular, China could possibly contribute to an increase in the anthropogenic source. However, the emissions from this region have been hitherto poorly constrained. We present spatially and temporally resolved estimates of CH4 emission from East Asia for 2006 - 2009 using a Bayesian atmospheric inversion. Observations from 11 sites (for 2006 - 2008) and 15 sites (for 2009) in the East Asian domain were included. Globally, data were included from AGAGE, NOAA, NIES, NIER, KMA and JMA networks/stations. The latter period includes 4 new in-situ sites from the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences network. Atmospheric transport was modelled using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART with ECMWF ERA-interim meteorological analyses. The inversion was solved globally on a grid of variable spatial (from 11 to 99) and monthly temporal resolution. Background mixing ratios were found by coupling FLEXPART to output from the global chemistry and transport model, LMDZ4, and were also optimized in the inversion. We found higher (relative to the prior) emissions in densely populated regions on the east coast of China as well as inland in the regions of Sichuan, Qaidam, and Tarim, where productive gas fields are located, which suggests that there are important under-accounted for CH4 sources from natural gas production and transport in China.

Thompson, R.; Stohl, A.; Zhou, L. X.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Fukuyama, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, H.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Fraser, P.

2013-12-01

195

Cryptic diversification of the swamp eel Monopterus albus in East and Southeast Asia, with special reference to the Ryukyuan populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swamp eel Monopterus albus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical freshwaters ranging from Southeast Asia to East Asia, and is unique in\\u000a its ability to breathe air through the buccal mucosa. To examine the genetic structure of this widespread species, molecular\\u000a phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequence (514bp) were conducted for 84 specimens from 13 localities in

Seiji Matsumoto; Takeshi Kon; Motoomi Yamaguchi; Hirohiko Takeshima; Yuji Yamazaki; Takahiko Mukai; Kaoru Kuriiwa; Masanori Kohda; Mutsumi Nishida

2010-01-01

196

Aerosol-Chemistry Interactions: Biomass burning events in South East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of many atmospheric pollutants (such as methane, ozone, CO, sulfate and some organic compounds) is controlled by emissions and the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. As well as being a pollutant, ozone is also a precursor to the hydroxyl radical, a powerful tropospheric oxidant. Large biomass burning events emit substantial amounts of particles and ozone precursors into the atmosphere, and can thus impact chemical processes, air quality, and climate. Aerosol particles can influence chemical processing in the atmosphere through altered rates of photolysis (affecting ozone production and OH concentrations), as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions to occur upon. South East Asia experiences significant biomass burning events each year, and is also in the proximity of substantial and growing anthropogenic emissions from other parts of Asia. A global model of chemistry, aerosol and transport (the GMI model) is used to investigate the impact of emissions from biomass burning events in SE Asia on chemical processes in the troposphere. The effects of aerosols via heterogeneous uptake of gases, and also through altered rates of photolysis are separated and quantified. Subsequent impacts on photochemical processing of pollutants and air quality are discussed.

Macintyre, H.; Bian, H.; Steenrod, S. D.; Chin, M.; Cohen, J. B.; Wang, C.

2012-12-01

197

Progress in health-related millennium development goals in the WHO South-East Asia Region.  

PubMed

Home to 25% of the world's population and bearing 30% of the Global disease burden, the South-East Asia Region [1] of the World Health Organization has an important role in the progress of global health. Three of the eight million development goal (MDG) goals that relate to health are MDG 4, 5, and 6. There is progress in all three goals within the countries of the region, although the progress varies across countries and even within countries. With concerted and accelerated efforts in some countries and certain specific areas, the region will achieve the targets of the three health MDGs. The key challenges are in sustainable scaling up of evidence-based interventions to improve maternal and child health and controlling communicable diseases. This will require continued focus and investments in strengthening health systems that provide individual and family centered comprehensive package of interventions with equitable reach and that which is provided free at the point of service delivery. Important lessons that have been learnt in implementing the MDG agenda in the past two decades will inform setting up of the post MDG global health agenda. This article provides a snap shot of progress thus far, key challenges and opportunities in WHO South-East Asia Region and lays down the way forward for the global health agenda post 2015. PMID:23354135

Singh, Poonam Khetrapal

2012-01-01

198

Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in East and Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen. PMID:25850395

Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

2015-04-01

199

Regional Climate Simulations of Summer Diurnal Rainfall Variations over East Asia and Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the simulations of summer (June-August) precipitation over East Asia by the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3), with emphasis on the diurnal variations of precipitation over Southeast China (PSEC) during the 1998-2002 summer seasons. The evaluation focuses on the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations in PSEC as proposed by previous observational studies. It is found that the diurnal variations of PSEC are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs). In particular, the Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption (GFC) produces reasonable diurnal variations of PSEC. Other CPSs such as the Emanuel scheme produces a weaker late-afternoon maximum of PSEC, and the Kuo scheme as well as the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption (GAS) is unable to simulate the occurrence of the late-afternoon maximum of PSEC. The simulations show that the adoption of the GFC scheme reproduces the large-scale land-sea breeze circulation and the moisture flux convergence that have been documented by previous studies as the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations of PSEC. This feature illustrates the importance of convective cloud feedback at the diurnal timescale in maintaining the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of precipitation over East Asia are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

Huang, W.-R.; Chan, J. C. L.

2012-04-01

200

Source contributions of sulfate aerosol over East Asia estimated by CMAQ-DDM.  

PubMed

We applied the decoupled direct method (DDM), a sensitivity analysis technique for computing sensitivities accurately and efficiently, to determine the source-receptor relationships of anthropogenic SO(2) emissions to sulfate aerosol over East Asia. We assessed source contributions from East Asia being transported to Oki Island downwind from China and Korea during two air pollution episodes that occurred in July 2005. The contribution from China, particularly that from central eastern China (CEC), was found to dominate the sulfate aerosols. To study these contributions in more detail, CEC was divided into three regions, and the contributions from each region were examined. Source contributions exhibited both temporal and vertical variability, largely due to transport patterns imposed by the Asian summer monsoon. Our results are consistent with backward trajectory analyses. We found that anthropogenic SO(2) emissions from China produce significant quantities of summertime sulfate aerosols downwind of source areas. We used a parametric scaling method for estimating anthropogenic SO(2) emissions in China. Using column amounts of SO(2) derived from satellite data, and relationships between the column amounts of SO(2) and anthropogenic emissions, 2009 emissions were diagnosed. The results showed that 2009 emissions of SO(2) from China were equivalent to 2004 levels. PMID:22642816

Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae

2012-06-19

201

Decreasing emissions of NOx relative to CO2 in East Asia inferred from satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, global CO2 emission inventories are mainly based on bottom-up estimates that rely, for example, on reported fossil fuel consumptions and fuel types. The associated uncertainties propagate into the CO2-to-NOx emission ratios that are used in pollution prediction and monitoring, as well as into biospheric carbon fluxes derived by inverse models. Here we analyse simultaneous and co-located satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY (ref. ; SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) of the column-average dry-air mole fraction of CO2 (refs , ) and NO2 (refs , , ) for the years 2003-2011 to provide a top-down estimate of trends in emissions and in the ratio between CO2 and NOx emissions. Our analysis shows that the CO2-to-NOx emission ratio has increased by 4.2 +/- 1.7% yr-1 in East Asia. In this region, we find a large positive trend of CO2 emissions (9.8 +/- 1.7% yr-1), which we largely attribute to the growing Chinese economy. This trend exceeds the positive trend of NOx emissions (5.8 +/- 0.9% yr-1). Our findings suggest that the recently installed and renewed technology in East Asia, such as power plants, transportation and so on, is cleaner in terms of NOx emissions than the old infrastructure, and roughly matches relative emission levels in North America and Europe.

Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Schneising, O.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.

2014-11-01

202

A Study on Superensemble Simulation of East Asia Summer Climate Projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the superensemble simulation method is applied to combine the predicted results of various global circulation models: MPIM, NCAR, CCCma, CCSRNIES, GFDL and HCCPR. Climate factors considered are the 2m temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure and wind flow. Due to various domain and grid of each model output, all data (including the global reanalysis data ERA40) are interpolated to an identical domain (East Asia). Then, linear combination of all model outputs are done by designating a weighting coefficient for each model output by either the equal weight, which is the ensemble mean, or the inverse of square error summation (ISES) method. The training period for ISES is from 1980 to 1999, while the verification period will be from 2000 to 2005. Then the super-ensemble projections for the 2040s and 2090s decades are obtained and studied. Since we are mainly concerned with the summer climate projection, the variation of the intensity of the Pacific High and the expansion or contraction of its domain will affect significantly the strength of the southwesterly flow from South China Sea into Mainland China and therefore the intensification of temperature increase and rainfall enhancement over most of East Asia.

Liu, C.; Yang, Y.; Chen, C.; Lin, S.; Lee, Y.; Chen, S.; Paul, S.

2006-12-01

203

The Effects of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in ChinaRegions on East Asia Monsoons  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we examine the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China on East Asia monsoons and its precipitation processes by using the CAM3.0 model. It is demonstrated that sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China both have the effects to weaken East Asia monsoons in both summer and winter seasons. However, they certainly differ from each other in affecting vertical structures of temperature and atmospheric circulations. Their differences are expected because of their distinct optical properties, i.e., scattering vs. absorbing. Even for a single type of aerosol, its effects on temperature structures and atmospheric circulations are largely season-dependent. Applications of T-test on our results indicate that forcing from black carbon aerosols over China is relatively weak and limited. It is also evident from our results that the effects of synthetic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon together) on monsoons are not simply a linear summation between these two types of aerosols. Instead, they are determined by their integrated optical properties. Synthetic aerosols to a large degree resemble effects of sulfate aerosols. This implies a likely scattering property for the integration of black carbon and sulfate aerosols in China.

Yang, Bai [ORNL; Liu, Yu [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China; Sun, Jiaren [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Guangzhou, China

2009-01-01

204

Characteristics of the Lidar Ratio Determined from Lidar and Sky Radiometer Measurements in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present aerosol lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio; the ratio between optical extinction and backscatter), which is an important parameter used in the determination of the aerosol extinction profiles and subsequently the aerosol optical depth (AOD), determined by combining simultaneous elastic-backscatter lidar and sky radiometer measurements in East Asia. In this study, sky radiometer-derived AOD is used as a constraint and the lidar ratio is calculated when the discrepancy of AOD between lidar and sky radiometer is less than 0.5%. The annual mean lidar ratio (with standard deviation) at 532 nm calculated from 4-year measurements of elastic backscatter lidar and sky radiometer in Seoul, Korea, is found to be 61.716.5 sr, and weak seasonal variations are noted with a maximum in summer (68.116.8 sr) and a minimum in winter (57.217.9 sr). The lidar ratios for clean, dust, and polluted conditions are estimated to be 45.09.5 sr, 51.713.7 sr, and 62.213.2 sr, respectively. While the lidar ratio for the polluted condition is appears to be consistent with previous studies (50-70), clean and dust conditions tend to have larger values, compared to previous estimates (clean: 30-40, dust: 40-50). We also calcualte the lidar ratio from simultaneous observations of ground-based lidar and sky radiometer at six locations (Seoul, Gosan, Fukue, Osaka, Chiba, and Tsukuba) during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) - NE Asia 2012 campaign. The mean lidar ratios are estimated to be 60~70 sr. During the dust event on 27-29 April 2013, the lidar ratio is decreased to 50~60 sr, which is consistent with other previous studies in East Asia (e.g., Catrall et al., JGR, 2005; Liu et al., App. Opt., 2002; Murayama et al., JGR, 2003). Detailed results will be presented.

Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Yoon, S.

2013-12-01

205

Ethnic Differences in Survival after Breast Cancer in South East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of breast cancer in Asia is escalating. We evaluated the impact of ethnicity on survival after breast cancer in the multi-ethnic region of South East Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the Singapore-Malaysia hospital-based breast cancer registry, we analyzed the association between ethnicity and mortality following breast cancer in 5,264 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2007 (Chinese: 71.6%, Malay: 18.4%, Indian: 10.0%). We compared survival rates between ethnic groups and calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) to estimate the independent effect of ethnicity on survival. Malays (n?=?968) presented at a significantly younger age, with larger tumors, and at later stages than the Chinese and Indians. Malays were also more likely to have axillary lymph node metastasis at similar tumor sizes and to have hormone receptor negative and poorly differentiated tumors. Five year overall survival was highest in the Chinese women (75.8%; 95%CI: 74.4%77.3%) followed by Indians (68.0%; 95%CI: 63.8%72.2%), and Malays (58.5%; 95%CI: 55.2%61.7%). Compared to the Chinese, Malay ethnicity was associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.34; 95%CI: 1.191.51), independent of age, stage, tumor characteristics and treatment. Indian ethnicity was not significantly associated with risk of mortality after breast cancer compared to the Chinese (HR: 1.14; 95%CI: 0.981.34). Conclusion In South East Asia, Malay ethnicity is independently associated with poorer survival after breast cancer. Research into underlying reasons, potentially including variations in tumor biology, psychosocial factors, treatment responsiveness and lifestyle after diagnosis, is warranted. PMID:22363531

Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng-Har; Saxena, Nakul; Taib, Nur Aishah; Lim, Siew-Eng; Iau, Philip; Adami, Hans-Olov; Bulgiba, Awang M.; Lee, Soo-Chin; Verkooijen, Helena M.

2012-01-01

206

Development of the STEM-mercury model to study the fate and transport of mercury in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, the atmospheric mercury distributions in East Asia are studied using methods: model simulations with the backward trajectory analysis; 4D-Var data assimilation approach using adjoint inverse model simulations. The main purposes of this study are to evaluate current estimate of mercury emissions, which inventory have huge uncertainties that lead to model predict which underestimate mercury observations measured over the Yellow Sea and Japan Sea during the ACE-Asia campaign on April 2001. The chemical and physical mechanisms of mercury in the atmosphere are studied in this thesis by developing a detailed chemical box model. Finally mercury mechanisms are incorporated into STEM (Sulfur Transport and dEposition model) to generate STEM-Hg, which is applied to East Asia to estimate mercury ambient concentration distributions, to predict mercury dry and wet depositions and to calculate mercury exports from the East Asia. The results from this work identify that anthropogenic emission emitted from China are three times higher than the estimate. During the month of April, 77% of total emitted mercury is deposited in the East Asia areas due to the quick oxidation reactions of mercury in the gas phase.

Pan, Li

207

A synoptic and dynamical characterization of wave-train and blocking cold surge over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through an agglomerative hierarchical clustering method, cold surges over East Asia are classified into two distinct types based on the spatial pattern of the geopotential height anomalies at 300 hPa. One is the wave-train type that is associated with developing large-scale waves across the Eurasian continent. The other is the blocking type whose occurrence accompanies subarctic blocking. During the wave-train cold surge, growing baroclinic waves induce a southeastward expansion of the Siberian High and strong northerly winds over East Asia. Blocking cold surge, on the other hand, is associated with a southward expansion of the Siberian High and northeasterly winds inherent to a height dipole consisting of the subarctic blocking and the East Asian coastal trough. The blocking cold surge tends to be more intense and last longer compared to the wave-train type. The wave-train cold surge is associated with the formation of a negative upper tropospheric height anomaly southeast of Greenland approximately 12 days before the surge occurrence. Further analysis of isentropic potential vorticity reveals that this height anomaly could originate from the lower stratosphere over the North Atlantic. Cold surge of the blocking type occurs with an amplifying positive geopotential and a negative potential vorticity anomaly over the Arctic and the northern Eurasia in stratosphere. These anomalies resemble the stratospheric signature of a negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. This stratospheric feature is further demonstrated by the observation that the blocking type cold surge occurs more often when the Arctic Oscillation is in its negative phase.

Park, Tae-Won; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Deng, Yi

2014-08-01

208

A new urban landscape in EastSoutheast Asia, 20002010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EastSoutheast Asia is currently one of the fastest urbanizing regions in the world, with countries such as China climbing from 20 to 50% urbanized in just a few decades. By 2050, these countries are projected to add 1 billion people, with 90% of that growth occurring in cities. This population shift parallels an equally astounding amount of built-up land expansion. However, spatially-and temporally-detailed information on regional-scale changes in urban land or population distribution do not exist; previous efforts have been either sample-based, focused on one country, or drawn conclusions from datasets with substantial temporal/spatial mismatch and variability in urban definitions. Using consistent methodology, satellite imagery and census data for >1000 agglomerations in the EastSoutheast Asian region, we show that urban land increased >22% between 2000 and 2010 (from 155 000 to 189 000 km2), an amount equivalent to the area of Taiwan, while urban populations climbed >31% (from 738 to 969 million). Although urban land expanded at unprecedented rates, urban populations grew more rapidly, resulting in increasing densities for the majority of urban agglomerations, including those in both more developed (Japan, South Korea) and industrializing nations (China, Vietnam, Indonesia). This result contrasts previous sample-based studies, which conclude that cities are universally declining in density. The patterns and rates of change uncovered by these datasets provide a unique record of the massive urban transition currently underway in EastSoutheast Asia that is impacting local-regional climate, pollution levels, water quality/availability, arable land, as well as the livelihoods and vulnerability of populations in the region.

Schneider, A.; Mertes, C. M.; Tatem, A. J.; Tan, B.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Graves, S. J.; Patel, N. N.; Horton, J. A.; Gaughan, A. E.; Rollo, J. T.; Schelly, I. H.; Stevens, F. R.; Dastur, A.

2015-03-01

209

Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m -2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m -2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Xiaohong

2011-11-01

210

Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W/m2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W/m2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan.

Zhang, M.; Han, X.; Liu, X.

2011-12-01

211

A New Automatic Method of Urban Areas Mapping in East Asia from LANDSAT Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities, as places where human activities are concentrated, account for a small percent of global land cover but are frequently cited as the chief causes of, and solutions to, climate, biogeochemistry, and hydrology processes at local, regional, and global scales. Accompanying with uncontrolled economic growth, urban sprawl has been attributed to the accelerating integration of East Asia into the world economy and involved dramatic changes in its urban form and land use. To understand the impact of urban extent on biogeophysical processes, reliable mapping of built-up areas is particularly essential in eastern cities as a result of their characteristics of smaller patches, more fragile, and a lower fraction of the urban landscape which does not have natural than in the West. Segmentation of urban land from other land-cover types using remote sensing imagery can be done by standard classification processes as well as a logic rule calculation based on spectral indices and their derivations. Efforts to establish such a logic rule with no threshold for automatically mapping are highly worthwhile. Existing automatic methods are reviewed, and then a proposed approach is introduced including the calculation of the new index and the improved logic rule. Following this, existing automatic methods as well as the proposed approach are compared in a common context. Afterwards, the proposed approach is tested separately in cities of large, medium, and small scale in East Asia selected from different LANDSAT images. The results are promising as the approach can efficiently segment urban areas, even in the presence of more complex eastern cities. Key words: Urban extraction; Automatic Method; Logic Rule; LANDSAT images; East AisaThe Proposed Approach of Extraction of Urban Built-up Areas in Guangzhou, China

XU, R.; Jia, G.

2012-12-01

212

Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia  

SciTech Connect

The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m-2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m-2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiewi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong

2011-11-14

213

Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region  

PubMed Central

East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 3753% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. PMID:23596197

Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami

2014-01-01

214

Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region.  

PubMed

East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. PMID:23596197

Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami

2014-07-01

215

Verification and intercomparison of QPFs and PQPFs from TIGGE over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) and probabilistic QPFs (PQPFs) are obtained from The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) database during the 2008-2011 summer, including the data from six operational ensemble prediction systems (EPSs): ECMWF, UKMO, NCEP, CMC, JMA and CMA. Forecasts of 24-h accumulated precipitation are evaluated at 1 grid spacing over East Asia against new satellite-based precipitation estimate product TRMM 3B42 V7, which applies gauge relative weighting and is more accurate compared to its former version. Ensemble mean of QPFs is compared using different kinds of verification scores. Results show that the gap of predictability between the best and worst EPS is about 3 days, while it becomes larger in the East Asian Tropics and smaller in the East Asian Subtropics. JMA and CMC have the least forecast errors for light to moderate rain, while ECMWF is more accurate for heavy rain. All EPSs overestimate light rain events and underestimate heavy rain events, while they can discriminate between light and heavy rain events about 3-day lead time in the East Asian Subtropics. Various measures of PQPFs show that CMC is more skillful for light rain events, while ECMWF produces the best PQPFs for moderate to heavy rain events. All EPSs suffer from severe deficiency of ensemble spread except CMC, and PQPFs show a dry bias at the low end and a wet bias at the high end, indicating overconfident samples. Different EPS shows large variation in forecast performance. CMC is the most reliable but least sharp EPS. JMA is marked with a noteworthy wet bias of 1-2 day forecasts in the East Asian Tropics, which causes the discontinuity of skill with the forecast lead time.

Su, Xiang; Yuan, Huiling

2013-04-01

216

Behavioral and Environmental Background to Out-of-Africa I and the Arrival of Homo erectus in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Current evidence of hominin fossils and artifacts in China and Indonesia points to the arrival and persistence of the genus\\u000a Homo in East Asia by 1.7 million years ago (Ma). By at least 1.66 Ma, East Asian hominins had spread across a wide range of biotic\\u000a and climatic zones, spanning 7S40N on the basis of well-constrained age data from the

Richard Potts; Robin Teague

217

East Asia Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in East Asia. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in East Asia. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of East Asia DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in East Asia. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of water. DEP imagery shows along the rim of the Tarim Basin three areas of concentrated point sources can be found: 1.) in the west the area that lies between the cities of Kashi, Shache, and Xakur, 2.) in the north the area located between the cities of Wensu, Xinhe, Qiman, to Awat, and 3.) in the east the region stretching from Lop Nur northwest to Tikanlik and southeast to Miran. A remarkable result we found is the frequency of dust plume generation in the Turpan basin. Previous studies do not identify this basin as a major dust source area. With the high resolution of the DEP imagery we can identify the dust plumes that originate along the slopes of and at the foot of the Bogda Shan and Karlik mountains. Cross referencing the location of the point sources with an atlas and maps shows the point sources correlate to ephemeral streams, saltpans, and farmed land. Further discussion will be given on dust sources areas in other parts of China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Russia.

Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

2011-12-01

218

Growing threat of intense tropical cyclones to East Asia over the period 1977-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of intense tropical cyclones (TCs) to East Asia has increased in recent decades. Integrated analyses of five available TC data sets for the period 1977-2010 revealed that the growing threat of TCs primarily results from the significant shift that the spatial positions of the maximum intensity of TCs moved closer to East Asian coastlines from Vietnam to Japan. This shift incurs a robust increase in landfall intensity over east China, Korea and Japan. In contrast, an increase of TC genesis frequency over the northern part of the South China Sea leads to a reduction in the maximum TC intensity before landfall, because of their short lifetime; thus, there are no clear tendencies in the landfall intensity across Vietnam, south China and Taiwan. All changes are related to the strengthening of the Pacific Walker circulation, closely linked with the recent manifestation that the warming trend of sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific is much higher than that in the central to eastern Pacific.

Park, Doo-Sun R.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Joo-Hong

2014-01-01

219

Source identification and apportionment of halogenated compounds observed at a remote site in East Asia.  

PubMed

The sources of halogenated compounds in East Asia associated with stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change are relatively poorly understood. High-precision in situ measurements of 18 halogenated compounds and carbonyl sulfide (COS) made at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, from November 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed by a positive matrix factorization (PMF). Seven major industrial sources were identified from the enhanced concentrations of halogenated compounds observed at Gosan and corresponding concentration-based source contributions were also suggested: primary aluminum production explaining 37% of total concentration enhancements, solvent usage of which source apportionment is 25%, fugitive emissions from HCFC/HFC production with 11%, refrigerant replacements (9%), semiconductor/electronics industry (9%), foam blowing agents (6%), and fumigation (3%). Statistical trajectory analysis was applied to specify the potential emission regions for seven sources using back trajectories. Primary aluminum production, solvent usage and fugitive emission sources were mainly contributed by China. Semiconductor/electronics sources were dominantly located in Korea. Refrigerant replacement, fumigation and foam blowing agent sources were spread throughout East Asian countries. The specified potential source regions are consistent with country-based consumptions and emission patterns, verifying the PMF analysis results. The industry-based emission sources of halogenated compounds identified in this study help improve our understanding of the East Asian countries' industrial contributions to halogenated compound emissions. PMID:24298975

Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Mhle, Jens; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Jo, Chun Ok; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

2014-01-01

220

Seasonal variation of spherical aerosols distribution in East Asia based on ground and space Lidar observation and a Chemical transport model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthropogenic aerosols largely impact on not only human health but also global climate system, therefore air pollution in East Asia due to a rapid economic growth has been recognized as a significant environmental problem. Several international field campaigns had been conducted to elucidate pollutant gases, aerosols characteristics and radiative forcing in East Asia. (e.g., ACE-Asia, TRACE-P, ADEC, EAREX 2005).

Y. Hara; K. Yumimoto; I. Uno; A. Shimizu; N. Sugimoto; T. Ohara

2009-01-01

221

Sagart Rice and Language Symposium, Cornell University, 22-25 September, 2011 1/32 How many independent rice vocabularies in Asia ?1  

E-print Network

Sagart Rice and Language Symposium, Cornell University, 22-25 September, 2011 1/32 How many independent rice vocabularies in Asia ?1 Laurent Sagart CNRS, Paris, France (Draft -- not for citation) 1. The spread of rice as a multidisciplinary problem. 1.1. The farming-language hypothesis, with a twist How can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.  

PubMed

This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio-cultural acceptance of tobacco use is still a major challenge in tobacco control efforts for the governments and stakeholders in the South-East Asia Region. The myth that chewing tobacco is less harmful than smoking tobacco needs to be addressed with public awareness campaigns. Advocacy on the integration of tobacco control with poverty alleviation campaigns and development programs is urgently required. Law enforcement is a critical area to be strengthened and supported by WHO and the civil society organizations working in the area of tobacco control. PMID:22089683

Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

2011-01-01

223

Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's

Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

2005-01-01

224

Policy, legal and institutional reforms for publicprivate partnerships needed to sustain large marine ecosystems of East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legacy of overfishing, destruction of coastal habitats, and accelerated pollution loading has dramatically reduced the biomass and diversity of marine waters in East Asia. Coasts can no longer support the numbers of people migrating to them, thus risking future economic benefits and social stability. Some countries are adopting needed reforms while, in others, less priority is given to reforms.

Alfred M. Duda

2006-01-01

225

Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia: Observations and model results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December

Zifa Wang; Hajime Akimoto; Itsushi Uno

2002-01-01

226

Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,

Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

2011-01-01

227

Springtime trans-Pacific atmospheric transport from east Asia: A transit-time probability density function approach  

E-print Network

chemical pollutants are transported across the Pacific with minimal dispersion en route. Spectacular dustSpringtime trans-Pacific atmospheric transport from east Asia: A transit-time probability density function approach Mark Holzer Atmospheric Science Program, Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences

McKendry, Ian

228

Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.

Noss, Richard

229

Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in

Hunter, Guy

230

Creating Instability in Dangerous Global Regions: North Korean Proliferation and Support to Terrorism in the Middle East and South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Korea contributes to instability in the Middle East and South Asia through its proliferation of missiles and other weapons systems used as delivery platforms for chemical (and the production of chemical munitions) or biological weapons, including long-range artillery. Evidence also shows that North Korea has collaborated in the nuclear programs of Syria, Iran, Libya, and Pakistan and has provided

Bruce E. Bechtol Jr

2009-01-01

231

Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia Soo Ya Baea,b  

E-print Network

Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia Soo Ya Baea concentration a b s t r a c t We examine the effects of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations (EANET) sites and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model together with a new below-cloud-scavenging

Park, Rokjin

232

Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in East Asia. Directions in Development Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collaborative report focuses on nine countries in East Asia: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. While acknowledging that these countries share some common features, the report also highlights each country's particular characteristics and the implications of

Bray, Mark

233

Are Fluctuations in Energy Consumption Transitory or Permanent? Evidence From a Panel of East Asia & Pacific Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita for 15 East Asia & Pacific countries employing the Lagrange Multiplier (LM) panel unit root test with one structural break for 1971-2007. When we apply the LM univariate test without break, we find a unit root in per capita consumption for Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South

Hakan Kum

2012-01-01

234

Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

2014-09-01

235

Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about

Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

2013-01-01

236

PRE-MODERN EAST ASIA: CHINA, KOREA, AND JAPAN MICHAELMAS TERM 2013 (Room 207, Chinese Institute) 9-10am  

E-print Network

) Essay Writing Workshop II The Consolidation of the Confucian Classics (J Winslett) Early Buddhism (S in Japan) M5 Arrival of Buddhism in East Asia (S Zacchetti) The Tibetan Empire (U Roesler) Tibetan Language) Korean and Japanese Adoption of the Tang Model: Chinese Law and Buddhism (soft political technology) (J

Oxford, University of

237

Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

2014-04-01

238

A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to environmental impacts that occur, and (3) the accuracy of an

Bart Durlinger; Angle Reinders; Marten Toxopeus

239

Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.  

PubMed

Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area. PMID:24598117

Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

2015-01-01

240

Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

2002-10-09

241

Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.  

PubMed

The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-East Asia Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities. PMID:23442393

Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N

2012-01-01

242

Arsenic in groundwater: a threat to sustainable agriculture in South and South-east Asia.  

PubMed

The problem of arsenic pollution of groundwater used for domestic water supplies is now well recognised in Bangladesh, India and some other countries of South and South-east Asia. However, it has recently become apparent that arsenic-polluted water used for irrigation is adding sufficient arsenic to soils and rice to pose serious threats to sustainable agricultural production in those countries and to the health and livelihoods of affected people. This paper reviews the nature of those threats, taking into account the natural sources of arsenic pollution, areas affected, factors influencing arsenic uptake by soils and plants, toxicity levels and the dietary risk to people consuming arsenic-contaminated rice. PMID:19110310

Brammer, Hugh; Ravenscroft, Peter

2009-04-01

243

Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from East Asia in Spring 2004  

SciTech Connect

To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from East Asia and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, high-volume air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan between 22 March and 2 May 2004. Contributions from different source regions (China, Japan, the Koreas, Russia, and ocean/local) were estimated by use of source region impact factors (SRIFs). Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current-use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Chlordanes showed a technical mixture profile and similar concentrations regardless of source region. {alpha}/{gamma} HCH and trans/cis chlordane ratios did not vary significantly with different source regions and had regional averages of 2.5 {+-} 1.0 and 1.2 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Particulate-phase PAH concentrations were significantly correlated (p value {lt} 0.05) with other incomplete combustion byproduct concentrations, including elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}), CO, NOx{asterisk}, black carbon, submicrometer aerosols, and SO{sub 2}. By use of measured PAH, CO, and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of six carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs was estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for Asia and 778-1728 metric tons/year for China, respectively. These results confirm that East Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs. 39 refs., 3 figs.

Toby Primbs; Staci Simonich; David Schmedding; Glenn Wilson; Dan Jaffe; Akinori Takami; Shungo Kato; Shiro Hatakeyama; Yoshizumi Kajii [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States). Departments of Chemistry and Environmental and Molecular Toxicology

2007-05-15

244

Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia.  

PubMed

East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could facilitate the understanding of biodiversity origin and maintenance in East Asia. PMID:25540694

Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

2014-11-01

245

The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.  

PubMed

This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

2015-04-01

246

Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia  

PubMed Central

East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could facilitate the understanding of biodiversity origin and maintenance in East Asia. PMID:25540694

Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

2014-01-01

247

Evaluation of precipitation from reanalyses and satellite products in Australia and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation estimates from reanalyses and satellite observations are routinely used as forcing in global and regional hydrologic models but their accuracy is rarely systematically evaluated. The discrepancies and biases of different precipitation outputs are important, casting potentially high uncertainty in the results from hydrological models and their applications. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, JRA-25 and NCEP-DOE) and three satellite precipitation estimates (TRMM 3B42V6, CMORPH and PERSIANN) as well as a simple ensemble mean of the products. Grid cells with reasonable gauge density from two high resolution gauge-only daily precipitation analyses for Australia (SILO) and East Asia (APHRODITE) were used to evaluate daily time series for 2003-2007. We computed metrics of detection and agreement in daily precipitation. To account for differences in precipitation regime, results were stratified by rainfall seasonality and the geographical domain was divided into southern Australia (SAu), northern Australia (NAu) and south and east Asia (SEA). Reanalyses showed higher detection performance, with best performers being ERA-Interim in SAu and NAu and JRA-25 in SEA, as well as when averaged over the three sub domains. The exception was the monsoon months in SEA; for which satellite estimates from TRMM and CMORPH showed slightly better performance. Over the three sub domains combined, the ensemble mean generally outperformed both reanalyses and satellite precipitation, with higher correlation coefficient, lower root mean square difference and closer agreement in terms of a rainfall intensity proxy (the ratio of monthly precipitation amount to total days with precipitation). The results of the simple ensemble mean show the value in the additional information captured from the (co)variance of the multiple input sources. This finding suggests that, depending on rainfall regime and/or location, a combination of selected reanalysis and satellite products may lead to better precipitation estimates and thus more accurate hydrological applications than any single method.

Pea Arancibia, J. L.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.

2012-04-01

248

Verification of deforestation in East Asia by spatial logit models due to population and relief energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation is a result of complex causality chains in most cases. But identification of limited number of factors shall provide comprehensive general understanding of the vital phenomenon at a broad scale, as well as projection for the future. Only two factors -- human population size (N) and relief energy (R: difference of minimum altitude from the maximum in a sampled area) -- were found to give sufficient elucidation of deforestation by nonlinear logit regression models, whose functional forms were suggested by step functions fitted to one-kilometer square high precision grid-cell data in Japan (n=6825). Likelihood with spatial dependency was derived, and several deforestation models were selected for the application to East Asia by calculating relative appropriateness to data. For the measure of appropriateness, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) was used. Logit model is employed so as to avoid anomaly in asymptotic lower and upper bounds. Therefore the forest areal rate, 0 < F < 1. To formulate East-Asian dataset, landcover dataset estimated from NOAA observations available at UNEP, Tsukuba for F, gridded population of the world of CIESIN, US for N, and GTOPO30 of USGS for R, were used. The resolutions were matched by taking their common multiple of 20 minutes square. It was suggested that data of full forest coverage, F=1.0, which were not dealt in calculations due to logit transformation this time, should give important role in stabilizing parameter estimations.

Tanaka, Shojiro; Nishii, Ryuei

2005-10-01

249

Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over East Asia and Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the East Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in East Asia, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfallthe moisture flux convergenceover Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.

2013-04-01

250

Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Nio/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Nio-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central Asia. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Nio events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in East Asia. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2C) and a drought in East China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in East China. Without volcanoes, El Nio events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Nia events cause opposite effects. El Nio events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Nia events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Nio events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer" of 1816 in Europe and North America and led to coldness and famines in the Chinese province Yunnan, depends crucially on the ENSO state of the coupled model. A comparison with reconstructed El Nio events shows a moderate cool climate with wet (in the south) and extreme dry anomalies (in the north) persisting for several years.

Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

2013-02-01

251

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2404 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China and from South Korea increased, while emissions from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.

Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

2014-05-01

252

Effects of bulk ice microphysics on the simulated monsoonal precipitation over east Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the effects of bulk ice microphysical processes on the simulation of monsoonal precipitation in summer over east Asia, centered over Korea. The mixed phase microphysics scheme of the WRF-Single-Moment-MicroPhysics class 5 (WSM5) is implemented into the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). The performance of the WSM5 scheme is compared to that of Reisner's mixed phase scheme, that is, the MM5-Single-moment-Microphysics class 5 (MSM5). Together with looking at the impact of ice microphysics, the importance of the sedimentation of falling ice crystals on simulated rainfall events is investigated. The same sensitivity experiments are extended to a 2-month-long simulation of the east Asian summer monsoon. It was found that the new microphysics in the WSM5 scheme produces a more realistic vertical distribution of condensates. For a locally developed heavy rainfall event over Korea, the impact of revised ice microphysics is significant. The WSM5 scheme simulates more (less) precipitation in the south (north), compared with that of the MSM5 scheme, by stabilizing the air columns in the rainfall area, leading to a better agreement with the observed precipitation. By contrast, ice sedimentation becomes more important for those cases of heavy rainfall, associated with a mobile surface cyclone system, accomplished by suppressing large-scale bias through a realistic ice cloud/radiation feedback. The sedimentation of cloud ice is found to be crucial to the successful simulation of monsoonal precipitation and large-scale features within the east Asian summer monsoon.

Lim, Jeong-Ock Jade; Hong, Song-You

2005-12-01

253

Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25 0.25). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

2013-12-01

254

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2437 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per-capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China increased rapidly and emissions from South Korea increased slightly, while emissions from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.

Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

2013-08-01

255

Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic) stretching, rifting and postrift subsidence were widely shown with the formation of oil and gas sedimentary basins with a thick sedimentary cover (West Siberian, Turan, Caspian, Middle Amur, Songliao), large igneous provinces (South Urals, West and East Siberian, Central Kazakhstan, Trans-Baikal, etc.) and rift systems (Mongol-Transbaikal, Baikal, etc.). The aim of further research under the existing joint projects should be identifying and tracing the boundaries of the Arctic-Asian mobile belt, study and correlation of geological complexes-indicators of major tectonic events, reconstruction of the history of the accretionary belt with superimposed oil and gas bearing sedimentary basins as a tectonic structure of the global level.

Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

2014-05-01

256

A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South East Asia?  

PubMed Central

Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South East Asia. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South East Asia hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South East Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South East Asia. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy. PMID:12184826

Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Mller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark

2002-01-01

257

Transport of NOx in East Asia identified by satellite and in situ measurements and Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns observed from space have been useful in detecting the increase of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in East Asia, particularly China, coinciding with rapid economic growth during the past several decades. NO2 columns retrieved above a particular location reflect a combination of local NOx emissions and transported NOx from upwind sources. In this study, we demonstrate the transport of NOx emitted in East Asia using satellite and surface in situ measurements and Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations. Enhanced satellite NO2 columns in the Yellow Sea (between China and South Korea) and the East Sea (between South Korea and Japan), and different seasonal variations of NO2 in China, North and South Korea, and Japan, suggest the importance of NOx transport in understanding the local NOx budget. Lagrangian transport model simulations with tracers of different chemical lifetimes identify source-receptor relationships that explain high NO2 over the oceans and springtime peaks in Korea and Japan, with China being the most likely source region. Our results have important implications for studies using satellite NO2 retrievals to derive NOx emissions at local scales in regions adjacent to large sources, such as in East Asia, Europe, and the Eastern U.S.

Lee, H.-J.; Kim, S.-W.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, C.-H.; Park, R. J.; Trainer, M.; Woo, J.-H.

2014-03-01

258

A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South East Asia?  

PubMed

Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South East Asia. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South East Asia hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South East Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South East Asia. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy. PMID:12184826

Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Mller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark

2002-08-01

259

Long range transport of acidic species over East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean in winter monsoon - a numerical analysis  

SciTech Connect

In winter season, wind system in East Asia is generally dominated by monsoon. The monsoon is caused by persistent high pressure over Siberia and low pressure over Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea, the high pressure which is formed by radiative cooling of air mass over the continent. In Japan area, the monsoon appears as westerly or northwesterly, and usually brings heavy snow over the Japan Sea side of Japanese islands. Since the air mass associated with the monsoon passes over strong emission sources of the East Asia continent, it carries much air pollutants. Significant part of the pollutants should fall to the surface with snow over Japanese islands, and the rest of the pollutants would be distributed into troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean. In this study, to estimate mass budget of air pollutants released over countries in East Asia we have performed 3-D transport/chemistry/deposition simulations for the area of East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean for one month of March, 1994, when an extensive field observation campaign called TEM-WEST Phase B (Pacific Exploratory Mission-West){close_quotes} was conducted. The simulation model includes most of the important chemical species such as NO{sub x}, HNO{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, sulfate, hydrocarbons, O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, etc., and covers 3-D region from 80 to 180 degrees east in longitude, 10 degrees south to 60 degrees north in latitude, and earth`s surface to 10 hPa in vertical. The simulation results will be discussed in connection with the PEM-WEST(B) observation.

Kitada, Toshihiro; Nishizawa, Masato; Isogawa, Seiji [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan); Kondo, Yutaka [Nagoya Univ., Toyokawa (Japan)

1996-12-31

260

Emergence and diversity of begomoviruses infecting solanaceous crops in East and Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Over the past three decades diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) have emerged to be important constraints to the production of solanaceous crops, particularly tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and peppers (Capsicum spp.), in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The most studied of these is Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which has spread to many other areas from its likely origin in the Mediterranean basin region. The virus is usually associated with the polyphagous and virus-vectoring-efficient B-biotype of its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). However, in Southeast and East Asia, a wide variety of distinct local begomovirus species have been identified from tomato and pepper crops over this period, and TYLCV was detected in Japan only in about 1996, China in 2006 and Korea in 2008, despite B-biotype whiteflies being present in several of the countries of the region since at least the early 1990s. Continental Southeast Asia appears to be a major center of diversity for begomoviruses and some species may have spread across the region; Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Myanmar region into southern China and is now displacing the local tomato-infecting species in Taiwan, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLCKaV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Vietnam region to Java, Indonesia. Since many of the native tomato- or pepper-infecting begomoviruses and associated satellite DNAs have also been detected in local weed species, it seems likely that their ancestors originated in these weed hosts, but with the expansion and intensification of tomato and pepper production in the region, there was selection for recombinant or mutant forms with greater virulence on tomato and/or pepper. Expansion and intensification of these crops may also have resulted in increased populations of local, and if present, B- or Q-biotype whiteflies, aiding the increase and spread of local begomovirus species. PMID:24440320

Kenyon, Lawrence; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Shih, Su-Ling; Lee, Li-Mei

2014-06-24

261

Identification of possible intense historical geomagnetic storms using combined sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive catalogues of ancient sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia are used to identify possible intense historical geomagnetic storms in the interval 210 BC-AD 1918. There are about 270 entries in the sunspot catalogue and about 1150 entries in the auroral catalogue. Special databases have been constructed in which the scientific information in these two catalogues is placed in specified fields. For the purposes of this study, an historical geomagnetic storm is defined in terms of an auroral observation that is apparently associated with a particular sunspot observation, in the sense that the auroral observation occurred within several days of the sunspot observation. More precisely, a selection criterion is formulated for the automatic identification of such geomagnetic storms, using the oriental records stored in the sunspot and auroral databases. The selection criterion is based on specific assumptions about the duration of sunspot visibility with the unaided eye, the likely range of heliographic longitudes of an energetic solar feature, and the likely range of transit times for ejected solar plasma to travel from the Sun to the Earth. This selection criterion results in the identification of nineteen putative historical geomagnetic storms, although two of these storms are spurious in the sense that there are two examples of a single sunspot observation being associated with two different auroral observations separated by more than half a (synodic) solar rotation period. The literary and scientific reliabilities of the East Asian sunspot and auroral records that define the nineteen historical geomagnetic storms are discussed in detail in a set of appendices. A possible time sequence of events is presented for each geomagnetic storm, including possible dates for both the central meridian passage of the sunspot and the occurrence of the energetic solar feature, as well as likely transit times for the ejected solar plasma. European telescopic sunspot drawings from the seventeenth century are also used to assess the credibility of some of the later historical geomagnetic storms defined solely by the East Asian sunspot and auroral records. These drawings cast doubt on a few of the associations between sunspot and auroral observations based entirely on the oriental records, at least to the extent that the occidental drawings provide a more realistic date for central meridian passage of the sunspot actually associated with a particular auroral observation. Nevertheless, on those occasions for which European sunspot drawings are available, the dates of all the pertinent East Asian sunspot and auroral observations are corroborated, apart from just one Chinese sunspot observation. The ancient historical observations of sunspots and aurorae are discussed briefly in terms of modern observations of great geomagnetic storms.

Willis, D. M.; Armstrong, G. M.; Ault, C. E.; Stephenson, F. R.

2005-03-01

262

Spatial pattern of chloroplast DNA variation of Cyclobalanopsis glauca in Taiwan and East Asia.  

PubMed

This study examined the spatial pattern of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation in Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb. ex Murray) Oerst. (Fagaceae) in 140 trees from Taiwan (25 populations), Japan (three), Ryukyus (two), Hong Kong (one) and Mainland China (one). By sequencing three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments using universal primers (trnT-trnL, trnV-trnM, including the trnV intron, and petG-trnP), we found a total of 1,980 bp and 15 polymorphic sites. Among them, 12 sites were caused by point mutation, and three resulted from insertion. This gives rise to a total of 13 cpDNA haplotypes. The level of differentiation among the populations studied is relatively high (GST = 0.612). Two ancestral haplotypes (A and B) are distributed widely in East Asia. Interestingly, all the derived cpDNA variations are found only in Taiwan but not in other areas. The Central Mountain Ridge (CMR) of Taiwan creates an unsurpassed barrier to the east-west gene flow of C. glauca. Among the populations on the west of CMR, only three separated populations, Yangmingshan, Wushe and Chinshuiying, have high haplotype diversity, each consisting of sister haplotypes all mutated from the same ancestral haplotype. Thus, they have probably originated from de novo mutation after the last glaciation. This inference agrees with the observation that no spatial autocorrelation existed on the west side. Two unrelated dominant lineages on the east of the CMR (haplotypes D and F) showed significant spatial genetic structure. Estimate of NST - GST was -0.090 and differed significantly from zero. Thus at the local scale, the phylogeographical component of the genetic structure is significant on the east of the CMR. Accompanied by published palynological records of the last glaciation, this study suggests the possibility that these two types were colonized northward from the southeastern part of Taiwan. 'Star-like' genealogy is characterized, with all the haplotypes coalescing rapidly and as a general outcome of population expansion (Page & Holmes 1998). A neutrality test also suggested a demographic expansion recovered from a bottleneck. We therefore inferred that the southeastern part of Taiwan might be a potential refugium for C. glauca. PMID:12406245

Huang, Sophie S F; Hwang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Tsan-Piao

2002-11-01

263

Composite study of aerosol export events from East Asia and North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) together with the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to contrast export of aerosols from East Asia and North America during 2004-2010. The GEOS-Chem model reproduces the spatial distribution and temporal variations of Asian aerosol outflow generally well, although a low bias (-30%) is found in the model fine mode AOD, particularly during summer. We use the model to identify 244 aerosol pollution export events from E. Asia and 251 export events from N. America over our 7-year study period. When these events are composited by season, we find that the AOD in the outflow is enhanced by 50-100% relative to seasonal mean values. The composite Asian plume splits into one branch going poleward to the Arctic in 3-4 days, with the other crossing the Pacific Ocean in 6-8 days. A fraction of the aerosols is trapped in the subtropical Pacific High during spring and summer. The N. American plume travels to the northeast Atlantic, reaching Europe after 4-5 days. Part of the composite plume turns anticyclonically in the Azores High, where it slowly decays. Both the Asian and N. American export events are favored by a dipole structure in sea-level pressure anomalies, associated with mid-latitude cyclone activity over the respective source regions. This dipole structure during outflow events is a strong feature for all seasons except summer, when convection becomes more important. The observed AOD in the E. Asian outflow exhibits stronger seasonality, with a spring maximum, than the N. American outflow, with a broad spring/summer maximum. The large spring AOD in the Asian outflow is the result of enhanced sulfate and dust aerosol concentrations, but is also due to a larger export efficiency of sulfate and SO2 from the Asian boundary layer relative to the N. American boundary layer. While the N. American sulfate outflow is mostly found in the lower troposphere (1-3 km altitude), the Asian sulfate outflow occurs at higher altitudes (2-6 km). In the Asian outflow 42-59% of the sulfate column is present above 2 km altitude, with only 24-35% in the N. American outflow. We link this to the factor of 2-5 lower precipitation in the warm conveyor belts (WCB) of midlatitude cyclones over E. Asia compared to N. America. This relative lack of precipitation makes Asian WCB very efficient for injecting aerosols in the middle troposphere.

Luan, Y.; Jaegl, L.

2013-02-01

264

A new dynamical index for classification of cold surge types over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cold surges over East Asia can be classified into wave-train type and blocking type according to their dynamic origins. In the present study, two dynamic indices are proposed to objectively identify cold surge types using potential temperature (?) on the dynamic tropopause at 2-potential vorticity units (2-PVU) surface. The two indices are designed to represent primary characteristics of the two types of cold surge. The wave-train index (WI) is defined as a difference of anomalous ? on the 2-PVU surface between the western North Pacific and northeast China, which captures a southward (northward) intrusion of cold (warm) air mass related to the trough-ridge pattern. The blocking index (BI) is defined as a difference of anomalous ? between the subarctic region and northeast China, which indicates air mass overturning related to a reversal of the usual meridional ? gradient commonly observed in the occurrence of blocking type cold surge. Composite analyses based on the distribution of the WI and BI clearly demonstrate the dynamic evolutions of corresponding cold surge types. The wave-train cold surge is associated with a southeastward expansion of the Siberian High and northerly wind near surface, which is caused by growing baroclinic waves. During the blocking cold surge, a geopotential height dipole indicating the subarctic blocking and deepening of East Asian coastal trough induces a southward expansion of the Siberian High and northeasterly wind. Compared to the wave-train type, the blocking cold surge exhibits a longer duration and stronger intensity. In the new framework of these dynamic indices, we can detect a third type of cold surge when both the wave-train and the blocking occur together. In addition, we can exclude the events that do not have the essential features of the upper tropospheric disturbances or the subarctic anticyclonic circulation, which are responsible for cold surge occurrence, using the new indices.

Park, Tae-Won; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Heo, Jin-Woo; Deng, Yi

2015-01-01

265

Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over East Asia  

SciTech Connect

A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.

Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

2012-01-16

266

Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the East Asia region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent destructive earthquakes in East-Asia claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in East Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).

Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.

2013-12-01

267

Connections between the Eurasian teleconnection and concurrent variation of upper-level jets over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) associated with the Eurasian (EU) teleconnection pattern is investigated using 60-yr NCEP-NCAR daily reanalysis data over the period 1951-2010. The EAJS consists of three components: the polar front jet (PFJ); the plateau subtropical jet (PSJ); and the ocean subtropical jet (OSJ). Of these three jets over East Asia, the EU pattern exhibits a significant influence on the PFJ and OSJ. There is a simultaneous negative correlation between the EU pattern and the PFJ. A significant positive correlation is found between the EU pattern and the OSJ when the EU pattern leads the OSJ by about 5 days. There is no obvious correlation between the EU pattern and the PSJ. The positive EU phase is accompanied by a weakened and poleward-shifted PFJ, which coincides with an intensified OSJ. A possible mechanism for the variation of the EAJS during different EU phases is explored via analyzing the effects of 10-day high-and low-frequency eddy forcing. The zonal wind tendency due to high-frequency eddy forcing contributes to the simultaneous negative correlation between the EU pattern and the PFJ, as well as the northward/southward shift of the PFJ. High- and low-frequency eddy forcing are both responsible for the positive correlation between the EU pattern and the OSJ, but only high-frequency eddy forcing contributes to the lagged variation of the OSJ relative to the EU pattern. The negative correlation between the EU pattern and winter temperature and precipitation anomalies in China is maintained only when the PFJ and OSJ are out of phase with each other. Thus, the EAJS plays an important role in transmitting the EU signal to winter temperature and precipitation anomalies in China.

Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yaocun

2015-03-01

268

Impact assessment of biomass burning on air quality in Southeast and East Asia during BASE-ASIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in March-April when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K+, OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via long-range transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

2013-10-01

269

Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

2013-01-01

270

Gross primary production of grassland for the Drylands in the East Asia derived from MODIS, MERRA and Flux data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at regional spatial and temporal scales has been a major challenge in quantifying the global carbon cycle. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning continuous and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. In order to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the regional scale, we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) and meteorology data from global MERRA dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications). This study is focus on the GPP of grassland for the Drylands in the East Asia (Fig. 1). First, we combined GPP, MODIS normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) and MERRA data, include temperature(TA), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and relativity humidity (RH), for 15 grassland Flux towers encompassing the Drylands in the East Asia to develop a predictive GPP model using regression tree(RT), neuralnetworks(NNs) and support vector machine(SVM) approaches. For the three regression methods the predict models are all driven by four variables: NDVI, TA, PAR and RH. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2002 - 2010. By comparing the three regression methods, RT is the best approach. So we used the RT model to estimate GPP for each 0.04135 degree (nearly 4 km) 0.04135 degree pixel across the Drylands in the East Asia for each month interval over the period 2000 - 2009, for each year only the growing season data is included, which is from April to October. We estimated average GPP uptake 1.12996 PgC yr-1 for the Drylands in East Asia over the period 2000 - 2009. Then we examined the spatial patterns (Fig. 2) and interannual variability of GPP (Fig. 3).

Xia, J.; Yuan, W.; Liang, S.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S.; Li, X.

2011-12-01

271

Fostering Stability or Creating a Monster? The Rise of China and U.S. Policy toward East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores two starkly contrasting analytic approaches to assessing the performance of U.S. security strategy in East Asia since 1991: a positivesum approach, emphasizing the danger of security dilemmas and spirals of tension, and a zero-sum approach, emphasizing power competition and the long-term dangers posed by China's rise. In the policy world, the differences between these apparently irreconcilable perspectives

Thomas J. Christensen

2006-01-01

272

Population phylogenomic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in wild boars and domestic pigs revealed multiple domestication events in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Previously reported evidence indicates that pigs were independently domesticated in multiple places throughout the world. However, a detailed picture of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia has not yet been reported. Results Population phylogenomic analysis was conducted in domestic pigs and wild boars by screening the haplogroup-specific mutation motifs inferred from a phylogenetic tree of pig complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. All domestic pigs are clustered into single clade D (which contains subclades D1, D2, D3, and D4), with wild boars from East Asia being interspersed. Three haplogroups within D1 are dominant in the Mekong region (D1a2 and D1b) and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River (D1a1a), and may represent independent founders of domestic pigs. None of the domestic pig samples from North East Asia, the Yellow River region, and the upstream region of the Yangtze River share the same haplogroup status with the local wild boars. The limited regional distributions of haplogroups D1 (including its subhaplogroups), D2, D3, and D4 in domestic pigs suggest at least two different in situ domestication events. Conclusion The use of fine-grained mtDNA phylogenomic analysis of wild boars and domestic pigs is a powerful tool with which to discern the origin of domestic pigs. Our findings show that pig domestication in East Asia mainly occurred in the Mekong region and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River. PMID:18021448

Wu, Gui-Sheng; Yao, Yong-Gang; Qu, Kai-Xing; Ding, Zhao-Li; Li, Hui; Palanichamy, Malliya G; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Li, Ning; Chen, Yao-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2007-01-01

273

Assessment of future climate change over East Asia due to the RCP scenarios downscaled by GRIMs-RMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses future climate change over East Asia using the Global/Regional Integrated Model systemRegional Model Program (RMP). The RMP is forced by two types of future climate scenarios produced by the Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2 (HG2); the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for the intergovernmental panel on climate change fifth assessment report (AR5). Analyses for the current (1980-2005) climate are performed to evaluate the RMP's ability to reproduce precipitation and temperature. Two different future (2006-2050) simulations are compared with the current climatology to investigate the climatic change over East Asia centered in Korea. The RMP satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of precipitation and temperature. The spatial distribution of the simulated large-scale features and precipitation by the RMP is generally less reflective of current climatic conditions than that is given by the HG2, but their inter-annual variations in East Asia are better captured by the RMP. Furthermore, the RMP shows higher reproducibility of climate extremes including excessive heat wave and precipitation events over South Korea. In the future, strong warming is distinctly coupled with intensified monsoonal precipitation over East Asia. In particular, extreme weather conditions are increased and intensified over South Korea as follows: (1) The frequency of heat wave events with temperature greater than 30 C is projected to increase by 131 and 111 % in the RCP 8.5 and 4.5 downscaling, relative to the current climate. (2) The RCP 8.5 downscaling shows the frequency and variability of heavy rainfall to increase by 24 and 31.5 %, respectively, while the statistics given by the RCP 4.5 downscaling are similar to those of the current climate.

Lee, Ji-Woo; Hong, Song-You; Chang, Eun-Chul; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk

2014-02-01

274

CLM3-simulated soil moisture in East Asia and its possible response to global warming during 1979 through 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological processes related to soil moisture play an important role in determining regional and global climate. In this study, using a state-of-art Community Land Model (CLM) developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), we simulated soil moisture in East Asia and its possible response to global warming through a long off-line experiment under 0.5 (longitude) 0.5 (latitude)

ChuanLi Du; XiaoDong Liu; WanLi Wu

275

Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing CO emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in East Asia from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. High CO abundances of 300-550 ppbv were observed in MOZAIC data in the free troposphere during these episodes. These are among the highest CO abundances documented at these altitudes. Correspondingly, elevated CO was shown in MOPITT daytime data in the middle to upper troposphere in the 2003 case, mostly in the lower to middle troposphere in the 2004 case, and in the upper troposphere in the 2005 case. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases. In the 2003 case, CO from large forest fires near Lake Baikal dominated the elevated CO, which had been rapidly transported upward by a~frontal system from the fire plumes. In the 2004 case, anthropogenic CO from the North China Plain experienced frontal lifting and mostly reached ~ 700 hPa near the East China Sea, while CO from biomass burning from Indochina experienced orographic lifting, leeside-trough induced convection, and frontal lifting through two separate transport pathways, leading to two distinct CO enhancements around 700 hPa and 300 hPa. In the 2005 case, high CO of ~ 300 ppbv, observed in the MOZAIC data around 350 hPa, originated from the anthropogenic source over the vicinity of the Sichuan basin and biomass burning from Indochina, after convection and strong frontal lifting. These cases show that topography affects vertical transport of CO in East Asia via different ways, including orographic uplifting over the Hengduan Mountains, assisting frontal lifting in the North China Plain, and facilitating convection in the Sichuan basin. In particular, topography-induced leeside troughs over Indochina lead to strong convection that assisted CO uplifting to the upper troposphere. This study shows that the new daytime MOPITT near-infrared (NIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) data (version 5 or above) have enhanced vertical sensitivity and may help qualitative diagnosis of vertical transport processes in East Asia.

Ding, K.; Liu, J.; Ding, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, T. L.; Shi, J.; Han, Y.; Wang, H.; Jiang, F.

2014-11-01

276

Perspectives on Australian animal health aid projects in South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Future food security poses many challenges and with increasing prosperity and demand for meat, the emerging but largely unregulated trade in livestock and their products from developing countries in South-East Asia and particularly the Mekong region, pose enormous risks of transboundary disease epidemics. However this is a challenge that should be met as substantial improvements in large ruminant production through appropriate knowledge-based interventions can potentially move the largely rural smallholder populations of Lao PDR and Cambodia from subsistence to a productivity focus, offering a new pathway for poverty alleviation. Large development projects have been implemented in the Mekong region to facilitate this process and research is needed to define problems, identify and test solutions, and then suggest the most appropriate delivery mechanisms for promulgating the interventions that are most sustainable. Animal health aid projects are needed to improve livestock productivity, minimize risk to trade and human health and enhance the capacities of countries where there are significant gaps in the provision of veterinary services. Improving large ruminant production, particularly through forages technology and infectious disease risk management including village-level biosecurity, provides a potential driver of foot and mouth disease (FMD) control and eventual eradication in the region. A perspective on issues involved in Australian aid projects addressing regional animal health research and development and a checklist of strategies to consider when designing and managing such projects is provided. PMID:21426534

Windsor, P A

2011-10-01

277

Male Demography in East Asia: A NorthSouth Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times  

PubMed Central

The human population has increased greatly in size in the last 100,000 years, but the initial stimuli to growth, the times when expansion started, and their variation between different parts of the world are poorly understood. We have investigated male demography in East Asia, applying a Bayesian full-likelihood analysis to data from 988 men representing 27 populations from China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan typed with 45 binary and 16 STR markers from the Y chromosome. According to our analysis, the northern populations examined all started to expand in number between 34 (1868) and 22 (1239) thousand years ago (KYA), before the last glacial maximum at 2118 KYA, while the southern populations all started to expand between 18 (647) and 12 (145) KYA, but then grew faster. We suggest that the northern populations expanded earlier because they could exploit the abundant megafauna of the Mammoth Steppe, while the southern populations could increase in number only when a warmer and more stable climate led to more plentiful plant resources such as tubers. PMID:16489223

Xue, Yali; Zerjal, Tatiana; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Suling; Shu, Qunfang; Xu, Jiujin; Du, Ruofu; Fu, Songbin; Li, Pu; Hurles, Matthew E.; Yang, Huanming; Tyler-Smith, Chris

2006-01-01

278

Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia from a Geostationary Satellite, MTSAT-1R  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval from satellite remote sensing is essential to understand aerosol influence on earth climate system. An algorithm to retrieve AOD from geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite allows us to monitor sources, sinks and transport of aerosols in higher temporal resolution. In this study, using 30-day visible channel data from the Multi-Functional Transport Satellite-1 Replacement (MTSAT-1R) to estimate surface reflectance and DIScrete Ordinate Radiative (DISORT) model (6 S) to calculate look up tables (LUT), AODs are retrieved at 0.55 ?m over East Asia. The retrieved results are compared with the values of AERONET and MODIS. The calculated correlation coefficient(R) during March 2006 with AERONET showed 0.85 at Anmyon and 0.40 at Shirahama. The R for MODIS ranged from 0.2 to 0.96. This algorithm has relatively larger retrieval error than other multiple-channel algorithm due to the limitation in characterizing surface reflectance and aerosol property.

Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Yoon, Jong Min

2009-03-01

279

Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South East Asia for action planning and surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South East Asia for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and (3) building capacity to improve tobacco control planning in the participating countries. Design: A structured conceptualisation methodology known as concept mapping was used. The process included brainstorming, sorting and rating of statements describing industry activities. Statistical analyses used multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Interpretation of the maps was participatory, using regional tobacco control researchers, practitioners, and policy makers during a face to face meeting. Participants: 31 participants in this study come from the four countries represented in the project along with six people from the Johns Hopkins Blomberg School of Public Health. Conclusions: The map shows eight clusters of industry activities within the four countries. These were arranged into four general sectors: economics, politics, public relations and deception. For project design purposes, the map indicates areas of importance and feasibility for monitoring tobacco industry activities and serves as a basis for an initial discussion about action planning. Furthermore, the development of the map used a consensus building process across different stakeholders or stakeholder agencies and is critical when developing regional, cross border strategies for tracking and surveillance. PMID:18218787

Stillman, F; Hoang, M; Linton, R; Ritthiphakdee, B; Trochim, W

2008-01-01

280

Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedli?ka, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedli?ka, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

Anichtchenko, Alexander

2011-01-01

281

Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South East Asia: Descriptive situational assessment  

PubMed Central

Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South East Asia. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions. PMID:25285274

Kesavadev, Jothydev; Sadikot, Shaukat M.; Saboo, Banshi; Shrestha, Dina; Jawad, Fatema; Azad, Kishwar; Wijesuriya, Mahendra Arunashanthi; Latt, Tint Swe; Kalra, Sanjay

2014-01-01

282

Response of Vegetation to Climate Change in the Drylands of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 25 years, global climate and environmental changes have caused an unprecedented rate of vegetation change, as exemplified in the drylands of East Asia. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal changes of vegetation in this region and analysed their relationship with climate data. Our results show that vegetation productivity significantly increased from 1982 to 2006. This increasing trend was observed for most of the region, particularly for northwest Mongolia and central Inner Mongolia. Grasslands, croplands, forests, and shrublands, all exhibited this trend. The annual growth rate of the grasslands determined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was the largest observed change; reaching 0.07% p.a, followed by shrublands (0.06%), croplands (0.03%), and forests (0.02%). In the different geographic regions, the roles of temperature and precipitation on vegetation growth were shown to be different. Temperature was the dominant factor for the observed NDVI increase in northwest Mongolia and the centre of Inner Mongolia. The combined influences of temperature and precipitation changes have resulted in the promotion of vegetation growth, as seen in eastern GanSu. Temperature change is the primary factor for initiating vegetation growth in spring and autumn because warmer temperatures increase the length of the growing season, and are thus evaluated as an increased NDVI value. Increased precipitation has been shown to play a positive role on vegetation growth during summer.

Dai, L.; Zhang, L.; Wang, K.; Wang, R. L.

2014-03-01

283

Combined Dust Detection Algorithm by Using MODIS Infrared Channels over East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new dust detection algorithm is developed by combining the results of multiple dust detectionmethods using IR channels onboard the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) between two wavelength channels has been used widely in previous dust detection methods. However, BTDmethods have limitations in identifying the offset values of the BTDto discriminate clear-sky areas. The current algorithm overcomes the disadvantages of previous dust detection methods by considering the Brightness Temperature Ratio (BTR) values of the dual wavelength channels with 30-day composite, the optical properties of the dust particles, the variability of surface properties, and the cloud contamination. Therefore, the current algorithm shows improvements in detecting the dust loaded region over land during daytime. Finally, the confidence index of the current dust algorithm is shown in 10 10 pixels of the MODIS observations. From January to June, 2006, the results of the current algorithm are within 64 to 81% of those found using the fine mode fraction (FMF) and aerosol index (AI) from the MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The agreement between the results of the current algorithm and the OMI AI over the non-polluted land also ranges from 60 to 67% to avoid errors due to the anthropogenic aerosol. In addition, the developed algorithm shows statistically significant results at four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites in East Asia.

Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Lee, Sukjo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seok; Ou, Steve

2014-01-01

284

[Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].  

PubMed

The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641

Wang, Fei

2012-06-01

285

Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.  

PubMed Central

Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617

Douglas, I

1999-01-01

286

Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.  

PubMed

The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements. PMID:25000779

Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

2014-04-01

287

Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an East Asian domain containing 164 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE Asia field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G.G., Woo, J.-H., Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., 2007a. Top-down estimate of mercury emissions in China using four-dimensional variational data assimilation. Atmospheric Environment 41, 2804-2819) in China for the year 2001. The estimated natural emission helps explain the gap between the anthropogenic emission estimates based on activity data (e.g., Pacyna, J.M., Pacyna, E., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S., 2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4048-4063; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) and the emission inferred from field observations (e.g., Jaffe, D., Prestbo, E., Swartzendruber, P., Weiss-Penzias, P., Kato, S., Takami, A., Hatakeyama, S., Kajii, Y., 2005. Export of atmospheric mercury from Asia. Atmospheric Environment 39, 3029-3038; Weiss-Penzias, P., Jaffe, D., Swartzendruber, P., Hafner, W., Chand, D., Prestbo, E., 2007. Quantifying Asian and biomass burning sources of mercury using the Hg/CO ratio in pollution plumes observed at the Mount Bachelor observatory. Atmospheric Environment 41, 4366-4379) in the region.

Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey

288

Assessment of the biospheric contribution to surface atmospheric CO2 concentrations over East Asia with a regional chemical transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional chemical transport model, RAMS-CMAQ, was employed to assess the impacts of biosphere-atmosphere C2 exchange on seasonal variations in atmospheric C2 concentrations over East Asia. Simulated C2 concentrations were compared with observations at 12 surface stations and the comparison showed they were generally in good agreement. Both observations and simulations suggested that surface C2 over East Asia features a summertime trough due to biospheric absorption, while in some urban areas surface C2 has a distinct summer peak, which could be attributed to the strong impact from anthropogenic emissions. Analysis of the model results indicated that biospheric fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions are comparably important in shaping spatial distributions of C2 near the surface over East Asia. Biospheric flux plays an important role in the prevailing spatial pattern of C2 enhancement and reduction on the synoptic scale due to the strong seasonality of biospheric C2 flux. The elevation of C2 levels by the biosphere during winter was found to be larger than 5 ppm in North China and Southeast China, and during summertime a significant depletion (? 7 ppm) occurred in most areas, except for the Indo-China Peninsula where positive bioflux values were found.

Kou, Xingxia; Zhang, Meigen; Peng, Zhen; Wang, Yinghong

2015-03-01

289

Ethnic Related Selection for an ADH Class I Variant within East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely studied enzymes and the evolution of the mammalian gene cluster encoding these enzymes is also well studied. Previous studies have shown that the ADH1B*47His allele at one of the seven genes in humans is associated with a decrease in the risk of alcoholism and the core molecular region with this allele has been selected for in some East Asian populations. As the frequency of ADH1B*47His is highest in East Asia, and very low in most of the rest of the world, we have undertaken more detailed investigation in this geographic region. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report new data on 30 SNPs in the ADH7 and Class I ADH region in samples of 24 populations from China and Laos. These populations cover a wide geographic region and diverse ethnicities. Combined with our previously published East Asian data for these SNPs in 8 populations, we have typed populations from all of the 6 major linguistic phyla (Altaic including Korean-Japanese and inland Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Hmong-Mien, Austro-Asiatic, Daic, and Austronesian). The ADH1B genotyping data are strongly related to ethnicity. Only some eastern ethnic phyla or subphyla (Korean-Japanese, Han Chinese, Hmong-Mien, Daic, and Austronesian) have a high frequency of ADH1B*47His. ADH1B haplotype data clustered the populations into linguistic subphyla, and divided the subphyla into eastern and western parts. In the Hmong-Mien and Altaic populations, the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) and relative EHH (REHH) tests for the ADH1B core were consistent with selection for the haplotype with derived SNP alleles. In the other ethnic phyla, the core showed only a weak signal of selection at best. Conclusions/Significance The selection distribution is more significantly correlated with the frequency of the derived ADH1B regulatory region polymorphism than the derived amino-acid altering allele ADH1B*47His. Thus, the real focus of selection may be the regulatory region. The obvious ethnicity-related distributions of ADH1B diversities suggest the existence of some culture-related selective forces that have acted on the ADH1B region. PMID:18382665

Li, Hui; Gu, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoyun; Speed, William C.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Golub, Efim I.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

2008-01-01

290

Assessment of the RegCM4 over East Asia and future precipitation change adapted to the RCP scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated spatial and temporal changes in precipitation over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) East Asia domain, for present (1986-2005) and future (2031-2050) periods using the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4). Future meteorology produced by the Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2 coupled with the Atmosphere-Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) following global climate change scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5) was used as meteorological boundary conditions for the RegCM4. Six subregions (South Korea, North China, South China, Japan, Mongolia, and India) in the CORDEX East Asia domain were considered for analysis. The RegCM4 simulated spatial distributions of precipitation over East Asia with a correlation coefficient of 0.7 against Climate Research Unit data. The simulation skills of its temporal variability varied based on geographical regions and seasons, showing relatively poorer performance (underestimation in rainfall amount) in summer than in winter, in general. The future climate simulations by the RegCM4 presented that the East Asian continental regions will be warmer and more humid, leading to increased precipitation amounts, especially in the summer. The summer precipitation amount was projected to increase by about 5%, on average, over the East Asian domain, 5-15% in most subregions, and even higher (44% and 24%) in the South Korean region for the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, respectively. It was also expected that heavy rainfall (> 50 mm/d) events may occur more frequently in the future possibly owing to meteorological changes that are favorable to convective heavy precipitation.

Oh, Seok-Geun; Park, Ju-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok

2014-03-01

291

Quantifying pollution inflow and outflow over East Asia through coupling regional and global models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the exchange processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere is crucial for estimating hemispheric transport of air pollution. Most studies of hemispheric air pollution transport have taken a large-scale perspective: using global chemical transport models and focusing on synoptic-scale export events. These global models have fairly coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, and thus have a limited ability to represent boundary layer processes and urban photochemistry. In support of United Nations Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP; http://www.htap.org), this study employs two high-resolution atmospheric chemistry models (WRF-Chem and CMAQ; 3636 km) coupled with a global model (MOZART; 1.91.9) to examine the importance of fine-scale transport and chemistry processes in controlling pollution export and import over the Asian continent. We find that the vertical lifting and outflow of Asian pollution is enhanced in the regional models throughout the study period (March 2001) as contrast to the global model. Episodic outflow of CO, PAN, and O3 to the upper troposphere during cold frontal passages is twice as great in the WRF-Chem model as compared with the MOZART model. The TRACE-P aircraft measurements indicate that the pollution plumes in MOZART are too weak and too low in the altitude, which we attribute to the global model's inability to capture rapid deep convection that develops along the leading edge of the convergence band during frontal events. In contrast to pollution export from Asia, we find little difference in the regional vs. global model transport of European (EU) pollution into surface air over East Asia (EA). Instead, the local surface characteristics - sensitivity - strongly influence surface O3 responses. For instance, the O3 response to 20% decreases in EU emissions imported into our regional model domain is strongest (0.4-0.6 ppbv) over mountainous regions and weakest (0.1-0.3 ppbv) in megacities. The spatial averaged O3 response over EA estimated by our regional models is ~0.1 ppbv lower than global model estimates. Our results suggest that global models tend to underestimate the total budget of Asian pollutants exported to the free troposphere given their limited ability to properly capture vertical convection and lifting. Due to the compensating effects on surface O3 responses over downwind continents, future high-resolution hemispheric model analysis should provide additional insights into how the export and import processes interact, and will help to narrow the uncertainty of intercontinental source-receptor relationships.

Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Carmichael, G. R.; Fiore, A. M.

2010-01-01

292

Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5N-26.5N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5N-50N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast prediction skill represented by domain-averaged temporal correlation coefficient is 0.44, which is twice higher than the skill of the current dynamical hindcast, suggesting that the dynamical models have large rooms to improve. The maximum potential attainable prediction skills for the peak summer SEA rainfall is also estimated and discussed by using the PMA. High predictability regions are found over several climatological rainfall centers like Indo-China peninsula, southern coast of China, southeastern SCS, and Philippine Sea.

Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

2014-11-01

293

A strong filter effect of the East China Sea land bridge for East Asias temperate plant species: inferences from molecular phylogeography and ecological niche modelling of Platycrater arguta (Hydrangeaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background In East Asia, an increasing number of studies on temperate forest tree species find evidence for migration and gene exchange across the East China Sea (ECS) land bridge up until the last glacial maximum (LGM). However, it is less clear when and how lineages diverged in this region, whether in full isolation or in the face of post-divergence gene flow. Here, we investigate the effects of Quaternary changes in climate and sea level on the evolutionary and demographic history of Platycrater arguta, a rare temperate understorey shrub with disjunct distributions in East China (var. sinensis) and South Japan (var. arguta). Molecular data were obtained from 14 P. arguta populations to infer current patterns of molecular structure and diversity in relation to past (Last Interglacial and Last Glacial Maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modelling (ENM). A coalescent-based isolation-with-migration (IM) model was used to estimate lineage divergence times and population demographic parameters. Results Combining information from nuclear/chloroplast sequence data with nuclear microsatellites, our IM analyses identify the two varieties as genetically distinct units that evolved in strict allopatry since the mid-Pleistocene, c. 0.89 (0.511.2) Ma. Together with Bayesian Skyeline Plots, our data further suggest that both lineages experienced post-divergence demographic growth, followed by refugial isolation, divergence, and in the case of var. arguta post-glacial admixture. However, past species distribution modelling indicates that the species overall distribution has not greatly changed over the last glacial cycles. Conclusions Our findings highlight the important influence of ancient sea-level changes on the diversification of East Asias temperate flora. Implicitly, they challenge the notion of general temperate forest expansion across the ECS land bridge, demonstrating instead its filter effect owing to an unsuitable environment for certain species and their biological (e.g., recruitment) properties. PMID:24593236

2014-01-01

294

Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff, derived from ?14CO2observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO2ff when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO2ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO2ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement. Carbon monoxide (CO) correlates strongly with CO2ff. The SDZ and TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO: CO2ff ratios (RCO:CO2ff) of 47 2 and 44 3 ppb/ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low RCO:CO2ffof 13 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than bottom-up inventories, but consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We compare our CO2ff observations with modeled CO2ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model convolved with a bottom-up CO2ff emission inventories. The modeled annual mean CO2ff mole fractions are consistent with our observations when the model inventory includes the reported 63% increase in Chinese emissions from 2004 to 2010, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat is unable to replicate the observations.

Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.; Baker, David; Conway, Thomas J.; Chung, Y. S.; Gregg, Jay; Miller, John B.; Southon, John R.; Zhou, Ling-Xi

2011-12-01

295

An upper-mantle S-wave velocity model for East Asia from Rayleigh wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new shear velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the East Asia region derived by inverting Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements between 10 and 145 s combined with previously published Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 150 and 250 s. Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves along more than 9500 paths were measured and combined to produce 2D dispersion maps for 10-145 s periods. The group velocity maps benefit from the inclusion of new data recorded by the China National Seismic Network and surrounding global stations. The increase in available data has resulted in enhanced resolution compared with previously published group velocity maps; the horizontal resolution across the region is about 3 for the periods used in this study. The new shear-wave velocity models indicate varying velocity structure beneath eastern China, which yields estimates of a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth from around 160 km beneath the Yangtze block to approximately 140 km beneath the western part of the North China Craton (NCC), up to depths of 70-100 km beneath the eastern NCC, Northeast China, and the Cathaysia block. The models reveal the subduction of two opposite-facing continental plates under the southern and northern margin of Tibet. An obvious low-velocity anomaly appears in the top 200 km of the upper mantle beneath northern Tibet, which is inconsistent with the presence of subducted Asian or Indian mantle lithosphere beneath northern Tibet. The Cenozoic volcanism fields in the Mongolian plateau are characterized by an obvious upper mantle negative anomaly, but no signature of deep-seated plume was observed.

Li, Yonghua; Wu, Qingju; Pan, Jiatie; Zhang, Fengxue; Yu, Daxin

2013-09-01

296

An upper-mantle S-wave velocity model for East Asia from Rayleigh wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new shear velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the East Asia region derived by inverting Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements between 10 and 145 s combined with previously published Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 150 and 250 s. Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves along more than 9500 paths were measured and combined to produce 2D dispersion maps for 10-145 s periods. The group velocity maps benefit from the inclusion of new data recorded by the China National Seismic Network and surrounding global stations. The increase in available data has resulted in enhanced resolution compared with previously published group velocity maps; the horizontal resolution across the region is about 3 for the periods used in this study. The new shear wave velocity models indicate varying velocity structure beneath eastern China, which yields estimates of a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth from around 160 km beneath the Yangtze block to approximately 140 km beneath the western part of the North China Craton (NCC), up to depths of 70-100 km beneath the eastern NCC, Northeast China, and the Cathaysia block. The models reveal the subduction of two opposite-facing continental plates under the southern and northern margin of Tibet. An obvious low-velocity anomaly appears in the top 200 km of the upper mantle beneath northern Tibet, which is inconsistent with the presence of subducted Asian or Indian mantle lithosphere beneath northern Tibet. The Cenozoic volcanism fields in the Mongolian plateau are characterized by an obvious upper mantle negative anomaly, but no signature of deep-seated plume was observed. This study was supported by the international cooperation project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2011DFB20120) and NSFC (41074067).

Li, Y.; Wu, Q.; Pan, J.; Zhang, F.; Sun, L.

2013-12-01

297

Vitamin D status and food security in North-East Asia.  

PubMed

The functions of vitamin D are pleiotropic affecting all body organs and systems in some way. Its adequacy depends principally on sunshine for UV light to stimulate its synthesis in skin and on foods which contain it, either animal-derived or obtained from fungi or mushrooms, with the UV-responsive substrates dehydrocholesterol for vitamin D-3 or ergosterol for vitamin D-2, respectively. Thus, vitamin D health is very environmentally dependent. With ecosytem degradation, whether by atmospheric pollution or food systems which do not derive UV irradiation, as with fish farming or mushroom processing, then this nutrient input into human biology may falter. Vitamin D deficiency is now common and widespread in North-East Asia as elsewhere. When discovered early in the 20th century it was linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and, for a generation or so, children were given fish, usually cod, liver oil to prevent bone disease. Now cod as a species and many edible fish are threatened. Over-exposure to sun-light increases the risk of skin cancer. We may tackle this problem by vitamin D supplementation with an alternative to fish liver. But the demographic pressures of population size and ageing (when the skin is less UV responsive) make the clinical and public health decisions and strategies demanding. Vitamin D health has become indicative of food security whose usual indicator is food diversity; such diversity may allow lesser concentrations to be more effective in organ and system function, but we have little evidence to support this at present. PMID:23353604

Wahlqvist, Mark L

2013-01-01

298

Using Knowledge Fusion to Analyze Avian Influenza H5N1 in East and Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, a disease associated with high rates of mortality in infected human populations, poses a serious threat to public health in many parts of the world. This article reports findings from a study aimed at improving our understanding of the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza, H5N1, risk in East-Southeast Asia where the disease is both persistent and devastating. Though many disciplines have made important contributions to our understanding of H5N1, it remains a challenge to integrate knowledge from different disciplines. This study applies genetic analysis that identifies the evolution of the H5N1 virus in space and time, epidemiological analysis that determines socio-ecological factors associated with H5N1 occurrence, and statistical analysis that identifies outbreak clusters, and then applies a methodology to formally integrate the findings of the three sets of methodologies. The present study is novel in two respects. First it makes the initiative attempt to use genetic sequences and space-time data to create a space-time phylogenetic tree to estimate and map the virus' ability to spread. Second, by integrating the results we are able to generate insights into the space-time occurrence and spread of H5N1 that we believe have a higher level of corroboration than is possible when analysis is based on only one methodology. Our research identifies links between the occurrence of H5N1 by area and a set of socio-ecological factors including altitude, population density, poultry density, and the shortest path distances to inland water, coastlines, migrating routes, railways, and roads. This study seeks to lay a solid foundation for the interdisciplinary study of this and other influenza outbreaks. It will provide substantive information for containing H5N1 outbreaks. PMID:22615729

Ge, Erjia; Haining, Robert; Li, Chi Pang; Yu, Zuguo; Waye, Miu Yee; Chu, Ka Hou; Leung, Yee

2012-01-01

299

A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. Methods and Findings With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to ? 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. Conclusions An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation. International cross-disciplinary collaborations may be appropriate in the investigation of other serious counterfeit medicine public health problems elsewhere, but strengthening of international collaborations and forensic and drug regulatory authority capacity will be required. PMID:18271620

Newton, Paul N; Fernndez, Facundo M; Planon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

2008-01-01

300

Springtime trans-pacific atmospheric transport from east Asia: a transit-time-pdf approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere is known to episodically transport aerosols, dust, and gaseous pollutants from industrialized south-east Asia, the Gobi desert, and Siberian wild fires to western North America. We give a novel characterization of the ever-present background transport from these regions and of the probability of transport ``events", that is, long-range transport of high concentrations with minimal dispersion. Our primary transport diagnostic is the transit-time probability density function (pdf), {\\cal G}, which is a tracer-independent measure of the flow that allows us to isolate the role of transport from other factors such as source variability and chemistry. The pdf approach, unlike typical back-trajectory analyses, captures transport due to all possible paths and accounts for both resolved advection and subgrid processes. We use a numerical model of the global atmosphere (MATCH), driven by NCEP reananlysis data, to establish the springtime statistics of daily averages of {\\cal G}. A suitably defined average of {\\cal G} quantifies the mass fraction of background air of a given transit time, or age, from the source regions. An analysis of the variability of {\\cal G} at fixed transit time allows us to identify transport events and to estimate their probability of occurrence. This is illustrated for transport events to the ``Pacific-North-West" (PNW) region of North America, defined as (43.8o-53.3o{N}) (115.3o-124.7o{W}). Correlations between {\\cal G} averaged over the PNW and the winds at any point in the atmosphere identify large-scale anomaly structures of the flow that correspond to favorable transport to the PNW.

Holzer, M.; McKendry, I.; Jaffe, D.

2003-04-01

301

The diagnosis and evaluation of total ozone and UV Index forecasting over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern regarding a decrease in stratospheric ozone is the consequential increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing through the atmosphere and reaching the Earth's surface. Forecast of the UV Index is a direct application of the resources used to study UV radiation and the knowledge of the dependencies of surface UV on absorption and scattering processes. In general, UV radiation levels are influenced by total ozone, sun elevation, latitude, cloud cover, and ground reflection. Above all, forecast values of total ozone are significantly used as input to Radiative Transfer Models or statistical models for UV index forecasting. The forecasting of UV index is worthwhile over East Asia to represent large variation of total ozone according to latitude and seasonal change. In order to evaluate UV Index forecasting, the multiple linear regression model for total ozone forecasting (predictors; climatology, yesterday total ozone, and geopotential height at 200 hPa) was analyzed newly. The predictand data consisted of total ozone observations for March 2005 to February 2006, measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The predictors were obtained from climatology (TOMS ozone climatology for November 1978 to December 2004), yesterday OMI total ozone, and a classification of upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric meteorological variables (Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction data; RDPS) to be related to total ozone. There are significant differences of correlation coefficient between total ozone (predictand) and predictors for variation of season. Especially, geopotential height at 250 hPa and 150 hPa appear as major predictors in spring and winter rather than climatology or yesterday total ozone, respectively. As a result, root mean square error (RMSE) between total ozone forecasting values to be reconstructed for spring and observations reduced by 71 % more than used to forecast. According to evaluation of total ozone forecasting, RMSE between UV Index forecasting and observations decreased from 5 % to 33 % for different cloud conditions.

Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Cho, H.; Chung, S.

2006-12-01

302

Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

2010-05-01

303

Intraseasonal Cold Air Outbreak over East Asia and the preceding atmospheric condition over the Barents-Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent occurrence of cold air outbreak is a dominant feature of the East Asian winter monsoon. A contributing factor for the this cold air outbreak is the role of stationary Rossby waves over the Eurasian continent which intensifies the surface Siberian High and the accompanying cold air outflow. Reduced sea ice and increase in turbulence heat flux is hypothesized as a source of such stationary waves (Honda et al. 2009). In particular, the winter of 2009/2010 saw a strong correlation of high pressure anomaly over the Barents/Kara sea and the following cold air buildup over the Eurasian continent and its advection towards East Asia (Hori et al. 2011). The lag correlation of surface temperature over Japan and the 850hPa geopotential height shows a cyclonic anomaly appearing over the Barents/Kara sea which creates a cold air advection over the Eurasian continent. The pressure anomaly subsequently shifted westward to mature into a blocking high which created a wave- train pattern downstream advecting the cold air buildup eastward toward East Asia and Japan (Fig1). We further examine this mechanism for other years including the 2005/2006, 2010/2011 winter and other winters with extreme cold air outbreaks. Overall, the existence of an anticyclonic anomaly over the Barents/Kara sea correlated well with the seasonal dominance of cold air over the Eurasian continent thereby creating a contrast of a warm Arctic and cold Eurasian continent.In the intraseasonal timescale, the existence of this anticyclone corresponds to a persisting atmospheric blocking in the high latitudes. In the presentation, we address the underlying chain of events leading up to a strong cold air outbreak over East Asia from an atmosphere - sea ice - land surafce interaction point of view for paritular cold winter years.

Hori, M. E.; Inoue, J.

2011-12-01

304

On the regional distributions of background carbon monoxide concentrations observed in East Asia during 1991-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations observed at Mt. Waliguan in China (WLG), Ulaan Uul in Mongolia (UUM), Tae-ahn Peninsula in Korea (TAP) and Ryori in Japan (RYO) were analysed between 1991 and 2008. The average annual concentration of CO, a toxic air pollutant, was the highest at TAP (23544 ppb), followed by RYO (16935 ppb), UUM (15427 ppb) and WLG (13824 ppb). These data obtained in East Asia were also compared with CO data from Mauna Loa, Hawaii. CO tends to be highest in spring and lowest in summer in East Asia, with the exception of WLG. TAP had the highest CO concentrations in all seasons compared with WLG, UUM and RYO, and displays a wide short-term variability in concentration. This is caused by large-scale air pollution owing to its downwind location, close to continental East Asia. CO concentrations observed at TAP were analysed as follows: according to the origin of the isentropic backward trajectory and its transport passage; as continental background airflows (CBG); regionally polluted continental airflows (RPC); oceanic background airflows (OBG); and partly perturbed oceanic airflows (PPO). The high concentrations of CO at TAP are because of the airflow originating from the East Asian continent, rather than the North Pacific. RPCs, which pass through eastern China, appear to have high CO concentrations in spring, autumn and winter. It is noteworthy that the overall trend at TAP does not show an increase despite the fact that energy use in China approximately doubled from 1991 to 2008. OBGs, however, are affected by North Pacific air masses with low CO concentrations in summer.

Kim, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Tans, P. P.

2010-02-01

305

HCHO seasonal characteristics and inconsistency between CMAQ-predicted and GOME-retrieved HCHO columns in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, US EPA Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) v4.5.1 model simulations, using the ACE-ASIA (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment), CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System), REAS (Regional Emission Inventory in Asia) and GEIA (Global Emissions Inventory Activity) emission inventories, were carried out for four seasonal episodes in order to examine seasonal variations and characteristics of formaldehyde (HCHO) columns over East Asia. Tropospheric HCHO columns were retrieved from the GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) instrument over East Asia. For the consideration of possibly overestimated GEIA biogenic emission fluxes in East Asia, reduced isoprene and mono-terpene emission fluxes were used. There is a seasonally distinctive distribution of tropospheric HCHO columns from the GOME observations in East Asia where large amounts of NMVOCs are emitted from several major sources such as anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning emissions. On the contrary, seasonal variations of the HCHO columns from the CMAQ simulation are not definitely clear except during summer due to the possible effect of biogenic emissions. In addition, there are seasonally large discrepancies between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-retried HCHO columns, particularly over South China. The tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ simulations have 97.1% and 13.6% larger values than those from the GOME observations during the fall and summer episodes, respectively, whereas the HCHO columns from the GOME observations have 131.3% and 59.9% larger values than those from the CMAQ simulations during the spring and winter episodes, respectively over South China. In the statistical analyses between both HCHO columns, absolute difference (Mean Bias) are also much more biased over South China than over North China, Korea, and Japan and relative differences (Mean Normalized Bias) are biased by 385.2% and -53.9% during the fall and spring seasons over South China. These large discrepancies between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-retrieved HCHO columns could be caused mainly by missing BB (biomass burning) emission (whose fluxes have been not well quantified at present) in the CMAQ simulation, particularly for the spring episode and large uncertainties of the isoprene and mono-terpene emission fluxes. In order to examine these large differences, the HCHO chemical production/loss rates were calculated using 26 photo-chemical reactions obtained from the CMAQ simulation. The HCHO chemical production/loss rate has the highest positive values during the winter season and the highest negative values during the summer season. The negative values of the HCHO chemical production/loss rate indicate that the radical species (i.e. OH and O3) actively or dominantly react with the VOC species, particularly isoprene during the summer season. In addition, the seasonal distributions of the HCHO chemical production/loss rate are almost consistent with the isoprene emission fluxes considered in this CMAQ simulation. Again, this indicates that isoprene is a major species to determine the distribution of the HCHO columns over East Asia in this CMAQ simulation.

Han, Kyung M.; Song, Chul H.; Lee, Chul K.; Wittrock, Folkard

2010-05-01

306

Sedimentary records of metal deposition in Japanese alpine lakes for the last 250 years: Recent enrichment of airborne Sb and In in East Asia  

E-print Network

252-8510, Japan H I G H L I G H T S First report on historical trends in Sb and In enrichment in East November 2012 Keywords: Antimony Indium Alpine lake sediments Historical trends Pollution East Asia. Antimony is used in automobile brake pads, batteries, ceramics, glass, plastics, and flame retardants

Short, Daniel

307

Simultaneous Inversion of Receiver Functions and Surface Wave Dispersion For Lithospheric Structure Beneath The Middle East, North African, Central Asia, And Parts of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous researchers have studied lithospheric structure of Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia for decades. Although there are agreements on the general lithospheric structure, interesting discrepancies exist on the specific lithospheric structure in a number of areas. Our objective is the construction of shear-wave velocity profiles for regions surrounding broadband seismic stations throughout the Middle East, central and north

M. Kosarian; W. Sevilla; C. J. Ammon; R. B. Herrmann; M. E. Pasyanos; G. Randall

2004-01-01

308

Demographic transitions and migration in prehistoric East/Southeast Asia through the lens of nonmetric dental traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region. PMID:24954129

Matsumura, Hirofumi; Oxenham, Marc F

2014-09-01

309

A comparison study between CMAQ-estimated and OMI-retrieved NO2 columns using averaging kernels over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOx plays an important role in the tropospheric chemistry such as the ozone and secondary aerosol formations. Also, rapid increase of atmospheric NOx mixing ratios over China has been reported, based on GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY)-based observations. However, there has been large uncertainty in the bottom-up NOx emission in East Asia. Therefore, we need to investigate the accuracy of the bottom-up NOx emission in East Asia, particularly utilizing satellite-retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns. In order to carry out such investigation, two retrieved OMI products were taken from the Level-2 DOMINO product version 2 (using KNMI algorithm) and from the Level-2 OMNO2 product version 2.1 (using NASA algorithm). The two OMI products were well correlated (R=0.98) over Central East China, CEC. Also, averaging kernels (AKs) were applied to chemistry-transport model (CTM) simulations over East Asia for direct comparison between CTM-estimated NO2 columns and satellite-observed NO2 columns in this study. When the AKs were not applied to the CTM, the CMAQ-calculated NO2 columns were much larger by a factor of 1.6 than the OMI-retrieved NO2 columns for winter over the CEC areas. However, the CMAQ-calculated NO2 columns with the AKs were comparable with those from OMI observations. Applying AKs from the KNMI algorithm to the CMAQ-estimated NO2 columns showed seasonally good correlations with the OMI-retrieved NO2 columns, particularly over East China (R=0.80 - 0.90). The CMAQ-estimated NO2 columns with the AKs from the NASA algorithm showed larger values than the OMI-retrieved NO2 columns despite of good correlation coefficient (R=0.78 - 0.91 over East China) because the AKs from the NASA algorithm are vertically even larger by factors of approximate 2 - 10 than those from the KNMI algorithm over East China. The differences between two NO2 columns using the NASA algorithm were much larger than those using the KNMI algorithm, particularly during the winter episodes. In addition, several sensitivity analyses were made about several factor related to this study: i) seasonal variations of NOx emission over China; ii) reaction probability of N2O5 on aerosols for wither; iii) OH recycling for summer.

Han, K.; Lee, S.; Park, R.; Song, C.; Kang, Y.; Jung, W.; Ahan, S.

2013-12-01

310

Mechanisms controlling surface ozone over East Asia: a multiscale study coupling regional and global chemical transport models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanisms controlling surface ozone (O3) over East Asia are examined using the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model at two horizontal scales: 81 km and 27 km. Through sensitivity studies and comparison with recently available satellite data and surface measurements in China and Japan, we find that the O3 budget over East Asia shows complex interactions among photochemical production, regional transport, meteorological conditions, burning of agricultural residues, and global inflows. For example, wintertime surface O3 over northern domain is sensitive to boundary conditions derived from the MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related Tracers) global model, whereas summertime O3 budget is controlled by the competitive processes between photochemical production and monsoonal intrusion of low-O3 marine air masses from tropical Pacific. We find that simulated surface O3 for 2001 does not exhibit the same sharp drop in July and August concentrations that is observed at two mountaintop sites (Tai and Hua) for 2004 and Beijing for 1995-2005. CMAQ sensitivity tests with two widely used photochemical schemes demonstrate that over the industrial areas in East Asia north of 30 N, SAPRC99 produces higher values of mean summertime O3 than CBIV, amounting to a difference of 10 ppb. In addition, analysis of NCEP winds and geopotential heights suggests that southwesterly monsoonal intrusion in central east China is weakened in August 2001 as compared with the climatologically mean for 1980-2005. Further examination of the O3 diurnal cycle at nine Japanese sites shows that boundary layer evolution has an important effect on the vertical mixing of ground-level O3, and error in near surface meteorology might contribute to overprediction of nighttime O3 in urban and rural areas. In conclusion, the uncertainties in simulating cloud activities and convection mixing, Asian monsoon circulation, photochemical production, and nighttime cooling explain why CMAQ with 81 km horizontal scale overpredicts the observed surface O3 in July and August over central east China and central Japan by 5-15 ppb (CBIV) and 15-25 ppb (SAPRC99). The results suggest clear benefits in evaluating atmospheric chemistry over Asia with high resolution regional model.

Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Oki, T.; Streets, D. G.; Richter, A.

2008-12-01

311

Volatility basis-set approach simulation of organic aerosol formation in East Asia: implications for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction and controllable amounts  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosol (OA) simulations using the volatility basis-set approach were made for East Asia and its outflow region. Model simulations were evaluated through comparisons with OA measured by aerosol mass spectrometers in and around Tokyo (at Komaba and Kisai in summer 2003 and 2004) and over the outflow region in East Asia (at Fukue and Hedo in spring 2009). The simulations with aging processes of organic vapors reasonably well reproduced mass concentrations, temporal variations, and formation efficiency of observed OA at all sites. As OA mass was severely underestimated in the simulations without the aging processes, the oxidations of organic vapors are essential for reasonable OA simulations over East Asia. By considering the aging processes, simulated OA concentrations considerably increased from 0.24 to 1.28 g m-3 in the boundary layer over the whole of East Asia. OA formed from the interaction of anthropogenic and biogenic sources was also enhanced by the aging processes. The fraction of controllable OA was estimated to be 87 % of total OA over the whole of East Asia, showing that most of the OA in our simulations formed anthropogenically (controllable). A large portion of biogenic secondary OA (78 % of biogenic secondary OA) formed through the influence of anthropogenic sources. The high fraction of controllable OA in our simulations is likely because anthropogenic emissions are dominant over East Asia and OA formation is enhanced by anthropogenic sources and their aging processes. Both the amounts (from 0.18 to 1.12 g m-3) and the fraction (from 75 % to 87 %) of controllable OA were increased by aging processes of organic vapors over East Asia.

Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kanaya, Y.; Takigawa, M.

2014-09-16

312

The East Asia Regional Advisory Board The Fuqua School of Business  

E-print Network

-96 Global Brand Manager/China Marketing Manager, SC Johnson Wax 89-93 Senior Brand Manager, Reckitt ­Akzo Nobel Decorative Paints 99-04 VP&GM Greater China/GM Australia/Asia Pacific Marketing Director, Philips Electronics ­ Lighting 96-99 Category Marketing Director Asia Pacific, Reckitt Benckiser 93

Reif, John H.

313

Analysis on the development trends of capture fisheries in North-East Asia and the policy and management implications for regional co-operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seas in North-East Asia, the Yellow\\/East China Sea and the East Sea, which are semi-enclosed seas constituting unitary ecosystems are now facing many problems such as depletion of fish stocks, poor fishery management policies, and large-scale deterioration of the marine environment. The fishery resources of the region have long been subject to heavy fishing pressures, and many stocks are

Joon-Suk Kang

2006-01-01

314

Immunological surveys of arbovirus infections in South-East Asia, with special reference to dengue, chikungunya, and Kyasanur Forest disease*  

PubMed Central

Serological surveys have been widely used in South-East Asia to determine the presence and activity of arboviruses. The haemagglutination-inhibition test has been most frequently employed but complement-fixation and neutralization tests have also been used in some investigations. Although virus isolations provide the most conclusive evidence, they can be carried out in a few specialized centres only, and serological surveys are very important for studying the distribution of arboviruses. The surveys have shown that group B arboviruses (principally all four types of dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile) are widely prevalent. Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are more widespread than West Nile virus, which was not known previously to extend east of India although recent survyes have shown that its range extends to Burma. Japanese encephalitis is frequent in most of South-East Asia but in India is found mainly in eastern and south-eastern parts of the country. Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) and Langat viruses are the only tick-borne group B arboviruses definitely known to occur in the region, the former in India, the latter in Malaysia. KFD virus has been isolated only from a small focus in Mysore, although human and animal sera containing neutralizing antibodies to this virus have been found sporadically in widely scattered areas. Among the group A arboviruses, chikungunya and Sindbis have been detected in serological surveys, but the former has not yet been found in Malaysia. PMID:4400821

Rao, T. Ramachandra

1971-01-01

315

Virtual versus physical spaces: which facilitates greater HIV risk taking among men who have sex with men in East and South-East Asia?  

PubMed

Increasing use of the Internet to seek sex partners is accompanied by rising HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East and South-East Asia. We examined whether the Internet facilitates greater HIV risk taking among MSM in the region. A cross-sectional sample of 9,367 MSM was recruited via the Internet in 2010. We compared socio-demographic and HIV-related behavioral characteristics among MSM who met sex partners on the Internet only, who met sex partners offline only, and who met sex partners through both. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates that were associated with differences in where participants met their male sex partners. Compared to MSM who met partners offline only, those who met partners online only were less likely to have multiple male sex partners, have paid for sex, have consumed recreational drugs, and have used alcohol before sex. MSM who met partners both online and offline appeared to be the riskiest group that they were more likely to have multiple male sex partners, have engaged in UIAI, and have consumed alcohol before sex. These findings suggest that social networking websites alone do not facilitate greater HIV risk taking among MSM. Rather, they provide additional venues for MSM who already engage in HIV-related high risk behaviors to seek sex partners. The Internet offers incredible opportunities to reach large numbers of MSM in East and South-East Asia for HIV prevention and research. Web-based outreach and prevention activities are needed to reach these men. In addition, mobile and application-based interventions should also be developed and disseminated. PMID:24077974

Wei, Chongyi; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Koe, Stuart

2014-08-01

316

Multiple introductions of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses into East Asia in 20102011  

PubMed Central

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. Sporadic introductions of this virus into FMD-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. In 2010 and 2011, incursions of the FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland Southeast Asia, caused extensive outbreaks across East Asia. In this study, 12 full genome FMDV sequences for representative samples collected from the Peoples Republic of China (PR China) including the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Republic of Korea, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and The Russian Federation were generated and compared with additional contemporary sequences from viruses within this lineage. These complete genomes were 8119 to 8193 nucleotides in length and differed at 1181 sites, sharing a nucleotide identity???91.0% and an amino acid identity???96.6%. An unexpected deletion of 70 nucleotides within the 5?-untranslated region which resulted in a shorter predicted RNA stem-loop for the S-fragment was revealed in two sequences from PR China and Hong Kong SAR and five additional related samples from the region. Statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provide evidence that these outbreaks in East Asia were generated by two independent introductions of the O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage sometime between August 2008 and March 2010. The rapid emergence of these viruses from Southeast Asia highlights the importance of adopting approaches to closely monitor the spread of this lineage that now poses a threat to livestock industries in other regions. PMID:24007643

2013-01-01

317

Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia  

SciTech Connect

Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30?g/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22N and 95 to 107E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

2014-10-12

318

A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.  

PubMed

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

Yokoyama, Shinji

2014-04-01

319

Decadal trend and interannual variation of outflow of aerosols from East Asia: Roles of variations in meteorological parameters and emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to quantify the decadal trend and interannual variation of aerosol outflow from East Asia. Simulations of aerosols are performed for years 1986-2006, driven by the NASA/GEOS-4 assimilated meteorological fields. The impacts of variations in meteorological parameters and emissions are imposed separately and together by numerical experiments. With variations in both meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions, simulated annual outflow of PM2.5 (sum of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon) from East Asia increased by 6.0Tg (or 53%) over years 1986-2006, in which the outflow fluxes of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosols had the largest contributions with decadal trends of+1.2,+0.8, and+0.7Tgdecade-1, respectively. Simulated outflow fluxes of aerosols also exhibited large interannual variations; the absolute percent departure from the mean (APDM) values of the annual outflow fluxes of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, and PM2.5 were 5.9%, 7.9%, 5.4%, 5.8%, 4.2%, and 5.2%, respectively, as variations in both meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions were considered. Model sensitivity studies show that, for outflow fluxes of aerosols from East Asia, the decadal trends were driven by variations in anthropogenic emissions whereas the interannual variations were dominated by variations in meteorological parameters. The increases in anthropogenic emissions alone explained about 86% of the decadal trend in outflow of PM2.5. Although variations in meteorological parameters can influence the interannual variations in aerosol outflow by changing both aerosol concentrations over East Asia and zonal winds, the latter is identified to be the key factor because of the high positive correlation coefficient between the annual outflow flux of PM2.5 and zonal wind at 700hPa (the altitude with the maximum outflow fluxes) for years 1986-2006.

Yang, Yang; Liao, Hong; Lou, Sijia

2015-01-01

320

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

IAloguE: ThE WAy To pEACE 4 A pAlESTInIAn pEACE dIvIdEnd 6 ISlAMIC fInAnCE & BAnkIng 8 Anu puBlIC lECTuRES 9 SEMInCentre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 d to Australia was sponsored by the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies, ANU and the Centre for Dialouge, Monash

321

Two new genera and one new species of Pantheinae from East Asia (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Pantheinae). Revision of Pantheinae, contribution XI.  

PubMed

Two new genera, Pantheaforma gen. n. (Type-species Pantheaforma ihlei sp. n.) and Chrisotea gen. n. (Type-species Trichosea zhangi Chen, 1990) from East Asia and a new species Pantheaforma ihlei sp. n. from Thailand and Myanmar are described. New combination Chrisotea zhangi (Chen, 1990), comb. n. is proposed. New taxa are illustrated with imagines in colour and male and female genitalia. The little-known species Pantheana yangzisherpana Hreblay, 1998, formerly only known from Nepal is reported for China for the first time. PMID:25661947

Behounek, G; Han, H L; Kononenko, V S

2015-01-01

322

State of photonics-related industry in Japan: Digital economy is creating a deep integration in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future challenges and problems of Japanese photonics-related industries are discussed by analyzing the statistics of domestic photonics production trend in Japan from the aspects of offshoring and deep integration taking place in East Asia due to the growing of the global digital economy. Mobile phone, digital camera, semiconductor stepper, and fiber to the X. X is home, buildings, factories, shops, government (FTTX) are case studied, and the utilization of the information and communication technology (ICT), together with a free trade policy, is expected for the future challenges.

Tatsuno, Kimio

2013-12-01

323

Quantifying pollution inflow and outflow over East Asia in spring with regional and global models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the exchange processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere is crucial for estimating hemispheric transport of air pollution. Most studies of hemispheric air pollution transport have taken a large-scale perspective using global chemical transport models with fairly coarse spatial and temporal resolutions. In support of United Nations Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP; www.htap.org), this study employs two high-resolution atmospheric chemistry models (WRF-Chem and CMAQ; 3636 km) driven with chemical boundary conditions from a global model (MOZART; 1.91.9) to examine the role of fine-scale transport and chemistry processes in controlling pollution export and import over the Asian continent in spring (March 2001). Our analysis indicates the importance of rapid venting through deep convection that develops along the leading edge of frontal system convergence bands, which are not adequately resolved in either of two global models compared with TRACE-P aircraft observations during a frontal event. Both regional model simulations and observations show that frontal outflows of CO, O3 and PAN can extend to the upper troposphere (6-9 km). Pollution plumes in the global MOZART model are typically diluted and insufficiently lofted to higher altitudes where they can undergo more efficient transport in stronger winds. We use sensitivity simulations that perturb chemical boundary conditions in the CMAQ regional model to estimate that the O3 production over East Asia (EA) driven by PAN decomposition contributes 20% of the spatial averaged total O3 response to European (EU) emission perturbations in March, and occasionally contributes approximately 50% of the total O3 response in subsiding plumes at mountain observatories (at approximately 2 km altitude). The response to decomposing PAN of EU origin is strongly affected by the O3 formation chemical regimes, which vary with the model chemical mechanism and NOx/VOC emissions. Our high-resolution models demonstrate a large spatial variability (by up to a factor of 6) in the response of local O3 to 20% reductions in EU anthropogenic O3 precursor emissions. The response in the highly populated Asian megacities is 40-50% lower in our high-resolution models than the global model, suggesting that the source-receptor relationships inferred from the global coarse-resolution models likely overestimate health impacts associated with intercontinental O3 transport. Our results highlight the important roles of rapid convective transport, orographic forcing, urban photochemistry and heterogeneous boundary layer processes in controlling intercontinental transport; these processes may not be well resolved in the large-scale models.

Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Carmichael, G. R.; Fiore, A. M.

2010-05-01

324

The East Asia Regional Advisory Board The Fuqua School of Business  

E-print Network

and Vice President, Mergers & Acquisitions of Honeywell International, where he managed the company's M Finance for Asia Pacific and China regions, with a portfolio of over $1.4 billion of vendor financing

Reif, John H.

325

The East Asia Regional Advisory Board The Fuqua School of Business  

E-print Network

. An expert in mergers and acquisitions, he has three step- and three adopted children and six grandchildren, an investment consultancy focused on Asia, particularly China, and Visiting Professor of Finance in the Fudan

Reif, John H.

326

Multi-week prediction of South-East Asia rainfall variability during boreal summer in CFSv2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we analyze the multi-week prediction bias and skill from the National Centers for Environment Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) based on its hindcasts for 1999-2012. The analyses focus on the prediction of the rainfall variability over South-East Asia during boreal warm seasons and the dependence of the prediction on the activity of intrasesaonal leading modes. It is shown that the prediction skill measured by anomaly correlation is comparable between the total anomalies and intraseasonal anomalies during the first 2 weeks. After week 2, the prediction skill drops substantially and the skill for total anomalies is largely from the prediction for the interannual variability. Moreover, the forecast skill tends to be higher when the amplitude of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation (BSISO) is larger, especially for the BSISO. It is noted that the prediction skill over South-East Asia depends on the phase of the BSISO. One deficiency in the CFSv2 is that the northward propagation of the forecast BSISO is generally slower than the observed.

Liu, Ren-Feng; Wang, Wanqiu

2014-11-01

327

[Characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem primary productivity in East Asia based on remote sensing and process-based model].  

PubMed

Based on the bi-linearly interpolated meteorological reanalysis data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA and by using the leaf area index data derived from the GIMMS NDVI to run the process-based Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model, this paper simulated and analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the terrestrial ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in East Asia in 2000-2005. Before regional simulating and calculating, the observation GPP data of different terrestrial ecosystem in 15 experimental stations of AsiaFlux network and the inventory measurements of NPP at 1300 sampling sites were applied to validate the BEPS GPP and NPP. The results showed that BEPS could well simulate the changes in GPP and NPP of different terrestrial ecosystems, with the R2 ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.2 to 1.2 g C x m(-2) x d(-1). The simulated values by BEPS could explain 78% of the changes in annual NPP, and the RMSE was 118 g C x m(-2) x a(-1). In 2000-2005, the averaged total GPP and total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia were 21.7 and 10.5 Pg C x a(-1), respectively, and the GPP and NPP exhibited similar spatial and temporal variation patterns. During the six years, the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems varied from 10.2 to 10.7 Pg C x a(-1), with a coefficient of variation being 2. 2%. High NPP (above 1000 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the southeast island countries, while low NPP (below 30 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the desert area of Northwest China. The spatial patterns of NPP were mainly attributed to the differences in the climatic variables across East Asia. The NPP per capita also varied greatly among different countries, which was the highest (70217 kg C x a(-1)) in Mongolia, far higher than that (1921 kg C x a(-1)) in China, and the lowest (757 kg C x a(-1)) in India. PMID:22586952

Zhang, Fang-Min; Ju, Wei-Min; Chen, Jing-Ming; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Gui-Rui; Han, Shi-Jie

2012-02-01

328

Evaluation of modeled vertical aerosol distributions over east-Asia using in-situ and satellite data during summer 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the EU ECLIPSE project, which aims to quantify the climate impact of short lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including aerosols, black carbon and ozone, regional models are being used to evaluate global model performance for specific case studies. Here, we present results using regional WRF-Chem simulations over east-Asia. Results are compared to data from field campaigns which took place in summer 2008 and from long-term measurement stations. This study will, in a first step, evaluate the ability of the model to simulate aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, with a focus on pollution layers. In a second step, the radiative impact of such layers over east-Asia will be investigated as a function of their position relative to clouds. The WRF-Chem regional model was run using MOZART gas phase chemistry and the MOSAIC aerosol scheme and was evaluated against available measurements for the period August to September 2008. The model was run using ECLIPSE anthropogenic and GFEDv3.1 fire emissions for 2008, while initial and boundary conditions were specified from the TM4 global chemical transport model. The radiative impact of pollution aerosol layers has already been investigated but less is known about the influence of vertical layering in the atmosphere. Such layers might have different radiative impacts whether they are below or above clouds and in that sense, a better understanding of their spatial extent is critical. Information about pollution aerosol layers and clouds optical properties and positions over East-Asia are determined using observations from CALIPSO. The radiative impact of these layers is simulated and compared to the observations. In addition to satellite observations, model results are evaluated against trace gas and aerosol data from aircraft campaigns over eastern Asia in summer 2008 (e.g., CAREBEIJING and CAPMEX) and ground-based measurements (e.g., NIES and ABC). In this study, we assess aerosol total concentrations and size distributions simulated by the model. Aerosol aging is also evaluated with the ratio between elementary and organic carbon (EC:OC), while origins of plumes with enhanced aerosol and pollutants such as CO are investigated with Lagrangian back-trajectories.

Quennehen, Boris; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Ancellet, Grard; Bazureau, Ariane; Daskalakis, Nikos; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Zhu, Tong; Pelon, Jacques

2013-04-01

329

Long-range transport of acidifying substances in East AsiaPart II. Source-receptor relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Region-to-grid source-receptor (S/R) relationships are established for sulfur and reactive nitrogen deposition in East Asia, using the Eulerian-type Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with emission and meteorology data for 2001. We proposed a source region attribution methodology by analyzing the non-linear responses of the CMAQ model to emission changes. Sensitivity simulations were conducted where emissions of SO 2, NOx, and primary particles from a source region were reduced by 25%. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations was multiplied by a factor of four, and then defined as the contribution from that source region. The transboundary influence exhibits strong seasonal variation and generally peaks during the dry seasons. Long-range transport from eastern China contributes a significant percentage ( >20%) of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen as well as sulfur deposition in East Asia. At the same time, northwestern China receives approximately 35% of its sulfur load and 45% of its nitrogen load from foreign emissions. Sulfur emissions from Miyakejima and other volcanoes contribute approximately 50% of the sulfur load in Japan in 2001. Sulfur inflows from regions outside the study domain, which is attributed by using boundary conditions derived from the MOZART global atmospheric chemistry model, are pronounced (10-40%) over most parts of Asia. Compared with previous studies using simple Lagrangian models, our results indicate higher influence from long-range transport. The estimated S/R relationships are believed to be more realistic since they include global influence as well as internal interactions among different parts of China.

Lin, Meiyun; Oki, Taikan; Bengtsson, Magnus; Kanae, Shinjiro; Holloway, Tracey; Streets, David G.

330

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent findings on the causal mechanism of the great 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and related issues on seismic structure and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia. High-resolution tomography revealed significant lateral heterogeneities in the interplate megathrust zone beneath the Tohoku, South Kuril and Southwest Japan forearc regions. Large megathrust earthquakes since 1900 generally occurred in or around high-velocity (high-V) patches in the megathrust zone, which may reflect asperities resulting from subducted seamounts, oceanic ridges and other topographic highs on the Pacific seafloor. In contrast, low-velocity (low-V) patches in the megathrust zone may contain more sediments and fluids, where the subducting oceanic plate and the overlying continental plate are less coupled or even decoupled. The nucleation of large crustal earthquakes in the Japan Islands, including the 11 April 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) in SE Tohoku, is affected by arc magma and fluids resulting from slab dehydration. The Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to 430-460 km depth under East China Sea, Tsushima Strait and Japan Sea. A window in the aseismic Philippine Sea slab is detected, which may be caused by splitting of weak parts of the slab at the subducted ridges (e.g., Kyushu-Paula ridge) and hot upwelling in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The intraplate volcanism in Northeast Asia is caused by hot and wet upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Frequent generation of large deep earthquakes (>500 km depth) in the Pacific slab may supply additional fluids preserved in the slab to the mantle wedge under the Changbai volcano, making Changbai the largest and most active intraplate volcano in Northeast Asia. Fluids may be involved in nucleation and rupture processes of all types of earthquakes.

Zhao, Dapeng

2015-02-01

331

A new P wave velocity model beneath East Asia: insights on the relationship between intraplate volcanism and Pacific subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pacific plate subducted beneath the East China since the Middle Mesozoic and it went through several different stages of subduction. Knowing its detailed configuration in the mantle can help better understand the geological events happened in the East Asia. Here we combine P-wave traveltime data from the EHB (Engdahl, van der Hilst, and Buland 1998) catalog of 1964-2007, and manually picks from the regional networks of the China Earthquake Administration (CEArray) consisting of more than one thousand stations from 2007 to 2010 as well as the NorthEast China Extended Array (NECESSArray) with 127 broadband stations from 2009 to 2011 in order to produce a global P-wave velocity model with a focus on the velocity structure beneath the East Asia. The mantle is parameterized into irregular blocks and the size of each block depends on the number of the rays penetrating the block. The minimum block size is 1.25x1.25. The large dataset and the adaptive block size yield a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model beneath Asia. Our tomographic model shows high velocity roots under Archean cratons, such as the Ordos and the Sichuan basin. Our model also displays low velocity anomalies at a depth from 50km to 350km beneath the Changbaishan and Datong volcanoes. Massive basaltic volcanism occurred in these places in the Cenozoic. There is also a pronounced slow anomaly that extends to the transition zone beneath the South China block, but it is only limited in the upper mantle. The Cenozoic basaltic magmatism in Hainan Island might be related with this slow anomaly. Our model also shows clear segments of slabs inside the transition zone, which could be imaged as flat slabs with insufficient data sampling. Different segments also appear to have different intensity and may correspond to different episodes of the Pacific subduction. The fragmented nature of the subducted Pacific plate also implies that several slab detachment events may have occurred during the subduction. The detachments trigger upward return flows that are likely the sources of the magmatism in the area.

Huang, T.; Niu, F.; Obayashi, M.

2013-12-01

332

Summertime land-sea thermal contrast and atmospheric circulation over East Asia in a warming climatePart I: Past changes and future projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) contrast, an index of tropospheric thermodynamic structure and dynamical circulation, has shown a significant increase in recent decades over East Asia during the boreal summer. In Part I of this two-part paper, observational data and the results of transient warming experiments conducted using coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs) are analyzed to examine changes in land-sea thermal contrast and the associated atmospheric circulation over East Asia from the past to the future. The interannual variability of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East for 1950-2012 was found to be tightly coupled with a characteristic tripolar pattern of tropospheric circulation over East Asia, which manifests as anticyclonic anomalies over the Okhotsk Sea and around the Philippines, and a cyclonic anomaly over Japan during a positive phase, and vice versa. In response to CO2 increase, the cold northeasterly winds off the east coast of northern Japan and the East Asian rainband were strengthened with the circulation pattern well projected on the observed interannual variability. These results are commonly found in GCMs regardless of future forcing scenarios, indicating the robustness of the East Asian climate response to global warming. The physical mechanisms responsible for the increase of the land-sea contrast are examined in Part II.

Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

2014-11-01

333

Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. High CO abundances of 300-550 ppbv are observed in MOZAIC data in the free troposphere during these episodes. These are among the highest CO abundances documented at these altitudes. On average, such episodes with CO over 400 ppbv (in the 2003 and 2004 cases) and between 200 and 300 ppbv (in the 2005 case) may occur 2-5 and 10-20% in time, respectively, in the respective altitudes over the region. Correspondingly, elevated CO is shown in MOPITT daytime data in the middle to upper troposphere in the 2003 case, in the lower to middle troposphere in the 2004 case, and in the upper troposphere in the 2005 case. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases. In the 2003 case, emissions from large forest fires near Lake Baikal dominated the elevated CO, which had been rapidly transported upward by a frontal system from the fire plumes. In the 2004 case, anthropogenic CO from the North China Plain experienced frontal lifting and mostly reached ~ 700 hPa near the East China Sea, while CO from biomass burning over Indochina experienced orographic lifting, lee-side-trough-induced convection, and frontal lifting through two separate transport pathways, leading to two distinct CO enhancements around 700 and 300 hPa. In the 2005 case, the observed CO of ~ 300 ppbv around 300 hPa originated from anthropogenic sources over the Sichuan Basin and the North China Plain and from forest fires over Indochina. The high CO was transported to such altitudes through strong frontal lifting, interacting with convection and orographic lifting. These cases show that topography affects vertical transport of CO in East Asia via different ways, including orographic uplifting over the Hengduan Mountains, assisting frontal lifting in the North China Plain, and facilitating convection in the Sichuan Basin. In particular, topography-induced lee-side troughs over Indochina led to strong convection that assisted CO uplifting to the upper troposphere. This study shows that the new daytime MOPITT near-infrared (NIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) data (version 5 or above) have enhanced vertical sensitivity in the free troposphere and may help qualitative diagnosis of vertical transport processes in East Asia.

Ding, K.; Liu, J.; Ding, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, T. L.; Shi, J.; Han, Y.; Wang, H.; Jiang, F.

2015-03-01

334

Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East AsiaChina, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the China Geological Survey (CGS) to conduct a mineral resource assessment of Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Dexing deposit in eastern China that contains more than 8,000,000 metric tons of copper. In addition, large parts of the area are undergoing active exploration and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits. Three tracts were delineated to be permissive for Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia: the Manchuride, Coastal Pacific, and East Qinling tracts, all Jurassic through Cretaceous in age. The tracts are based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits is possible. These tracts range in area from about 170,000 to about 1,400,000 km2. Although maps at a variety of scales were used in the assessment, the final tract boundaries are intended for use at a scale of 1:1,000,000. These Mesozoic deposits in East Asia all formed in post-subduction environments, environments newly recognized as permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits. Based on the grade, tonnage, and geologic characteristics of the known deposits, two tracts, Manchuride and Coastal Pacific, were evaluated using the general (Cu-Mo-Au) porphyry copper grade and tonnage model. The East Qinling tract was evaluated using the molybdenum-rich (Cu-Mo) model. Assessment participants estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits at different levels of confidence for each permissive tract. These estimates were then combined with the selected grade and tonnage models using Monte Carlo simulation to generate quantitative probabilistic estimates of undiscovered resources. Resources in future extensions of deposits with identified resources were not specifically evaluated. Assessment results, presented in tables and graphs, show mean amounts of metal and rock in undiscovered deposits at different quantile levels, as well as the arithmetic mean for each tract. This assessment estimated a mean total of about 44 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the assessed permissive tracts in East Asia. This represents nearly 4 times the 12 known deposits. Predicted mean (arithmetic) resources that could be associated with these undiscovered deposits are about 198,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper and about 3,900 t of gold, as well as byproduct molybdenum and silver. The reported identified resources for those 12 known deposits total about 23,000,000 t of copper and about 850 t of gold. The assessment area is estimated to contain nearly nine times as much copper in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits as has been identified to date. This report includes an overview of the assessment results and summary tables. Descriptions of each tract are included in appendixes, with estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits, and probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. A geographic information system that accompanies the report includes tract boundaries and a database of known porphyry copper deposits and prospects.

Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R., Jr.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy

2012-01-01

335

Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward US Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) accredited universities in the United States (US) with the greatest populations of international students were surveyed to identify the status of East Asian international students' attitudes toward their schools. Among East Asian international music students at US higher education

Choi, Jin Ho

2013-01-01

336

The impact of Confucianism on interpersonal relationships and communication patterns in east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that East Asian communication patterns differ from those of North America because of the Eastern emphasis on social relationships as opposed to the North American emphasis on individualism. This East Asian preoccupation with social relationships stems from the doctrines of Confucianism, which considers proper human relationships to be the basis of society. The cardinal principle of Confucianism

June-ock Yum

1988-01-01

337

Foreign direct investment and growth in East Asia: lessons for Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been important in the growth and global integration of developing economies. Both Northeast and Southeast Asia, especially the latter, have been part of this development, with increasing inflows of FDI and greater foreign participation in local economies. However, Indonesia has been an outlier within the region. Inflows of FDI have been lower to Indonesia than

Robert E. Lipsey; Fredrik Sjholm

2011-01-01

338

A Spatial Aspect on Mitochondrial DNA Genealogy in Apodemus peninsulae from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apodemus peninsulae is a field mouse that inhabits the broad-leafed forests of temperate Eurasia. We examined the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 57 individuals of A. peninsulae from northeastern Asia, including Siberia, Primorye, Magadan region, Sakhalin, Hokkaido, and the Korean Peninsula. The genealogy of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in A. peninsulae was shown to have substantial geographic affinity, suggesting geographic

Keiko Serizawa; Hitoshi Suzuki; Masahiro A. Iwasa; Kimiyuki Tsuchiya; Marina V. Pavlenko; Irina V. Kartavtseva; Galina N. Chelomina; Nikolai E. Dokuchaev; Sang-Hoon Han

2002-01-01

339

South East Asia to America: Links in a Chain (Part Two).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the transfer of Indochinese refugees from Southeast Asia to the United States, their stay in interim refugee camps, the voyage by plane, bureaucratic problems, and their first encounter with American life. Provides an anecdotal account of one family's experiences and reactions. (GC)

Rose, Peter I.

1981-01-01

340

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East & Central Asia)  

E-print Network

emphasised the need to end urgently the suffering of the Palestinian people, a suffering that began in 1917 people want peace. According to the latest polls, 74% of the Israeli people wanted peace by the new Asia Pacific College of Diplomacy, which was established at the ANU earlier this year. Members

341

A Strategic Approach for Electric Power Interconnection in North-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in the Northeast Asia (NEA) region has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing with the inception of natural gas pipeline projects and electric power interconnection plans. This study analyzes the possibility of NEA's electric power interconnection, and suggests a strategic approach to implement this project. For this purpose, a scenario

Won-Cheol Yun

342

Higher Education in East Asia and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews Asia-Pacific higher education and university research, focusing principally on the "Confucian" education nations Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong China, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam. Except for Vietnam, these systems exhibit a special developmental dynamism--still playing out everywhere except Japan--and have created a distinctive

Marginson, Simon

2011-01-01

343

Impact of meteorological anomalies in the 2003 summer on Gross Primary Productivity in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern Eurasia experienced anomalous weather conditions in the 2003 summer. We examined how forest ecosystems responded to the meteorological anomalies during the period using the dataset collected at flux monitoring sites in Asia, including a boreal forest in Mongolia, temperate forests in China and Japan, and a sub-tropical forest in China, as well as the dataset from satellite remote sensing.

N. Saigusa; K. Ichii; H. Murakami; R. Hirata; J. Asanuma; H. den; S.-J. Han; R. Ide; S.-G. Li; T. Ohta; T. Sasai; S.-Q. Wang; G.-R. Yu

2010-01-01

344

Focus, Presupposition and Light Predicate Raising in East and Southeast Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an account of a distributional patterning found with certain modal verbs in a number of SVO languages of Southeast Asia, the occurrence of a particular alethic modal in predicate-final position. Describes the paradigm and how it's arguably the result of borrowing and transfer among the various languages. Its relevance for Cinque's defence

Simpson, Andrew

2001-01-01

345

Survey of Bibliographies and Reference Works on Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Russia and East Europe and Compilation of Bibliographies on East Asia, South Asia, and Africa South of the Sahara for Undergraduate Libraries. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project was concerned with developing three up-to-date, accurate bibliographies on Asia and Africa as resource guides and book selection tools for undergraduate libraries. Existing bibliographies and information on newer books favorably received in journals were entered on a computer system. A preliminary, unedited, unselected bibliography was

Morehouse, Ward

346

In "Observation, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Variability", edited by Zhu et al., World Scientific Series on Meteorology of East Asia, Vol. 3, World Scientific Publishing  

E-print Network

In "Observation, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Variability", edited by Zhu et al., World Scientific Series on Meteorology of East Asia, Vol. 3, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 2004, 632pp 1 CLOUD-CLIMATE FEEDBACK: HOW MUCH DO WE KNOW? MINGHUA ZHANG Institute for Terrestrial

Bretherton, Chris

347

Small nuclear forces and US security policy: threats and potential conflicts in the Middle East and South Asia. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

Focusing on the Middle East and South Asia, the 11 authors of these essays examine a number of nuclear proliferation problems associated with the development of small nuclear forces (SNFs). The issues covered are: the technical characteristics of SNFs possible in this region; the kinds of intraregional threats and political-military interaction likely to arise from the deployment of SNFs; the threat perceptions and probable responses of extraregional powers; the demonstrable threats SNFs could pose to US projection of military power in the region; the problems posed for military power in the region; the problems posed for military and political stability by the added risks of nuclear war, challenges to superpower crisis management, and new burdens on arms control; and the problems of policy response, with special emphasis on areas needing attention by defense planners. Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 12 chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 6 references.

Jones, R.W. (ed.)

1984-01-01

348

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago.  

PubMed

The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

2009-05-01

349

Chinas Integration in East Asia:Production Sharing, FDI & High-Tech Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has taken advantage of the globalisation process and has become an assembly country for firms in Asia, which have extended\\u000a their production and trade networks to China. Chinas position in the segmentation of the production processes has fostered\\u000a its trade in high-technology products. However the rapid technological upgrading of Chinas trade is associated with an increasing\\u000a dependence on foreign

Guillaume Gaulier; Franoise Lemoine; Deniz nal-Kesenci

2007-01-01

350

On the origin of rice agriculture in southern China and its propagation in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the archaeological rice cultivation with the14C dating of about 40005000 a B.P. the author holds that the plain at the lower reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River\\u000a is one origin of rice cultivation in Asia and the other is Allahabad of India. The propagation of ancient rice cultivation\\u000a in China can be divided into three stages, namely 40003000,

Zhenguo Huang

1994-01-01

351

The Long Winding Road of Opioid Substitution Therapy Implementation in South-East Asia: Challenges to Scale Up  

PubMed Central

The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users. Significance for public health Several countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region can be commended for introducing opioid substitution therapy (OST) to address the ongoing HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). Local evidence shows OST is an effective drug treatment approach in the Asian context given sufficient technical and institutional support. However, despite much progress, the number of OST dispensing sites and recipients remains totally inadequate in terms of impact upon the current HIV epidemic among PWID. Ongoing advocacy is needed if countries are to achieve the WHOs target of 40% of PWID being dosed with OST. Greater political commitment a strengthened policy environment, capacity building for OST clinics, lessening the criminalisation of drug use and promoting a public health response will give many more PWID access to OST and slow the advance of the HIV epidemic. PMID:25170509

Reid, Gary; Sharma, Mukta; Higgs, Peter

2014-01-01

352

Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435

2011-01-01

353

Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

2013-12-01

354

Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae).  

PubMed

Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America. PMID:25699210

Hoebeke, E Richard; Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J

2015-01-01

355

Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae)  

PubMed Central

Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America. PMID:25699210

Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J.

2015-01-01

356

Satellite-Based Assessment of Possible Dust Aerosols Semi-Direct Effect on Cloud Water Path over East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The semi-direct effects of dust aerosols are analyzed over eastern Asia using 2 years (June 2002 to June 2004) of data from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, and 18 years (1984 to 2001) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. The results show that the water path of dust-contaminated clouds is considerably smaller than that of dust-free clouds. The mean ice water path (IWP) and liquid water path (LWP) of dusty clouds are less than their dust-free counterparts by 23.7% and 49.8%, respectively. The long-term statistical relationship derived from ISCCP also confirms that there is significant negative correlation between dust storm index and ISCCP cloud water path. These results suggest that dust aerosols warm clouds, increase the evaporation of cloud droplets and further reduce cloud water path, the so-called semi-direct effect. The semi-direct effect may play a role in cloud development over arid and semi-arid areas of East Asia and contribute to the reduction of precipitation.

Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick; Wang, Tainhe; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yongxiang; Yi, Yuhong; Ayers, J. Kirk

2006-01-01

357

Insights into Korean red fox (Vulpes vulpes) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variation in East Asia.  

PubMed

The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed terrestrial carnivore in the world, occurring throughout most of North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa. In South Korea, however, this species has been drastically reduced due to habitat loss and poaching. Consequently, it is classified as an endangered species in Korea. As a first step of a planned red fox restoration project, preserved red fox museum specimens were used to determine the genetic status of red foxes that had previously inhabited South Korea against red foxes from neighboring countries. Total eighty three mtDNA cytochrome b sequences, including 22 newly obtained East Asian red fox sequences and worldwide red fox sequences from NCBI, were clustered into three clades (i.e., I, II, and III) based on haplotype network and neighbor-joining trees. The mean genetic distance between clades was 2.0%. Clade III contained South Korean and other East Asian samples in addition to Eurasian and North Pacific individuals. In clade III, South Korean individuals were separated into two lineages of Eurasian and North Pacific groups, showing unclear phylogeographic structuring and admixture. This suggests that South Korean red fox populations may have been composed of individuals from these two different genetic lineages. PMID:23106560

Yu, Jeong-Nam; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Bang-Hwan; Kryukov, Alexey P; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Byoung-Yoon; Kwak, Myounghai

2012-11-01

358

An analysis on abnormally low ozone in the upper troposphere over subtropical East Asia in spring 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormally low ozone (O 3) mixing ratios were observed by electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes in the upper troposphere over subtropical East Asia in spring 2004, a season when high tropospheric O 3 is usually observed in the region. Low O 3 with a lowest mixing ratio of 13 ppbv, less than a fourth of the respective seasonal average of 60-100 ppbv, was observed at 11-18 km above ground over Hong Kong (22.31N, 114.17E), Sanya (18.23N, 109.52E) and Taipei (24.98N, 121.43E). The origin of the low O 3 was investigated using meteorological evidence, satellite imagery and three-dimensional backward air trajectory. We found for the first time that the low O 3 resulted from deep convective pumping of low O 3 maritime air masses near the center of typhoon Sudal from the boundary layer of the tropical region to the east of the Philippines to the upper troposphere. The low O 3 air masses were then transported to the higher latitudes far ahead of the typhoon following the long-range transport driven by the circulations associated with the typhoon and the northern Hadley cell. The findings of this study highlight that more research efforts are needed to understand the effect of the circulation associated with tropical cyclones on the distribution and budget of O 3 and other trace gases in the troposphere.

Chan, C. Y.; Li, Y. S.; Tang, J. H.; Leung, Y. K.; Wu, M. C.; Chan, L. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Liu, S. C.

359

Culture and mental health of women in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the impact of cultural factors on mental health of South Asian women. Marked gender discrimination in South Asia has led to second class status of women in society. Their mobility, work, self-esteem and self-image, in fact their worth and identity, seem to depend upon the male members of a patriarchal society. Women's lack of empowerment and both financial and emotional dependence have restricted their self-expression and choices in life. This, along with family, social and work pressures, has a definite impact on women's mental health. PMID:16946955

NIAZ, UNAIZA; HASSAN, SEHAR

2006-01-01

360

Corporate Ownership Structure and the Informativeness of Accounting Earnings in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relations between earnings informativeness, measured by the earnings-return relation, and the ownership structure of 977 companies in seven East Asian economies. Our results are consistent with two complementary explanations. First, concentrated ownership and the associated pyramidal and cross-holding structures create agency conflicts between controlling owners and outside investors. Consequently, controlling owners are perceived to report accounting

Joseph P. H. Fan; T. J. Wong

2000-01-01

361

Factors influencing the higher education of international students from Confucian East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education, especially that leading to a degree from a high-prestige university, is strongly related to social status and employment opportunities in East Asian countries. This is a consequence of both traditional Confucian attitudes to education and the social and economic changes accompanying industrialisation. Since the number of places available at high-prestige universities is limited, competition is intense. Successful entry

Serene H.-J. Choi; Timo A. Nieminen

2012-01-01

362

Economic, social and institutional conditions of network governance : Network governance in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper intends to discuss the effect of social and institutional mechanisms in allowing network governance embedded in non-contractual and social relations to emerge and persist. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Building on the extant theoretical literature on network governance of varied research strands and drawing empirical observations from research on East Asian network governance, the paper explores the effect of

Woojin Yoon; Eunjung Hyun

2010-01-01

363

What Explains the Industrial Revolution in East Asia? Evidence From the Factor Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents dual estimates of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) for East Asian countries. While the dual estimates of TFPG for Korea and Hong Kong are similar to the primal estimates, they exceed the primal estimates by 1 percent a year for Taiwan and by more than 2 percent for Singapore. The reason for the large discrepancy for Singapore

Chang-Tai Hsieh

2002-01-01

364

Location choice in low-income countries : evidence from Japanese investments in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike most existing studies, this paper examines the location choices of MNEs in developing countries. Specifically, we investigate the location choices of Japanese MNEs among East Asian developing countries by estimating a four-stage nested logit model at the province level. Noteworthy results of location elements are as follows. As is consistent with the mechanics of cheap labor-seeking FDI, Japanese MNEs

Kazunobu Hayakawa; Kenmei Tsubota

2011-01-01

365

Competitive industry policy for economic development in Sri Lanka: lessons from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the current position of Sri Lanka in terms of Newly Industrialized Country (NIC) status, and explores the lessons which it can learn from the successful East Asian economies. Accordingly, it develops a policy strategy to enable Sri Lanka to converge into a more dynamic growth path leading towards the NIC status in the foreseeable future. This exercise

Tikiri Bandara Agalewatte

2004-01-01

366

The Internationalization of Higher Education in East Asia: A Comparative Ethnographic Narrative of Japanese Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How is Japan becoming "internationalized"? A common response is "through student mobility". But can Japanese universities continue to attract thousands of East Asian students annually, given increasing competition from other Pacific Rim nations like Australia, South Korea and Singapore? Japan's "internationalization", a focus of educational

Howe, Edward R.

2009-01-01

367

Asynchronous marine-terrestrial signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia associated with  

E-print Network

the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (ECS), provided unambiguous evidence for asynchronous climate change with low- and high-latitude climate changes Deke Xua , Houyuan Lua,1 , Naiqin Wua , Zhenxia Liub to understanding the climate dynamics underlying orbital-scale and abrupt climate change (13). Previous research

Tian, Weidong

368

Forest biomass carbon sinks in East Asia, with special reference to the relative contributions of forest expansion and forest growth.  

PubMed

Forests play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. With extensive afforestation and reforestation efforts over the last several decades, forests in East Asia have largely expanded, but the dynamics of their C stocks have not been fully assessed. We estimated biomass C stocks of the forests in all five East Asian countries (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Mongolia) between the 1970s and the 2000s, using the biomass expansion factor method and forest inventory data. Forest area and biomass C density in the whole region increased from 179.78 10(6) ha and 38.6 Mg C ha(-1) in the 1970s to 196.65 10(6) ha and 45.5 Mg C ha(-1) in the 2000s, respectively. The C stock increased from 6.9 Pg C to 8.9 Pg C, with an averaged sequestration rate of 66.9 Tg C yr(-1). Among the five countries, China and Japan were two major contributors to the total region's forest C sink, with respective contributions of 71.1% and 32.9%. In China, the areal expansion of forest land was a larger contributor to C sinks than increased biomass density for all forests (60.0% vs. 40.0%) and for planted forests (58.1% vs. 41.9%), while the latter contributed more than the former for natural forests (87.0% vs. 13.0%). In Japan, increased biomass density dominated the C sink for all (101.5%), planted (91.1%), and natural (123.8%) forests. Forests in South Korea also acted as a C sink, contributing 9.4% of the total region's sink because of increased forest growth (98.6%). Compared to these countries, the reduction in forest land in both North Korea and Mongolia caused a C loss at an average rate of 9.0 Tg C yr(-1), equal to 13.4% of the total region's C sink. Over the last four decades, the biomass C sequestration by East Asia's forests offset 5.8% of its contemporary fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. PMID:24464906

Fang, Jingyun; Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Kato, Tomomichi; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Son, Yowhan

2014-06-01

369

The impact on the present and future East Asia climate of the land cover changes simulated by dynamic vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface properties are important because of their known impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. Historical and future changes in land cover changes give influences on the monsoon rainfall and circulation over the Asian summer monsoon region. The dynamic vegetation model, as one of the key process of the Earth System model, simulates the terrestrial biosphere where the fraction of tree and grass species is a function of the local climate state. The potential effect of the simulated land cover distribution needs to be individually evaluated in present and future climate simulations. Since it is reported that the simulated land surface properties could give influence on the systematic biases in monsoon rainfall and add an impact in the future projection via feedback with the dust loading of the atmosphere [Martin and Levine, 2012]. Motivated by the previous study, we investigate the impact of land cover change generated by the interactive terrestrial carbon cycle in the HadGEM2 Earth System configuration over East Asia under present-day and possible future climate condition. Data in this study is HadGEM2-A runs using HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution in Martin and Levine [2012]. In present-day run, over the northern China region to the west of Korea, bare soil increase distinctly in HadGEM2-ES rather than HadGEM2-AO. ES land cover by interactive vegetation model gives influences on JJA rainfall and temperature. There is interaction with model systematic biases in the present-day climate. JJA dry bias is larger when HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution was used for Korea. Dust aerosol effect contributes to the dry bias. As bare soil fraction increases, more emitted dust aerosol has direct effect of negative net downward SW, cooling the land surface, weakening monsoon inflow, inducing dry bias over Korea. In the other hand, over bare soil expanded area, changes in roughness length and soil evaporation, the subsequent latent heat flux changes contribute to local surface warming in JJA. In global warming, warmer and wetter climate in JJA is expected in East Asia. Relative to global warming, ES land cover and dust direct effects are small and the details are presented. Acknowledgements. This study is supported by the National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration (NIMR-2012-B-2).

Boo, Kyung-On; Cho, Mee-Hyun; Martin, Gill; Lee, Johan

2014-05-01

370

Aerial observations of air masses transported from East Asia to the Western Pacific: Vertical structure of polluted air masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been only limited information about the vertical chemical structure of the atmosphere, so far. We conducted aerial observations on 11, 12, and 14 December 2010 over the northern part of the East China Sea to analyze the spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants from East Asia and to elucidate transformation processes of air pollutants during the long-range transport. On 11 December, a day on which Asian dust created hazy conditions, the average PM10 concentration was 40.69?gm-3, and we observed high concentrations of chemical components such as Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, Al, Ca, Fe, and Zn. The height of the boundary layer was about 1200m, and most species of pollutants (except for dust particles and SO2) had accumulated within the boundary layer. In contrast, concentrations of pollutants were low in the boundary layer (up to 1000m) on 12 December because clean Pacific air from the southeast had diluted the haze. However, we observed natural chemical components (Na+, Cl-, Al, Ca, and Fe) at 3000m, the indication being that dust particles, including halite, were present in the lower free troposphere. On 14 December, peak concentrations of SO2 and black carbon were measured within the boundary layer (up to 700m) and at 2300m. The concentrations of anthropogenic chemical components such as NO3-, NH4+, and Zn were highest at 500m, and concentrations of both anthropogenic and natural chemical components (SO42-, Pb, Ca2+, Ca, Al, and Fe) were highest at 2000m. Thus, it was clearly indicated that the air above the East China Sea had a well-defined, layered structure below 3000m.

Hatakeyama, Shiro; Ikeda, Keisuke; Hanaoka, Sayuri; Watanabe, Izumi; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Bandow, Hiroshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Zhang, Daizhou; Okuyama, Kikuo; Ogi, Takashi; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Seto, Takafumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takami, Akinori

2014-11-01

371

Phylogeography of Quercus variabilis based on chloroplast DNA sequence in East Asia: multiple glacial refugia and Mainland-migrated island populations.  

PubMed

The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern Asia. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Korea Peninsular as well as Japan, Zhoushan and Taiwan Islands) was collected, and three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments were sequenced using universal primers. A total of 26 haplotypes were detected, and it showed a weak phylogeographical structure in eastern Asia populations at species level, however, in the central-eastern region of Mainland China, the populations had more haplotypes than those in other regions, with a significant phylogeographical structure (N(ST=?)0.751> G(ST=?)0.690, P<0.05). Q. variabilis displayed high interpopulation and low intrapopulation genetic diversity across the distribution range. Both unimodal mismatch distribution and significant negative Fu's F(S) indicated a demographic expansion of Q. variabilis populations in East Asia. A fossil calibrated phylogenetic tree showed a rapid speciation during Pleistocene, with a population augment occurred in Middle Pleistocene. Both diversity patterns and ecological niche modelling indicated there could be multiple glacial refugia and possible bottleneck or founder effects occurred in the southern Japan. We dated major spatial expansion of Q. variabilis population in eastern Asia to the last glacial cycle(s), a period with sea-level fluctuations and land bridges in East China Sea as possible dispersal corridors. This study showed that geographical heterogeneity combined with climate and sea-level changes have shaped the genetic structure of this wide-ranging tree species in East Asia. PMID:23115642

Chen, Dongmei; Zhang, Xianxian; Kang, Hongzhang; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Shan; Du, Hongmei; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Gapare, Washington; Wu, Harry X; Liu, Chunjiang

2012-01-01

372

Overcoming the Walmart Syndrome: Adapting Problem-based Management Education in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores design issues to be considered in adapting the problem-based learning(PBL) for use in the context of East Asian higher education and tests its instructionaleffectiveness in a Master of Management degree program at a graduate school of business(GSB) in Thailand. The research analyzes course evaluation data obtained from 20,988student reports over a seven-year period to assess the impact

Philip Hallinger; Jiafang Lu

2012-01-01

373

Food Security - Global Trends and Region Perspective with Reference to East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sharp increase in global food prices during 2007?2008 has triggered the awareness of food insecurity problems and their impacts on the low income, food?deficit countries many of which are located in the East Asian countries. The food?security situation was good in relative terms given that the percentage of carbohydrates consumed is slightly lower than the world average while proteins

Ching-Cheng Chang; Shih-Hsun Hsu

2011-01-01

374

Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic migration is a common geological process of basin formation and evolution. However, little is known about tectonic migration in the western Pacific margins. This paper focuses on the representative Cenozoic basins of East China and its surrounding seas in the western Pacific domain to discuss the phenomenon of tectonic jumping in Cenozoic basins, based on structural data from the Bohai Bay Basin, the South Yellow Sea Basin, the East China Sea Shelf Basin, and the South China Sea Continental Shelf Basin. The western Pacific active continental margin is the eastern margin of a global convergent system involving the Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indian Plate. Under the combined effects of the India-Eurasia collision and retrogressive or roll-back subduction of the Pacific Plate, the western Pacific active continental margin had a wide basin-arc-trench system which migrated or jumped eastward and further oceanward. This migration and jumping is characterized by progressive eastward younging of faulting, sedimentation, and subsidence within the basins. Owing to the tectonic migration, the geological conditions associated with hydrocarbon and gashydrate accumulation in the Cenozoic basins of East China and its adjacent seas also become progressively younger from west to east, showing eastward younging in the generation time of reservoirs, seals, traps, accumulations and preservation of hydrocarbon and gashydrate. Such a spatio-temporal distribution of Cenozoic hydrocarbon and gashydrate is significant for the oil, gas and gashydrate exploration in the East Asian Continental Margin. Finally, this study discusses the mechanism of Cenozoic intrabasinal and interbasinal tectonic migration in terms of interplate, intraplate and underplating processes. The migration or jumping regimes of three separate or interrelated events: (1) tectonism-magmatism, (2) basin formation, and (3) hydrocarbon-gashydrate accumulation are the combined effects of the Late Mesozoic extrusion tectonics, the Cenozoic NW-directed crustal extension, and the regional far-field eastward flow of the western asthenosphere due to the India-Eurasia plate collision, accompanied by eastward jumping and roll-back of subduction zones of the Pacific Plate.

Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming

2014-07-01

375

Diagnosing recent CO emissions and ozone evolution in East Asia using coordinated surface observations, adjoint inverse modeling, and MOPITT satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous ground-based measurements of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) were conducted in March 2005 as part of the East Asian Regional Experiment (EAREX) 2005 under the umbrella of the Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABC) project. Multiple air quality monitoring networks were integrated by performing intercomparison of individual calibration standards and measurement techniques to ensure comparability of ambient measurements, along with providing consistently high time-resolution measurements of O3 and CO at the surface sites in East Asia. Ambient data collected from eight surface stations were compared with simulation results obtained by a regional chemistry transport model to infer recent changes in CO emissions from East Asia. Our inverse estimates of the CO emissions from China up to 2005 suggested an increase of 16% since 2001, in good agreement with the recent MOPITT satellite observations and the bottom-up estimates up to 2006. The O3 enhancement relative to CO in continental pollution plumes traversed in the boundary layer were examined as a function of transport time from the Asian continent to the western Pacific Ocean. The observed ?O3/?CO ratios show increasing tendency during eastward transport events due likely to en-route photochemical O3 formation, suggesting that East Asia is an important O3 source region during spring.

Tanimoto, H.; Sawa, Y.; Yonemura, S.; Yumimoto, K.; Matsueda, H.; Uno, I.; Hayasaka, T.; Mukai, H.; Tohjima, Y.; Tsuboi, K.; Zhang, L.

2008-07-01

376

Predictors and consequences of adherence to the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Central Europe and East Asia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess baseline predictors and consequences of medication non-adherence in the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from Central Europe and East Asia. Patients and methods Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 1-year prospective, observational study that included a total of 1,068 newly-diagnosed pediatric patients with ADHD symptoms from Central Europe and East Asia. Medication adherence during the week prior to each visit was assessed by treating physicians using a 5-point Likert scale, and then dichotomized into either adherent or non-adherent. Clinical severity was measured by the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD) scale and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) Checklist. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was measured using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE). Regression analyses were used to assess baseline predictors of overall adherence during follow-up, and the impact of time-varying adherence on subsequent outcomes: response (defined as a decrease of at least 1 point in CGI), changes in CGI-ADHD, CSI-4, and the five dimensions of CHIP-CE. Results Of the 860 patients analyzed, 64.5% (71.6% in Central Europe and 55.5% in East Asia) were rated as adherent and 35.5% as non-adherent during follow-up. Being from East Asia was found to be a strong predictor of non-adherence. In East Asia, a family history of ADHD and parental emotional distress were associated with non-adherence, while having no other children living at home was associated with non-adherence in Central Europe as well as in the overall sample. Non-adherence was associated with poorer response and less improvement on CGI-ADHD and CSI-4, but not on CHIP-CE. Conclusion Non-adherence to medication is common in the treatment of ADHD, particularly in East Asia. Non-adherence was associated with poorer response and less improvement in clinical severity. A limitation of this study is that medication adherence was assessed by the treating clinician using a single item question. PMID:24124351

Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Treuer, Tams; Montgomery, William; Haynes, Virginia S; Wu, Shenghu; Haro, Josep Maria

2013-01-01

377

Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures. PMID:25275329

Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

2014-10-01

378

Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall. Oppositely, for inactive years, drier-than-normal atmosphere appeared and consequently sluggish snowfall seasons followed. A SVD (singular value decomposition) analysis of the Asian synoptic circulation indicated that the connection between the pressure dipoles and the position of EAT is strong in 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2010, and 2011. It significantly affects both of the snowfall and dust activities. In summary, snowfall active years usually occurred when the East Asian dust storm was inactive. Nevertheless, the snowfall activity increased in Taiwan if there was dust event and the dust aerosol successfully transported to Taiwan. This finding is also demonstrated in the model simulation of this study.

Tsai, L.

2013-12-01

379

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emissions of three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFC-22 (CHClF2), HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) and three hydrofluorocarbons, HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) and HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) from five East Asian countries for the year 2008 are determined by inverse modeling. The inverse modeling is based on in-situ measurements of these halocarbons at the Japanese stations Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma, the Chinese station Shangdianzi and

A. Stohl; J. Kim; S. Li; S. O'Doherty; P. K. Salameh; T. Saito; M. K. Vollmer; D. Wan; B. Yao; Y. Yokouchi; L. X. Zhou

2010-01-01

380

Migration of rice planthoppers and their vectored re-emerging and novel rice viruses in East Asia  

PubMed Central

This review examines recent studies of the migration of three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Sogatella furcifera, and Nilaparvata lugens, in East Asia. Laodelphax striatellus has recently broken out in Jiangsu province, eastern China. The population density in the province started to increase in the early 2000s and peaked in 2004. In 2005, Rice stripe virus (RSV) viruliferous rate of L. striatellus peaked at 31.3%. Since then, rice stripe disease spread severely across the whole province. Due to the migration of the RSV vectors, the rice stripe disease spread to neighboring countries Japan and Korea. An overseas migration of L. striatellus that occurred in 2008 was analyzed, when a slow-moving cold vortex, a type of low pressure system, reached western Japan from Jiangsu, carrying the insects into Japan. Subsequently the rice stripe diseases struck these areas in Japan severely. In Korea, similar situations occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Their migration sources were also estimated to be in Jiangsu by backward trajectory analysis. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, whose vector is L. striatellus, has recently re-emerged in eastern China, and the evidence for overseas migrations of the virus, just like the RSVs migrations, has been given. A method of predicting the overseas migration of L. striatellus has been developed by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean institutes. An evaluation of the prediction showed that this method properly predicted migration events that occurred in East Asia from 2008 to 2011. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) was first found in Guangdong province. Its vector is S. furcifera. An outbreak of SRBSDV occurred in southern China in 2009 and spread to Vietnam the same year. This disease and virus were also found in Japan in 2010. The epidemic triggered many migration studies to investigate concrete spring-summer migration routes in China, and the addition of migration sources for early arrivals in Guangdong and Guangxi have been proposed. Nilaparvata lugens is also an important insect pest of rice. Its migration situations on the Indochina peninsula and return migrations in China are discussed. PMID:24312081

Otuka, Akira

2013-01-01

381

Migration of rice planthoppers and their vectored re-emerging and novel rice viruses in East Asia.  

PubMed

This review examines recent studies of the migration of three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Sogatella furcifera, and Nilaparvata lugens, in East Asia. Laodelphax striatellus has recently broken out in Jiangsu province, eastern China. The population density in the province started to increase in the early 2000s and peaked in 2004. In 2005, Rice stripe virus (RSV) viruliferous rate of L. striatellus peaked at 31.3%. Since then, rice stripe disease spread severely across the whole province. Due to the migration of the RSV vectors, the rice stripe disease spread to neighboring countries Japan and Korea. An overseas migration of L. striatellus that occurred in 2008 was analyzed, when a slow-moving cold vortex, a type of low pressure system, reached western Japan from Jiangsu, carrying the insects into Japan. Subsequently the rice stripe diseases struck these areas in Japan severely. In Korea, similar situations occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Their migration sources were also estimated to be in Jiangsu by backward trajectory analysis. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, whose vector is L. striatellus, has recently re-emerged in eastern China, and the evidence for overseas migrations of the virus, just like the RSV's migrations, has been given. A method of predicting the overseas migration of L. striatellus has been developed by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean institutes. An evaluation of the prediction showed that this method properly predicted migration events that occurred in East Asia from 2008 to 2011. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) was first found in Guangdong province. Its vector is S. furcifera. An outbreak of SRBSDV occurred in southern China in 2009 and spread to Vietnam the same year. This disease and virus were also found in Japan in 2010. The epidemic triggered many migration studies to investigate concrete spring-summer migration routes in China, and the addition of migration sources for early arrivals in Guangdong and Guangxi have been proposed. Nilaparvata lugens is also an important insect pest of rice. Its migration situations on the Indochina peninsula and return migrations in China are discussed. PMID:24312081

Otuka, Akira

2013-01-01

382

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers vs alternate brominated flame retardants and Dechloranes from East Asia to the Arctic.  

PubMed

Marine boundary layer air and seawater samples taken during a polar expedition cruise from East China Sea to the Arctic were analyzed in order to compare the occurrence, distribution, and fate of the banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with their brominated alternatives as well as the chlorinated Dechloranes. The sum of PBDEs (?(10)PBDEs) in the atmosphere ranged from 0.07 to 8.1 pg m(-3) with BDE-209 being the dominating congener and from not detected (n.d.) to 0.6 pg L(-1) in seawater. Alternate brominated flame retardants (BFRs), especially hexabromobenzene (HBB), (2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), pentabromotoluene (PBT), 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), were detected in higher concentrations than PBDEs, even in the high Arctic (0.6 to 15.4 pg m(-3) for sum of alternate BFRs), indicating the change of PBDEs toward alternate BFRs in the environmental predominance. In addition, Dechlorane Plus (DP) as well as Dechlorane 602, 603, and 604 were detected both in the atmosphere and in seawater. The highest concentrations as well as the highest compound variability were observed in East Asian samples suggesting the Asian continent as source of these compounds in the marine environment. The air-seawater exchange indicates strong deposition, especially of alternate BFRs, as well as dry particle-bound deposition of BDE-209 into the ocean. PMID:21751774

Mller, Axel; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Zhong, Guangcai; Huang, Peng; Cai, Minggang; Sturm, Renate; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

2011-08-15

383

Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

Lee, Yong Sam

2009-09-01

384

ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation.  

PubMed

Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the 'ELSI 2.0' initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

Yoshizawa, Go; Ho, Calvin Wai-Loon; Zhu, Wei; Hu, Chingli; Syukriani, Yoni; Lee, Ilhak; Kim, Hannah; Tsai, Daniel Fu Chang; Minari, Jusaku; Kato, Kazuto

2014-01-01

385

ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation  

PubMed Central

Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the ELSI 2.0 initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

2014-01-01

386

CH4 and CO emissions from rice straw burning in South East Asia.  

PubMed

Atmospheric samples collected during rice straw burning at four different locations in Viet-Nam during the dry (March 1992, February 1993) and wet season (August 1992) were analysed for CO2, CO, and CH4. The emission ratios relative to CO2 for CO and CH4 for rice straw burning during the dry season were comparable to those observed on samples collected during burning of savanna in Africa or forest in the USA. During the wet season, however the emission ratios for CO and CH4 relative to CO2 were 3 to 10 times higher. With these emission ratios and estimates of rice production from Southeastern Asia, we estimated that burning of rice straw emits annually about 2.2 Tmol of CO (26 TgC) and 0.2 Tmol of CH4 (2.4 TgC) to the atmosphere. Taking into account these new results, CO and CH4 fluxes from biomass burning could be reevaluated by 5-21% and 5-24%, respectively, in respect with previous estimates of these gas emissions from all biomass burning activities. PMID:24213897

Nguyen, B C; Putaud, J P; Mihalopoulos, N; Bonsang, B; Doan, C

1994-05-01

387

Characteristics of atmospheric carbon monoxide at a high-mountain background station in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric CO were monitored at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) with an elevation of 2862m AMSL from April 2006 to April 2011 by the in-situ non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectrometer and weekly flask sample collections via collaboration with NOAA/ESRL/GMD. In general very coherent results were observed between the two datasets, despite a slight difference between the two. A distinct seasonal pattern of CO was noticed at the LABS with a springtime maximum and a summertime minimum, which was predominately shaped by the long-range transport of biomass burning air masses from Southeast Asia and oceanic influences from the Pacific, respectively. Diurnal cycles were also observed at the LABS, with a maximum in late afternoon and a minimum in early morning. The daytime CO maximum was most likely caused by the up-slope transport of lower elevation air. After filtering out the possibly polluted data points from the entire dataset with a mathematic procedure, the mean background CO level at the LABS was assessed as 129.346.6ppb, compared to 149.072.2ppb prior to the filtering. The cluster analysis of the backward trajectories revealed six possible source regions, which shows that air masses originating from the Westerly Wind Zone were dominated in spring and winter resulting in higher CO concentrations. As a contrast, the oceanic influences from the Pacific were found mostly in summer, contributing a lower seasonal CO concentration throughout a year.

Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lin, Chia-Ching; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te; Schnell, Russell C.; Lang, Patricia M.; Kawasato, Taro; Wang, Jia-Lin

2014-06-01

388

Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat neuropsychiatric conditions in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: mathematical modelling study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the comparative costs and effects of interventions to combat five neuropsychiatric conditions (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, epilepsy, and heavy alcohol use). Design Cost effectiveness analysis based on an epidemiological model. Setting Two epidemiologically defined World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE); and countries in South East Asia with high adult and high child mortality (SearD). Data sources Published studies, costing databases. Main outcome measures Cost per capita and cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted, expressed in international dollars ($Int) for the year 2005. Results Across 44 assessed intervention strategies for the five neuropsychiatric conditions, cost effectiveness values differed by as much as two orders of magnitude (from $Int100250 to $Int10?00025?000 for a year of healthy life gained). In both sub-regions, inpatient based treatment of schizophrenia with newer antipsychotic drugs was the most costly and least cost effective strategy. The most cost effective strategies in the African sub-region related to population based alcohol control, while in the South East Asian sub-region the most cost effective intervention was drug treatment of epilepsy in primary care. The cumulative cost per capita of the most cost effective set of interventions covering all five conditions was estimated at $Int4.905.70. This package comprises interventions for epilepsy (older first line antiepileptic drugs); depression (generically produced newer antidepressants and psychosocial treatment); bipolar disorder (mood stabiliser drug lithium); schizophrenia (neuroleptic antipsychotic drugs and psychosocial treatment); and heavy alcohol use (increased taxation and its enforcement, reduced access, and, in the African sub-region, advertising bans and brief advice to heavy drinkers in primary care). Conclusions Reallocation of resources to cost effective intervention strategies would increase health gain, save money and help implement much needed expansion of services for neuropsychiatric conditions in low resource settings. PMID:22389339

2012-01-01

389

Parental migration and the mental health of those who stay behind to care for children in South-East Asia.  

PubMed

The international migration of parents from the global south raises questions about the health impacts of family separation on those who stay behind. This paper uses data collected in 2008 and 2009 for a project on Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) to address a largely neglected research area by investigating the mental health of those who stay behind in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam to care for the children of overseas migrants. A mixed-methods research design is employed to answer two questions. First, whether carers in transnational (migrant) households are more likely to suffer mental health problems than those in non-migrant households; and secondly, whether transnational family practices and characteristics of migration are associated with mental health outcomes for stay-behind carers. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was completed by carers in selected communities (N=3026) and used to identify likely cases of common mental disorders (CMD). Multivariate logistic regression and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews (N=149) reveal a nuanced picture. All stay-behind carers in the Indonesian sample are more likely than carers in non-migrant households to suffer CMD. Across the three study countries, however, it is stay-behind mothers with husbands working overseas who are most likely to experience poor mental health. Moreover, infrequent contact with the migrant, not receiving remittances and migrant destinations in the Middle East are all positively associated with carer CMD, whereas greater educational attainment and greater wealth are protective factors. These findings add new evidence on the 'costs' of international labour migration and point to the role of gendered expectations and wider geopolitical structures. Governments and international policy makers need to intervene to encourage transnational family practices that are less detrimental to the mental health of those who stay behind to care for the next generation. PMID:25464878

Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P; Yeoh, Brenda S A

2015-05-01

390

Impact of vegetation on land-atmosphere coupling strength and its implication for desertification mitigation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification of the East Asian drylands and the consequent dust transport have been serious concerns for adjacent Asian countries as well as the western United States. Tree planting has been considered one applicable strategy to mitigate the desertification. However, the desired effect of the tree planting would not be brought to fruition unless the newly planted trees change the coupling characteristics between the land and the atmosphere. Based on this perception, we attempt to clarify the effects of vegetation on the coupling strength between the atmosphere and land surface, and we suggest the most efficient areas of tree planting for desertification mitigation in East Asia. Using regional vegetation-atmosphere coupled model simulations, coupling strength with and without vegetation was computed and compared with each other. An increased vegetation fraction reduces the coupling strength in June, July, and August (JJA), primarily due to decreased evapotranspiration variability. This effect is pronounced over the Manchurian Plains and the highly populated areas of Beijing and Tianjin. The reduced coupling strength tends to weaken feedback between soil moisture and precipitation as a maintenance mechanism of warm season droughts in the midlatitudes and subsequently decrease the probability of droughts, a finding that is reflected in the enhanced JJA mean soil moisture. However, some drylands like the eastern edges of the Gobi desert present marginal or even opposite changes in coupling strength, meaning a limited effect of vegetation on relieving droughts. Therefore, given limited financial and human resources, acupuncture-like afforestation, i.e., concentrated tree planting in a particular region where the coupling strength can be substantially reduced by vegetation, is an effective strategy to secure long-standing desertification mitigation.

Myoung, Boksoon; Choi, Yong-Sang; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Seon Ki

2012-06-01

391

Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms  

SciTech Connect

Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-03-01

392

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTrE nEwS 2  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTrE nEwS 2 Conf) ISSn 1322 0462 ThE AfghAnISTAn ConflICT: AuSTrAlIA'S rolE The Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies held Photos:StuartHay (continued page 3) #12;2 CeNTRe FOR ARAB & ISlAMIC STUDIeS (CAIS) STAFF APPOINTMeNT Dr

393

Temporal and spatial variations in the seasonal patterns of CO 2 flux in boreal, temperate, and tropical forests in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of net ecosystem production (NEP) over forest stands were conducted from 11 flux towers in sub-arctic, temperate, and tropical regions in East Asia between 2000 and 2005. The sites extend over a wide latitude, ranging from 3 to 64N, and include sub-arctic and temperate needle-leaf deciduous forests (larch) (central Siberia, Mongolia, China, and northern Japan), temperate mixed, broadleaf deciduous,

Nobuko Saigusa; Susumu Yamamoto; Ryuichi Hirata; Yoshikazu Ohtani; Reiko Ide; Jun Asanuma; Minoru Gamo; Takashi Hirano; Hiroaki Kondo; Yoshiko Kosugi; Sheng-Gong Li; Yuichiro Nakai; Kentaro Takagi; Makoto Tani; Huimin Wang

2008-01-01

394

Race\\/ethnicity and depressive symptoms: a cross-cultural\\/ethnic comparison among university students in East Asia, North and South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine manifestations of depressive symptomatology among undergraduate students in East Asia, North and South America, responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were compared across Japanese (n=310), Anglo-American (n=377), Native American (n=353), and Argentinean (n=110) undergraduate students. Japanese reported a significantly higher level of low positive affect, leading to significantly higher total CES-D scores, whereas their

Noboru Iwata; Stephen Buka

2002-01-01

395

Kidnappings, Missiles, and Nukes!: Outlooks and recommendations for the next President to make sure our strongest ally in East Asia...stays our strongest ally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has been, and continues to be, the United States? strongest ally in East Asia. In spite of significant constitutional restrictions and domestic opposition, Japan has actively contributed to America?s counter-terrorism efforts, providing rear end support for US operations in Afghanistan, and even deploying peacekeepers to Iraq. The US-Japan Relationship, while being one of the closest in the world, is

Mathew Mikuni

2008-01-01

396

Performance of RegCM2.5\\/NCAR-CSM Nested System for the Simulation of Climate Change in East Asia Caused by Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional climate in East Asia under 1CO2 and 2CO2 conditions, was simulated for continuous 10-year periods by the RegCM2.5 developed by NCAR, using the output of a CO2 transient run from NCAR-CSM as lateral and surface boundary conditions in order to evaluate the performance of the nested system for the use of climate change simulation caused by global warming for

Hisashi Kato; Keiichi Nishizawa; Hiromaru Hirakuchi; Shinji Kadokura; Naoko Oshima; Filippo Giorgi

2001-01-01

397

Satellite-based analysis of evapotranspiration and water balance in the grassland ecosystems of Dryland East Asia.  

PubMed

The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr(-1) over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr(-1) from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

2014-01-01

398

A phylogeographical study of the Turnip mosaic virus population in East Asia reveals an 'emergent' lineage in Japan.  

PubMed

The genetic structure of populations of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) in East Asia was assessed by making host range and gene sequence comparisons of 118 isolates utilizing a population genetic approach. Most, but not all, isolates collected from Brassica plants in China infected only Brassica plants, whereas those from Japan infected both Brassica and Raphanus (BR) plants. Analyses of the positions of recombination sites in five regions of the genomes (one third of the full sequence) of the many recombinant isolates were fully congruent with the results of phylogenetic analysis, and at least one recombination type pattern was shared between Chinese and Japanese populations. One lineage of nonrecombinant isolates from the basal-BR lineage was found in 2000 in Kyushu, Japan but none in China, and have since been found over the whole island. The sudden expansion of this basal-BR population was strongly supported by calculations showing the deviations from the neutral equilibrium model for the individual geographical lineages with overall lack of nucleotide diversity, and by analysis of mismatch distribution. Our study shows that the recent Chinese and Japanese TuMV isolates are part of the same population but are discrete lineages. PMID:17107475

Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Ohshima, Kazusato

2006-12-01

399

Nutrition leadership training in North-East Asia: an IUNS initiative in conjunction with nutrition societies in the region.  

PubMed

Food for humans is one of the most important of all global issues. It is a critical determinant of planetary and individual health, of economic development, of how sustainable energy and water supplies are, and its security a powerful determinant of peace or conflict. Those who assume leadership for the integrity of food and health systems have great responsibility. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), regional and national nutrition science and food technology organizations have concern about the leadership capacity available and required in what are rapidly changing and increasingly demanding circumstances. These include persistent poverty and hunger, climate change which threatens the sustainability of food production and fragile financial systems which are making food less affordable for many. North East Asia (NEA) is a major region for its population size, its economic wealth and disparities, its food production, its life expectancies among the best and its global reach. In 2008, for those of Chinese ancestry and of wider Asian origin, Nutrition Leadership training has been conducted in Hangzhou, Shanghai, Seoul and Taiwan (Hsinchu and Zhunan). Ninety prospective young leaders participated in all. Several successful early career Asian nutrition scientists and professionals served as role models. Senior colleagues acted as mentors for groups of 2 or 3. With mentors, the concept of leadership has been examined, careers and roles explored, knowledge and skills honed for a different future, and plans made to network in mutual support. Early feedback indicates that new opportunities have been created and seized. PMID:19114408

Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo; Sun, Jiang-Qin; Ge, Keyou; Paik, Hee-Young; Cho, Sung Hee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

2008-01-01

400

An overview of the studies on black carbon and mineral dust deposition in snow and ice cores in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) is the most effective insoluble light-absorbing particulate (ILAP), which can strongly absorb solar radiation at visible wavelengths. Once BC is deposited in snow via dry or wet process, even a small amount of BC could significantly decrease snow albedo, enhance absorption of solar radiation, accelerate snow melting, and cause climate feedback. BC is considered the second most important component next to CO2 in terms of global warming. Similarly, mineral dust (MD) is another type of ILAP. So far, little attention has been paid to quantitative measurements of BC and MD deposition on snow surface in the midlatitudes of East Asia, especially over northern China. In this paper, we focus on reviewing several experiments performed for collecting and measuring scavenging BC and MD in the high Asian glaciers over the mount' range (such as the Himalayas) and in seasonal snow over northern China. Results from the surveyed literature indicate that the absorption of ILAP in seasonal snow is dominated by MD in the Qilian Mount's and by local soil dust in the Inner Mongolian region close to dust sources. The detection of BC in snow and ice cores using modern techniques has a large bias and uncert'ty when the snow sample is mixed with MD. Evidence also indicates that the reduction of snow albedo by BC and MD perturbations can significantly increase the net surface solar radiation, cause surface air temperature to rise, reduce snow accumulation, and accelerate snow melting.

Wang, Xin; Xu, Baiqing; Ming, Jing

2014-06-01

401

Tidal loading along a profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision measurements of earth tides along a profile stretching from Europe to Polynesia through East Africa, Asia and Australia are used to characterize ocean tides in different basins and thus provide a check on proposed cotidal maps. Ocean tide information was extracted from tidal gravity profiles made with correctly intercalibrated gravimeters at 91 tidal gravity stations by the subtraction of electric earth tide model vectors from the observed tidal vector. Analysis of possible instrumental errors due to calibration, thermal, barometric and power supply interruption effects indicates the data observed at a level of 0.5 microgal cannot be ascribed to computational or instrumental errors. Calculations of the ocean load and attraction signal obtained from the earth tide measurements are observed to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the cotidal maps of Schwiderski (1979, 1980) for satellite altimetry reductions for the diurnal components of the tides, however, less satisfactory agreement is observed in some large areas for the semi-diurnal components. The maps of Hendershott (1973) and Parke (1979) are also found to provide good results in several large areas, but not everywhere. Regions where a more detailed investigation is required are indicated, including Iran-Pakistan, Malaysia, the South China Sea and the South Pacific.

Melchior, P.; Moens, M.; Ducarme, B.; van Ruymbeke, M.