Sample records for east asia symposium

  1. The Progress of Globalization and Educational Reforms in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimbo, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    The symposium entitled "Social Changes in East Asia and Educational reforms: China, Korea, and Singapore" suggested that these countries are carrying out rather drastic educational reforms in the context of rapid social changes. The knowledge gained from the symposium also has important suggestions for Japanese educational reform. In addition, as…

  2. Heart Failure in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yutao; Lip, Gregory YH; Banerjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) carries a major burden of disease in East Asia, with high associated risk of mortality and morbidity. In recent decades, the epidemiology of HF has changed with social and economical development in East Asia. The burden of HF is still severe in East Asia. The prevalence of HF ranges from 1.3% to 6.7% throughout the region. As aetiological factors, ischaemic heart disease has increased and valvular disease reduced in most East Asian countries. Diuretics are the most commonly used drugs (51.0%-97%), followed by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (59%-77%), with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEI, (32%-52%) and has angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, ARBs (31%-44%) in similar proportions. ?-blocker use has also increased in recent years. Total mortality from HF ranges from 2% to 9% in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Age>65 years, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with adverse outcome. More prospective, region-specific data are still required, particularly regarding new drug therapies such as eplerenone and ivabradine. PMID:23597295

  3. Economic Outlook for East Asia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    An Institute for Developing Economies (IDE) publication, the 1999 Economic Outlook for East Asia analyzes the East Asian countries in 1998 and presents forecasts for 1999 (in English and Japanese). According to IDE, Thailand and South Korea will begin to see signs of recovery in the coming year, as the impact of the new Miyazawa Initiative is felt, although Hong Kong will remain "afflicted" by recession. Malaysia and Singapore are also expected to recover as will the Philippines, Vietnam, and Taiwan. As a whole, the growth rate for the East Asian economies is predicted to rise to 3.1 percent in 1999 from 0.1 percent, and general prices are forecast to "swing back" to a single-digit inflation rate of 6.6 percent.

  4. 3, 655678, 2007 East Asia and the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CPD 3, 655­678, 2007 East Asia and the North Pacific at LGM W. Yanase and A. Abe-Ouchi Title Page-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Clim. Past Discuss., 3, 655­678, 2007 www.clim-past-discuss.net/3/655 (yanase@ccsr.u-tokyo.ac.jp) 655 #12;CPD 3, 655­678, 2007 East Asia and the North Pacific at LGM W. Yanase

  5. Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

    This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

  6. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  7. The Misnomer of East Asia Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode

    2004-01-01

    The terminology East Asian summer monsoon is used to refer to the heavy rainfall in southeast China including the Yangtze River Valley starting in May and ending in August (e.g., Chen and Chang 1980, Tao and Chen 1987, Ding 1992, Chang et al. 2000a.) This rainfall region is associated with the Mei-Yu front, which extends to Japan and its neighborhood and is called Baiu there. The Mei-Yu front becomes prominent in May and has a slow northward movement. From May to July the elongated rain belt moves from the southeast coast of China to the Yangtze River Valley. The rain belt extends north-east-ward to south of Japan in May and later covers Korea also. The purpose of this note is to point out that the terminology of East Asian summer monsoon is a misnomer to refer to the portion of this rainbelt residing over East Asia, in the sense that it is not a monsoon.

  8. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to develop a better understanding of the impacts of aerosols on regional-to-global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

  9. Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

  10. CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA)

    E-print Network

    CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA) VOLUME 13 NUMBER 2 (2006) ISSN(standing), Mr Richard Gibbs and Prof. Adam Shoemaker #12;2 CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (CAIS) CAIS

  11. China's emergence in East Asia under alternative trading arrangements

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    China's emergence in East Asia under alternative trading arrangements Hiro Leea,* , David Roland China's accelerated global emergence has changed trade patterns in the Asia-Pacific region and exerted to China, Japan, and the United States using a dynamic global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model

  12. Health promotion in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Mir, N S

    1998-01-01

    The countries of the South East Asia region, which includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, have undertaken a variety of strategies to address the health challenges in the region. The ever-growing pressure of population in the region has allowed rapid transmission of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, and HIV/AIDS. One of the innovative community-based health initiatives in response to this problem is Indonesia's Primary Health Care Project. This project aimed to develop a sustainable health infrastructure by training medical staff, coordinators, village cadres, midwives and those working for TB programs; provision of ongoing guidance and education in this area; and provision of medicines and funds. The project has pioneered a process towards positive changes. Another strategy is the collaboration of youth groups, island development committees, and health workers in Maldives which has led to the declaration of two islands (Madifushi and Haa Alif Berinmadhoo) as 'no smoking' islands. In addition, Sarvodaya has successfully developed a methodology to involve Buddhist monks in AIDS prevention and control through "the Buddhist approach to AIDS prevention in Sri Lanka." PMID:12349574

  13. Food in health security in North East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun-Kyung Moon

    2009-01-01

    Food and health security in North East Asia including South Korea, North Korea, China and Japan was com- pared. Because this region contains countries with many complex problems, it is worthwhile to study the current situation. With about 24% of the world's population, all North East Asian countries supply between 2400 and 3000 Kcal of energy. Regarding health status, two

  14. Mitochondrial DNA diversity and population differentiation in southern East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Li; Xiaoyun Cai; Elizabeth R. Winograd-Cort; Bo Wen; Xu Cheng; Zhendong Qin; Wenhong Liu; Yangfan Liu; Shangling Pan; Ji Qian; Chia-Chen Tan; Li Jin

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymor- phism has been studied systematically in the Han, Tibeto- Buman, and Hmong-Mien ethnic families of southern East Asia. Only two families in this region, Daic and Aus- tro-Asiatic, were still uninvestigated. Daic is a major eth- nic family in South China and Southeast Asia and has a long history. To study mtDNA polymorphism within this family,

  15. Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West Africa

    E-print Network

    Xue, Yongkang

    Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West Africa Yongkang Xue,1,2 H, and R. Vasic (2004), Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West Africa, J

  16. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  17. Paleomagnetotectonics of East Asia in the Proto-Tethys Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S Lee; S Nishimura; K. D Min

    1997-01-01

    Seven paleomagnetic poles are obtained from Early Ordovician, Late Carboniferous, Permo-Triassic, Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Miocene and Quaternary rocks in Korea. These poles define the apparent polar wander path for the southern part of Korean Peninsula. The comparisons of APWPs from the North China Block, Yangtze Block and Korea reveals that the East Asia is comprised of two blocks, the North

  18. Resolution of Corporate Distress: Evidence from East Asia's Financial Crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leora Klapper; Stijn Claessens; Simeon Djankov

    1999-01-01

    June 1999Evidence from East Asia suggests that a firm's ownership relationship with a family or bank provides insurance against the likelihood of bankruptcy during bad times, possibly at the expense of minority shareholders. Bankruptcy is more likely in countries with strong creditor rights and a good judicial system - perhaps because creditors are more likely to force a firm to

  19. CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA)

    E-print Network

    CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA) VOLUME 12 NUMBER 1 (2005) ISSN by the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (CAIS) and IPIS in 2000 to foster wider cooperation and mutual GROWTH AT CAIS 3 ARABIC PROGRAMME 4 STUDENT NEWS 5 THE DOWNFALL OF AKAEV 6 DIVIDED POLITICAL DYNAMICS

  20. Surface wave group velocity tomography of East Asia, part 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis T. Wu

    1993-01-01

    Group velocities of both Rayleigh and Love waves are used in a tomographic inversion to obtain group velocity maps of East Asia (60 deg E-140 deg E and 20 deg N-50 deg N). The period range studied is 30-70 seconds. For periods longer than 40 seconds, a high group velocity gradient clearly exists along longitude 105 deg E; the velocities

  1. East Asia Institute March 31, 2011 UTSA Cares about Japan

    E-print Network

    Dodla, Ramana

    East Asia Institute March 31, 2011 UTSA Cares about Japan Donation Drive for the Japan Tsunami currently studying Communications at UTSA. "I am very glad that our campus has organized a fundraiser helping out started off small. Gradually, more and more people offered Donation drive at UTSA to help

  2. An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. J.; Hong, S. K.; Kwon, H.-A.; Kim, S.; Guenther, A.; Woo, J.-H.; Loughner, C. P.

    2014-08-01

    We use a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine ozone dry deposition in East Asia, which is an important but uncertain research area because of insufficient observation and numerical studies focusing on East Asia. Here we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, the Wesely and M3DRY schemes, which are used in the WRF-Chem and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models, respectively. Simulated ozone dry deposition velocities with the two schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) owing to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. Resulting ozone concentrations differ by up to 10 ppbv for a monthly mean in May when the peak ozone typically occurs in East Asia. An evaluation of the simulated dry deposition velocities shows that the Wesely scheme calculates values with more pronounced diurnal variation than the M3DRY and results in a good agreement with the observations. However, we find significant changes in simulated ozone concentrations using the Wesely scheme but with different surface type data sets, indicating the high sensitivity of ozone deposition calculations to the input data. The need is high for observations to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and its input data to improve the use of air quality models for East Asia.

  3. Impact of Black Carbon Aerosol on Climate in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Park, R. J.; Jeong, J. I.; Youn, D.

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is one of the major atmospheric aerosols, which affects the radiative balance and thus the climate. We examine the effects of BC aerosol on climate in East Asia using a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by assimilated meteorological data and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Column Radiation Model (NCAR-CRM). Simulated BC aerosol concentrations are compared with observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE- P) and the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) aircraft campaigns in spring 2001. The model captured observed vertical distributions in East Asia. We applied our simulated BC aerosol with typical optical properties (refractive index (N) = 1.75-0.45i at a wavelength of 550 nm) to the NCAR-CRM to compute radiative forcing of BC aerosol. Our calculation shows negative forcing at the surface and positive forcing at the top of the atmosphere in East Asia, indicating warming of the atmosphere. A recent study by Alexander et al. (2008) found that submicrometer amorphous carbon spheres are ubiquitous in East Asian-Pacific outflow, and these carbon spheres are brown, not black, with a refractive index of 1.67-0.27i at a wavelength of 550 nm. In order to accommodate these new findings we also calculate radiative forcing of the simulated BC assuming its half as brown carbon in the NCAR-CRM. Our new values of simulated optical depth and resulting radiative forcing are by 50% lower than the previous results, implying a possible overestimation of BC warming effect in East Asia.

  4. Ideas and innovation in East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Hu; Milan Brahmbhatt

    2007-01-01

    The generation, diffusion, absorption and application of new technology, knowledge or ideas are crucial drivers of development. This paper surveys the diverse approaches to innovation adopted by East Asian economies, the problems faced and outcomes achieved, as well as possible policy lessons. Knowledge flows from advanced countries remain the primary source of new ideas in developing economies. The authors evaluate

  5. East Asia now important factor in oil world

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, H. (BP Asia Pacific and Middle East (SG))

    1991-10-21

    On one level the countries of East Asia are vital components of the global energy equation specifically in regard to oil production and are directly affected by the entire world. But equally they are independent nation states with their own particular energy characteristics, making each country worthy of specific consideration. There is not necessarily a regional dimension to every energy issue facing the countries and one must be careful to avoid facile generalizations about the region. For the purpose of this article, East Asia will be defined as Japan, the newly industrialized economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea; the industrializing economies of Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines, and the remainder, excluding the Indian subcontinent, but including China, Burma, and Viet Nam. Together these countries contain some one third of the world's population and produce around a fifth of the world gross domestic product (GDP). For the past 3 decades, they have made up the fastest growing economic region of the world. However, East Asia cannot be considered in isolation from the Middle East. No examination of any energy topic can ignore the importance of that area.

  6. Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

  7. New Mycomya species from South-East Asia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) .

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are revised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia. PMID:24943632

  8. Surface-wave group velocity tomography of East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis T. Wu; Anatoli Levshin

    1994-01-01

    Group velocities of both Rayleigh and Love waves are used in a tomographic inversion to obtain group velocity maps of East Asia (60-140°E and 20-60°N). The period range studied is 30-70 s. The Tibetan plateau, a region undergoing intense north-south compression, appears as a prominent low-velocity (about -15% from the average) structure in this area; central Tibet appears as the

  9. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  10. School of East Asian Studies Employability Statement Graduates of the School of East Asian Studies go on to rewarding careers East Asia

    E-print Network

    Martin, Stephen John

    School of East Asian Studies Employability Statement Graduates of the School of East Asian Studies on the knowledge of the East Asian region, the skills and experience, and the high level of cultural agility to reflect the rapid pace of change in East Asian societies, and to emphasise the understanding of East Asia

  11. Performance test of carbon dioxide retrieval algorithm over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woogyung; Jung, Yeonjin; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Boesch, Hartmut; Ou, Mi-Lim; Goo, Tae-young

    2015-04-01

    In this study, current state of CO2 retrieval algorithm development using aerosol information retrieved from TANSO-CAI is introduced and preliminary results are shown. Previous studies about GOSAT CO2 retrieval algorithm shows incorrect aerosol information induce considerable error in retrieved CO2 concentration. Most of algorithm use chemical transport model result as a priori aerosol information, however, model has a limitation to provide accurate aerosol information. By using TANSO-CAI aerosol retrieval results, this algorithm is expected to improve the accuracy and data availability especially for East Asia region where the aerosol concentration is higher than other region. Algorithm is based on optimal estimation method and utilized VLIDORT as radiative transfer model to consider polarization effect. Various factors, CO2, H2O, temperature, aerosol, surface albedo, surface pressure and wavenumber shift are considered as state vector. To research the performance of algorithm, retrieval test with synthetic data are carried out. Synthetic GOSAT spectra of various atmospheres which can represent East Asia are simulated with high accuracy. To prepare highly realistic spectra randomized spectral noise and wave length shift of each band are added. Based on those synthetic GOSAT data, reference test are performed to evaluate the performance of this algorithm, errors induced by incorrect atmosphere information and characteristics of retrieval on East Asia. According to results, most of those artificial errors are removed during each iteration step and remaining retrieval CO2 errors of final step is approximately 1ppm. The error induced by wave number shift and aerosol optical property, for instance aerosol type and AOD is relatively higher than error induced by other factors. After the reference test, this proto type algorithm is applied to real GOSAT measured spectra over TCCON site for validation. Validation result show clear bias, however the amount and direction is different from each sites. Those biases are assumed to be the effect of other factors for example, fluorescence, methane, cloud and aerosol. Those biases should be improved in further study.

  12. The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented and discussed their contribution to better understand the impacts of aerosols on regional-to- global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

  13. Leeonychiurus, a new genus from East Asia (Collembola: Onychiuridae: Onychiurini).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Arbea, Javier

    2014-01-01

    A new genus of Onychiurini including five species is described from East Asia. Leeonychiurus gen. nov. differs in its antennal III sensory organ with granulated sensory clubs and 11 chaetae in the distal whorl of tibiotarsi. The main diagnostic characters of the genera from the tribe Onychiurini and the five species from the new genus are summarized. A new species, Leeonychiurus fusongensis sp. nov., is reported from northeast China and it can be easily distinguished from other species of the genus by the number of dorsal and ventral pseudocelli. The known Korean species L. polychaetosus is redescribed by the examination of the type materials.  PMID:25112328

  14. Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia (EEPSEA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1993, the Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia (EEPSEA) supports training and research in environmental and resource economics in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao PDR, China, and Sri Lanka. Information on EEPSEA research projects, workshops, postdoctoral awards, and organizational structure is available in addition to the educational guide How to Design a Research Project in Environmental Economics. Full-text publications include policy briefs on issues of environmental regulation, in-depth research reports (1997-present), and a recently released series of Special Papers.

  15. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control. PMID:10683538

  16. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    ITO, HIROTO; SETOYA, YUTARO; SUZUKI, YURIKO

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives. PMID:23024679

  17. Democratising the Neighbourhood: The Implications of the Arab Spring for the Middle East and Asia

    E-print Network

    Democratising the Neighbourhood: The Implications of the Arab Spring for the Middle East and Asia Canberra, 9-10 December 2011 Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia of International Service, American University Conference Program Venue: Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies

  18. Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia

    E-print Network

    Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit, and the distribution pattern of acid rain was also altered. The annual mean pH values in northern China and Korea show

  19. Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East & Central Asia)

    E-print Network

    Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East & Central Asia) BULLETINCENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA) VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2 (2003) ISSN 1322 0462 ISRAEL with the British promise to establish the Jewish state. He feels that peace, which he is convinced could

  20. Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia)

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) The Arab World, Iran, Chancellor, ANU #12;Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) Friday 27 June in a changing strategic environment Prof. Amin Saikal, ANU Examining Iran's Foreign Policy Objectives Prof

  1. Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars: Asia, Asian Studies and the National Security State: A Symposium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars.

    1997-01-01

    The Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars has placed online the full text of a recent symposium on "Asia, Asian Studies and the National Security State." The symposium consists of a powerful article by Bruce Cumings, challenging the ideological roots of Asian Studies, with eight responses by a wide range of people active in the profession. The symposium focuses on two moments in the creation and development of Asian studies in the United States. "First, the symposium examines the birth of the field -- during the height of the Cold War -- as a creation of the national-security state, or what Cumings calls the state/intelligence/foundation nexus, which structured, financed, and set formative research agendas and methodologies at the time. Second, the symposium assesses how the sea changes in the contemporary Asian regional and global situations relate to emerging scholarly trends."

  2. The Culex pipiens fatigans problem in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.

    1967-01-01

    In South-East Asia in recent years urbanization has proceeded rapidly. Because of limited financial resources it has seldom been possible to provide sufficient sanitation; this has led to conditions favourable to the breeding of Culex pipiens fatigans. The density of C. p. fatigans is higher in urban areas than in rural ones. Differences in infection and infectivity rates in C. p. fatigans seem to be due to differences in infection rates in the human population rather than to differences in the life-span of the mosquito. Precipitin tests have shown that the species feeds predominantly on man. It breeds in almost any type of stagnant water with organic contamination. Filariasis problems in India have been classified according to the duration of established transmission. PMID:5300060

  3. Simulation of soil moisture and its variability in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chuanli; Wu, Wanli; Liu, Xiaodong; Gao, Wei

    2006-08-01

    Soil moisture and related hydrological process play an important role in regional and global climates. However, large-scale and long-term observation of soil moisture is sparse. In this study, the latest NCAR Community Land Model is used to simulate regional soil moisture in East Asia for recent 25 years with the atmospheric forcing provided by NCEP/DOE reanalysis. A 50-year simulation has been conducted with the first 25 years as the model spins up for soil moisture to reach steady state. The last 25 years simulation provides a soil moisture dataset with physical consistency and spatio-temporal continuity. Our analysis focuses on spatial and temporal variability of the regional soil moisture based on the last 25-year modeling. Additionally, The trend in the regional soil moisture and its possible link to climate warming is examined. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: 1. Simulated soil moisture exhibits clear sensitivity to its initial condition. Such sensitivity is a function of soil depth. This study indicates that the equilibrium time of soil moisture increases with the depth of soil layers. It takes about 20 years to reach equilibrium below 1.5m. Therefore either a longer spin-up (20 years or more) or accurate initial soil moisture is necessary for a quality land surface modeling. 2. In comparison with the reanalysis and in-situ measurements, the model reproduces the observed large-scale structure reasonably well. The simulation shows mesoscale spatial variation as well. 3. Linear trend analysis shows that soil has become drier in most areas of East Asia in recent years except southern China and the Tibetan Plateau where soil gets wetter. Further analysis indicates that such dry trend may have a close link to warming surface climate through enhanced evaporation.

  4. Distribution of ribonucleic acid coliphages in south and east Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Furuse, K; Sakurai, T; Hirashima, A; Katsuki, M; Ando, A; Watanabe, I

    1978-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of ribonucleic acid (RNA) coliphages in the Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, India, and Thailand by collecting sewage samples from domestic drainage in November 1976. Of the 221 samples collected from domestic drainage, 50 contained RNA phages (52 strains). By serological analysis, 46 of the 52 strains were found to belong to group III. It can thus be said that the most prevalent RNA phages in Southeast Asia (at least, in the Philippines, Singapore, and Indonesia) were group III phages. Investigations of sewage samples collected from domestic drainage in Japan indicate that the most prevalent RNA phages in mainland Japan (north of Kyushu) are group II phages, whereas group III phages are predominant in the southern part of Japan (south of Amamiohshima Island). We therefore propose a borderline between Kyushu and Amamiohshima Island for the geographical distribution of RNA coliphages in the domestic drainage of South and East Asia. Moreover, one strain (ID2) was inactivated to some extent with the antisera of four groups of RNA phages. This is thought to be significant from the evolutionary viewpoint. PMID:677886

  5. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  6. Corporate governance and strategic transparency: East Asia in the international business systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarek Ibrahim Eldomiaty; Chong Ju Choi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims at discussing the determinants of strategic transparency and the governance structure of the East Asian firms. The relatively weak institutional infrastructure in East Asia raises the question about the adaptable governance structure and transparency in the East Asian firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents theoretical underpinnings of the literature on corporate governance, corporate strategy and

  7. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  8. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more northerly flora are a subset of the genera present in a more southerly flora. Main conclusions: The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

  9. The marine Permian of East and Northeast Asia: an overview of biostratigraphy, palaeobiogeography and palaeogeographical implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Shi

    2006-01-01

    The Permian marine biostratigraphy, faunal successions and mutual correlations (where possible) throughout East and Northeast Asia are synthesized, region by region, based on both published literature and the author's field observations in certain parts of the region. The correlation of the Permian marine successions of NE Asia with the Permian international timescale and, in particular, with Gondwanan Permian marine sequences

  10. To Be or Not To Be: South Korea's East Asia Security Strategy and the Unification Quandary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seongho Sheen

    2009-01-01

    South Korea's Lee Myong-bak government has adopted a new East Asia strategy to cope with the changing security environment on the Korean peninsula, as well as in Northeast Asia. Departing from its traditional dependence on the bilateral alliance with the United States, South Korea now seeks a diversified strategy which includes upgrading the alliance with the US to a ‘strategic

  11. Performance test of greenhouse gas retrieval algorithm over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. V.; Jung, Y.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Boesch, H.; Ou, M. L.; Goo, T. Y.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, current state of CO2 retrieval algorithm development is introduced and preliminary results are shown. This CO2 retrieval algorithm is based on optimal estimation method and utilized VLIDORT the vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model to perform vector calculation. Proto type algorithm, developed from various combinations of state vectors to find accurate CO2 concentration, shows reasonable result on reference test. To generate synthetic GOSAT data several soundings which can represent East Asia atmosphere were simulated with high accuracy. Based on synthetic GOSAT data, reference test are performed to evaluate the performance of this algorithm and the errors induced by incorrect atmosphere information. According to results, aerosol properties (AOD, profile, type) are most important error inducing parameter. Retrieval error induced by a priori error of other atmospheric factors, wavenumber dispersion and geometrical error usually does not exceed 2 ppm. However errors in aerosol properties can induce more than 2ppm of retrieval error. This result shows the importance of aerosol information in CO2 retrieval. To improve CO2 retrieval the aerosol retrieval algorithm using GOSAT-CAI measurements, which provide aerosol information for the same area with GOSAT-FTS measurements, is utilized. The strategy for dealing with this information is also introduced.

  12. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259

  13. Atmospheric chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2014-09-01

    This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15-70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of ?19ClPAHs and ?9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610fg-TEQm(-3) respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4240000fg-TEQm(-3) respectively. PMID:24997898

  14. Spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

    2014-07-01

    Droughts in the East Asian region (105-150°E, 20-50°N) are quantified using the effective drought index (EDI) over a period of 43 years, from 1962 to 2004, and the East Asian region was classified into six subregions on the basis of similarity in drought climate: (D1) South China; (D2) lower region of the Yangtze River, South Korea, and Central/South Japan; (D3) Central China and North Korea; (D4) Northwest China and middle region of the Yangtze River; (D5) North China; and (D6) Northeast China and North Japan. The EDI time series was then summarized for the different drought subregions and a drought map was created that shows the spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia. The map shows that in subregions, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and D6, there were 50 (11.63 per decade), 36 (8.37 per decade), 30 (6.98 per decade), 28 (6.51 per decade), 29 (6.74 per decade), and 33 (7.67 per decade) drought occurrences, respectively. The most common characteristic of droughts in the subregions is that short-term droughts (<200 days) which mainly occur in spring and summer, whereas long-term droughts (?200 days) mainly occur in autumn and winter. D1 shows the highest frequency of short-term droughts. Short-term droughts occur more frequently than long-term droughts in D2 and D3, but D4 and D6 showed a higher frequency of long-term droughts than short-term droughts. D5 showed a similar frequency of short- and long-term droughts. Drought onset dates are evenly distributed throughout the year for D1, D2, and D3, but distributed mostly in spring and summer in D4, D5, and D6. All the differences are linked to variations in the precipitation cycle of each subregion. In terms of annual variations in drought occurrence, D2 showed weakening droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a positive trend), whereas the other subregions showed intensifying droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a negative trend). The greatest intensifying trend was observed in D5, followed by D3, D6, D4, and D1.

  15. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…

  16. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia. Situated on…

  17. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  18. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices. Aubert et al introduce a novel technique of synthesizing composite nanomaterials and Cross and coworkers characterize Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films co-doped with Bi and Fe to enhance PZT capacitor ferroelectric properties. These articles are closely related to the global environmental load and energy issues that require solutions in modern ceramics technology. We hope that this focus issue will help advance not only ceramics-related but also other fields of materials science.

  19. Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Shi; Hua Zhong; Yi Peng; Yong-Li Dong; Xue-Bin Qi; Feng Zhang; Lu-Fang Liu; Si-Jie Tan; Runlin Z Ma; Chun-Jie Xiao; R Spencer Wells; Li Jin; Bing Su

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the

  20. Sustainability Issues of the Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific (AEESEAP) Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Nasrudin Abdul; Said, Suhana Mohd

    The Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific was established with the aim to improve the education of engineers and technologists in its member countries. This paper will give an overview of AEESEAP objectives and its current activities, coordinated by the current secretariat based in Malaysia. The main issue being dealt with throughout the existence of AEESEAP is the issue of sustainability of the association. This paper will highlight the objectives and current activities of AEESEAP, with regards to sustaining this association.

  1. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter temperature distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.

  2. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  3. Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao; Wang, Hong-Kai; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia. PMID:25080928

  4. A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

  5. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

  6. An evaluation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease outbreak reporting in mainland South-East Asia from 2000 to 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Madin

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is considered to be endemic throughout mainland South-East Asia (SEA). The South-East Asia and China FMD (SEACFMD) campaign is a regional control programme which has been ongoing since 1997. The programme encourages countries to submit reports of outbreaks regularly. This paper evolved from a collaboration with SEACFMD to evaluate 10 years worth of reporting. All

  7. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

  8. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Han, K M; Park, R S; Kim, H K; Woo, J H; Kim, J; Song, C H

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (?HCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (?(CMAQ, MEGAN) and ?(CMAQ, MOHYCAN)), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (?(SCIA)). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO(y) species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO(x) radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO(y) chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. PMID:23867846

  9. Late Palaeozoic Biogeography of East Asia and Palaeontological Constraints on Plate Tectonic Reconstructions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Smith

    1988-01-01

    Biogeographical patterns of late Palaeozoic rugose coral genera are analysed for the Lower Carboniferous (Visean), early Lower Permian (Asselian\\/Sakmarian), late Lower Permian (Qixian) and early Upper Permian (Maokoan) of East Asia. Boundaries to the biotic regions are defined to coincide with tectonically significant suture zones to test rival hypotheses about the plate tectonic reconstruction of that region. Three numerical techniques

  10. Contemporary crustal deformation in east Asia constrained by Global Positioning System measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng-kang Shen; Chengkun Zhao; An Yin; Yanxing Li; David D. Jackson; Peng Fang; Danan Dong

    2000-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements collected since the early 90's allow us to derive geodetic velocities at 16 permanent stations in east Asia and 68 campaign mode sites in north China. The resulting velocity field shows the following: (1) Contrary to the early inferences that the Shanxi Rift has accommodated significant right-slip motion, our results suggest that the rift system,

  11. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  12. DOES FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT PROMOTE ECONOMIC GROWTH? EVIDENCE FROM EAST ASIA AND LATIN AMERICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence on the link between foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic growth in developing countries, causal patterns of the two variables has not been investigated yet with a reliable procedure. This article provides an empirical assessment of the issue by using data for 11 economies in East Asia and Latin America. Although FDI is expected to

  13. Aerosol radiative forcing over east Asia determined from ground-based solar radiation measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do-Hyeong Kim; B. J. Sohn; Teruyuki Nakajima; Tamio Takamura

    2005-01-01

    We developed a method of retrieving aerosol optical properties and their associated radiative forcing from simultaneously measured sky radiation and surface solar flux data. The method is then applied to data sets collected at Mandalgovi, Dunhuang, Yinchuan, and Sri-Samrong sites of the Skyradiometer Network (SKYNET), and at Anmyon, Gosan, and Amami-Oshima, to examine the aerosol characteristics of east Asia. From

  14. Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in the Western Pacific and South East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I D Gust

    1996-01-01

    The Western Pacific and South East Asia regions are the largest and most populous of the six World Health Organisation regions and include more than 40 countries. More than 75% of the world's estimated 350 million carriers are located here. The region has therefore provided many insights into the epidemiology, natural history, and control of hepatitis B infection and has

  15. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

  16. Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) NUMBER 1 (2007)

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) VOLUME 14, NUMBER 1 (2007 been appointed as Professor and Deputy Director of the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle. It is an honour for us to have him here", said Professor Amin Saikal, the Director of the Centre for Arab

  17. EU:France, UK,etc. East Asia: Japan, China,etc.

    E-print Network

    : The advanced T-lean fusion fuel reactor US HIF Science Virtual National Lab.(LBNL, LLNL,PPPL) has been Heating Heated plasma image SNL-Z project #12;Fast Ignition opens a new rout to compact IF Reactor 1983EU:France, UK,etc. East Asia: Japan, China,etc. US: LLNL, SNL, U. Rochester Inertial Fusion Power

  18. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

  19. Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand in east Asia—a numerical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Terada; Hiromasa Ueda; Zifa Wang

    2002-01-01

    Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were investigated numerically by an Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new deflation module of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from

  20. Promoting Learner Autonomy: Student Perceptions of Responsibilities in a Language Classroom in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Shien; Takagi, Akiko; Chu, Man-Ping

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of communicative language teaching in East Asia, the idea of learner autonomy has become a topic of discussion and a goal among language teachers. The idea of autonomy raises important questions that need to be further explored, particularly in terms of students taking responsibility for learning. While examining the English…

  1. Arsenic in groundwater: A threat to sustainable agriculture in South and South-east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Brammer; Peter Ravenscroft

    2009-01-01

    The problem of arsenic pollution of groundwater used for domestic water supplies is now well recognised in Bangladesh, India and some other countries of South and South-east Asia. However, it has recently become apparent that arsenic-polluted water used for irrigation is adding sufficient arsenic to soils and rice to pose serious threats to sustainable agricultural production in those countries and

  2. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Geoff; Benton, Susan; Duvall, James; Eltzroth, Diane; Hooyberg, Astrid; Keim, Marilee; Norris, Elizabeth; Smith, Peggy; Vogel, Kathy; Williams, Steven

    This volume contains 40 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across five themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, Change"; (4) Institutions, Power & Government"; and (5)…

  3. Effects of future climate change on air quality over East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daeok Youn; Byung-Kwon Moon; Sang-Wook Yeh; Youngho Kim; Jung-Hun Woo; Eulgyu Im; Chang-Keun Song

    2010-01-01

    Air pollutant concentrations such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols are affected by meteorological variables including temperature, mixing depth, precipitation, and so on. Future climate is expected to be different from the present and so are those meteorological variables mainly due to human perturbations to the atmospheric levels of the long-lived greenhouse gases and aerosols. East Asia is one of important

  4. Spatial distribution of carbon balance in forest ecosystems across East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuichi Hirata; Nobuko Saigusa; Susumu Yamamoto; Yoshikazu Ohtani; Reiko Ide; Jun Asanuma; Minoru Gamo; Takashi Hirano; Hiroaki Kondo; Yoshiko Kosugi; Sheng-Gong Li; Yuichiro Nakai; Kentaro Takagi; Makoto Tani; Huimin Wang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to clarify what kind of environmental factors that regulate net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (RE) in forest ecosystems across East Asia. Study sites were widely distributed and included diverse ecosystems, such as evergreen and deciduous, coniferous and broadleaf, planted and natural forests, from subarctic to tropical zones. We

  5. Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market…

  6. Fate, Freedom and Prognostication. Strategies for Coping with the Future in East Asia and Europe

    E-print Network

    Stummer, Wolfgang

    .m. Unilateral Peace: Understanding China's Foreign Policy Intention Chi-yu Shih (Political Science, NationalFate, Freedom and Prognostication. Strategies for Coping with the Future in East Asia and Europe assess- ment--the central component of how states cope with uncertainty and the future in the context

  7. Springtime photochemical ozone production observed in the upper troposphere over east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Miyazaki; K. Kita; Y. Kondo; M. Koike; M. Ko; W. Hu; S. Kawakami; D. R. Blake; T. Ogawa

    2003-01-01

    Aircraft observations of ozone and its precursors (NO, NOy, CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons) were made near Japan (26°–44°N) between 21 and 24 April 1998 to investigate the effect of transport and chemistry on the tropospheric ozone over east Asia in spring. The average mixing ratios of ozone and its precursors in the upper troposphere were higher than those observed during

  8. Springtime photochemical ozone production observed in the upper troposphere over east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Miyazaki; K. Kita; Y. Kondo; M. Koike; M. Ko; W. Hu; S. Kawakami; D. R. Blake; T. Ogawa

    2003-01-01

    Aircraft observations of ozone and its precursors (NO, NOy, CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons) were made near Japan (26°-44°N) between 21 and 24 April 1998 to investigate the effect of transport and chemistry on the tropospheric ozone over east Asia in spring. The average mixing ratios of ozone and its precursors in the upper troposphere were higher than those observed during

  9. Springtime photochemical ozone production observed in the upper troposphere over East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Miyazaki; K. Kita; Y. Kondo; M. Ko; W. Hu; S. Kawakami; M. Koike; D. Blake; T. Ogawa

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft observations of ozone and its precursors (NO, NOy, CO, and non-methane hydrocarbons) were made near Japan in April 1998 to investigate the effect of transport and chemistry on tropospheric ozone over East Asia in spring. The average concentrations of ozone and its precursors in the upper troposphere were higher than those observed during February-March 1994. The significantly higher mixing

  10. HRD in Asia. Symposium 35. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document consists of three symposia papers on human resources development (HRD) in Asia. "The Impact of Action Learning on the Conflict-Handling Styles of Managers in a Malaysian Firm" (Antony Hii, Michael J. Marquardt) presented results of a quantitative study of a three-month action learning program on managers' conflict-management skills.…

  11. Asia Pacific Symposium of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (APSAEM2010) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 28-30th

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    Asia Pacific Symposium of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (APSAEM2010) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 28-30th July 2010 Reducing Electromagnetic Interference in Non-Isolated DC to DC Step JAMALUDIN*2 Investigation of the Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is important for design of a good power

  12. Prevalence of dementia in East Asia: a synthetic review of time trends

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to synthesise evidence on time trends of dementia prevalence in East Asian countries including Japan, China, South Korea and Taiwan and assess the impact of the societal changes on future prevalence. Method Relevant reviews and recent nationwide studies in East Asia were identified to investigate changes in prevalence of dementia over time taking into account the potential impact of methodological factors and study designs. Results The robust evidence that has been interpreted to suggest a substantial increasing trend over time is less compelling once fundamental differences in study methods and populations across individual surveys are considered. In Japan, longitudinal studies in small areas suggest the potential increase of prevalence after 2000. Increasing trends in China, South Korea and Taiwan over the last 20–30 years are based on the literature review without adjustment for methodological differences. Economic development and huge societal changes alongside the rise of non-communicable disease in East Asia could lead to increasing prevalence of dementia in the future once those cohorts with high risk of dementia reached their older age. Conclusion Current evidence is not sufficient to suggest increasing trends of dementia prevalence in East Asia. Longitudinal studies with representative samples and stable methodology are needed to provide fundamental information of the epidemiology of dementia and identify important risk factors in East Asian societies. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25963138

  13. Simulating Aerosol-cloud-radiation Feedbacks Over East Asia Using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in climate change through their impact on the radiative balance and hydrological cycle of the atmosphere. Recently much effort has been put into studying the radiative forcing of aerosols in East Asia. In this study, we apply the regional chemistry and transport model, WRF-Chem, to study aerosol radiative forcing over eastern Asia. Four model simulations have been conducted to ascertain the direct and indirect (cloud albedo and cloud lifetime) effects of aerosols on radiation and precipitation. The time period of interest is from Feb 22, 2005 to March 31, 2005 when there were extensive measurements of radiation, trace gases, and aerosol properties available from EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment ). Measurements from EAST-AIRE site Xianghe, MODIS, CERES, and AERONET are used to assess the performance of the base simulation. The base run shows good agreement with observations, although the model underestimates the aerosol loading in East Asia, especially over highly polluted regions. We compare the base run with the sensitivity runs and investigate the difference in short wave radiation at the surface and the top of atmosphere, cloud properties (cloud fraction, cloud condensation nuclei, effective radius, and liquid water path), and precipitation patterns. Preliminary results indicate that short wave radiation at the surface is reduced by 28 W m-2 at Xianghe site due to the aerosol direct effect.

  14. English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent…

  15. Global Volatility and Forex Returns in East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kalra

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACTDuring 2001–2010, increases in mature market volatility were associated with declines in forex returns for East Asian economies, consistent with an overall ‘flight to safety’ effect. Estimates from GARCH models suggest that a 10 percentage point increase in mature market equity volatility generated an exchange rate depreciation of up to 3\\/4 percent. This sensitivity rose during a more tranquil subsample

  16. Inequality and Growth Reconsidered: Lessons from East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Birdsall; David Ross; Richard Sabot

    1995-01-01

    East Asian economies have experienced rapid growth over three decades, with relatively low levels of income inequality, and appear to have also achieved reductions in income inequality. We argue that policies that reduced poverty and income inequalities, such as emphasizing high-quality basic education and augmenting labor demand, also stimulated growth. Closing two virtuous circles, rapid growth and reduced inequality led

  17. Development and evaluation of an operational SDS forecasting system for East Asia: CUACE/Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C. H.; Gong, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Niu, T.; Liu, H. L.; Zhao, T. L.; Yang, Y. Q.; Hou, Q.

    2008-02-01

    CUACE/Dust, an operational mesoscale sand and dust storm (SDS) forecasting system for East Asia, has been developed by online coupling a dust aerosol emission scheme and dust aerosol microphysics onto a regional meteorological model with improved advection and diffusion schemes and a detailed Northeast Asia soil erosion database. With improved initial dust aerosol conditions through a 3-DVar data assimilation system, CUACE/Dust successfully forecasted most of the 31 SDS processes in East Asia. A detailed comparison of the model predictions for the 8-12 March SDS process with surface network observations and lidar measurements revealed a robust forecasting ability of the system. The time series of the operationally forecasted dust concentrations for a number of representative stations for the whole spring 2006 (1 March-31 May) were evaluated against surface PM10 monitoring data, showing a good agreement in terms of the SDS timing and magnitudes at and near the source regions where dust aerosols dominate. For the operational forecasts of spring 2006 in East Asia, a TS (threat score) system evaluated the performance of CUACE/Dust against all available observations and rendered a spring averaged TS value of 0.31 for FT1 (24 h forecasts), 0.23 for FT2 (48 h forecasts) and 0.21 for FT3 (72 h forecasts).

  18. Assembly of forest communities across East Asia – insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Jin, Guangze; Sang, Weiguo; Lu, Zhijun; Wang, Xihua; Li, Xiankun; Li, Buhang; Sun, Ifang; Ma, Keping; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present the first study applying this approach to forest tree communities across East Asia, focusing on community phylogenetic structure and using data from a global network of tropical, subtropical and temperate forest plots. We found that Net Relatedness Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI) values were generally lower with geographically broad species pools (global and Asian species pools) than with an East Asian species pool, except that global species pool produced higher NTI than the East Asian species pool. The lower NRI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool may indicate an important role of intercontinental migration during the Neogene and Quaternary and climatic conservatism in shaping the deeper phylogenetic structure of tree communities in East Asia. In contrast, higher NTI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool is consistent with recent localized diversification determining the shallow phylogenetic structure. PMID:25797420

  19. Paternal Genetic Structure of Hainan Aborigines Isolated at the Entrance to East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongna; Li, Hui; Ou, Caiying; Lu, Yan; Sun, Yuantian; Yang, Bo; Qin, Zhendong; Zhou, Zhenjian; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li

    2008-01-01

    Background At the southern entrance to East Asia, early population migration has affected most of the Y-chromosome variations of East Asians. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the isolated genetic structure of Hainan Island and the original genetic structure at the southern entrance, we studied the Y chromosome diversity of 405 Hainan Island aborigines from all the six populations, who have little influence of the recent mainland population relocations and admixtures. Here we report that haplogroups O1a* and O2a* are dominant among Hainan aborigines. In addition, the frequency of the mainland dominant haplogroup O3 is quite low among these aborigines, indicating that they have lived rather isolated. Clustering analyses suggests that the Hainan aborigines have been segregated since about 20 thousand years ago, after two dominant haplogroups entered East Asia (31 to 36 thousand years ago). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Hainan aborigines have been isolated at the entrance to East Asia for about 20 thousand years, whose distinctive genetic characteristics could be used as important controls in many population genetic studies. PMID:18478090

  20. Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

  1. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols over South and East Asia using dual carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, O.; Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.-; Kruså, M.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tiwari, S.-; Lee, M.; Chen, B.; Du, K.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of black carbon (BC) and other components of carbonaceous aerosols affect both climate and health in South and East Asia, yet substantial uncertainties exist regarding their sources. The relative contribution to atmospheric BC from fossil fuel versus biomass combustion is important to constrain both to direct mitigation and as their different properties make their effects on climate forcing and respiratory health different. This study approached the sourcing challenge by applying microscale radiocarbon measurements to aerosol particles collected in both source regions and at regional receptor observatories of both S Asia (New Delhi and the Maldives Climate Observatory) and of E Asia (Beijing, Shanghai, South China Coastal Observatory and the Korea Climate Observatory - Gosan, KCO-G, Jeju Island). The radiocarbon approach is ideally suited to this task as fossil sources are void of 14C whereas biomass combustion products hold a contemporary 14C signal. For S Asia, the 14C-based observations suggest that biomass combustion contributes half to two-thirds of the BC loading. In contrast, for E Asia, fossil fuel combustion account for four-fifths of the BC emitted from China. This source-diagnostic radiocarbon signal in the ambient aerosol over East Asia establishes a much larger role for fossil fuel combustion than suggested by all fifteen BC emission inventory models. There are also poor constraints on the sources of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), a large hydrophilic component of carbonaceous aerosols that enhances the propensity of aerosols to form clouds. In a 15-mo continuous campaign in S Asia, radiocarbon-based source apportionment of WSOC shows the dominance of biogenic/biomass combustion sources but also a substantial anthropogenic fossil-fuel contribution (about 20%). WSOC in E Asia reaching KCO-G were 50% from fossil sources. Aerosols reaching the Maldives after long-range over-ocean transport were enriched by 3-4‰ in ?13C-WSOC. This is contrary to the isotopic gradient expected for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and instead suggests that WSOC in the South Asian regional receptor atmosphere stems largely from chemically-aged POA. The year-round dual-isotope data suggests that a key contribution to S Asian WSOC may be ageing of POA from incomplete biomass combustion. These top-down isotope-based observational constraints is favorably combined with bottom-up emission inventories to iteratively produce an improved understanding of both anthropogenic sources and atmospheric behavior of climate- and health-afflicting carbonaceous aerosols in the air of South and East Asia.

  2. Investigating Anthropogenic Aerosol Impacts on East Asia Summer Monsoon Using the NCAR CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Jiang, Y.; Yang, X.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol can affect climate directly by scattering and absorption of radiation (both solar and terrestrial), and indirectly by modifying microphysical and radiative properties of clouds and precipitation processes. East Asia has experienced the fastest economic growth in the world during the last several decades. Along with severe aerosol pollution, significant changes in precipitation pattern, frequency and intensity have been observed in East Asia, e.g., the general trend of "South Flooding and North Drought", and the persistent reduction of frequency of light rain. In this study we analyze a series of simulations using the latest released NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) to investigate the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon (BC)) on precipitation and summer monsoon system in East Asia. CAM5 includes treatment of all the important effects of aerosol on climate. We find that anthropogenic aerosols (sulfate and BC) reduce the solar flux reaching the surface and generate a surface cooling over the land, while the absorption of solar flux is enhanced by BC in the low troposphere. This reduces the surface temperature by 1-2 K and increases the low-level atmospheric stability over the land, which reduces land-sea thermal contrast and weakens the East Asia summer monsoon. The precipitation shifts southwardly in east China with the weakening of monsoon. Indirect effect from anthropogenic sulfate reduces cloud droplet effective radius, increases low-level cloud amount and liquid water path, while semi-direct effect of BC reduces cloud amount and liquid water path due to its "heating" effect. Precipitation pattern changes resulting from the semi-direct effect of BC (through heating clouds) and from the indirect effect of sulfate (through increasing cloud lifetime) are similar, although cloud responses to BC and sulfate are significantly different.

  3. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO{sub 2} emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  4. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur. PMID:12295213

  5. Solar cycle modulation of the ENSO impact on the winter climate of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qun; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Wen

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how the East Asian winter climate response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) varies with the 11-year solar cycle. The results indicate that the ENSO and East Asian climate relationship is robust and significant during winters with low solar (LS) activity, with evident warming in the lower troposphere over East Asia, which can be closely linked to the decreased pressure gradient between the cold Eurasian continent and the warm Pacific. Moreover, during the LS and El Niño winters, there is a typical rainfall response in Southeast Asia, with wet conditions over South China and dry conditions over the Philippines, Borneo, Celebes, and Sulawesi, which can be explained by the anticyclone over the western North Pacific (WNP). However, during high solar activity winters, both the surface temperature and rainfall anomalies are much less closely associated with the ENSO. The possible mechanism for this solar modulation of the ENSO-related East Asian climate anomalies may be the change in the tropospheric circulation with the ENSO in both tropical and extratropical regions. Particularly, in the LS cases, an anomalous WNP anticyclone is intensified and a noticeable cyclone occupies northern Northeast Asia, resulting from the changing location and strength of the large-scale Walker circulation induced by the more pronounced sea surface temperature anomalies associated with the ENSO. Further investigation with long historic data confirms that the relationship between the ENSO and the East Asian winter climate anomalies depends on the phases of 11 year solar cycle, with enhanced East Asian climate variation during the LS winters.

  6. Initiation of East Asia monsoon failure at the climate transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Wonsun

    2015-05-01

    We have reconstructed decadally-resolved continuous sea surface temperature and seawater ?18O (hence salinity) records over the last 1300 yr from alkenone and planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratio analyses of the East Sea/Japan Sea marine sediments to investigate East Asia monsoon variability. Comparisons of the records with other paleoclimate records indicate a possible connection between changes in the mid-latitude East Asia monsoon and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) over this period. The results show that during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) when the PDO index was negative, East Asia was characterized by surface warming with a strengthened summer monsoon. Summer monsoon-related precipitation increased and pluvials possibly dominated in the region at that time. Onset of Asia monsoon failure and severe drought occurred at the end of the MCA and extended to the Little Ice Age (LIA) when the PDO became positive.

  7. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  8. Use Piper sarmentosum as an effective antidiabetic supplement in South East Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Zar, C T; Teoh, S L; Das, S; Zaiton, Z; Farihah, H S

    2012-11-01

    Herbs with antidiabetic activity have a potential role to play. Herbal medicines have been widely used in South East Asia because of lesser side effects and cost effectiveness. The main aim of this review article was to disseminate important information regarding the use of herbal products in oxidative stress involved in diseases like diabetes mellitus. The article highlights some of the traditional medicinal plants which have been widely used in South East Asia with special emphasis on Piper sarmentosum. Piper sarmentosum have been reported to possess varying degree of hypoglycemic, antidiabetic and other additional properties. The antioxidant properties of the herbs may be effective in controlling the oxidative damage produced during diabetes mellitus. The review article highlights the positive role of traditional herbs towards diabetes mellitus and also describes its complications. PMID:23306747

  9. Energy inefficiency in the Asia/Near East region and its environmental implications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The report assesses the current and projected energy situation and needs in the Asia/Near East region and describes the status of energy efficiency. It examines the environmental implications of energy supply and use, with specific focus on energy infrastructure and fossil fuel combustion. Energy efficiency activities and achievements are described for Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as for two other countries, Costa Rica and Singapore, which have recently implemented energy efficiency activities that could be replicated in Asia/Near East countries. In conclusion, the report recommends that, in addition to energy efficiency, complementary efforts need to be made to promote the use of cleaner fuels and encourage the incorporation of environmental considerations into all major energy decisions.

  10. MPOWER and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation in the South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K

    2012-01-01

    The 11 member states of WHO's South-East Asia Region share common factors of high prevalence of tobacco use, practice of several forms of tobacco use, increasing prevalence of tobacco use among the youth and women, link of tobacco use with poverty, and influence of tobacco advertisements in propagating the use of tobacco, especially among young girls and women. The effects of tobacco use are many-fold, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates as well as loss of gross domestic product (GDP) to respective countries. The WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia has been actively involved in curbing this menace essentially by way of assisting member states in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper gives an overview of these activities and discusses the opportunities and challenges in implementing the FCTC and possible practical solutions. PMID:23442401

  11. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

  13. Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Dong, Yong-Li; Qi, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lu-Fang; Tan, Si-Jie; Ma, Runlin Z; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Wells, R Spencer; Jin, Li; Su, Bing

    2008-01-01

    Background The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the Andaman Islands, is inconsistent with this scenario. Results In this study, we collected more than 5,000 male samples from 73 East Asian populations and reconstructed the phylogeography of the D-M174 lineage. Our results suggest that D-M174 represents an extremely ancient lineage of modern humans in East Asia, and a deep divergence was observed between northern and southern populations. Conclusion We proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages. The Neolithic expansion of Han culture and the last glacial maximum are likely the key factors leading to the current relic distribution of D-M174 in East Asia. The Tibetan and Japanese populations are the admixture of two ancient populations represented by two major East Asian specific Y chromosome lineages, the O and D haplogroups. PMID:18959782

  14. Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2

    E-print Network

    Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 RE-buIldIng A STRong STATE AMIdST A STRong SoCIETy 4 ChInA'S EnTRy InTo CEnTRAl ASIA'S SouThERn TIER 5 SECuRITy All and Islamic Studies and the Asia-Pacific College of Diplomacy conducted a training program for Afghan

  15. Indonesian Permian brachiopod fauna and Gondwana-South-East Asia relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. W. Archbold; C. J. Pigram; N. Ratman; S. Hakim

    1982-01-01

    The island of New Guinea, geologically and structurally part of the Indian-Australian plate1,2, is shown on continental reconstructions of the Permian globe as forming the northeastern part of the supercontinent of Gondwana3,4, facing a large Tethys Ocean to the north. The existence of an ocean separating South-East Asia from Gondwana by some 45° of latitude during the Permian has been

  16. RAIN ATTENUATION PREDICTIONS AT KU-BAND IN SOUTH EAST ASIA COUNTRIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jit Singh Mandeep; J. E. Allnutt

    2007-01-01

    The rain attenuation in the 12-GHz band and one-minute- rain rate were measured at four satellite beacons located in South East Asia countries over a three-year period (2002-2004). The cumulative distribution of rain rate obtained as well as cumulative distribution of rain attenuation obtained are presented and compared with the rain prediction models. Most of the rain prediction models showed

  17. A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul N Newton; Facundo M Fernández; Aline Plançon; Dallas C Mildenhall; Michael D Green; Li Ziyong; Eva Maria Christophel; Souly Phanouvong; Stephen Howells; Eric McIntosh; Paul Laurin; Nancy Blum; Christina Y Hampton; Kevin Faure; Leonard Nyadong; C. W. Ray Soong; Budiono Santoso; Wang Zhiguang; John Newton; Kevin Palmer

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundSince 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered.Methods and FindingsWith evidence of a deteriorating situation, a

  18. Cancer in the Global Health Era: Opportunities for the Middle East and Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhojit Dey; Amr S. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is rising with almost 70% of cancer cases being in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).The Middle East and Asia have two thirds of the world’s population and the largest regional concentration of LMICs. Because of massive demographic and epidemiologic transitions, cancer mortality is projected to increase substantially in these populations. Lung cancer among men and

  19. Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) predictions of the tropospheric ozone budget over east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Pierce; J. A. Al-Saadi; T. Schaack; A. Lenzen; T. Zapotocny; D. Johnson; C. Kittaka; M. Buker; M. H. Hitchman; G. Tripoli; T. D. Fairlie; J. R. Olson; M. Natarajan; J. Crawford; J. Fishman; M. Avery; E. V. Browell; J. Creilson; Y. Kondo; S. T. Sandholm

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center and University of Wisconsin Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is used to estimate the tropospheric ozone budget over east Asia during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission. The computed ozone budget explicitly accounts for stratosphere\\/troposphere exchange (STE) and in situ ozone production using on-line chemical

  20. Dust Storms are an Indication of an Unhealthy Environment in East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Batjargal; Jugder Dulam; Y. S. Chung

    2006-01-01

    Dust storms frequently occur in Mongolia and in northern China. Each year there are 30 to 120 dusty days in source regions\\u000a of Mongolia and 14–20 dusty days on the Korean Peninsula. Intense sand storms and associated dust falls produce environmental\\u000a impacts in East Asia. This paper discusses the environmental degradation in Mongolia and the social, economic and atmospheric\\u000a impacts

  1. Simulations of LGM climate of East Asia by regional climate model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiqun Zheng; Ge Yu; Sumin Wang; Bin Xue; Huaqiang Liu; Xinmin Zeng

    2003-01-01

    Climate conditions in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were remarkably different from the present ones. Adopting a regional\\u000a climate model (RCM) which has included a detailed land surface scheme, LGM climate of East Asia has been simulated. The effects\\u000a of vegetation changes on LGM climate have been diagnosed by adding forces of LGM paleovegetation reconstructed from the geological\\u000a records. The

  2. The unique riverine ecology of hepatitis E virus transmission in South-East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew L. Corwin; Nguyen T. K. Tien; Khanthong Bounlu; Jarot Winarno; Maidy P. Putri; Kanti Laras; Ria P. Larasati; Nono Sukri; Timothy Endy; H. A. Sulaiman; Kenneth C. Hyams

    1999-01-01

    The ecology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) transmission in South-East Asia was assessed from a review of 6 published and 3 unpublished NAMRU-2 reports of hepatitis outbreak investigations, cross-sectional prevalence studies, and hospital-based case-control studies. Findings from Indonesia and Viet Nam show epidemic foci centred in jungle, riverine environments. In contrast, few cases of acute, clinical hepatitis from cities in

  3. Long-range transport of SOx and dust in East Asia during the PEM B experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Xiao; Gregory R. Carmichael; James Durchenwald; Donald Thornton; Alan Bandy

    1997-01-01

    The transport of SO2 and sulfate in East Asia (including eastern China, Korea, and Japan) during the period of March 1 through March 14, 1994, is studied using a three-dimensional regional-scale atmospheric chemistry model. This period corresponds to that in which the Pacific Exploratory Mission in the Western Pacific Ocean (PEM-West B) was being conducted around Japan. During this period,

  4. Model analysis of seasonal variations in tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide over East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijie Gao; Meigen Zhang; Zhiwei Han

    2009-01-01

    Temporal-spatial variations in tropospheric ozone concentrations over East Asia in the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December\\u000a 2004 were simulated by using the Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with meteorological fields\\u000a calculated by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The simulated concentrations of ozone and carbon monoxide were\\u000a compared with ground level observations at two

  5. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction. PMID:12307191

  6. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25–10?kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  7. Model intra-comparison of transboundary sulfate loadings over springtime east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, D.; Ohara, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takemura, T.; Kajino, M.; Dai, T.; Matsui, H.; Takami, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Aoki, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Shimizu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Over east Asia, a spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols from source to outflow regions has not fully evaluated by simulations. In the present study, we executed a global aerosol-transport model (SPRINTARS) during April 2006 to investigate the spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols using multiple measurements including surface mass concentration, aerosol optical thickness, and vertical profiles of extinction coefficients for spherical particles. We also performed sensitivity experiments to estimate possible uncertainties of sulfate mass loadings caused by macrophysical processes; emission inventory, dynamic core, and spatial resolution. Among the experiments, although a difference in the surface sulfate mass concentrations over east Asia was large, none of the simulations in the present study as well as regional models reproduced the spatial gradient of the surface sulfate from the source over China to the outflow regions in Japan. The sensitivity of different macrophysical factors to the surface sulfate differs from that to sulfate loadings in the column especially in the marine boundary layers (MBL). Therefore, to properly simulate the transboundary air pollution over east Asia is required to use multiple measurements in both the source and outflow regions especially in the MBL during the polluted days.

  8. Plate tectonic reconstruction of South and East Asia since 43 Ma using seismic tomographic constraints: role of the subducted ';East Asia Sea' (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V.

    2013-12-01

    Lithosphere that subducts at convergent plate boundaries provides a potentially decipherable plate tectonic record. In this study we use global seismic tomography to map subducted slabs in the upper and lower mantle under South and East Asia to constrain plate reconstructions. The mapped slabs include the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and Banda Sea, the Molucca Sea, Celebes Sea, the Philippine Sea and Eurasia, New Guinea and other lower mantle detached slabs. The mapped slabs were restored to the earth surface and used with Gplates software to constrain a globally-consistent, fully animated plate reconstruction of South and East Asia. Three principal slab elements dominate possible plate reconstructions: [1] The mapped Pacific slabs near the Izu-Bonin and the Marianas trenches form a subvertical slab curtain or wall extending down to 1500 km in the lower mantle. The ';slab curtain' geometry and restored slabs lengths indicate that the Pacific subduction zone has remained fixed within +/- 250 km of its present position since ~43 Ma. In contrast, the Tonga Pacific slab curtain records at least 1000 km trench rollback associated with expansion of back-arc basins. [2] West of the Pacific slab curtain, a set of flat slabs exist in the lower mantle and record a major 8000km by 2500-3000km ocean that existed at ~43 Ma. This now-subducted ocean, which we call the ';East Asian Sea', existed between the Ryukyu Asian margin and the Lord Howe hotspot, present-day eastern Australia, and fills a major gap in Cenozoic plate reconstructions between Indo-Australia, the Pacific Ocean and Asia. [3] An observed ';picture puzzle' fit between the restored edges of the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Indian Ocean slabs suggests that the Philippine Sea was once part of a larger Indo-Australian Ocean. Previous models of Philippine Sea plate motions are in conflict with the location of the East Asian Sea lithosphere. Using the mapped slab constraints, we propose the following 43 Ma to 0 plate tectonic reconstruction. At ~43 Ma a major plate reorganization occurred in South and East Asia marked by Indian Ocean Wharton ridge extinction, initiation of Pacific Ocean WNW motions and the rapid northward motion of the Australian plate. The Philippine Sea and Molucca Sea were clustered at the northern margin of Australia, northwest of New Guinea. During the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with Australia, accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. The East Asian Sea was subducted under the northward-moving Philippine Sea and Australia plates, and the expanding Melanesian and Shikoku-Parece Vela backarc basins. At ~20 to 25 Ma the Philippine Sea and Molucca Sea were fragmented from Indo-Australia and began to have a westward component of motion due to partial Pacific capture. Around 1-2 Ma the Philippine Sea was more fully captured by the Pacific and now has rapid Pacific-like northwestward motions.

  9. Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation of the East Asia and its chronological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Kissel, C.; Zheng, H. B.; Laj, C.; Deng, C. L.; Liu, Q. S.

    2012-04-01

    Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) bear great information on the geodynamo field of the Earth's interior and can be used for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale. In this study, we constructed PSV curve of rapidly deposited Holocene marine sequence (Core MD06-3040) from the mud sediments on the East China Sea (ECS) inner continental shelf, and then a composite PSV curve of East Asia was established. Results show that the dominant magnetic carriers are pseudo single domain to multidomain magnetites, with some contributions from hematite and iron sulfide. Paleomagnetic information could still be retrieved after diagenetic alteration. The Characteristic Remanent magnetization is well defined by a single magnetization component and Maximum Angular Deviations values lower than 5°, which allows a reliable paleomagnetic results to be obtained. PSV after principal component analysis of the core MD06-3040 exhibits seven inclination peaks, and four declination swings, respectively during the last 7500 years. Within dating errors, the PSV curves from the ECS are comparable to that obtained from lakes in Japan and south China, and also to that of historical data in Japan and archeological data in China. In our study, a PSV stack from East Asia was obtained from these sedimentary PSV records after revision of the ages by PSV comparison. This new PSV stack has great potentials for site correlations and relative dating for sediments in East Asia. Age models for all the sediment cores are base on radiocarbon dating. In East Asia, 14C ages of Biwa Lake are consistent with various chronological data from other regions in Japan. However, there is no precise reservoir age of the East China Sea continental shelf, which would result in some dating errors. During the PSV comparison, age adjustment for core MD06-3040 is about 100-350 years, which is possible the effects from old carbon over this region. In this case, the potential the reservoir age should be calculated, as (100-350) ± (50-100) years. The new age model for core MD06-3040 is also confirmed by a strong correlation of paleoclimate records between magnetic susceptibility and stalagmite from upper Yangtze River. This correlation shows the links between mainland and the open sea (source and sink of sediments), which could be helpful for further paleoclimate studies.

  10. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  11. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  12. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  13. Regional modeling of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, L. Ruby; Huang, Jianping; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and inter-annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and its direct radiative forcing. A variety of in situ measurements and satellite observations have been used to evaluate the simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reasonably reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions. In addition, the dust lifecycle and processes that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance are investigated over seven sub-regions of desert dust sources (Taklimakan Desert (TD) and Gobi Desert (GD)), the Tibetan Plateau (TP), Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan. Over the two major dust source regions of East Asia (TD and GD), transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks with contributing of ?25% and ?36%, respectively. Dust direct radiative forcing in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 9 and 2 W m-2, and TOA (Top of atmospheric) cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2, respectively. Dust transported from the TD is the dominant dust source over the TP with a peak in summer. Over the identified outflow regions (the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan), maximum dust column concentration in spring is contributed by transport. Dry and wet depositions are comparable dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The ability of WRF-Chem to capture the measured features of dust optical and radiative properties and dust mass balance over East Asian provides confidence for future investigation of East Asia dust impact on regional or global climate.

  14. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  15. Changing patterns of HIV epidemic in 30 years in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Suguimoto, S Pilar; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-saaidi, Christina; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2014-06-01

    The HIV epidemic in East Asia started relatively late compared to the rest of the world. All countries or areas, except for North Korea, had reported HIV and AIDS cases, with China being the major contributor to the epidemic. Though initially driven by injecting drug use in China, East Asia did not experience an explosive spread. Strong commitment in China and early harm reduction programs in Taiwan managed to reduce transmission substantially among injecting drug users. In contrast to China and Taiwan, injection drug use has accounted just a little, if not at all, for the spread of HIV in other East Asian counties. However, following a global trend, sexual contact has become a major route of infection across the region. While much progress has been achieved in this region, with the epidemic among other key populations relatively stable, the emerging epidemic through sex between men is a growing concern. Recent estimates suggest that HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) has reached 6.3 % in China, 7.5 % in Mongolia, and ranges between 8.1 %-10.7 % in Taiwan and between 2.7 %- 6.5 % in South Korea. In Japan, 74 % of male HIV cases were among MSM in 2012, while Hong Kong has witnessed a sharp increase of HIV cases among MSM since 2004. There is urgent need to address issues of discrimination and stigma toward homosexuality, and to strengthen the strategies to reach and care for this population. PMID:24664878

  16. Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  17. Effect of East Asia summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  18. Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over the East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.; choi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the East Asia. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 ?g/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in the SMA (Seoul Metropolitan Area). The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency of underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) scheme for the dust emission with CAMx was tested for its applicability in assessing impact of the fugitive dust on air quality in the China region and SMA. The performance of ADMS2 dust emission was evaluated to depict not only onset times of the dust storm event but also to estimate the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event against the surface measurements and satellite measurements over East Asia. The surface observations were from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) monitoring sites in China and the intensive monitoring stations in the SMA. The results show that the CAMx predictions of PM10 with ADAM2 scheme were relatively in a good agreement with the observations. They, however, occasionally over-predicted the PM10 concentrations during non-dust event periods and under-predicted the PM10 concentrations during dust event periods. Details of model comparison for other chemical species and implication of dust emission schemes on the air quality will be discussed in the presentation. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The Eco-technopia 21 project'.

  19. The non-migrating Tides in the Middle Atmosphere over East Asia Observed by HRDI/UARS Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonggang, P.; Zeyu, C.; Hongbin, C.; Zhenhui, W.

    In this paper the long term mean characteristics of the zonal winds in the middle atmosphere over East Asia were studied by using the HRDI UARS measurements The investigation revealed the presence of considerable regional scale disturbances in the whole of the middle to upper atmosphere over East Asia except the situations in mid-latitudes in summer In mid-latitudes very few zonal fluctuation can bee seen in the zonal winds from 55km to 115 km altitude range in the summer season however the winter mesospheric and lower thermospheric zonal winds are disturbed prominently in the zonal Furthermore in winter the tropical lower thermospheric zonal winds fluctuate significantly in zonal direction and this kind of the zonal disturbances extend downward to 55 km altitude the lower limit of the observation mode of the satellite instrument in summer According the correlative study results there is significant non-migrating tides in the thermosphere over East Asia LSo that non-migrating tides controlled the disturbances in midlle and upper atmosphere over tropical region observed by the HRDI UARS data set and HRDI UARS data set have observed that these is significant non-migrating tides in midlle atmosphere over tropical region in East Asia Key words Middle atmosphere East Asia Zonal winds HRDI UARS

  20. Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Hugh

    2009-08-01

    It has recently become apparent that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation in several countries of South and South-east Asia is adding arsenic to soils and rice, thus posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and to the health and livelihoods of affected people in those countries. This paper describes the many environmental, agricultural and social factors that determine practical mitigation strategies and research needs, and describes possible mitigation measures that need to be tested. These measures include providing alternative irrigation sources, various agronomic measures, use of soil amendments, growing hyperaccumulator plants, removing contaminated soil and using alternative cooking methods. PMID:19394085

  1. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--South East Asia Region, 1997-1998.

    PubMed

    1999-03-26

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by 2000. To achieve this goal, in 1994 World Health Organization (WHO) South East Asia Region (SEAR) member countries accelerated implementation of polio eradication strategies. In 1994, Thailand became the region's first country to initiate National Immunization Days (NIDs), followed by Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka (1995); Myanmar and Nepal (1996); and Democratic People's Republic (DPR) of Korea and Maldives (1997). This report summarizes the progress in achieving routine and supplemental vaccination coverage and surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and the impact of these activities on polio eradication in the region. PMID:10220256

  2. WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 ?m or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40-50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  3. Evaluation of simulated precipitation: Recent trends in extreme indices over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yhang, Yoo-Bin

    2014-05-01

    Climate research, particularly application studies for water, agriculture, forestry, fishery and energy management require fine scale multi-decadal information of meteorological, oceanographic and land states. Unfortunately, spatially and temporally homogeneous multi-decadal observations of these variables in high horizontal resolution are non-existent. Some long term surface records of temperature and precipitation exist, but the number of observation is very limited and the measurements are often contaminated by changes in instrumentation over time. Some climatologically important variables, such as soil moisture, surface evaporation, and radiation are not even measured over most of East Asia. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to provide valuable regional finescale information, especially in regions where the climate variables are strongly regulated by the underlying topography and the surface heterogeneity. We investigated the ability of a regional climate model to provide the characteristics of East Asian climate focusing on summer and winter monsoon using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system [GRIMs; Hong et al. 2013]. The model can reproduce large scale features associated the East Asian summer and winter monsoon in terms of 30-year (1979-2008) seasonal mean climate. However, accurate prediction of monsoon precipitation is still a challenging task. Precipitation is one of the most important results generated during the model simulation. It is also generally the most difficult variable to simulate correctly in a regional model. Therefore, we will focus on precipitation to examine variability and uncertainty over East Asia in terms of extreme indices. The assessment of simulated precipitation is expected to provide the high-quality data that can be used in various application areas such as hydrology or environmental model forcing.

  4. Development and evaluation of an operational SDS forecasting system for East Asia: CUACE/DUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C. H.; Gong, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Niu, T.; Liu, H. L.; Zhao, T. L.; Yang, Y. Q.; Hou, Q.

    2007-06-01

    CUACE/Dust, an operational sand and dust storm (SDS) forecasting system for East Asia, was developed at CMA (China Meteorological Administration) by integrating a meso-scale dust aerosol model with a 3DVar data assimilation system that uses both surface network observation data and dust intensity data retrieved from the Chinese Geostationary Satellite FY-2C. For spring 2006, CUACE/Dust successfully forecasted most of the 31 SDS episodes in East Asia. A detailed comparison of the modeling predictions for the 8-12 March episode with surface network observations and lidar measurements revealed a robust forecasting ability of the system. The time series of the forecasted dust concentrations for a number of representative stations for the whole spring 2006 were also evaluated against surface PM10 monitoring data, showing a very good agreement in terms of the SDS timing and magnitudes near source regions where dust aerosols dominate. For the entire domain forecasts in spring 2006 (1 March-31 May), a TS (thread score) system evaluated the performance of the system against all available observations and rendered an averaged TS value of 0.31 for 24 h forecasts, 0.23 for 48 h and 0.21 for 72 h forecasts.

  5. The improvement of dust model applying modified soil component of dust source over East Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, D. H.; Koo, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    The East Asia region is the world's most populous area with a rapidly growing economy resulting in large air pollutant emissions. Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Area. These mineral aerosols PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 um in diameter) concentration frequently exceeds the daily ambient air quality standards of 100?gm-3, and the number of exceedance days of daily PM10 reached about 40 times annually. The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency to underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. This is partially due to the uncertainty of fugitive dust emissions. This study is aim to improve dust model(ADAM2 - Asian Dust Aeorosol Model 2) by changing soil component over source regions using Harmonized World Soil Database. ADAM2 has four dust components of the Gobi Desert, sand dsert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil. The soil components, however, should be updated as current and detailed soil components. Therfore, we apply updated dust model with CTM(Chemical Transport Model), CMAQ(Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model) to simulate dust concentration over East Asia. It is found that dust concentration with updated dust model is better agreement with observation during dust event periods, compared with standard dust model.

  6. The Effects of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in ChinaRegions on East Asia Monsoons

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bai [ORNL; Liu, Yu [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China; Sun, Jiaren [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Guangzhou, China

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China on East Asia monsoons and its precipitation processes by using the CAM3.0 model. It is demonstrated that sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China both have the effects to weaken East Asia monsoons in both summer and winter seasons. However, they certainly differ from each other in affecting vertical structures of temperature and atmospheric circulations. Their differences are expected because of their distinct optical properties, i.e., scattering vs. absorbing. Even for a single type of aerosol, its effects on temperature structures and atmospheric circulations are largely season-dependent. Applications of T-test on our results indicate that forcing from black carbon aerosols over China is relatively weak and limited. It is also evident from our results that the effects of synthetic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon together) on monsoons are not simply a linear summation between these two types of aerosols. Instead, they are determined by their integrated optical properties. Synthetic aerosols to a large degree resemble effects of sulfate aerosols. This implies a likely scattering property for the integration of black carbon and sulfate aerosols in China.

  7. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ?95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles. PMID:26068565

  8. Polio-free certification and lessons learned--South-East Asia region, March 2014.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Sunil; Kumar, Rakesh; Menabde, Nata; Thapa, Arun; McFarland, Jeffrey; Swezy, Virginia; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Jafari, Hamid S; Elsner, Linda; Wassilak, Steven G F; Kew, Olen M; Cochi, Stephen L

    2014-10-24

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide. By 2006, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by more than 99%, and only four remaining countries had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. The last confirmed WPV case in India occurred in January 2011, leading the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Regional Commission for the Certification of Polio Eradication (SEA-RCC) in March 2014 to declare the 11-country South-East Asia Region (SEAR), which includes India, to be free from circulating indigenous WPV. SEAR became the fourth region among WHO's six regions to be certified as having interrupted all indigenous WPV circulation; the Region of the Americas was declared polio-free in 1994, the Western Pacific Region in 2000, and the European Region in 2002. Approximately 80% of the world's population now lives in countries of WHO regions that have been certified polio-free. This report summarizes steps taken to certify polio eradication in SEAR and outlines eradication activities and lessons learned in India, the largest member state in the region and the one for which eradication was the most difficult. PMID:25340910

  9. Source contributions of sulfate aerosol over East Asia estimated by CMAQ-DDM.

    PubMed

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae

    2012-06-19

    We applied the decoupled direct method (DDM), a sensitivity analysis technique for computing sensitivities accurately and efficiently, to determine the source-receptor relationships of anthropogenic SO(2) emissions to sulfate aerosol over East Asia. We assessed source contributions from East Asia being transported to Oki Island downwind from China and Korea during two air pollution episodes that occurred in July 2005. The contribution from China, particularly that from central eastern China (CEC), was found to dominate the sulfate aerosols. To study these contributions in more detail, CEC was divided into three regions, and the contributions from each region were examined. Source contributions exhibited both temporal and vertical variability, largely due to transport patterns imposed by the Asian summer monsoon. Our results are consistent with backward trajectory analyses. We found that anthropogenic SO(2) emissions from China produce significant quantities of summertime sulfate aerosols downwind of source areas. We used a parametric scaling method for estimating anthropogenic SO(2) emissions in China. Using column amounts of SO(2) derived from satellite data, and relationships between the column amounts of SO(2) and anthropogenic emissions, 2009 emissions were diagnosed. The results showed that 2009 emissions of SO(2) from China were equivalent to 2004 levels. PMID:22642816

  10. Understanding the coupled natural and human systems in Dryland East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jiaguo; Chen, Jiquan; Wan, Shiqian; Ai, Likun

    2012-03-01

    Stressors including regional climate change, economic development effects upon land use and an increasing demand for food production have resulted in significant impacts on the dryland ecosystems in the East Asia (DEA) region. Ecosystem services, such as its provisional services in providing forage for grazing as well as its functional services in regulating water and carbon fluxes, have been significantly altered over the past three decades. Conversely, changes in the landscape, particularly land cover types, have also been blamed for intensified climatic events such as dust storms and severe and frequent droughts within the region. The interactive nature of climate, ecosystems and society is complex and not fully understood, making it difficult, if not impossible, to develop effective adaptation strategies for the region. A special synthesis workshop on ‘Dryland Ecosystems in East Asia: State, Changes, Knowledge Gaps, and Future’ was held from 18-20 July 2011 in Kaifeng, Henan Province, China, with the aim of identifying knowledge gaps, quantifying impacts and developing a future research agenda for the region. The specific objectives of this workshop were to answer some key socio-environmental questions, including the following. (1) What do we know about the drylands in DEA? (2) What are the knowledge gaps? (3) What are the solutions to these issues? This paper provides a synthesis of the workshop consensus and findings on the state of knowledge and challenges in addressing these science issues for the DEA region.

  11. Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen. PMID:25850395

  12. 210Pb deposition in the far East Asia: controlling factors of its spatial and temporal variations.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Kikawada, Y; Doi, T; Su, C-C; Yamamoto, M

    2011-05-01

    In order to better understand the behavior of (210)Pb deposition in Far East Asia, comprehensive data of monthly (210)Pb deposition, which includes several time-series and spatial distribution data at 14 stations in Japan and 2 stations in Taiwan, were analyzed. Pb-210 deposition at most of the sites exhibited a typical seasonal change with higher values in winter and lower values in summer; especially, the greatest (210)Pb deposition in the world occurred in winter at sites beside the Japan Sea. The deposition behavior of (210)Pb in Far East Asia differed between winter and summer. The meteorological phenomenon peculiar to winter of the Japan Sea side, i.e., formation of the Japan Sea convergence zone, might cause the high (210)Pb concentration in rainwater, as may heavy snowfall. The (210)Pb concentration in rainwater showed long-term variability, although this differed between winter and summer. This long-term variability may be related to climatological factors such as El Niño. PMID:21109333

  13. Comparison of trend between aerosol optical depth and PM in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, S. H.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; KIM, M.; Jeong, U.

    2014-12-01

    East Asia is one of major source region of aerosol emission. For decades, vast amount of aerosol, which is emitted and transported from emission region such as desert and industrialized area, has significant effect in the air quality and public health. Moreover, by scattering solar radiation and moderating cloud microphysical system, aerosol plays an important role in climate system. As the Korean peninsula is located in the downwind side of East Asia, the distribution of aerosol in this region is affected by continental outflow and local emission, This study shows the long-term trend and regional distribution of PM10 concentration over 28 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) sites and aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) at 550nm channel during the period from March 2011 to March 2014. Though AOD is a good indicator of PM10 concentration, there are some uncertainties in AOD caused largely by aerosol type, surface reflectance, and those in PM by relative humidity (RH), boundary layer height (BLH) and so on. In this study, retrieved AODs were compared with the observed PM10, and trends and correlations between AOD and PM10 have been calculated for different region and season over the Korean peninsula.

  14. Time scale of riverine sediment transfer in East Asia: from source to sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Yang, Shouye; Zhao, Jianxin; Bi, Lei

    2015-04-01

    River on the earth surface is like the blood vessel for human body, which transports huge nutrients from the vast continent to the deep ocean. The knowledge of the river transit process leads to better understanding of the continent weathering and earth surface evolution. However, this process, particularly its timescale, is rarely studied due to the poor geological tracer. In this regard, our work aims to reconstruct the sediment transport time in Changjiang (Yangtze River) and Taiwan rivers by mean of "Comminution Age" based on 234U/238U in the lithogenic fraction. As the largest river in Asia, Changjiang is characterized by "Large river/delta + wide shelf + huge input + slower sediment transfer + strong anthropogenic impact", while the Taiwan rivers are featured for "Mountainous river + narrow shelf + huge and rapid sediment transfer + extreme climate event". The distinct geological and topographical features in both river systems result in different sediment "source to sink" processes in terms of time scale. Our calculation shows that the sediment transport time, which is largely depended on basin topography and its weathering condition, in Changjiang basin is much longer (400 ky) than that in Taiwan river basin (120 ky). This work provides the first quantitative constraint on time scale of sediment source to sink process in East Asia, which probably sheds a new insight into weathering regime and sediment recycling in East Asia and northwest Pacific. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment (YRWEF201305), Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology (MRE201402) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (41306040; 41225020).

  15. Decadal increase of organic compounds in winter and spring atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.

    2014-12-01

    A rapid economic growth in China and other East Asian countries may have changed molecular level organic composition of atmospheric aerosols in East Asia. Molecular level composition is required to better evaluate the roles of organic aersols on climate, air quality and public health. Diacids and oxoacids account for a significant fraction of atmospheric organic matter and their secondary sources are more important than their primary sources. Atmospheric aerosol samples (n = 698) were collected during 2001-2008 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were analyzed for saturated (C2-C10), unsaturated aliphatic (C4-C5), multifunctional (C3-C7) and aromatic (C8) diacids and oxoacids (C2-C9). According to monthly average concentration, oxalic acid (C2) is the most abundant followed by malonic acid (C3) and succinic acid (C4) in the homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C10) whereas glyoxylic acid (?C2) is most abundant in the homologous series of oxoacids (C2-C9). The monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of saturated and multifunctional diacids and oxoacids showed the highest in spring (March-May). In contrast, those concentrations for unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic diacids were observed the highest in winter (December-February). The monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of all diacids and oxoacids showed the second peak in the autumn (September-November) while those concentrations were recorded lowest in summer (June-August). A steady increment or decrement was not found in the monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of diacids and oxoacids in any month. However, the curve fitting of those concentrations over the study period shows an incremental trend for major diacids and oxoacids in winter and spring. For example, the monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of all major diacids and oxoacids increased up to 3 times from 2001 to 2008 in winter and spring. This study for the first time demonstrates the decadal increase of organic aerosols in East Asia and we discuss the bimodal seasonal variations and incremental trend of organic aerosols based on the annual behavior of ozone, carbon monoxide, and air mass transport pattern in East Asia.

  16. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  17. The LGM surface climate and atmospheric circulation over East Asia and the North Pacific in the PMIP2 coupled model simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Yanase; A. Abe-Ouchi

    2007-01-01

    The surface conditions and atmospheric circulation over East Asia and the North Pacific during the last glacial maximum have been investigated using outputs from several coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model in the PMIP2 database. During the boreal summer, the weakening of the high pressure system over the North Pacific and less precipitation over East Asia are found in most models.

  18. A new urban landscape in East–Southeast Asia, 2000–2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Mertes, C. M.; Tatem, A. J.; Tan, B.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Graves, S. J.; Patel, N. N.; Horton, J. A.; Gaughan, A. E.; Rollo, J. T.; Schelly, I. H.; Stevens, F. R.; Dastur, A.

    2015-03-01

    East–Southeast Asia is currently one of the fastest urbanizing regions in the world, with countries such as China climbing from 20 to 50% urbanized in just a few decades. By 2050, these countries are projected to add 1 billion people, with 90% of that growth occurring in cities. This population shift parallels an equally astounding amount of built-up land expansion. However, spatially-and temporally-detailed information on regional-scale changes in urban land or population distribution do not exist; previous efforts have been either sample-based, focused on one country, or drawn conclusions from datasets with substantial temporal/spatial mismatch and variability in urban definitions. Using consistent methodology, satellite imagery and census data for >1000 agglomerations in the East–Southeast Asian region, we show that urban land increased >22% between 2000 and 2010 (from 155 000 to 189 000 km2), an amount equivalent to the area of Taiwan, while urban populations climbed >31% (from 738 to 969 million). Although urban land expanded at unprecedented rates, urban populations grew more rapidly, resulting in increasing densities for the majority of urban agglomerations, including those in both more developed (Japan, South Korea) and industrializing nations (China, Vietnam, Indonesia). This result contrasts previous sample-based studies, which conclude that cities are universally declining in density. The patterns and rates of change uncovered by these datasets provide a unique record of the massive urban transition currently underway in East–Southeast Asia that is impacting local-regional climate, pollution levels, water quality/availability, arable land, as well as the livelihoods and vulnerability of populations in the region.

  19. Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region.

    PubMed

    Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami

    2014-07-01

    East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. PMID:23596197

  20. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio-cultural acceptance of tobacco use is still a major challenge in tobacco control efforts for the governments and stakeholders in the South-East Asia Region. The myth that chewing tobacco is less harmful than smoking tobacco needs to be addressed with public awareness campaigns. Advocacy on the integration of tobacco control with poverty alleviation campaigns and development programs is urgently required. Law enforcement is a critical area to be strengthened and supported by WHO and the civil society organizations working in the area of tobacco control. PMID:22089683

  1. Structural comparison of tropical montane rain forests along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in south and east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ohsawa

    1991-01-01

    Geographical patterns of altitudinal zonation, floristic composition, and structural features of tropical montane rain forests were examined along latitudinal gradients in south and east Asia. On equatorial mountains, the tropical montane rain forests occur above 1000 m. Toward middle latitudes, they come farther down and reach sea level at c. 35° N. Thus, the forests are equivalent to the subtropical

  2. Light-attraction flight of the giant water bug, Lethocerus deyrolli (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), an endangered wetland insect in East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae Joong Yoon; Dong Gun Kim; Seon Yi Kim; Shin Il Jo; Yeon Jae Bae

    2010-01-01

    The giant water bug, Lethocerus deyrolli, is an endangered wetland insect found throughout East Asia. In 2006, the light-attraction flight of L. deyrolli was studied in Gyodong Island, Korea, using artificial light. The flight of L. deyrolli was observed from early June to late October, and two peaks in the numbers of attracted insects were noted in the middle of

  3. Climatic features of the water vapor transport around east Asia and rainfall over Japan in June and September

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Yoshikane; Fujio Kimura

    2005-01-01

    The climatic features of the water vapor transport (WVT), which is closely related to rainfall in the middle latitudes around east Asia, are investigated using reanalysis data in June and September. A large amount of water vapor is intermittently transported in September in association with the movement of typhoons, but continuously transported in June. We defined a typhoon term as

  4. A situation update on HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs and national responses in South-East Asia Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukta Sharma; Edna Oppenheimer; Tobi Saidel; Virginia Loo; Renu Garg

    2009-01-01

    We explore the magnitude of and current trends in HIV infection among people who inject drugs and estimate the reach of harm reduction interventions among them in seven high-burden countries of the South-East Asia Region. Our data are drawn from the published and unpublished literature, routine national HIV serological and behavioural surveillance surveys and information from key informants. Six countries

  5. Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reeves, Andrew B; Sonsthagen, Sarah A; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean; Donnelly, Tyrone; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2015-08-01

    Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds. PMID:25827532

  6. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.…

  7. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  8. Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia Soo Ya Baea,b

    E-print Network

    Park, Rokjin

    Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia Soo Ya Baea concentration a b s t r a c t We examine the effects of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations (EANET) sites and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model together with a new below-cloud-scavenging

  9. Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds.

  10. Mathematics Education in Different Cultural Traditions: A Comparative Study of East Asia and the West. ICMI Comparative Study. Discussion Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Mathematical Instruction.

    Education is influenced by the social environment as well as cultural effects. This study investigates the differing cultural traditions' role in mathematics education in East Asia and the West. Investigated issues in mathematics education include curriculum, assessment, policy, influences of information and communication technology (ICT) and…

  11. Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

  12. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-09-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  13. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-04-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  14. Causes of mid-Pliocene strengthened summer and weakened winter monsoons over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Dabang; Zhang, Zhongshi

    2015-07-01

    The mid-Pliocene warm period was the most recent geological period in Earth's history that featured long-term warming. Both geological evidence and model results indicate that East Asian summer winds (EASWs) strengthened in monsoonal China, and that East Asian winter winds (EAWWs) weakened in northern monsoonal China during this period, as compared to the pre-industrial period. However, the corresponding mechanisms are still unclear. In this paper, the results of a set of numerical simulations are reported to analyze the effects of changed boundary conditions on the mid-Pliocene East Asian monsoon climate, based on PRISM3 (Pliocene Research Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The model results showed that the combined changes of sea surface temperatures, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and ice sheet extent were necessary to generate an overall warm climate on a large scale, and that these factors exerted the greatest effects on the strengthening of EASWs in monsoonal China. The orographic change produced significant local warming and had the greatest effect on the weakening of EAWWs in northern monsoonal China in the mid-Pliocene. Thus, these two factors both had important but different effects on the monsoon change. In comparison, the effects of vegetational change on the strengthened EASWs and weakened EAWWs were relatively weak. The changed monsoon winds can be explained by a reorganization of the meridional temperature gradient and zonal thermal contrast. Moreover, the effect of orbital parameters cannot be ignored. Results showed that changes in orbital parameters could have markedly affected the EASWs and EAWWs, and caused significant short-term oscillations in the mid-Pliocene monsoon climate in East Asia.

  15. Epidemiology of unintentional child injuries in the South-East Asia Region: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Pilkington, Paul; Ellis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    All the 11 members of the South-East Asia Region (SEAR) of the World Health Organization are categorised as low- and middle-income countries. This region has over a quarter of the world's total population but comprises about one-third of the world's unintentional injury-related deaths. There is a paucity of good-quality mortality and morbidity data from most of these countries. This is the first systematic review of community-based surveys on child injuries that summarises evidence from child injury studies from the SEAR countries. The included papers reported varying estimates of overall non-fatal unintentional injury rates across the countries, from 15/1000 children in Thailand to as high as 342/1000 children in India. The fatal injury rates were also found to be varying. This review revealed a need for strengthening child injury research using standard methodologies across the region and for promoting the dissemination of the results. PMID:24111572

  16. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area. PMID:24598117

  17. The Culex pipiens fatigans problem in South-East Asia with special reference to urbanization.

    PubMed

    Singh, D

    1967-01-01

    In South-East Asia in recent years urbanization has proceeded rapidly. Because of limited financial resources it has seldom been possible to provide sufficient sanitation; this has led to conditions favourable to the breeding of Culex pipiens fatigans. The density of C. p. fatigans is higher in urban areas than in rural ones. Differences in infection and infectivity rates in C. p. fatigans seem to be due to differences in infection rates in the human population rather than to differences in the life-span of the mosquito. Precipitin tests have shown that the species feeds predominantly on man. It breeds in almost any type of stagnant water with organic contamination. Filariasis problems in India have been classified according to the duration of established transmission. PMID:5300060

  18. Resilience and well-being among children of migrant parents in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia-a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N=1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment. PMID:22966930

  19. Inter-Annual Variability of Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia during 2000-2011 summers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Liu, Y.; Tao, S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols degrade air quality, perturb atmospheric radiation, and impact regional and global climate. Due to a rapid increase of anthropogenic emissions, aerosol loading over East Asia (EA) is markedly higher than other industrialized regions, motivating a need to characterize the evolution of aerosols and understand the associated drivers. Based on the MISR satellite data during 2000-2011, a wave-like inter-annual variation of summertime aerosol optical depth (SAOD) is observed over the highly populated North China Plain (NCP) in East Asia. Specifically, the peak to trough ratio of SAOD ranges from 1.4 to 1.6, with a period of 3-4y. This variation pattern differs apparently from what has been seen in EA emissions, indicating a periodic change in regional climate pattern during the past decade. Investigations on meteorological fields over the region reveal that the high SAOD is generally associated with enhanced Philippine Sea Anticyclone Anomaly (PSAA), which weakens southeasterlies over northeastern EA and depresses air ventilation. Alternatively, a higher temperature or lower relative humidity is found to be coincident with reduced SAOD. The behavior of PSAA has been found previously to be modulated by the El Niño southern oscillations (ENSO), which thereby could disturb the EA SAOD as well. Rather than changing coherently with the ENSO activity, SAOD peaks over the NCP are found to be accompanied by the rapid transition of El Niño warm to cold phases developed four months ahead. An index measuring the ENSO development during January-April is able to capture the inter-annual variability of NCP SAOD during 2000-2011. This indicates a need to integrate the consideration of large-scale periodic climate variability in the design of regional air quality policy.

  20. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could facilitate the understanding of biodiversity origin and maintenance in East Asia. PMID:25540694

  1. Sagart Rice and Language Symposium, Cornell University, 22-25 September, 2011 1/32 How many independent rice vocabularies in Asia ?1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sagart Rice and Language Symposium, Cornell University, 22-25 September, 2011 1/32 How many independent rice vocabularies in Asia ?1 Laurent Sagart CNRS, Paris, France (Draft -- not for citation) 1. The spread of rice as a multidisciplinary problem. 1.1. The farming-language hypothesis, with a twist How can

  2. ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION ASSURANCE (ASIA), JUNE 7-8, 2011, ALBANY, NY Abstract--Data leaks involve the release of sensitive

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION ASSURANCE (ASIA), JUNE 7-8, 2011, ALBANY, NY Abstract--Data leaks vendors currently offer data leak prevention products; surprisingly, however, there is very little a review of the field and related research questions. Specifically, we define the data leak prevention

  3. Re-analysis of data on the space radiation environment above south-east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscott, P. R.

    1989-11-01

    A new analysis was performed on the hand held HRM 3 gamma ray detector data collected from Shuttle missions STS-41B, 41C, 41D, 41G, and 51A. The new analysis shows no evidence for the existence of enhanced levels of radiation in low Earth orbit over South East Asia (i.e., in the area bounded by longitudes 100 to 190 deg east and latitudes 10 deg south to 15 deg north) as previously suggested. Variation in the detector count rates with geographical location are shown to be consistent with the variation of the cosmic ray flux with geomagnetic latitude, and also show expected increases due to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer belt electrons. However, at times poor quantitative agreement is found between the expected positions of the SAA or outer electron belt, and the Shuttle's geographical location on the occasions when high count rates were observed. It is believed that this lack of correlation is a result of the sensitivity of the trapped particle environment to geographical position and magnetospheric activity.

  4. Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970

  5. Cancer epidemiology and control in peninsular and island South-East Asia - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A; Manan, Azizah Ab; Chow, Khuan Yew; Cornain, Santoso F; Devi, C R Beena; Triningsih, F X Ediati; Laudico, Adriano; Mapua, Cynthia A; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Noorwati, S; Nyunt, Kan; Othman, Nor Hayati; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Sinuraya, Evlina Suzanna; Yip, Cheng Har; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor and the Philippines constitute peninsular and island South-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity, with Chinese elements added to the basic Austromalaysian populations, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and underlying risk factors. The fact of problems are shared in common, particularly regarding increasing cancer rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of available data for cancer registration, epidemiology and control was conducted. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung, followed by the liver, colon or the prostate in the majority of cases, while breast and cervical cancers predominate in most female populations. However, there are interesting differences among the racial groups, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer, point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. A major task is persuading the general populace of the efficacy of early detection and clinical treatment. PMID:20553070

  6. Clinical Characteristics and Etiology of Travelers' Diarrhea among Korean Travelers Visiting South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji Yong; Chang, Kyu-Jin; You, Myung Hwan; Chai, Jin Sung; Kang, Young A; Kim, Seong-Han; Jeoung, Hyesook; Cheon, Doosung; Jeoung, Ahyong; Choi, Eun Suk

    2011-01-01

    The morbidity of travelers' diarrhea (TD) is still high. This study examined the incidence of common pathogens and characteristics of TD among Korean travelers who visited South-East Asian countries. We performed a prospective study involving 479 Korean travelers with diarrheal disease from February 2009 to April 2009 and stool samples were examined and questionnaire surveys were done after arrival. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was found in 36.0% of TD cases, as were the following: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in 27.0%, Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 13.1%, and Norovirus in 11.5%. The detected rate of classic TD was higher in men (P = 0.007), in patients who had a shorter duration trip (P = 0.023) and in patients who drank more than 1 liter of water per day (P = 0.037). Positive stool culture rates were higher in men (P = 0.005), in hospitalized patients (P = 0.013). and in those who consumed impure water or raw foods (P = 0.033). A higher severity of disease corresponded to a significantly higher culture positivity rate (P = 0.029). We should consider the possibility of other pathogens in addition to ETEC in patients with TD who visit South-East Asia. Travelers need to educate about risk factors associated with TD. PMID:21286009

  7. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from Petropavlosk (Kamchatka), Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir), Kurilsk (Iturup, coast of the Okhotsk sea), Malokurilskoe (Shikotan), Korsakov, Kholmsk and Aniva Bay (Sakhalin). These records and also other offshore DART records are analyzed and used for comparison of the modeling results with offshore and nearshore records. The transmission of tsunami waves through Sakhalin and Kuril straits and their propagation to nearby coasts are investigated. The spectral analysis of records in settlements of Sakhalin and Kurile Islands are investigated. The performance and capabilities of NAMI DANCE is also presented together with comparisons between the model, observations and discussions.

  8. Seasonal source contributions of tropospheric ozone over East Asia based on CMAQ-HDDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae

    2013-05-01

    Determining the source contributions of tropospheric ozone concentration is an important issue for East Asia, due to the dramatic and rapid increase in emissions of atmospheric pollutants. To achieve this, the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM), a technique for efficient calculation of sensitivities, was applied in this study. Tropospheric ozone concentrations at observation sites located in remote areas of Japan were well-reproduced by Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations, and exhibited a maximum peak in spring, a relatively small peak in autumn and a summer minimum. This seasonal pattern is a reflection of long-range transport and chemical processes, coupled with continental-oceanic air mass exchanges forced by the East Asian monsoon. For the HDDM simulation, we focused on episodic pollution events during each season of 2007 to clarify the seasonal characteristics, and then assessed source contributions paying attention to both precursor emissions (NOx and VOC) and source regions (China, central eastern China, Korea, and Japan). An ozone-sensitive regime (NOx- or VOC-sensitive regime) was also determined based on the HDDM results. This suggested a regime over East Asia that was NOx sensitive in summer, VOC sensitive in winter, and either NOx or VOC sensitive during spring and autumn. At observation sites in remote areas of Japan, by separating the precursor contribution into NOx and VOC components of ozone production, it was found that the contribution of NOx emissions was larger than that of VOC emissions in spring, autumn, and especially summer, therefore, a reduction in NOx emissions could reduce the severity of episodes of tropospheric ozone pollution in downwind areas. Due to the strong VOC-sensitive conditions in winter, NOx emissions enabled a reduction in surface ozone concentrations. In terms of the contributions attributed to source regions, the source contribution of China was relatively high during spring, but local-scale photochemical build-up was dominant during summer and autumn. It was also revealed that central eastern China (CEC), characterized by densely populated and industrialized regions, was the most significant source of Chinese source contributions in summer.

  9. Episodes of dust and pollution aerosols exported from East Asia to the Arctic: Satellite observations and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Pierro, M.; Jaegle, L.; Anderson, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    East Asia has emerged as an important source region of Arctic Haze in the last 20 years because of the remarkable industrial development it has undergone. In this study we present a detailed analysis of three case studies of aerosol export from East Asia to the Arctic making use of observations from lidar remote sensing (CALIPSO satellite), chemical transport model simulations (GEOS-Chem) and a lagrangian trajectory model. We investigate the composition and altitude of these Arctic haze layers, as well as the meteorological conditions that led to their export from Asia. Model and satellite observations are in good agreement on the altitude and location of the haze plumes. The model indicates that the composition of the plumes is predominantly sulfate with varying ratios of mineral dust. We find that in one episode CALIPSO classification algorithm misclassifies haze layers as clouds as a result of their relatively high depolarization ratio, caused by the presence of non-spherical dust particles. By compositing 500 hPa geopotential heights anomalies of eleven export events observed during 2007-2009 we define an index that captures 62% of the variance of modeled Asian anthropogenic aerosol optical depth that enters the Arctic at high latitudes in the winter and 45% in spring. The Pacific North American oscillation and the Western Pacific oscillation are also found to be related to the frequency of rapid export events from East Asia to the Arctic in winter/spring, although weakly.

  10. A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South East Asia?

    PubMed

    Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Müller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South East Asia. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South East Asia hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South East Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South East Asia. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy. PMID:12184826

  11. Emergence and diversity of begomoviruses infecting solanaceous crops in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Shih, Su-Ling; Lee, Li-Mei

    2014-06-24

    Over the past three decades diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) have emerged to be important constraints to the production of solanaceous crops, particularly tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and peppers (Capsicum spp.), in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The most studied of these is Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which has spread to many other areas from its likely origin in the Mediterranean basin region. The virus is usually associated with the polyphagous and virus-vectoring-efficient B-biotype of its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). However, in Southeast and East Asia, a wide variety of distinct local begomovirus species have been identified from tomato and pepper crops over this period, and TYLCV was detected in Japan only in about 1996, China in 2006 and Korea in 2008, despite B-biotype whiteflies being present in several of the countries of the region since at least the early 1990s. Continental Southeast Asia appears to be a major center of diversity for begomoviruses and some species may have spread across the region; Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Myanmar region into southern China and is now displacing the local tomato-infecting species in Taiwan, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLCKaV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Vietnam region to Java, Indonesia. Since many of the native tomato- or pepper-infecting begomoviruses and associated satellite DNAs have also been detected in local weed species, it seems likely that their ancestors originated in these weed hosts, but with the expansion and intensification of tomato and pepper production in the region, there was selection for recombinant or mutant forms with greater virulence on tomato and/or pepper. Expansion and intensification of these crops may also have resulted in increased populations of local, and if present, B- or Q-biotype whiteflies, aiding the increase and spread of local begomovirus species. PMID:24440320

  12. Three-dimensional simulations of inorganic aerosol distributions in east Asia during spring 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Youhua; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Seinfeld, John H.; Dabdub, Donald; Weber, Rodney J.; Huebert, Barry; Clarke, Antony D.; Guazzotti, Sergio A.; Sodeman, David A.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Uno, Itsushi; Woo, Jung-Hun; Yienger, James J.; Streets, David G.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Johnson, James E.; Song, Chul-Han; Grassian, Vicki H.; Sandu, Adrian; Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, aerosol composition and size distributions in east Asia are simulated using a comprehensive chemical transport model. Three-dimensional aerosol simulations for the TRACE-P and ACE-Asia periods are performed and used to help interpret actual observations. The regional chemical transport model, STEM-2K3, which includes the on-line gas-aerosol thermodynamic module SCAPE II, and explicitly considers chemical aging of dust, is used in the analysis. The model is found to represent many of the important observed features. The Asian outflow during March and April of 2001 is heavily polluted with high aerosol loadings. Under conditions of low dust loading, SO2 condensation and gas phase ammonia distribution determine the nitrate size and gas-aerosol distributions along air mass trajectories, a situation that is analyzed in detail for two TRACE-P flights. Dust is predicted to alter the partitioning of the semivolatile components between the gas and aerosol phases as well as the size distributions of the secondary aerosol constituents. Calcium in the dust affects the gas-aerosol equilibrium by shifting the equilibrium balance to an anion-limited status, which benefits the uptake of sulfate and nitrate, but reduces the amount of aerosol ammonium. Surface reactions on dust provide an additional mechanism to produce aerosol nitrate and sulfate. The size distribution of dust is shown to be a critical factor in determining the size distribution of secondary aerosols. As much of the dust mass is found in the supermicron mode (70-90%), appreciable amounts of sulfate and nitrate are found in the supermicron particles. For sulfate the observations and the analysis indicate that 10-30% of sulfate is in the supermicron fraction during dust events; in the case of nitrate, more than 80% is found in the supermicron fraction.

  13. Gravity Derived Moho Depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Li, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    East and Southeast Asia and Western Pacific have extreme topography and both the youngest and oldest oceanic basins in the world, and are ideal places to understand oceanic basin evolution and continent-ocean interactions. Crustal structure is critical to understand the regional geodynamic processes. We present our recent inversion of Moho depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific from satellite gravity data. Because the marginal basins have experienced different cooling histories, we perform thermal correction after the simple Bouguer correction based on the plate cooling model. The model parameters are tested by varying the input plate thickness and mantle temperature with 5 km and 50°C steps, respectively. The evaluation criteria of thermal correction is that the regions with similar water depths have similar Moho depths. We find the best-fit plate thickness and mantle temperature are 95 km and 1300°C, respectively. The Moho undulations are then estimated from residual Bouguer gravity based on the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. Because the study area convers distinct geological settings, we implement two gravity inversion strategies. In the first strategy, we use a constant density contrast of 0.38 g/cm3 across the Moho and a reference depth of 25 km for the entire study area. Using just one density contrast results in an obvious shallow Moho in continental region. In the second strategy, the study area is divided into four blocks, each covering either the continents or oceans mainly. Moho depths range approximately between 5 and 65 km. The average Moho depths of continental and continental shelf domains are about 35 and 23 km, respectively. Moho depths beneath the marginal basins are averaged at about 16 km. This large mean Moho depth is attributed to numerous seamounts, volcanic chains and ridges, where the Moho depths can be up to ~35 km. We find that the density contrast across the Moho varies between 0.33 and 0.40 g/cm3, approximately 0.40 g/cm3 in most continental domains and between 0.33 and 0.37 g/cm3 in oceanic domains.

  14. Trypanosoma from rodents as potential source of infection in human-shaped landscapes of South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Pumhom, Pornpan; Morand, Serge; Tran, Annelise; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Desquesnes, Marc

    2015-03-15

    Reports of atypical human cases of Trypanosoma lewisi or T. lewisi-like and Trypanosoma evansi infections have increased in South-East Asia, urging to investigate the possible links between humans, animal reservoirs and habitats. We tested how habitat structure affects the infection by Trypanosoma species of common murine rodents, inhabiting human-dominated landscapes in South East Asia. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents investigated for Trypanosoma infection and land cover maps produced for seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR. High prevalence of infection by T. lewisi was observed in rodents living near human settlement and in areas with high cover of built-up habitat, while the infection of rodents by T. evansi was explained by increased landscape patchiness and high cover of rain-fed agriculture lands. These results suggest a likely role of wild rodents as reservoir and possible source of atypical human infection by animal trypanosomes. PMID:25613476

  15. In vitro susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates from canine skin with atopic dermatitis to ketoconazole and itraconazole in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shion; Koike, Anna; Kano, Rui; Nagata, Masahiko; Chen, Charles; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Topical or oral azole antifungals are commonly used in canine atopic dermatitis (AD), as the lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis exacerbates canine AD. To examine whether canine AD lesions harbor azole-resistant M. pachydermatis isolates in East Asia, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) obtained from AD lesions of canines in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of KTZ and ITZ were measured by the E-test using Sabouraud dextrose agar with 0.5% Tween 40. The MICs of KTZ and ITZ for isolates from canines with AD were significantly higher than the MICs for isolates from healthy canines. Our findings suggested that the clinical isolates from canine AD skin lesions were less susceptible to azoles than those from normal canine skin in East Asia. PMID:24334863

  16. Impact of synoptic patterns on East Asia pollutant transport pathways observed from satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. C.; Lee, P.; Kim, S.; Ngan, F.; Bae, C.; Kim, B. U.; Kim, E.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents that wintertime pollutant transport patterns in East Asia are visible from multiple satellite observations when inspected with corresponding synoptic weather analysis. Transport pathways of pollutants and anthropogenic emissions are investigated using satellite images, surface weather chart, and chemical transport model simulation in the context of conceptual categorization of synoptic weather pattern. We combined daily distributions of MODIS AOD and CMAQ simulated PM to represent aerosol distribution; and GOME-2 and OMI NO2 column density as a proxy for fresh anthropogenic emission flux; and Korean Meteorological Administration surface weather analysis chart to understand synoptic weather pattern using GIS geo-referencing technique. We identified a periodic extension of the Siberian high to south China and its associated migratory systems are important to understand transport patterns in this region. Based on the relative location and strength of high pressure system over south China, we classified three types of synoptic patterns that might affect high surface PM events: (1) Expansion of Siberian high as a result of cold surge, (2) Cold front passage associated with migratory northern low pressure system, and (3) Stagnant high pressure system near Yellow Sea. In all cases, the development of high pressure system in south China is essential for development of pollutant event. We demonstrate that observed and simulated surface PM show good agreement, not only with MODIS AOD but also with NO2 column density, implying the possible contributions of transported anthropogenic emissions. We also demonstrate many of these PM plumes are originated from northeastern China, pushed southward by cold front passage, generating unique narrow-band-shape PM plumes. All 3 types of transport patterns are shown to be important, in terms of intensity, frequency, and vertical lifting. These transport pathways are crucial to understand not only local pollutant events but also mechanisms to lift and to transport East Asian anthropogenic emissions into Pacific.

  17. Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-16

    A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.

  18. Cenozoic East Asia plate tectonic reconstructions using constraints of mapped and unfolded slabs from mantle seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.

    2012-12-01

    Subducted slabs were mapped in the mantle under East Asia using MITP08 global seismic tomography (Li et al., 2008), Benioff zone seismicities and published local tomography. 3D gridded slab surfaces were constructed by manually picking and correlating the midpoint of fast seismic anomalies along variable cross-section orientations. The mapped slabs were structurally 'unfolded' and restored to the spherical Earth surface to assess their pre-subduction geometries. Gplates software was used to constrain plate tectonic reconstructions using the unfolded slabs. The unfolded SE Asia upper mantle slabs reveal a 'picture puzzle' fit along their edges that suggests a larger NE Indo-Australian ocean once existed that included the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea. Deeper lower mantle detached slabs indicate an early to mid-Cenozoic 'East Asia Sea' between east Sundaland and the Pacific that stretched from the Ryukyu Islands north of present-day Taiwan southward to Sulawesi. The unfolded slab constraints produced gap and overlap incompatibilities when used in published plate tectonic reconstructions. Here a plate tectonic reconstruction incorporating the unfolded slab constraints is proposed that has the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea clustered at the northern margin of Australia during the early Cenozoic. At the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with 'Australia-like' plate motions and overrode the 'East Asia Sea'. Plate motions were accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. Between 25 to 15 Ma the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea plates were fragmented from the greater Indo-Australian ocean. The Philippine Sea was captured by the Pacific plate and now has Pacific-like westward motions.

  19. Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2

    E-print Network

    Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 dAR SERIES 10 CAIS STudEnTS ABRoAd 13 RESEARCh, puBlICATIonS And ouTREACh ACTIvITIES 14 ARABIC pRogRAM 15 CEn to Australia was sponsored by the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies, ANU and the Centre for Dialouge, Monash

  20. Vertical transport and removal of black carbon over East Asia in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Moteki, N.; Matsui, H.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted at 0-9 km in altitude over East Asia in March-April 2009 to investigate transport and removal processes of aerosols, their physical and chemical properties, and cloud microphysical properties in Asian outflow. In this study, mechanisms of vertical transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols and their three-dimensional transport pathways over East Asia in spring were examined through numerical simulations for the A-FORCE campaign using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The simulations reproduced the spatial distributions of mass concentration of BC and its transport efficiency observed by the A-FORCE campaign reasonably well, including its vertical and latitudinal gradients and dependency on precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during the transport. During the A-FORCE period, two types of pronounced upward BC mass fluxes from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the free troposphere (FT) were found over northeastern and inland-southern China. Over northeastern China, cyclones with modest precipitation were the primary uplifting mechanism of BC. Over inland-southern China, both cumulus convection and orographic uplifting along the slopes of the Tibetan Plateau played important roles in the upward transport of BC, despite its efficient wet deposition due to a large amount of precipitation supported by an abundant moisture supply by the low-level southerlies. In addition to the midlatitude (35-45°N) eastward outflow within the PBL (21% BC removal by precipitation during transport), the uplifting of BC over northeastern and inland-southern China and the subsequent BC transport by the midlatitude lower tropospheric (50% BC removal) and subtropical (25-35°N) midtropospheric westerlies (67% BC removal), respectively, provided the major transport pathways for BC export from continental East Asia to the Pacific.

  1. A correlative study on the relationship between modeled anthropogenic aerosol concentration and satellite-observed cloud properties over east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kawamoto; T. Hayasaka; I. Uno; T. Ohara

    2006-01-01

    Vertically integrated anthropogenic aerosol mass concentration Ma and low-level water cloud properties (optical depth ?, effective particle radius re, and columnar droplet number Nc) were correlated over east Asia to elucidate human-induced effects on low-cloud properties. Aerosol and cloud properties were obtained from numerical simulations and satellite observations, respectively. Monthly averages of geographical matches between collocated Ma and cloud properties

  2. Impact assessment of biomass burning on air quality in Southeast and East Asia during BASE-ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-10-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in March-April when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K+, OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via long-range transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  3. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  4. Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)

    PubMed Central

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedli?ka, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedli?ka, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in the Western Pacific and South East Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Gust, I D

    1996-01-01

    The Western Pacific and South East Asia regions are the largest and most populous of the six World Health Organisation regions and include more than 40 countries. More than 75% of the world's estimated 350 million carriers are located here. The region has therefore provided many insights into the epidemiology, natural history, and control of hepatitis B infection and has been home to the first national control programmes. Hepatitis B is hyperendemic in most countries of the region, with carrier rates ranging from 5-35% except in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, where the mean carrier rate is less than 2%. Patterns of infection vary considerably from country to country, city to city, and even village to village, and can change with time. Most infections are acquired early in childhood or in early adult life. A variety of control measures are in place and many countries in the region have introduced widespread or universal childhood immunisation policies with significant success. While it is theoretically possible that hepatitis B infection could be eradicated by universal childhood immunisation, there are several biological and practical issues that make this extremely difficult, suggesting that, for the foreseeable future, control may be a more realisable goal. PMID:8786047

  6. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, I

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617

  7. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  8. Interventions to improve the use of antimalarials in south-east Asia: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, M.; Wayling, S.; Pang, L.

    1998-01-01

    There are few drugs for malaria, and those which are available for use are subject to rapid development of resistance. Curiously, little effort has been made to improve drug use in malaria-endemic countries and to assess the benefits of such improvements. Advances can be made in public understanding of the value of ingesting a full regimen of antimalarials, in order to achieve complete cure, and in improving simple technologies (blister packaging) to achieve the same result. Better efforts can be made to reduce the availability of fake or substandard drugs in the marketplace. In this article, we describe the outcome of a concerted effort to improve drug compliance and drug quality in an area of multidrug resistance for malaria. These research efforts, guided by the Task Force for Improved Use of Antimalarials, characterized the problems in drug compliance in South-East Asia, and developed interventions to improve drug use in the various countries. Interventions involved drug packaging, public information campaigns, and assessments of drug quality. Results show that blister packaging worked best to improve drug compliance and that the increased cost of packaged medication did not limit its use. Drug quality was a major problem in unregulated countries and should be improved. PMID:9763718

  9. Helminth infections of the central nervous system occurring in Southeast Asia and the Far East.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-01-01

    Although helminth infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare, their public health implications must not be neglected. Indeed, several helminth species can cause cerebrospinal infections, especially if humans serve as intermediate or non-permissive host. The diagnosis of cerebrospinal helminthiases is difficult, and the detection of parasites in cerebrospinal fluid is rarely successful. Cerebrospinal helminth infections therefore often remain undetected, and hence prognosis is poor. Increases in tourism and population movements are risk factors for cerebrospinal helminthiases and infections pose particular challenges to clinicians in non-endemic areas. In this review, we focus primarily on food-borne helminthiases that are endemic and often emerging in Southeast Asia and the Far East, namely angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, sparganosis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis. Additionally, we discuss neuroschistosomiasis, a disease that is transmitted through human-water contact. For each disease, we describe the pathogen, its transmission route and possible mechanisms for entering the CNS. We also summarise common signs and symptoms, challenges and opportunities for diagnosis, treatment, clinical management, geographical distribution and epidemiology. The adoption of a comprehensive set of diagnostic criteria for different cerebrospinal helminthiases is proposed, including epidemiological history, typical signs and symptoms, neuroimaging and laboratory findings. Finally, risk factors, and research needs for enhanced patient management and population-based control measures are discussed. PMID:20624537

  10. Male Demography in East Asia: A North–South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yali; Zerjal, Tatiana; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Suling; Shu, Qunfang; Xu, Jiujin; Du, Ruofu; Fu, Songbin; Li, Pu; Hurles, Matthew E.; Yang, Huanming; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The human population has increased greatly in size in the last 100,000 years, but the initial stimuli to growth, the times when expansion started, and their variation between different parts of the world are poorly understood. We have investigated male demography in East Asia, applying a Bayesian full-likelihood analysis to data from 988 men representing 27 populations from China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan typed with 45 binary and 16 STR markers from the Y chromosome. According to our analysis, the northern populations examined all started to expand in number between 34 (18–68) and 22 (12–39) thousand years ago (KYA), before the last glacial maximum at 21–18 KYA, while the southern populations all started to expand between 18 (6–47) and 12 (1–45) KYA, but then grew faster. We suggest that the northern populations expanded earlier because they could exploit the abundant megafauna of the “Mammoth Steppe,” while the southern populations could increase in number only when a warmer and more stable climate led to more plentiful plant resources such as tubers. PMID:16489223

  11. Ethnic Related Selection for an ADH Class I Variant within East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Gu, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoyun; Speed, William C.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Golub, Efim I.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2008-01-01

    Background The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely studied enzymes and the evolution of the mammalian gene cluster encoding these enzymes is also well studied. Previous studies have shown that the ADH1B*47His allele at one of the seven genes in humans is associated with a decrease in the risk of alcoholism and the core molecular region with this allele has been selected for in some East Asian populations. As the frequency of ADH1B*47His is highest in East Asia, and very low in most of the rest of the world, we have undertaken more detailed investigation in this geographic region. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report new data on 30 SNPs in the ADH7 and Class I ADH region in samples of 24 populations from China and Laos. These populations cover a wide geographic region and diverse ethnicities. Combined with our previously published East Asian data for these SNPs in 8 populations, we have typed populations from all of the 6 major linguistic phyla (Altaic including Korean-Japanese and inland Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Hmong-Mien, Austro-Asiatic, Daic, and Austronesian). The ADH1B genotyping data are strongly related to ethnicity. Only some eastern ethnic phyla or subphyla (Korean-Japanese, Han Chinese, Hmong-Mien, Daic, and Austronesian) have a high frequency of ADH1B*47His. ADH1B haplotype data clustered the populations into linguistic subphyla, and divided the subphyla into eastern and western parts. In the Hmong-Mien and Altaic populations, the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) and relative EHH (REHH) tests for the ADH1B core were consistent with selection for the haplotype with derived SNP alleles. In the other ethnic phyla, the core showed only a weak signal of selection at best. Conclusions/Significance The selection distribution is more significantly correlated with the frequency of the derived ADH1B regulatory region polymorphism than the derived amino-acid altering allele ADH1B*47His. Thus, the real focus of selection may be the regulatory region. The obvious ethnicity-related distributions of ADH1B diversities suggest the existence of some culture-related selective forces that have acted on the ADH1B region. PMID:18382665

  12. A modeling assessment of association between East Asian summer monsoon and fate/outflow of ?-HCH in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chongguo; Ma, Jianmin; Liu, Liyan; Jia, Hongliang; Xu, Diandou; Li, Yi-Fan

    Using a dynamic numerical atmospheric transport model for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), the relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and the fate of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), a banned OCP, in the atmosphere over Northeast Asia was investigated and assessed. The modeled temporal and spatial patterns and variability of ?-HCH air concentrations during the summer months of 2005 revealed a strong link between this chemical in the atmosphere over Northeast Asia and the East Asian summer monsoon. At lower atmospheric levels, easterly and southeasterly winds blowing from relatively cold ocean surface convey ?-HCH air concentration from southeast China to northeast China. A monsoon front extending from southeast China to Japan, characterized by a strong wind convergence, carried the air concentration to a high elevation of the atmosphere where it was delivered by southerly monsoon flow to northern China and North Pacific Ocean. This summer monsoon associated northward atmospheric transport caused a reversal of the soil/air exchange from outgassing to net deposition during spring-summer period. The modeled wet deposition fluxes of ?-HCH agreed well with the changes in the typical summer monsoon rain bands, designated as Meiyu in China, Changma in Korea, and Baiu in Japan. The major wet deposition flux paralleled with the monsoon front as well as the monsoon rain bands. The temporal change in the fluxes exhibits abrupt northward advances, which is associated with a stepwise northward and northeastward advance of the East Asian summer monsoon. The modeled ?-HCH outflow in the atmosphere from China occurs mostly in the summer months and through northeast China, featured strongly by the evolution of the summer month. This study suggests that the East Asian summer monsoon provides a major atmospheric pathway and summer outflows to ?-HCH over East Asia.

  13. Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids in the tropospheric aerosols collected over east Asia and western North Pacific by ACE-Asia C-130 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Umemoto, N.; Mochida, M.; Bertram, T.; Howell, S.; Huebert, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    Tropospheric aerosols were collected during C-130 aircraft campaign over the east Asia/Pacific region in April to May 2001 and were analyzed for low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids. Homologous series of C2-C5 dicarboxylic acids were detected, for the first time, in the polluted troposphere in the Asian region using aircraft. Oxalic acid (C2) was found to be the most abundant species followed by malonic (C3) or succinic (C4) acid. Total concentrations of C2-C5 diacids (44-870 ng m-3, average 310 ng m-3) are similar to those reported in urban Tokyo near the ground level. Concentrations of oxalic acid showed a positive correlation (r2 = 0.70) with total organic carbon (TOC), although other diacids showed weaker positive correlation. These results suggest that water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and TOC were emitted from similar sources on the ground in the Asian continent and/or produced by the photochemical oxidation of anthropogenic organic compounds in the atmosphere. The diacid-carbons were found to comprise 0.2-3.3% (average 1.8%) of TOC. Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids may play an important role in controlling the chemical and physical properties of organic aerosols in the polluted troposphere over the east Asia and the western Pacific.

  14. Simultaneous Inversion of Receiver Functions and Surface Wave Dispersion For Lithospheric Structure Beneath The Middle East, North African, Central Asia, And Parts of Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kosarian; W. Sevilla; C. J. Ammon; R. B. Herrmann; M. E. Pasyanos; G. Randall

    2004-01-01

    Numerous researchers have studied lithospheric structure of Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia for decades. Although there are agreements on the general lithospheric structure, interesting discrepancies exist on the specific lithospheric structure in a number of areas. Our objective is the construction of shear-wave velocity profiles for regions surrounding broadband seismic stations throughout the Middle East, central and north

  15. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  16. Asthenospheric counterflows beneath the moving lithosphere of Central and East Asia in the past 90 Ma: volcanic and tomographic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasskazov, Sergei; Chuvashova, Irina; Kozhevnikov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Asthenospheric counterflows, accompanied motions of the lithosphere in Central and East Asia, are defined on basis of spatial-temporal activity of mantle sources [Rasskazov et al., 2012; Rasskazov, Chuvashova, 2013; Chuvashova, Rasskazov, 2014] and the tomographic model of the Rayleigh wave group velocities [Kozhevnikov et al., 2014]. The opposite fluxes are defined relative to centers of convective instability (low-velocity anomalies), expressed by thinning of the mantle transition layer under Southwestern Gobi (44 °N, 95 °E) and Northern Baikal (52 °N, 108 °E). Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic fields in Southern Gobi are shifted eastwards relative to the former anomaly over 600 km with the opposite sub-lithospheric flux at depths of 150-300 km. Likewise, the Late Tertiary Vitim volcanic field is shifted relative to the latter anomaly over 100-200 km. We suggest that the Gobi and Baikal asthenospheric counterflows contributed to the rollback mechanism of downgoing slab material from the Pacific under the eastern margin of Asia in the Cretaceous-Paleogene and Early-Middle Miocene. The east-west Gobi reverse flux, caused by differential block motions in front of the Indo-Asian convergence, resulted in the oblique Honshu-Korean flexure of the Pacific slab that propagated beneath the continental margin, while the Japan Sea was quickly opening at about 15 Ma. The Baikal N60°W reverse flux, originated due to oncoming traffic between Eurasia and the Pacific plate, entailed the formation of the Baikal Rift Zone and direct Hokkaido Amur slab flexure [Rasskazov et al., 2004]. The study is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant 14-05-31328). References Chuvashova I.S., Rasskazov S.V. Magmatic sources in the mantle of the evolving Earth. Irkutsk: Publishing House of the Irkutsk State University, 2014. 310 p. (in Russian) Kozhevnikov V.M., Seredkina A.I., Solovei O.A. 3D mantle structure of Central Asia from Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion. Russian Geol. Geophys. 2014. V. 55, N 10. P. 1564-1575. Rasskazov S., Taniguchi H., Goto A., Litasov K. Magmatic expression of plate subduction beneath East Asia in the Mesozoic through Cenozoic // Northeast Asian Studies. 2004. V. 9. P. 179-219. Rasskazov S.V., Chuvashova I.S., Yasnygina T.A., Fefelov N.N., Saranina E.V. Potassic and potassic-sodic volcanic series in the Cenozoic of Asia. Novosibirsk, Academic Publishing House "GEO", 2012. 351 p. (in Russian) Rasskazov S.V., Chuvashova I.S. The latest mantle geodynamics of Central Asia. Irkutsk: Publishing House of the Irkutsk State University, 2013. 308 p. (in Russian)

  17. Spin-up behavior of soil moisture content over East Asia in a land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yoon-Jin; Hong, Jinkyu; Lee, Tae-Young

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an investigation of the spin-up behavior of soil moisture content (SMC) and evapotranspiration (ET) in an offline Noah land surface model (LSM) for East Asia, focusing on its interplay with the Asian monsoon. The set of 5-year recursive runs is conducted to properly assess the spin-up behavior of land surface processes and consists of simulations initialized with (1) a spatially uniform soil moisture, (2) NCEP GDAS soil moisture data, and (3) ECMWF ERA-Interim soil moisture data. Each run starts either after or before the summer monsoon. Initial SMCs from GDAS and ERA-Interim data significantly deviate from the equilibrium state (spin-up state) with the given input forcing even though the same equilibrium is reached within 3-year spin-up time, indicating that spin-up of land surface process is necessary. SMC reaches the equilibrium much quickly when (1) the consistent LSMs have been used in the prediction and analysis systems and (2) the spin-up simulation starts before the onset of heavy rainfall events during summer monsoon. For an area with heavy monsoon rainfall, the total column SMC and ET spin up quickly. The spin-up time over dry land is about 2-3 years, but for monsoon rainfall area decreases dramatically to about 3 months if the spin-up run starts just before the onset of monsoon. Further scrutiny shows that the spin-up time is well correlated with evaporative fraction given by the ratio between the latent heat flux and the available energy at the land surface.

  18. Fire Nature of a Subtropical Maritime Island in East Asia: Taiwan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Tsing-Chang

    2004-04-01

    Twelve years (1985 96) of monthly house fire reports for 22 districts in Taiwan, a maritime subtropical island of east Asia, were analyzed to characterize its fire nature. The major effort focused on the identification of temporal variation signals and their possible links with meteorological variables. Two significant modes of house fires were identified: annual and diurnal. As revealed from the power spectral analyses of fire time series in every fire district, a pronounced annual cycle peak emerges, with a peak phase in December and a minimum phase in June. In contrast to the warm and dry summer fire season of three continental landmasses (i.e., the U.S. West, the Northwest Territories of Canada, and the large wildland of Australia), an active fire season appears during the cool, dry winter in Taiwan. The fires on this island are highly correlated with several hydrometeorological variables; a decrease (increase) in rainfall in the dry (wet) cool (warm) environment with strong (weak) winds facilitates (hinders) fire occurrence. Under the modulation of the annual variation, two distinct fire regimes are identified in the diurnal variation of fire occurrence over the entire year: midnight early morning and late morning night. A sharp increase in fire occurrence occurs in the midmorning after a phase of constant fire occurrence frequency in the first regime and a gradual reduction over the nighttime hours in the second regime. Although fire occurrence is significantly suppressed by rainfall during the warm wet summer, an inverse relationship between fire occurrence and relative humidity for both annual and diurnal variations in Taiwan suggests that relative humidity plays a crucial role in fire occurrence.


  19. An evaluation of the CMAQ reproducibility of satellite tropospheric NO2 column observations at different local times over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Yamaji, K.; Ikeda, K.; Uno, I.; Itahashi, S.; Ohara, T.; Kurokawa, J.

    2013-05-01

    Despite the importance of the role of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in tropospheric chemistry, the causes leading to the discrepancy between satellite-derived and modeled tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) over East Asia remain unclear. Here the reproducibility of satellite tropospheric NO2 VCD data by a regional chemical transport model (CMAQ) with the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) Version 2 is evaluated from the viewpoint of the diurnal variation of tropospheric NO2 VCDs, where satellite observations at different local times (SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, OMI/Aura, and GOME-2/Metop-A) are utilized considering literature validation results. As a case study, we concentrate on June and December 2007 for a detailed evaluation based on various sensitivity simulations, for example with different spatial resolutions (80, 40, 20, and 10 km) for CMAQ. For June, CMAQ generally reproduces absolute values of satellite NO2 VCDs and their diurnal variations over all 12 selected diagnostic regions in East Asia. In contrast, a difficulty arises in interpreting the significant disagreement between satellite and CMAQ values over most of the diagnostic regions in December. The disagreement cannot be explained by any of the sensitivity simulations performed in this study. To address this, more investigations, including further efforts for satellite validations in wintertime, are needed.

  20. An evaluation of the CMAQ reproducibility of satellite tropospheric NO2 column observations at different local times over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Yamaji, K.; Ikeda, K.; Uno, I.; Itahashi, S.; Ohara, T.; Kurokawa, J.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the importance of the role of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in tropospheric chemistry, the causes leading to the discrepancy between satellite-derived and modeled tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) over East Asia remain unclear. Here the reproducibility of satellite tropospheric NO2 VCD data by a regional chemical transport model (CMAQ) with the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) Version 2 is evaluated from the viewpoint of the diurnal variation of tropospheric NO2 VCDs, where satellite observations at different local times (SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, OMI/Aura, and GOME-2/Metop-A) are utilized. As a case study, we concentrate on June 2007 for a detailed evaluation based on various sensitivity simulations from the aspects of emission and spatial resolution. Within uncertainty in satellite data, CMAQ generally reproduces absolute values of monthly-mean satellite NO2 VCDs over most of 12 selected diagnostic regions in East Asia. Reconsideration of literature satellite bias estimates brings the satellite-derived NO2 diurnal variation pattern closer to that of CMAQ. The diurnal variation pattern is insensitive to any sensitivity simulations conducted in this study. Improving the model horizontal resolution tends to show better agreement with satellite data in AM but not in PM in China. Compared to satellite data, CMAQ shows a weak NO2 diurnal variation in daytime over China. Our findings support the need for detailed evaluation of chemical processes in CMAQ.

  1. Demographic transitions and migration in prehistoric East/Southeast Asia through the lens of nonmetric dental traits.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hirofumi; Oxenham, Marc F

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region. PMID:24954129

  2. Immunological surveys of arbovirus infections in South-East Asia, with special reference to dengue, chikungunya, and Kyasanur Forest disease*

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T. Ramachandra

    1971-01-01

    Serological surveys have been widely used in South-East Asia to determine the presence and activity of arboviruses. The haemagglutination-inhibition test has been most frequently employed but complement-fixation and neutralization tests have also been used in some investigations. Although virus isolations provide the most conclusive evidence, they can be carried out in a few specialized centres only, and serological surveys are very important for studying the distribution of arboviruses. The surveys have shown that group B arboviruses (principally all four types of dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile) are widely prevalent. Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are more widespread than West Nile virus, which was not known previously to extend east of India although recent survyes have shown that its range extends to Burma. Japanese encephalitis is frequent in most of South-East Asia but in India is found mainly in eastern and south-eastern parts of the country. Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) and Langat viruses are the only tick-borne group B arboviruses definitely known to occur in the region, the former in India, the latter in Malaysia. KFD virus has been isolated only from a small focus in Mysore, although human and animal sera containing neutralizing antibodies to this virus have been found sporadically in widely scattered areas. Among the group A arboviruses, chikungunya and Sindbis have been detected in serological surveys, but the former has not yet been found in Malaysia. PMID:4400821

  3. Virtual versus physical spaces: which facilitates greater HIV risk taking among men who have sex with men in East and South-East Asia?

    PubMed

    Wei, Chongyi; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Koe, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    Increasing use of the Internet to seek sex partners is accompanied by rising HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East and South-East Asia. We examined whether the Internet facilitates greater HIV risk taking among MSM in the region. A cross-sectional sample of 9,367 MSM was recruited via the Internet in 2010. We compared socio-demographic and HIV-related behavioral characteristics among MSM who met sex partners on the Internet only, who met sex partners offline only, and who met sex partners through both. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates that were associated with differences in where participants met their male sex partners. Compared to MSM who met partners offline only, those who met partners online only were less likely to have multiple male sex partners, have paid for sex, have consumed recreational drugs, and have used alcohol before sex. MSM who met partners both online and offline appeared to be the riskiest group that they were more likely to have multiple male sex partners, have engaged in UIAI, and have consumed alcohol before sex. These findings suggest that social networking websites alone do not facilitate greater HIV risk taking among MSM. Rather, they provide additional venues for MSM who already engage in HIV-related high risk behaviors to seek sex partners. The Internet offers incredible opportunities to reach large numbers of MSM in East and South-East Asia for HIV prevention and research. Web-based outreach and prevention activities are needed to reach these men. In addition, mobile and application-based interventions should also be developed and disseminated. PMID:24077974

  4. Multiple introductions of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses into East Asia in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Timina, Anna; Scherbakov, Alexey; Abdul-Hamid, Nor Faizah; Knowles, Nick J; King, Donald P

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. Sporadic introductions of this virus into FMD-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. In 2010 and 2011, incursions of the FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland Southeast Asia, caused extensive outbreaks across East Asia. In this study, 12 full genome FMDV sequences for representative samples collected from the People's Republic of China (PR China) including the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Republic of Korea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and The Russian Federation were generated and compared with additional contemporary sequences from viruses within this lineage. These complete genomes were 8119 to 8193 nucleotides in length and differed at 1181 sites, sharing a nucleotide identity ? 91.0% and an amino acid identity ? 96.6%. An unexpected deletion of 70 nucleotides within the 5'-untranslated region which resulted in a shorter predicted RNA stem-loop for the S-fragment was revealed in two sequences from PR China and Hong Kong SAR and five additional related samples from the region. Statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provide evidence that these outbreaks in East Asia were generated by two independent introductions of the O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage sometime between August 2008 and March 2010. The rapid emergence of these viruses from Southeast Asia highlights the importance of adopting approaches to closely monitor the spread of this lineage that now poses a threat to livestock industries in other regions. PMID:24007643

  5. Multiple introductions of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses into East Asia in 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. Sporadic introductions of this virus into FMD-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. In 2010 and 2011, incursions of the FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland Southeast Asia, caused extensive outbreaks across East Asia. In this study, 12 full genome FMDV sequences for representative samples collected from the People’s Republic of China (PR China) including the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Republic of Korea, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and The Russian Federation were generated and compared with additional contemporary sequences from viruses within this lineage. These complete genomes were 8119 to 8193 nucleotides in length and differed at 1181 sites, sharing a nucleotide identity???91.0% and an amino acid identity???96.6%. An unexpected deletion of 70 nucleotides within the 5?-untranslated region which resulted in a shorter predicted RNA stem-loop for the S-fragment was revealed in two sequences from PR China and Hong Kong SAR and five additional related samples from the region. Statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provide evidence that these outbreaks in East Asia were generated by two independent introductions of the O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage sometime between August 2008 and March 2010. The rapid emergence of these viruses from Southeast Asia highlights the importance of adopting approaches to closely monitor the spread of this lineage that now poses a threat to livestock industries in other regions. PMID:24007643

  6. Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

    2014-10-12

    Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30?g/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22°N and 95 to 107°E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

  7. A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shinji

    2014-04-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

  8. Morphological characterization of Streptocephalus sirindhornae (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from South East Asia: First record of the Streptocephalidae from China.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shusen; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Rogers, D Christopher; Yang, Junxing; Chen, Xiaoyong

    2015-01-01

    During a zooplankton study in southern China, Streptocephalus specimens were collected from ephemeral ponds located in the Yunnan Province and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. We determined that the specimens from both locations are Streptocephalus sirindhornae Sanoamuang, Murugan, Weekers, and Dumont, 2000. This documents are the first records of Streptocephalidae in China, which represent its northern and easternmost distributional edge in East Asia. All specimens are deposited in Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology, Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The morphological terminology follows Rogers and Padhye (2014) and the material is compared with the original description (Sanoamuang et al., 2000).  PMID:25661625

  9. Impacts of anthropogenic forcing on regional climate simulation for CORDEX-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Song Yee; Kang, Hyun Suk; Hyun, Yu Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Impacts of greenhouse gas and aerosol on climate change are crucial, so that it is trivial for CMIP models to consider anthropogenic forcing for current climate simulations and future projection as well. Meanwhile, for regional climate models, it is still ambiguous if those forcings are duplicated or not, since the large-scale information is provided from the GCM models through the lateral boundary condition. To answer this question, four experiments using the HadGEM3-RA were conducted within the CORDEX framework for the East Asia domain, which are defined as FIXF (Fixed forcing experiment), GHGS (Greenhouse gases forcing only on the FIXF), AERO (Aerosol forcing only on the FIXF), and ALL (Both forcings on the FIXF) experiments. All experiments were driven by the same GCM forcing, i.e., HadGEM2-AO. Simulation results for the current (27 years for 1979-2005) and future (30 years for 2071-2100) climate were analyzed. FIXF experiment simulated significant cold biases near the northwestern China and Mongolia. Compared to results from the FIXF, those from the ALL and AERO were better, particularly for the temperature in northwestern China and for the precipitation in southern China, Indonesia and northwestern Pacific. Reduced cold bias in northwestern China is highly associated with the aerosol forcing, and marginally associated with the greenhouse gases forcing. As a result, temperature simulated by ALL experiment shows less bias than any other experiments. In the future, surface air temperature was projected stronger in ALL than FIXF experiment in late 21st century. Especially, based on the future projection from the ALL experiment, increase in domain-averaged surface air temperature is about 3.0oC (4.2oC) under the RCP 4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. In future change of precipitation, regardless of forcing experiments, annual mean precipitation over maritime continent and northwestern Pacific are expected to increase. And percent change in annual mean precipitation of ALL experiment is 8.2 % and 17.4% for RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively.

  10. The East Asia Regional Advisory Board The Fuqua School of Business

    E-print Network

    Reif, John H.

    Finance for Asia Pacific and China regions, with a portfolio of over $1.4 billion of vendor financing commitments. Prior to joining K&S, Mr. Chou was the Chief Financial Officer of a private equity portfolio

  11. Multi-week prediction of South-East Asia rainfall variability during boreal summer in CFSv2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Feng; Wang, Wanqiu

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we analyze the multi-week prediction bias and skill from the National Centers for Environment Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) based on its hindcasts for 1999-2012. The analyses focus on the prediction of the rainfall variability over South-East Asia during boreal warm seasons and the dependence of the prediction on the activity of intrasesaonal leading modes. It is shown that the prediction skill measured by anomaly correlation is comparable between the total anomalies and intraseasonal anomalies during the first 2 weeks. After week 2, the prediction skill drops substantially and the skill for total anomalies is largely from the prediction for the interannual variability. Moreover, the forecast skill tends to be higher when the amplitude of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation (BSISO) is larger, especially for the BSISO. It is noted that the prediction skill over South-East Asia depends on the phase of the BSISO. One deficiency in the CFSv2 is that the northward propagation of the forecast BSISO is generally slower than the observed.

  12. Numerical study of natural sea salt aerosol and its radiative effects on climate and sea surface temperature over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun; Yin, Yan; Wu, Jian; Zhao, Deming

    2015-04-01

    A regional climate model, RIEMS-POM, was used to study the direct radiative forcing (DRF) of sea salt on precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST) and summer circulation over East Asia with aerosol dataset from GOCART. The simulations predicted negative DRFs of -0.87 W m-2 at the surface and -1.40 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere by sea salt. Results from the simulations suggest the forcing of sea salt produces a slight positive temperature anomaly and a reduction in precipitation over Southern China, accompanied by an opposite trend north of 40°N in Northern and Northeastern China. The tendency of wetting in North and drying in South by sea salt was mainly determined by the wind field, the vertical motion, as well as the local evaporation anomalies. The impacts of sea salt on SST suggest that the net surface shortwave radiative flux and the changes in convective cloud are important in forming the decreased SST throughout the year, while the northward oceanic heat transport anomaly and the other heat flux anomalies contribute relatively smaller. The feature by sea salt on SST imposes an extra force from the atmosphere to the ocean. The sea salt could also diminish the land-sea temperature contrast (LSTC) in summer and therefore the climatological summer circulation over East Asia, leading to reduced precipitation in Southern China. All these climatic feedbacks, such as LSTC and precipitation anomaly, will be attenuated when the SST is fixed.

  13. The role of aerosol absorption in solar dimming over East Asia and its implications for regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yi; Persad, Geeta; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam

    2014-05-01

    Surface-based observations have identified statistically significant trends in clear-sky surface solar radiation (SSR) over South and East Asia since the 1960s. The trends are generally negative, indicating a reduction in clear-sky SSR or a "dimming." The dimming is strongly driven by aerosol emissions over the region, but little work has been done to quantify the particular aerosol mechanisms that produce the trend or the contribution to the surface values from aerosol absorption within the atmospheric column. The redistribution of shortwave radiation that these aerosol effects imply has the potential to significantly impact regional circulation and precipitation. We conduct experiments over East Asia in two generations of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Atmospheric General Circulation Model, AM2.1 and AM3, in order to analyze the characteristics of the SSR trends that the models produce and to understand the particular aerosol mechanisms responsible. AM2.1 and AM3 have significantly different aerosol treatments, including differences in aerosol mixing and interactivity with model meteorology. We use the models' standalone radiation module to analyze how various aerosol characteristics in the two models (such as aerosol mixing state, hygroscopicity, and seasonal distribution) contribute to the trends produced. We find that the two models produce similar trends in clear-sky SSR, comparable to the observed trend, but via significantly different aerosol mechanisms with different regional climate implications. Both models' dimming trends, however, are strongly driven by increased aerosol absorption since 1960. The implications of this redistribution of solar heating between the surface and atmosphere for Asia's regional climate will be discussed.

  14. The Role of Aerosol Absorption in Solar Dimming over East Asia and Its Implications for Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persad, G.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2013-12-01

    Surface-based observations have identified statistically significant trends in clear-sky surface solar radiation (SSR) over South and East Asia since the 1960s. The trends are generally negative, indicating a reduction in clear-sky SSR or a 'dimming.' The dimming is strongly driven by aerosol emissions over the region, but little work has been done to quantify the particular aerosol mechanisms that produce the trend or the contribution to the surface values from aerosol absorption within the atmospheric column. The redistribution of shortwave radiation that these aerosol effects imply has the potential to significantly impact regional circulation and precipitation. We conduct experiments over East Asia in two generations of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Atmospheric General Circulation Model, AM2.1 and AM3, in order to analyze the characteristics of the SSR trends that the models produce and to understand the particular aerosol mechanisms responsible. AM2.1 and AM3 have significantly different aerosol treatments, including differences in aerosol mixing and interactivity with model meteorology. We use the models' standalone radiation module to analyze how various aerosol characteristics in the two models (such as aerosol mixing state, hygroscopicity, and seasonal distribution) contribute to the trends produced. We find that the two models produce similar trends in clear-sky SSR, comparable to the observed trend, but via significantly different aerosol mechanisms with different regional climate implications. Both models' dimming trends, however, are strongly driven by increased aerosol absorption since 1960. The implications of this redistribution of solar heating between the surface and atmosphere for Asia's regional climate will be discussed.

  15. Economic Growth in East Asia Before and After the Financial Crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Barro

    2001-01-01

    In 1997-98, five east Asian countries -- Indonesia, Malaysia, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand -- experienced sharp currency and banking crises. The contraction of real GDP was severe in relation to the previous history and in comparison with five east Asian countries that were less affected by the financial crisis. Recoveries in the five crisis countries in 1999-2000 were

  16. Seasonal characteristics of tropospheric ozone production and mixing ratios over East Asia: A global three-dimensional chemical transport model analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise L. Mauzerall; Daiju Narita; Hajime Akimoto; Larry Horowitz; Stacy Walters; Didier A. Hauglustaine; Guy Brasseur

    2000-01-01

    We examine seasonal and geographical distributions of tropospheric ozone production and mixing ratios over East Asia with a global three-dimensional chemical transport model called Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 1 (MOZART 1). Net ozone production within the East Asian boundary layer exhibits three distinct seasonal cycles depending on region (north of 20°N, 5-20°N and south of 5°N). North

  17. Foreign direct investment and growth in East Asia: lessons for Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Lipsey; Fredrik Sjöholm

    2011-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been important in the growth and global integration of developing economies. Both Northeast and Southeast Asia, especially the latter, have been part of this development, with increasing inflows of FDI and greater foreign participation in local economies. However, Indonesia has been an outlier within the region. Inflows of FDI have been lower to Indonesia than

  18. Focus, Presupposition and Light Predicate Raising in East and Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Provides an account of a distributional patterning found with certain modal verbs in a number of SVO languages of Southeast Asia, the occurrence of a particular alethic modal in predicate-final position. Describes the paradigm and how it's arguably the result of borrowing and transfer among the various languages. Its relevance for Cinque's defence…

  19. Perspectives on the organisation and control of the illicit traffic in antiquities in South East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Adler; Duncan Chappell; Kenneth Polk

    2009-01-01

    We intend addressing three issues in till paper. First we will describe in detail not available elsewhere the patterns that are found in the illicit traffic in antiquities that flow out of Southeast Asia in particular from Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar Thailand and Vietnam. Second, we shall examine the focus of organized crime that have emerged in order to support

  20. Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…

  1. Evaluating drought effect on MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) with an eco-hydrological model in the mountainous forest, East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T A EHEE; H W A NG; S I N K Y U K A N Gw; J OON K IM; OUNGIL K IM; D OWON L EE

    2008-01-01

    Surface soil moisture dynamics is a key link between climate fluctuation and vegetation dynamics in space and time. In East Asia, precipitation is concentrated in the short monsoon season, which reduces plants water availability in the dry season. Furthermore, most forests are located in mountainous areas because of high demand for agricultural land, which results in increased lateral water flux

  2. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-05-01

    The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

  3. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

  4. Origins of domestic dog in Southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P

    2012-01-01

    Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in Asia South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog–wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West Asia but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14?437?bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to East Asia. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13–24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog–wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog–wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool. PMID:22108628

  5. The long winding road of opioid substitution therapy implementation in South-East Asia: challenges to scale up.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gary; Sharma, Mukta; Higgs, Peter

    2014-03-26

    The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users. Significance for public healthSeveral countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region can be commended for introducing opioid substitution therapy (OST) to address the ongoing HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). Local evidence shows OST is an effective drug treatment approach in the Asian context given sufficient technical and institutional support. However, despite much progress, the number of OST dispensing sites and recipients remains totally inadequate in terms of impact upon the current HIV epidemic among PWID. Ongoing advocacy is needed if countries are to achieve the WHO's target of 40% of PWID being dosed with OST. Greater political commitment a strengthened policy environment, capacity building for OST clinics, lessening the criminalisation of drug use and promoting a public health response will give many more PWID access to OST and slow the advance of the HIV epidemic. PMID:25170509

  6. A Projection of the Impact of the Climate Change induced by Increased Greenhouse Gases on the Hydroclimate of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Jung, H.; Mechoso, C. R.; Jones, R.; Hein, D.

    2005-12-01

    The authors present a projection of the regional-scale climate change signals in East Asia induced by increased atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) obtained by downscaling the global climate change scenarios generated by HadAM3P using the MAS model. The impact of the climate change induced by the increases in the atmospheric GHGs on the water cycle in East Asia is an important concern. The large population base and rapidly growing industrial activities in the region have been susceptible to the variations in water cycle that affect the frequency of weather-related natural disasters as well as water resources to sustain them. Hence, projections of future water cycle are crucial for planning for sustainable developments in the region. We compare the results from three 30-year long simulations. One represents today's climate (1961-1990) and the other two represent the future climate for the period 2071-2100 based on the SRES-A2/B2 emission scenarios (Nakicenovic et al. 2000), respectively. The downscaled control climate represents reasonably the characteristics of the climatology from observational data. In particular, the dynamical downscaling could improve warm season rainfall in the region compared to the GCM simulations. The seasonal mean temperature signal ranges 1-8 K, with larger increases in the high latitude regions which is consistent with other studies (e.g., IPCC 2001). The rainfall signals suggest increases (decreases) in summer rainfall in southern China, northern Mongolia, northern Manchuria, Korean Peninsula and Japan Islands (northern China and the South China Sea). We will also present the impact of increased GHGs on important hydrological characteristics such as the frequency of extreme events.

  7. Observation impact estimation using a forecast sensitivity to observation (FSO) method in the global and east Asia regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Hyun Mee

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the observation impact to the forecast for the summer and winter months (i.e., JJA 2011 and DJF 2011-2012) in the global and east Asia regions, using the forecast sensitivity to observation (FSO) tool in the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) Unified Model (UM). The SONDE, AIRCRAFT, SURFACE, BOGUS, NOAA ATOVS, MetOp2 ATOVS, IASI, AIRS, GPSRO, SSMIS, Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) of KMA, AMV of JMA, ESA, GEOS, MSG, and ASCAT observations were used to estimate the observation impact to the forecast. Overall each observation showed consistent contribution to the forecast error reduction for summer and winter months. In the global region, the observation impact to the forecast error reduction depended on the number of observations assimilated in the numerical model. The contribution of the SONDE to the forecast error reduction is the largest, followed by NOAA / MetOp2 ATOVS and IASI. In satellite sounding observations, the contribution of channel number 5, 6, 7 of NOAA AMSU-A and channel number 56-215, 271-280 of IASI to the forecast error reduction were large. In the east Asia region, the contribution of the SONDE to the forecast error reduction was the largest, similar to that in the global region. However, the contribution of the satellite data to the forecast error reduction was decreased when compared to that in the global region because of exception of millions of satellite observations located the ocean and southern hemisphere. Especially, Atmospheric Motion Vector (AMV) observations of COMS launched in 2009 showed the largest impact among several Imager sensors.

  8. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  9. Multi-Institutional Phase II Clinical Study of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in East and Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Shingo, E-mail: s_kato@nirs.go.j [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, Gunma (Japan); Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia, a multi-institutional Phase II clinical study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Methods and Materials: Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky Stage IIB and 60 with Stage IIIB) with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were enrolled in the present study. Radiotherapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy according to institutional practice. The planned Point A dose was 24-28 Gy in four fractions for high-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy and 40-45 Gy in one to two fractions for low-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered during the radiotherapy course. Results: All patients were eligible for the study. The median follow-up was 27.3 months. Of the 120 patients, 100 (83%) received four or five cycles of chemotherapy. Acute Grade 3 leukopenia was observed in 21% of the patients, and Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 6%. No patient failed to complete the radiotherapy course because of toxicity. The 2-year local control and overall survival rate for all patients was 87.1% and 79.6%, respectively. The 2-year major late rectal and bladder complication rate was 2.5% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The results have suggested that concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin is feasible and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia.

  10. Evaluation of VIIRS, GOCI, and MODIS Collection 6 AOD retrievals against ground sunphotometer measurements over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Kondragunta, S.; Zhang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Persistent high aerosol loadings together with extremely high population density have raised serious air quality and public health concerns in most urban centers in East Asia. Recently, satellite retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has become a powerful tool to better characterize aerosol patterns in space and time. Using data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) and the Aerosol Robobotic Network (AERONET) (over 40 permanent and temporary sites), as well as handheld sunphotometers, we evaluated the AOD products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Collection 6) in East Asia in 2012 and 2013. During the study period, GOCI AOD provides the best temporal coverage (80%), followed by VIIRS Intermediate Product (IP) (75%), VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) (59%), and MODIS C6 3 km AOD (27%). The mean bias of VIIRS EDR, VIIRS IP, GOCI, and MODIS C6 3 km AOD are 0.08, 0.25, 0.01, and 0.15, respectively. When compared with ground observations, 56% of EDR, 27% of IP, 51% of GOCI, and 47% of MODIS C6 3 km AOD fall within the global expected error (EE) range of MODIS over land (±0.05±0.15AOD). EDR, IP, and MODIS C6 3km aerosol products perform better in rural areas, with a bias less than half of that in urban areas and more than 80% more retrievals falling within EE relative to in urban areas. Over Metro Beijing, comparing with AOD measured by handheld sunphotometers, 51% of VIIRS EDR AOD, 31% of VIIRS IP AOD, 33% of GOCI AOD, and 17% of MODIS AOD fall within the MODIS EE. Keywords - Aerosol Optical Depth; VIIRS; MODIS; GOCI; AERONET; DRAGON

  11. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae).

    PubMed

    Hoebeke, E Richard; Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J

    2015-01-01

    Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America. PMID:25699210

  12. Seismic image and origin of the Changbai intraplate volcano in East Asia: Role of big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Tian, You; Lei, Jianshe; Liu, Lucy; Zheng, Sihua

    2009-04-01

    We determined P-wave tomography of the crust and upper mantle under the Changbai volcanic area in Northeast Asia by using 289,318 arrival-time data from 4802 local earthquakes and 9599 teleseismic events. A prominent low-velocity anomaly is clearly imaged in the crust and upper mantle down to about 410 km depth beneath the Changbai volcano. A broad high-velocity anomaly is revealed in the mantle transition zone and deep earthquakes occurred actively there, suggesting that the subducting Pacific slab is stagnating in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Our results suggest that the formation of the Changbai and other intraplate volcanoes in Northeast Asia is related to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab. Hence the active intraplate volcanoes in Northeast Asia are not hotspots related to deep mantle plumes but are caused by plate tectonic processes in the upper mantle.

  13. Orbital remote sensing - Space technology applications in south-east Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malingreau, J.-P.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of remote sensing techniques in the developing countries of southeast Asia is reviewed. The use of the images for monitoring soil, water, and vegetation resources, in order to develop a national policy for conservation of the resources, is described. The remote sensing data are helpful in observing deforestation in southeast Asia; however, excessive cloud coverage does not allow accurate evaluation of the rice crop. The effects of the capabilities of the developing countries to process the data and remote sensing program of industrial countries on the future application of satellite imagery in developing countries are studied. The need for improved data banking and dissemination of the imagery is analyzed. Agreements on proprietary rights due to the improved ground resolution of orbital sensors are required. The designing of remote sensing equipment to meet the requirements of its users is discussed.

  14. China’s Integration in East Asia:Production Sharing, FDI & High-Tech Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Gaulier; Françoise Lemoine; Deniz Ünal-Kesenci

    2007-01-01

    China has taken advantage of the globalisation process and has become an assembly country for firms in Asia, which have extended\\u000a their production and trade networks to China. China’s position in the segmentation of the production processes has fostered\\u000a its trade in high-technology products. However the rapid technological upgrading of China’s trade is associated with an increasing\\u000a dependence on foreign

  15. Future prediction of surface ozone over east Asia using Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System and Regional Emission Inventory in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, Kazuyo; Ohara, Toshimasa; Uno, Itsushi; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Pochanart, Pakpong; Akimoto, Hajime

    2008-04-01

    Present and future tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations over east Asia have been simulated by the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) to predict surface O3 variations caused by future anthropogenic emissions changes. For future prediction, REAS provides three emission scenarios for China (the reference (REF), the policy succeed case (PSC), and the policy failure case (PFC) scenarios) and one emission scenario (the REF scenario) for the other countries. Simulated O3 concentration in summer was relatively high (70-80 ppbv in June and 65-75 ppbv in August) over the North China Plain in 2000. The projected REF emissions for 2020 (2020REF) enhance the monthly averaged O3 to 75-90 ppbv in June and 75-85 ppbv in August. The projected PSC emissions for 2020 (2020PFC), including a slight NOx reduction of -0.2 Tg (-2%) and a large NMVOC increase of 14.3 Tg (97%) for total Chinese emissions during 2000-2020, cause the monthly and annually averaged O3 concentrations to decrease by less than 2 ppbv in northeastern and central China. Over the North China Plain, the projected PFC emissions for 2020 (2020PFC) cause significant increases, more than 20 ppbv in the monthly averaged O3, and the O3 will be 85-105 ppbv in June and 80-95 ppbv in August for 2020. The 2020PFC also affect O3 increases in early summer in South Korea (14-18 ppbv increase for monthly average) and Japan (2-14 ppbv increase for monthly average) during 2000-2020 despite the slight NOx increase of 0.4 Tg (25%) in South Korea and the slight NOx reduction of -0.2 Tg (-10%) in Japan during 2000-2020. The pollutant in these regions seems to be transport from upwind source regions. These experiments show that over central eastern China at midday in June, the O3 concentration is largely affected by NOx emission increases but is insensitive to NMVOC emission increases.

  16. Insights into Korean red fox (Vulpes vulpes) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variation in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Bang-Hwan; Kryukov, Alexey P; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Byoung-Yoon; Kwak, Myounghai

    2012-11-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed terrestrial carnivore in the world, occurring throughout most of North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa. In South Korea, however, this species has been drastically reduced due to habitat loss and poaching. Consequently, it is classified as an endangered species in Korea. As a first step of a planned red fox restoration project, preserved red fox museum specimens were used to determine the genetic status of red foxes that had previously inhabited South Korea against red foxes from neighboring countries. Total eighty three mtDNA cytochrome b sequences, including 22 newly obtained East Asian red fox sequences and worldwide red fox sequences from NCBI, were clustered into three clades (i.e., I, II, and III) based on haplotype network and neighbor-joining trees. The mean genetic distance between clades was 2.0%. Clade III contained South Korean and other East Asian samples in addition to Eurasian and North Pacific individuals. In clade III, South Korean individuals were separated into two lineages of Eurasian and North Pacific groups, showing unclear phylogeographic structuring and admixture. This suggests that South Korean red fox populations may have been composed of individuals from these two different genetic lineages. PMID:23106560

  17. Forest biomass carbon sinks in East Asia, with special reference to the relative contributions of forest expansion and forest growth.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingyun; Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Kato, Tomomichi; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Son, Yowhan

    2014-06-01

    Forests play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. With extensive afforestation and reforestation efforts over the last several decades, forests in East Asia have largely expanded, but the dynamics of their C stocks have not been fully assessed. We estimated biomass C stocks of the forests in all five East Asian countries (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Mongolia) between the 1970s and the 2000s, using the biomass expansion factor method and forest inventory data. Forest area and biomass C density in the whole region increased from 179.78 × 10(6) ha and 38.6 Mg C ha(-1) in the 1970s to 196.65 × 10(6) ha and 45.5 Mg C ha(-1) in the 2000s, respectively. The C stock increased from 6.9 Pg C to 8.9 Pg C, with an averaged sequestration rate of 66.9 Tg C yr(-1). Among the five countries, China and Japan were two major contributors to the total region's forest C sink, with respective contributions of 71.1% and 32.9%. In China, the areal expansion of forest land was a larger contributor to C sinks than increased biomass density for all forests (60.0% vs. 40.0%) and for planted forests (58.1% vs. 41.9%), while the latter contributed more than the former for natural forests (87.0% vs. 13.0%). In Japan, increased biomass density dominated the C sink for all (101.5%), planted (91.1%), and natural (123.8%) forests. Forests in South Korea also acted as a C sink, contributing 9.4% of the total region's sink because of increased forest growth (98.6%). Compared to these countries, the reduction in forest land in both North Korea and Mongolia caused a C loss at an average rate of 9.0 Tg C yr(-1), equal to 13.4% of the total region's C sink. Over the last four decades, the biomass C sequestration by East Asia's forests offset 5.8% of its contemporary fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. PMID:24464906

  18. The impact on the present and future East Asia climate of the land cover changes simulated by dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boo, Kyung-On; Cho, Mee-Hyun; Martin, Gill; Lee, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Land surface properties are important because of their known impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. Historical and future changes in land cover changes give influences on the monsoon rainfall and circulation over the Asian summer monsoon region. The dynamic vegetation model, as one of the key process of the Earth System model, simulates the terrestrial biosphere where the fraction of tree and grass species is a function of the local climate state. The potential effect of the simulated land cover distribution needs to be individually evaluated in present and future climate simulations. Since it is reported that the simulated land surface properties could give influence on the systematic biases in monsoon rainfall and add an impact in the future projection via feedback with the dust loading of the atmosphere [Martin and Levine, 2012]. Motivated by the previous study, we investigate the impact of land cover change generated by the interactive terrestrial carbon cycle in the HadGEM2 Earth System configuration over East Asia under present-day and possible future climate condition. Data in this study is HadGEM2-A runs using HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution in Martin and Levine [2012]. In present-day run, over the northern China region to the west of Korea, bare soil increase distinctly in HadGEM2-ES rather than HadGEM2-AO. ES land cover by interactive vegetation model gives influences on JJA rainfall and temperature. There is interaction with model systematic biases in the present-day climate. JJA dry bias is larger when HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution was used for Korea. Dust aerosol effect contributes to the dry bias. As bare soil fraction increases, more emitted dust aerosol has direct effect of negative net downward SW, cooling the land surface, weakening monsoon inflow, inducing dry bias over Korea. In the other hand, over bare soil expanded area, changes in roughness length and soil evaporation, the subsequent latent heat flux changes contribute to local surface warming in JJA. In global warming, warmer and wetter climate in JJA is expected in East Asia. Relative to global warming, ES land cover and dust direct effects are small and the details are presented. Acknowledgements. This study is supported by the National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration (NIMR-2012-B-2).

  19. Gondwana and Cathaysian blocks, palaeotethys sutures and cenozoic tectonics in South-east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles S. Hutchison

    1994-01-01

    The Triassic Indosinian Orogeny followed extinction of the Palaeotethys Ocean resulting in suturing of Gondwana affinity and Cathaysian blocks. The Gondwana affinity Sinoburmalaya block of Peninsular Malaysia, characterized by Carboniferous---Permian mudstones containing glacial dropstones and sparse fauna and flora, is traced extensively into Sumatra. This mudstone facies is flanked on the east by a sandstone-dominated facies and by carbonate localized

  20. East Asia and Europe during the 1997 Asian collapse: a clinical study of a financial crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Chakrabarti; Richard Roll

    2002-01-01

    Asian stock markets are compared with European markets before and during the 1997 Asian crisis. The clinical issue is whether regional inter-dependence became larger around the crisis, fomenting investor fears of contagion and reducing asset values because of lower diversification potential. Statistical measures are developed to aid in this inquiry. We find that European and East Asian countries were not

  1. The Mexican Experience with Neoliberalism: Critical Lessons for Korea and East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Hart-Landsberg

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 1997-98 East Asian crisis triggered a wave of neoliberal-influenced economic restructuring throughout the region. In most casesworking,people opposed this restructuring, fearing that it would produce greater inequality and poverty, higher levels of unemployment,and greater workplace insecurity. Mainstream economists and

  2. Conservation of honey bee species in South East Asia: Apis mellifera or native bees?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panuwan Chantawannakul; Stephen Petersen; Siriwat Wongsiri

    2004-01-01

    The conservation of biodiversity could be the greatest challenge that mankind has ever faced. Honey bees are an important part of that biodiversity and this paper discusses honey bee diversity and its importance for the South East Asian community. It also describes the current situation of the introduced species, Apis mellifera, and its effect on the beekeeping industry in this

  3. Education and Cultural Pluralism in South East Asia, with Special Reference to Peninsular Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, J. K. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines educational policies in certain culturally plural South East Asian societies in relation to hypotheses concerning differences in educational policies resulting from the threat felt by the dominant elite and the effects of educational and national language policies on the assimilation or alienation of different ethnic groups.…

  4. The Development of CJK Bibliographic Databases in North America and East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H. Lee

    1988-01-01

    The successful development of computer technology for automating Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CIK) vernacular scripts and the completion of the RLIN CJK system in 1983 marked the beginning of online operations of East Asian libraries in North America and helped keep them in the mainstream of library automation. The RLIN CIK system and the subsequently developed OCLC CJK system are

  5. The oriental fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. in East Asia: disentangling the different forces promoting the invasion and shaping the genetic make-up of populations.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, N; Guglielmino, C R; Karam, N; Falchetto, M; Manni, M; Scolari, F; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, is one of the most economically destructive pests of fruits and vegetables especially in East Asia. Based on its phytophagous life style, this species dispersed with the diffusion and implementation of agriculture, while globalization allowed it to establish adventive populations in different tropical and subtropical areas of the world. We used nine SSR loci over twelve samples collected across East Asia, i.e. an area that, in relatively few years, has become a theatre of intensive agriculture and a lively fruit trade. Our aim is to disentangle the different forces that have affected the invasion pattern and shaped the genetic make-up of populations of this fruit fly. Our data suggest that the considered samples probably represent well established populations in terms of genetic variability and population structuring. The human influence on the genetic shape of populations and diffusion is evident, but factors such as breeding/habitat size and life history traits of the species may have determined the post introduction phases and expansion. In East Asia the origin of diffusion can most probably be allocated in the oriental coastal provinces of China, from where this fruit fly spread into Southeast Asia. The spread of this species deserves attention for the development and implementation of risk assessment and control measures. PMID:24816716

  6. Gondwana and Cathaysian blocks, palaeotethys sutures and cenozoic tectonics in South-east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles S. Hutchison

    1994-01-01

    The Triassic Indosinian Orogeny followed extinction of the Palaeotethys Ocean resulting in suturing of Gondwana affinity and Cathaysian blocks.The Gondwana affinity Sinoburmalaya block of Peninsular Malaysia, characterized by Carboniferous—Permian mudstones containing glacial dropstones and sparse fauna and flora, is traced extensively into Sumatra. This mudstone facies is flanked on the east by a sandstone-dominated facies and by carbonate localized in

  7. Food Security - Global Trends and Region Perspective with Reference to East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Cheng Chang; Shih-Hsun Hsu

    2011-01-01

    The sharp increase in global food prices during 2007?2008 has triggered the awareness of food insecurity problems and their impacts on the low income, food?deficit countries many of which are located in the East Asian countries. The food?security situation was good in relative terms given that the percentage of carbohydrates consumed is slightly lower than the world average while proteins

  8. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-01

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures. PMID:25275329

  9. Optimising reproductive and child health outcomes by building evidence-based research and practice in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Henderson-Smart, David J; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Mohammad, Hakimi; McDonald, Steve J; Green, Sally; Crowther, Caroline A

    2007-01-01

    Background Disorders related to pregnancy and childbirth are a major health issue in South East Asia. They represent one of the biggest health risk differentials between the developed and developing world. Our broad research question is: Can the health of mothers and babies in Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia be improved by increasing the local capacity for the synthesis of research, implementation of effective interventions, and identification of gaps in knowledge needing further research? Methods/Design The project is a before-after study which planned to benefit from and extend existing regional and international networks. Over five years the project was designed to comprise five phases; pre-study, pre-intervention, intervention, outcome assessment and reporting/dissemination. The study was proposed to be conducted across seven project nodes: four in South East Asia and three in Australia. Each South East Asian study node was planned to be established within an existing department of obstetrics and gynaecology or neonatology and was intended to form the project coordinating centre and focus for evidence-based practice activities within that region. Nine hospitals in South East Asia planned to participate, representing a range of clinical settings. The three project nodes in Australia were intended to provide project support. The intervention was planned to consist of capacity-strengthening activities targeted at three groups: generators of evidence, users of evidence and teachers of evidence. The primary outcome was established as changes in adherence to recommended clinical practices from baseline to completion of the project and impact on health outcomes. Discussion The SEA-ORCHID project was intended to improve care during pregnancy and the perinatal period of mothers and their babies in South East Asia. The possible benefits extend beyond this however, as at the end of this project there is hoped to be an existing network of South East Asian researchers and health care providers with the capacity to generalise this model to other health priority areas. It is anticipated that this project facilitate ongoing development of evidence-based practice and policy in South East Asia through attracting long-term funding, expansion into other hospitals and community-based care and the establishment of nodes in other countries. PMID:17892586

  10. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis products of downward surface solar radiation over East Asia: Spatial and seasonal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Binghao; Xie, Zhenghui; Dai, Aiguo; Shi, Chunxiang; Chen, Feng

    2013-05-01

    Surface solar radiation plays a crucial role in surface energy and water budgets, and it is also an important forcing for land hydrological models. In this study, the downward surface solar radiation (DSSR) from two satellite products, the Fengyun-2C satellite (FY-2C) and the Fast Longwave and Shortwave Radiative Fluxes project (FLASHFlux), and two reanalysis datasets, NCEP-DOE and ERA-Interim, was evaluated against ground-based observations (OBS) from 94 stations over mainland China during July 2006 to June 2009. It is found that the mean DSSR derived from FY-2C is comparable to OBS, with small positive biases of 3.0 Wm-2 for daily data and 3.5 Wm-2 for monthly data and moderate RMSEs of 49.3 Wm-2 (daily) and 31.9 Wm-2 (monthly). These results are comparable to those for FLASHFlux, which has the lowest RMSEs (43.2 Wm-2 and 30.5 Wm-2 for daily and monthly data, respectively) and the strongest correlations with OBS (r = 0.90 and 0.93 for daily and monthly data, respectively) among the four products. The DSSR from the reanalyses has much larger RMSEs and generally lower correlations with OBS than the satellite products, especially for the NCEP-DOE products. Results also show that daily DSSR values are sensitive to the averaging grid size, while monthly mean DSSR is largely insensitive to the averaging scale. The DSSR from the four datasets over East Asia shows similar spatial patterns with large seasonal variations but differs in magnitude. In summer, high DSSR is observed over western China, while low DSSR is seen primarily over South Asia and the Sichuan Basin associated with extensive cloud cover (CC) and large precipitable water (PW). In winter, the high DSSR center shifts to South Asia due to decreased CC and PW, and the DSSR decreases from the South to the North. Deficiencies in the parameterizations of clouds, aerosols, and water vapor, as well as errors in atmospheric and surface properties for the retrieval algorithms contribute to the lower correlation of the DSSR derived from FY-2C (r = 0.82 and 0.90 for daily and monthly data) with OBS than those from FLASHFlux product. Further improvements to the representation of clouds and aerosols in the FY-2C retrieval algorithm are needed.

  11. ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the ‘ELSI 2.0’ initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

  12. Comparison of Gosat CAI and SPOT Vgt Ndvi Data with Different Season and Land Cover in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Guo, M.; Tani, H.

    2011-08-01

    The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has become one of the most widely used indices in remote sensing applications in a variety of fields. Many studies have compared the NDVI values for different satellite sensors. Nowadays, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched on January 23, 2009. It is used to monitor greenhouse gases on the Earth's surface and also has a sensor, the Cloud Aerosol Imager (CAI), that senses red and near infrared spectrums. It can also process NDVI data. Therefore, we are first compare GOSAT CAI and SPOT VGT NDVI data in different seasonal and land cover in East Asian, to explore the relationship between the two types of datasets, and to discuss the possibility of extending SPOT VGT data using GOSAT CAI NDVI data for the same area. We used GOSAT CAI Level 3 data to derive 10-day composite NDVI values for the East Asia region for November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 using the maximum value composite (MVC) method. We compared these values with 10-day composite SPOT VGT NDVI data for the same period. The results show that the correlation coefficients of regression analysis generally revealed a strong correlation between NDVI from the two sensors in November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 (0.88, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively). The differences place may be affected by cloud cover. From the combined analysis of seasonal changes and land cover, we found that the correlations between the SPOT VGT and the GOSAT CAI NDVI data are less affected by seasonal change and the SPOT VGT data is more sensitive to high vegetation coverage than the GOSAT CAI data. In the future, through continued monitoring and processing by cloud removal technology, the accuracy of GOSAT CAI NDVI data will be further improved and thus be more widely used.

  13. Asynchronous evolution of the Indian and East Asian Summer Monsoon indicated by Holocene moisture patterns in monsoonal central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongbo; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2010-12-01

    The numerical meta-analysis of 92 proxy records (72 sites) of moisture and/or temperature change confirms earlier findings that the dominant trends of climatic evolution in monsoonal central Asia since the Last Glacial roughly parallel changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, i.e. the period following the Last Glacial Maximum was characterized by dry and cold conditions until 15 cal. kyr BP, followed by a warm, wet period coincident with the Bølling/Allerød warm period and terminated by a cold, dry reversal during the Younger Dryas period. After an abrupt increase at the start of the Holocene, warm and wet conditions prevailed until ca. 4 cal. kyr BP when moisture levels and temperatures started to decrease. Ordination of moisture records reveals strong spatial heterogeneity in moisture evolution during the last 10 cal. kyr. The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) areas (northern India, Tibetan Plateau and southwest China) exhibit maximum wet conditions during the early Holocene, while many records from the area of the East Asian Summer Monsoon indicate relatively dry conditions, especially in north-central China where the maximum moisture levels occurred during the mid-Holocene. We assign such phenomena to strengthened Hadley Circulation centered over the Tibetan Plateau during the early Holocene which resulted in subsidence in the East Asian monsoonal regions leading to relatively dry conditions. Our observations of the asynchronous nature of the two Asian monsoon subsystems on millennial time scales have also been observed on annual time-scales as well as implied through the spatial analysis of vertical air motion patterns after strong ascending airflows over the Tibetan Plateau area that were calculated from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for the last 30 years. Analogous with the early Holocene, the enhancement of the ISM in a 'future warming world' will result in an increase in the asynchronous nature of the monsoon subsystems; this trend is already observed in the meteorological data from the last 15 years.

  14. Impact of vegetation on land-atmosphere coupling strength and its implication for desertification mitigation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Boksoon; Choi, Yong-Sang; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Seon Ki

    2012-06-01

    Desertification of the East Asian drylands and the consequent dust transport have been serious concerns for adjacent Asian countries as well as the western United States. Tree planting has been considered one applicable strategy to mitigate the desertification. However, the desired effect of the tree planting would not be brought to fruition unless the newly planted trees change the coupling characteristics between the land and the atmosphere. Based on this perception, we attempt to clarify the effects of vegetation on the coupling strength between the atmosphere and land surface, and we suggest the most efficient areas of tree planting for desertification mitigation in East Asia. Using regional vegetation-atmosphere coupled model simulations, coupling strength with and without vegetation was computed and compared with each other. An increased vegetation fraction reduces the coupling strength in June, July, and August (JJA), primarily due to decreased evapotranspiration variability. This effect is pronounced over the Manchurian Plains and the highly populated areas of Beijing and Tianjin. The reduced coupling strength tends to weaken feedback between soil moisture and precipitation as a maintenance mechanism of warm season droughts in the midlatitudes and subsequently decrease the probability of droughts, a finding that is reflected in the enhanced JJA mean soil moisture. However, some drylands like the eastern edges of the Gobi desert present marginal or even opposite changes in coupling strength, meaning a limited effect of vegetation on relieving droughts. Therefore, given limited financial and human resources, acupuncture-like afforestation, i.e., concentrated tree planting in a particular region where the coupling strength can be substantially reduced by vegetation, is an effective strategy to secure long-standing desertification mitigation.

  15. Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constraints on volatile organic compound emissions in east and south Asia and implications for ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzung-May Fu; Daniel J. Jacob; Paul I. Palmer; Kelly Chance; Yuxuan X. Wang; Barbara Barletta; Donald R. Blake; Jenny C. Stanton; Michael J. Pilling

    2007-01-01

    We use a continuous 6-year record (1996-2001) of GOME satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) columns over east and south Asia to improve regional emission estimates of reactive nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), including isoprene, alkenes, HCHO, and xylenes. Mean monthly HCHO observations are compared to simulated HCHO columns from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model using state-of-science, ``bottom-up'' emission inventories from

  16. Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases Over NW Pacific During IOC 2002 Cruise - Pollutants Transported From East Asia and Biogenic Species Emitted From Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kato; T. Ui; M. Uematsu; Y. Kajii

    2002-01-01

    The R\\/V Melville cruised from Osaka (Japan) on May 1st to Hawaii on Jun 5th, as a project of Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) 2002. During this cruise, atmospheric trace gases (O3, CO, DMS, many hydrocarbons, and halocarbons) were measured. It is expected that polluted air as well as Kosa from east Asia is transported to the Pacific in this season.

  17. Kidnappings, Missiles, and Nukes!: Outlooks and recommendations for the next President to make sure our strongest ally in East Asia...stays our strongest ally

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathew Mikuni

    2008-01-01

    Japan has been, and continues to be, the United States? strongest ally in East Asia. In spite of significant constitutional restrictions and domestic opposition, Japan has actively contributed to America?s counter-terrorism efforts, providing rear end support for US operations in Afghanistan, and even deploying peacekeepers to Iraq. The US-Japan Relationship, while being one of the closest in the world, is

  18. Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTrE nEwS 2

    E-print Network

    Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTrE nEwS 2 Conf) ISSn 1322 0462 ThE AfghAnISTAn ConflICT: AuSTrAlIA'S rolE The Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies held of critical concern for the future of the Afghan state and Australia's commitment. The difficulties of both

  19. Tackling the malaria problem in the South-East Asia Region: Need for a change in policy?

    PubMed Central

    Bharati, Kaushik; Ganguly, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is largely neglected in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR), although it has the highest number of people susceptible to the disease. Malaria in the SEAR exhibits special epidemiological characteristics such as “forest malaria” and malaria due to migration across international borders. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has been a focal-point for the emergence of drug resistant malaria. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, coupled with the limited availability of insecticides, malaria control efforts in the SEAR face a steep challenge. Indirect man-made factors such as climate change, as well as direct man-made factors such as the circulation of counterfeit drugs have added to the problem. Increased monitoring, surveillance, pharmacovigilance as well as cross-border collaboration are required to address these problems. Regional networking and data-sharing will keep all stakeholders updated about the status of various malaria control programmes in the SEAR. Cutting-edge technologies such as GIS/GPS (geographical information system/global positioning system) systems and mobile phones can provide information in “real-time”. A holistic and sustained approach to malaria control by integrated vector management (IVM) is suggested, in which all the stakeholder countries work collaboratively as a consortium. This approach will address the malaria problem in a collective manner so that malaria control can be sustained over time. PMID:23481050

  20. Population genetic structure of Oryza sativa in East and Southeast Asia and the discovery of elite alleles for grain traits

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Xiaojing; Giang Tran Thi, Thu; Mawuli Edzesi, Wisdom; Liang, Lijun; Liu, Qiangming; Liu, Erbao; Wang, Yang; Qiang, Sheng; Liu, Linglong; Hong, Delin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotypes of 532 rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions collected from East and Southeast Asia and detected abundant genetic diversity within the population. We identified 6 subpopulations and found a tendency towards directional evolution in O. sativa from low to high latitudes, with levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the 6 subpopulations ranging from 10 to 30?cM. We then investigated the phenotypic data for grain length, grain width, grain thickness and 1,000-grain weight over 4 years. Using a genome-wide association analysis, we identified 17 marker-trait associations involving 14 SSR markers on 12 chromosome arms, and 8 of the 17 associations were novel. The elite alleles were mined based on the phenotypic effects of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These elite alleles could be used to improve target traits through optimal cross designs, with the expected results obtained by pyramiding or substituting the elite alleles per QTL (independent of possible epistatic effects). Together, these results provide an in-depth understanding of the genetic diversity pattern among rice-grain traits across a broad geographic scale, which has potential use in future research work, including studies related to germplasm conservation and molecular breeding by design. PMID:26059752

  1. An overview of the studies on black carbon and mineral dust deposition in snow and ice cores in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Xu, Baiqing; Ming, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the most effective insoluble light-absorbing particulate (ILAP), which can strongly absorb solar radiation at visible wavelengths. Once BC is deposited in snow via dry or wet process, even a small amount of BC could significantly decrease snow albedo, enhance absorption of solar radiation, accelerate snow melting, and cause climate feedback. BC is considered the second most important component next to CO2 in terms of global warming. Similarly, mineral dust (MD) is another type of ILAP. So far, little attention has been paid to quantitative measurements of BC and MD deposition on snow surface in the midlatitudes of East Asia, especially over northern China. In this paper, we focus on reviewing several experiments performed for collecting and measuring scavenging BC and MD in the high Asian glaciers over the mount' range (such as the Himalayas) and in seasonal snow over northern China. Results from the surveyed literature indicate that the absorption of ILAP in seasonal snow is dominated by MD in the Qilian Mount's and by local soil dust in the Inner Mongolian region close to dust sources. The detection of BC in snow and ice cores using modern techniques has a large bias and uncert'ty when the snow sample is mixed with MD. Evidence also indicates that the reduction of snow albedo by BC and MD perturbations can significantly increase the net surface solar radiation, cause surface air temperature to rise, reduce snow accumulation, and accelerate snow melting.

  2. Population genetic structure of Oryza sativa in East and Southeast Asia and the discovery of elite alleles for grain traits.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiaojing; Giang Tran Thi, Thu; Mawuli Edzesi, Wisdom; Liang, Lijun; Liu, Qiangming; Liu, Erbao; Wang, Yang; Qiang, Sheng; Liu, Linglong; Hong, Delin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotypes of 532 rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions collected from East and Southeast Asia and detected abundant genetic diversity within the population. We identified 6 subpopulations and found a tendency towards directional evolution in O. sativa from low to high latitudes, with levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the 6 subpopulations ranging from 10 to 30?cM. We then investigated the phenotypic data for grain length, grain width, grain thickness and 1,000-grain weight over 4 years. Using a genome-wide association analysis, we identified 17 marker-trait associations involving 14 SSR markers on 12 chromosome arms, and 8 of the 17 associations were novel. The elite alleles were mined based on the phenotypic effects of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These elite alleles could be used to improve target traits through optimal cross designs, with the expected results obtained by pyramiding or substituting the elite alleles per QTL (independent of possible epistatic effects). Together, these results provide an in-depth understanding of the genetic diversity pattern among rice-grain traits across a broad geographic scale, which has potential use in future research work, including studies related to germplasm conservation and molecular breeding by design. PMID:26059752

  3. Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Foster, William A; Snaddon, Jake L; Turner, Edgar C; Fayle, Tom M; Cockerill, Timothy D; Ellwood, M D Farnon; Broad, Gavin R; Chung, Arthur Y C; Eggleton, Paul; Khen, Chey Vun; Yusah, Kalsum M

    2011-11-27

    The conversion of natural forest to oil palm plantation is a major current threat to the conservation of biodiversity in South East Asia. Most animal taxa decrease in both species richness and abundance on conversion of forest to oil palm, and there is usually a severe loss of forest species. The extent of loss varies significantly across both different taxa and different microhabitats within the oil palm habitat. The principal driver of this loss in diversity is probably the biological and physical simplification of the habitat, but there is little direct evidence for this. The conservation of forest species requires the preservation of large reserves of intact forest, but we must not lose sight of the importance of conserving biodiversity and ecosystem processes within the oil palm habitat itself. We urgently need to carry out research that will establish whether maintaining diversity supports economically and ecologically important processes. There is some evidence that both landscape and local complexity can have positive impacts on biodiversity in the oil palm habitat. By intelligent manipulation of habitat complexity, it could be possible to enhance not only the number of species that can live in oil palm plantations but also their contribution to the healthy functioning of this exceptionally important and widespread landscape. PMID:22006968

  4. Satellite-Based Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Water Balance in the Grassland Ecosystems of Dryland East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr?1 over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr?1 from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

  5. A Delay Differential Equation Model for Dengue Fever Transmission in Selected Countries of South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakdanupaph, Werapong; Moore, Elvin J.

    2009-08-01

    Dengue Fever is a dangerous viral disease that is transmitted by female Aedes mosquitoes and is common in more than 100 countries in the world and in all countries of South-East Asia. Mathematical models of Dengue Fever transmission are useful for studying the causes of the spread of the disease and to try to develop methods for reducing the spread of the disease. In this paper, a mathematical model for Dengue fever is analyzed consisting of a system of four nonlinear differential equations with two time delays. The model includes infected humans, infectious humans, infected mosquitoes and infectious mosquitoes. The model has disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. The asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points are studied analytically. The Matlab computer program is used to obtain numerical solutions of the model for both zero and nonzero time delays for a range of parameter values. It is found that for some reasonable estimates of parameter values the endemic equilibrium point is asymptotically stable, but the approach to equilibrium is very slow, suggesting that this equilibrium point may not be of practical importance for these parameter values. Some comparisons are made between the model results and the actual data for Dengue Fever in Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

  6. Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Foster, William A.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.; Fayle, Tom M.; Cockerill, Timothy D.; Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Broad, Gavin R.; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Eggleton, Paul; Khen, Chey Vun; Yusah, Kalsum M.

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of natural forest to oil palm plantation is a major current threat to the conservation of biodiversity in South East Asia. Most animal taxa decrease in both species richness and abundance on conversion of forest to oil palm, and there is usually a severe loss of forest species. The extent of loss varies significantly across both different taxa and different microhabitats within the oil palm habitat. The principal driver of this loss in diversity is probably the biological and physical simplification of the habitat, but there is little direct evidence for this. The conservation of forest species requires the preservation of large reserves of intact forest, but we must not lose sight of the importance of conserving biodiversity and ecosystem processes within the oil palm habitat itself. We urgently need to carry out research that will establish whether maintaining diversity supports economically and ecologically important processes. There is some evidence that both landscape and local complexity can have positive impacts on biodiversity in the oil palm habitat. By intelligent manipulation of habitat complexity, it could be possible to enhance not only the number of species that can live in oil palm plantations but also their contribution to the healthy functioning of this exceptionally important and widespread landscape. PMID:22006968

  7. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast Asia that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of people as quickly as possible. Evan without financial constraints, the Decade would not reach its goals unless critical manpower and institutional problems were addressed forthwith. Efforts are needed to train engineers, other specialists, and staff in the subprofessional and artisan categories. Good management requires intersectoral coordination. A decentralized "buttom-up" approach is mandatory at the planning stage, with strong financial, administrative, and technical support for implementation. Technology must be relevant, cost effective, feasible, necessary, sufficient, and energy conserving. Communities benefitting from the Decade should be encouraged to participate in the decision making process to the maximum extent possible. Country specific studies should be conducted to document the hardships of women and activities should be disigned to alleviate their burdens. The provisioon of sanitation lags far behind that of drinking water, and low cost technology options for excreta disposal must be adopted. The responsibility for operation and maintenance should be delegated to the lowest level and to the community, with technical support from higher levels. PMID:6475035

  8. Environmental ecological modeling of human blood lead levels in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Takao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Wang, Zifa; Koizumi, Akio

    2011-04-01

    Environmental ecological modeling (EEM), which unifies models simulating transport of chemicals and exposure of humans to chemicals, was used to simulate long-term trends of female adult human blood lead levels (BLLs) and historical exposure to the atmospheric lead in four East Asian countries: Japan, Korea, China, and Vietnam. Anthropogenic lead emissions to the atmosphere in Vietnam were estimated from energy statistics to be 1931 t yr(-1). Calculated BLLs generally agreed with those observed in samples collected in these countries as the error factors were less than 2. The model results revealed that BLLs decreased significantly in Tokyo (by 58%) and Seoul (by 45%) in recent decades and confirmed the effects of efforts to reduce environmental lead in Japan and Korea. The model results also revealed that BLLs in Beijing did not decrease in this decade as much as in Tokyo and Seoul, despite the phasing out of leaded gasoline, and that the contribution from the atmospheric component was increasing (43% in 2009). Finally, we applied EEM to simulate BLLs of children in Hanoi. The probability of children having BLLs greater than 50 ?g L(-1) was 7.5%, which was greater than those observed in developed countries. PMID:21355531

  9. Neorickettsia sennetsu as a Neglected Cause of Fever in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Sabine; Phuklia, Weerawat; Turner, Gareth D H; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Chansamouth, Vilada; Dumler, Stephen J; Ferguson, David J P; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-07-01

    Neorickettsia sennetsu infection is rarely recognized, with less than 100 globally reported patients over the last 50 years. The disease is thought to be contracted by eating raw fish, a staple of many South-East Asian cuisines. In 2009, the first patient with sennetsu was identified in the Lao PDR (Laos), raising the question as to how common this organism and related species are in patients presenting with fever. We investigated the frequency of N. sennetsu infection at hospitals in diverse areas of Laos. Consenting febrile hospital inpatients from central (Vientiane: n = 1,013), northern (Luang Namtha: n = 453) and southern (Salavan: n = 171) Laos were screened by PCR for N. sennetsu, if no previous positive direct diagnostic test was available. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed to differentiate between N. sennetsu, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. To allow more detailed studies of N. sennetsu, culture was successfully established using a reference strain (ATCC VR-367), identifying a canine-macrophage cell line (DH82) to be most suitable to visually identify infection. After screening, N. sennetsu was identified and sequence confirmed in four (4/1,637; 0.2%) Lao patients. Despite the previously identified high seroprevalence of N. sennetsu antibodies in the Lao population (~17%), acute N. sennetsu infection with sufficient clinical signs to prompt hospitalization appears to be rare. The reservoir, zoonotic cycle and pathogenicity of N. sennetsu remain unclear and require further investigations. PMID:26158273

  10. Neorickettsia sennetsu as a Neglected Cause of Fever in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, Sabine; Phuklia, Weerawat; Turner, Gareth D. H.; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Chansamouth, Vilada; Dumler, Stephen J.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Paris, Daniel H.; Newton, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    Neorickettsia sennetsu infection is rarely recognized, with less than 100 globally reported patients over the last 50 years. The disease is thought to be contracted by eating raw fish, a staple of many South-East Asian cuisines. In 2009, the first patient with sennetsu was identified in the Lao PDR (Laos), raising the question as to how common this organism and related species are in patients presenting with fever. We investigated the frequency of N. sennetsu infection at hospitals in diverse areas of Laos. Consenting febrile hospital inpatients from central (Vientiane: n = 1,013), northern (Luang Namtha: n = 453) and southern (Salavan: n = 171) Laos were screened by PCR for N. sennetsu, if no previous positive direct diagnostic test was available. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed to differentiate between N. sennetsu, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. To allow more detailed studies of N. sennetsu, culture was successfully established using a reference strain (ATCC VR-367), identifying a canine-macrophage cell line (DH82) to be most suitable to visually identify infection. After screening, N. sennetsu was identified and sequence confirmed in four (4/1,637; 0.2%) Lao patients. Despite the previously identified high seroprevalence of N. sennetsu antibodies in the Lao population (~17%), acute N. sennetsu infection with sufficient clinical signs to prompt hospitalization appears to be rare. The reservoir, zoonotic cycle and pathogenicity of N. sennetsu remain unclear and require further investigations. PMID:26158273

  11. Learning cities in East Asia: Japan, the Republic of Korea and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, SoongHee; Makino, Atsushi

    2013-09-01

    Lifelong learning cities emerged in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s; in the Republic of Korea in the 2000s and 2010s; and in China mostly from 2000 onwards. They were a countermeasure to the increasing challenges of global as well as post-industrial uncertainties at the turn of the century, when cities were trying to find governmental instruments to engage in cultural processes, community building and personal development as the new way of urban life. Learning was perceived to be a panacea to solve the social problems occurring in overwhelming processes of modernisation and industrialisation. The authors of this paper assert that the practice of and research on learning cities, especially in the East Asian region, need to go beyond the technical rationalities which are guiding government tools, and explain the realities to which they are meant to be applied. In order to do this, the authors investigated three separate but inter-connected scenes found in Japan, the Republic of Korea and China, revealing that the learning city is a phenomenon which reflects complex social dynamics and the interaction of many minds. While the cases in this region are distinctive, they do share some common characteristics. The authors place these within what they term a "community relations model", which they contrast with the "individual competence model" which is usually found in initiatives of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and schemes implemented in the area of the European Union (EU).

  12. Lidar measurements of Raman scattering at ultraviolet wavelength from mineral dust over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tatarov, Boyan; Müller, Detlef; Shin, Dong Ho; Shin, Sung Kyun; Mattis, Ina; Seifert, Patric; Noh, Young Min; Kim, Y J; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2011-01-17

    We developed a novel measurement channel that utilizes Raman scattering from silicon dioxide (SiO2) quartz at an ultraviolet wavelength (361 nm). The excitation of the Raman signals is done at the primary wavelength of 355 nm emitted from a lidar instrument. In combination with Raman signals from scattering from nitrogen molecules, we may infer the mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient. This technique thus allows us to identify in a comparably direct way the mineral quartz content in mixed pollution plumes that consist, e.g., of a mix of desert dust and urban pollution. We tested the channel for the complex situation of East Asian pollution. We find good agreement of the inferred mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient to results obtained with another mineral quartz channel which was operated at 546 nm (primary emission wavelength at 532 nm), the functionality of which has already been shown for a lidar system in Tsukuba (Japan). The advantage of the novel channel is that it provides a better signal-to-noise ratio because of the shorter measurement wavelength. PMID:21263697

  13. Seasonal cycles of the cyclone activity and the large-scale environmental fields in Europe ( Comparing with those in East Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, Yumi; Kato, Kuranoshin

    2015-04-01

    The climate in the midlatitude region, where the mean meridional temperature gradient is large, is generally characterized by the alternative passages of extratropical cyclones and anticyclones (the baroclinic instability waves). Their seasonal cycles are also considerable. However, both Europe and East Asia are located in such temperature climate zone, seasonal change in the mean temperature fields is rather different with each other. This would influence greatly on the differences of the dominant daily systems in the seasonal cycles such as the cyclones between both regions. Thus we analyzed the seasonal cyclones of the large-scale atmospheric mean fields and the cyclone activity in Europe by comparing with those in East Asia in the present study, although Kato and Kato (2014) summarized the characteristic of "spring" at the similar viewpoint. NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data were mainly used. As for the climatological monthly mean fields (1981~2010), the meridional temperature gradient in East Asia presents striking seasonal change with the maximum in winter and the minimum in summer. It is interesting that such transitions from winter to summer and that from summer to winter occur rather rapidly accompanied by the great temperature increase around April~ June and the decrease around October~ November, respectively, in a wide region of 40~70N. On the other hand, temperature gradient in Europe is relatively smaller or than in East Asia and nearly the same magnitude throughout the year. By the way, in spite of the above difference of the horizontal temperature gradient between Europe and East Asia, the cyclone activity does not seem to be so small even around Europe. Thus, the seasonal cycle of the characteristics of the cyclones and their environmental fields around Europe was examined. At the first step, we analyzed the daily cyclonic activity in Europe for January and July 2000. Many low pressure centers at the surface level appeared in both January and July. Referring also to the daily SLP and Z500 maps, we found that not only the cyclones corresponding to the baroclinic instability waves, but also the cold vortex type cyclones which amplitudes become greater with height appeared frequently. Moreover, it is interesting that the large-scale cold vortex, which embeds the shortwave trough with the low center also at the surface level, appeared in the northern Europe in July as for in East Asia, where such multi-scale systems sometimes bring the persisting heavy snowfall events in the Japan Sea side of the Japan Islands in winter. At the EGU 2015, we will also show the further analysis results on including these the detailed structures and the environmental fields of these cyclone types and extend the analysis for the whole seasonal cycle, at the viewpoint of comparing the features between Europe and East Asia.

  14. The challenge of institution-building in Asia and its implications for Asia-Europe relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fukunari Kimura

    2003-01-01

      East Asia, including Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia, has developed tightly-linked production\\/distribution networks through\\u000a globalizing corporate activities. The vertical chain of production in East Asia has been even more sophisticated than economic\\u000a integration in East Europe or Latin America. However, the political environment of East Asia for trade and investment has\\u000a been far from borderless. The integration effort at the

  15. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to sediments of the Bohai and Yellow Seas in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tian; Hu, Limin; Guo, Zhigang; Qin, Yanwen; Yang, Zuosheng; Zhang, Gan; Zheng, Mei

    2011-12-01

    The coasts of Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS) in China support almost one-quarter of its population and provide more than one-third of the national GDP. BS and YS are downwind of the Asian continental outflow in spring and winter as influenced by the East Asian monsoon. This makes the two seas important sinks of land-based pollutants associated with the Asian continental outflow. The sixteen U.S. EPA proposed priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 130 surface sediment samples collected from BS and YS were measured. Combined with our previous PAH data of 90 PM2.5 samples from the upwind areas, the sources of the PAHs in BS and YS were apportioned using positive matrix factorization (PMF) modeling. Four sources were identified: petroleum residue, vehicular emissions, coal combustion and biomass burning. Petroleum residue was the dominant contributor of PAHs in the coast of the Bohai Bay probably due to Haihe River runoff, oil leakage from ships and offshore oil fields. The contribution of vehicular emissions in BS was higher than that in YS, and the reverse was true for coal combustion and biomass burning. This difference in the source patterns in the sediments of the two seas could be attributed to the different PAH emission features of the upwind area related to demographic and economic conditions, as well as the marine geography. The ratios of selected 4-6 ring PAHs in the sediments compared well with those of the PM2.5 of the upwind areas, implicating that the particle phase PAHs in the atmosphere play an important role in the source to sink process of the pyrogenic PAHs in the region.

  16. UCLA Asia Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The UCLA Asia Institute "promotes Asian Studies at UCLA and fosters greater understanding of Asia through a wide variety of research support, public programs, and community outreach on East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia." On their homepage, visitors can read their monthly newsletter, read about their project announcements, and upcoming conferences, such as the "Asia in LA: Musical Treasures of Asia", which was held in May 2011. Moving along, the "Podcasts" area includes talks from 2006 to the present. Here visitors will find thoughtful presentations titled "South Asian Entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan: The Silk Road Reborn?" and "Entwinements of Islam Modernity in Central Asia". Scholars in the field won't want to miss the "Joint Research Initiatives" section, which includes synopsis of the Institute's partnerships with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and the East China Normal University in Shanghai.

  17. Labour migration from South and South-East Asia: some policy issues.

    PubMed

    Abella, M I

    1984-01-01

    The rise in migration for employment since the mid-1970s has had serious consequences for many Asian countries. This discussion examines the issues raised by the migration abroad of thousands of skilled workers and the efforts that sending countries have made in recent years to bring the effects of labor migration more closely into line with their development objectives. It also considers several problem areas requiring the attention of policymakers and authorities responsible for the administration of overseas employment policies. It is estimated that between 1976-81 annual labor migrant flows from the 8 major sending countries in Asia increased sevenfold, from a mere 146,400 to over 1 million. The Asian migrant workers tend to be young, male, married (with dependents in the sending country), and better educated than the average home population. Most of them come from rural areas and are predominantly employed in construction and labor. The most distinctive feature of these workers is their concentration in a few blue collar occupations--carpenters, masons, electricians, plumbers, lorry drivers, mechanics, and heavy equipment operators. These production and trnasport workers outnumber the professional and technical workers by anywhere from 3 to 1 (Philippines) to 17 to 1 (Pakistan and Sri Lanka). At the aggregate level labor emigration affects the sending country's economy through its impact on the labor market, on the financial market, and on the market for goods and services. It can be argued that the outflow of a significant proportion of the labor force should lead directly to a rise in labor projectivity in the sending country since capital per worker among those left behind will increase, yet it can also be argued that since migration sifts out the most skilled and experienced workers there will be an erosion of the country's human captial resources. Specific measures have been adopted in most labor sending Asian countries to protect the welfare of migrant workers, to regulate conditions of employment abroad, to restrict the outflow of scarce skills, and to secure new overseas markets for nationals. Despite the efforts of governments to ensure that workers have satisfactory contracts on going abroad, many cases of "contract substitution" have been reported. The present attitude of many governments toward private recruiters seems to reflect both an acknowledgement of their effectiveness in finding job placements overseas and a growing concern to regulate their activities. The present trend seems to be to allow private agencies easier access while exercising greater supervision over those permitted to operate. The impact of labor migration on the labor markets of sending countries has not been uniformly damaging, but most of the countries have adopted 1 kind of policy or another to reduce the outflow of scarce skills. The use of material and other incentives for retaining workers in the country has obvious advantages but is not very widespread. PMID:12266362

  18. An unrecognized major collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia during the Late Cretaceous, constraints on the plate reorganization of the Northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-Tai

    2013-11-01

    Interactions at plate boundaries induce stresses that constitute critical controls on the structural evolution of intraplate regions. However, the traditional tectonic model for the East Asian margin during the Mesozoic, invoking successive episodes of paleo-Pacific oceanic subduction, does not provide an adequate context for important Late Cretaceous dynamics across East Asia, including: continental-scale orogenic processes, significant sinistral strike-slip faulting, and several others. The integration of numerous documented field relations requires a new tectonic model, as proposed here. The Okhotomorsk continental block, currently residing below the Okhotsk Sea in Northeast Asia, was located in the interior of the Izanagi Plate before the Late Cretaceous. It moved northwestward with the Izanagi Plate and collided with the South China Block at about 100 Ma. The indentation of the Okhotomorsk Block within East Asia resulted in the formation of a sinistral strike-slip fault system in South China, formation of a dextral strike-slip fault system in North China, and regional northwest-southeast shortening and orogenic uplift in East Asia. Northeast-striking mountain belts over 500 km wide extended from Southeast China to Southwest Japan and South Korea. The peak metamorphism at about 89 Ma of the Sanbagawa high-pressure metamorphic belt in Southwest Japan was probably related to the continental subduction of the Okhotomorsk Block beneath the East Asian margin. Subsequently, the north-northwestward change of motion direction of the Izanagi Plate led to the northward movement of the Okhotomorsk Block along the East Asian margin, forming a significant sinistral continental transform boundary similar to the San Andreas fault system in California. Sanbagawa metamorphic rocks in Southwest Japan were rapidly exhumed through the several-kilometer wide ductile shear zone at the lower crust and upper mantle level. Accretionary complexes successively accumulated along the East Asian margin during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous were subdivided into narrow and subparallel belts by the upper crustal strike-slip fault system. The departure of the Okhotomorsk Block from the northeast-striking Asian margin resulted in the occurrence of an extensional setting and formation of a wide magmatic belt to the west of the margin. In the Campanian, the block collided with the Siberian margin, in Northeast Asia. At about 77 Ma, a new oceanic subduction occurred to the south of the Okhotomorsk Block, ending its long-distance northward motion. Based on the new tectonic model, the abundant Late Archean to Early Proterozoic detrital zircons in the Cretaceous sandstones in Kamchatka, Southwest Japan, and Taiwan are interpreted to have been sourced from the Okhotomorsk Block basement which possibly formed during the Late Archean and Early Proterozoic. The new model suggests a rapidly northward-moving Okhotomorsk Block at an average speed of 22.5 cm/yr during 89-77 Ma. It is hypothesized that the Okhotomorsk-East Asia collision during 100-89 Ma slowed down the northwestward motion of the Izanagi Plate, while slab pull forces produced from the subducting Izanagi Plate beneath the Siberian margin redirected the plate from northwestward to north-northwestward motion at about 90-89 Ma.

  19. Comparison of the diurnal variations of warm-season precipitation for East Asia vs. North America downstream of the Tibetan Plateau vs. the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanchun; Zhang, Fuqing; Sun, Jianhua

    2014-05-01

    A wavenumber-frequency spectral decomposition technique is used to analyze the high-resolution NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) precipitation dataset and to explore the differences and similarities of the diurnal variation of warm-season precipitation in the East Asia and North America downstream of big topography. The predominant phase speed of precipitation at different time scales for North America, averaged over all warm-season months (May-August) for 2003-2010, is ∼20 m s-1, which is faster than the speed of ∼14 m s-1 calculated for East Asia. Consistent with the recent studies of the precipitation diurnal cycles for these two regions, the difference in the diurnal phase propagation is likely due to the difference in the mean steering level wind speed for these two regions. The wavenumber-frequency spectral analysis further reveals the complex, multi-scale, multi-modal nature of the warm-season precipitation variation embedded within the diurnal cycle over both continents, with phase speeds varying from 10 to 30 m s-1 and wave periods varying from diurnal to a few hours. At the diurnal frequency regulated by the thermodynamically driven Mountains-Plains Solenoids (MPS), increased precipitation for both continents first originates in the afternoon from the eastern edge of big topography and subsequently moves downslope in the evening and reaches the broad plains area at night. More complex diurnal evolutions are observed in East Asia due to more the complex, multistep terrains east of the Tibetan Plateau and the associated localized MPS circulations. Nevertheless, increased variation of precipitation at smaller spatial and temporal scales is evident in the active phase of the dominant diurnal cycle for both continents.

  20. Comparison of the diurnal variations of warm-season precipitation for East Asia vs. North America downstream of the Tibetan Plateau vs. the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanchun; Zhang, Fuqing; Sun, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    A wave-number-frequency spectral decomposition technique is used to analyze the high-resolution NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) precipitation data set and to explore the differences and similarities of the diurnal variation of warm-season precipitation in the East Asia and North America downstream of big topography. The predominant phase speed of precipitation at different time scales for North America, averaged over all warm-season months (May-August) for 2003-2010, is ~20 ms-1, which is faster than the speed of ~14 ms-1 calculated for East Asia. Consistent with the recent studies of the precipitation diurnal cycles for these two regions, the difference in the diurnal phase propagation is likely due to the difference in the mean steering level wind speed for these two regions. The wave-number-frequency spectral analysis further reveals the complex, multi-scale, multi-modal nature of the warm-season precipitation variation embedded within the diurnal cycle over both continents, with phase speeds varying from 10 to 30 ms-1 and wave periods varying from diurnal to a few hours. At the diurnal frequency regulated by the thermodynamically driven mountains-plains solenoids (MPSs), increased precipitation for both continents first originates in the afternoon from the eastern edge of big topography and subsequently moves downslope in the evening and reaches the broad plains area at night. More complex diurnal evolutions are observed in East Asia due to the more complex, multistep terrains east of the Tibetan Plateau and the associated localized MPS circulations. Nevertheless, increased variation of precipitation at smaller spatial and temporal scales is evident in the active phase of the dominant diurnal cycle for both continents.

  1. Clinical spectrum of food allergy in children in Australia and South-East Asia: identification and targets for treatment.

    PubMed

    Hill, D J; Hosking, C S; Heine, R G

    1999-08-01

    The prevalence of atopic diseases is increasing worldwide for reasons that are not clear. Food allergies are the earliest manifestations of atopy. This review defines the foods most commonly involved in allergic reactions and identifies an emerging group of syndromes in which food allergy is involved. A study of the frequency of food allergies in Australia and South-East Asia has recently shown that egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common food allergens in Australia, but there were divergent results from different regions of South-East Asia. It is not clear whether the differences in reactivity to foods are due to genetic or cultural factors, but the findings raise the possibility that genetic susceptibility to food allergy may operate at the T-cell level modulated by the major histocompatibility complex. The Melbourne Milk Allergy Study defined a wide range of clinical symptoms and syndromes that could be reproduced by dietary challenge. A subsequent analysis of the infants with hypersensitivity to cow's milk and other multiple food proteins identified a new syndrome, multiple food protein intolerance of infancy. Food challenges demonstrated reactions developing slowly days after commencement of low-allergen soy formula or extensively hydrolysed formula. Follow-up at the age of 3 years showed that most children with this disorder tolerated most foods apart from cow's milk, egg and peanut. Atopic dermatitis affects about 18% of infants in the first 2 years of life. In a community-based study we have shown a very strong association (RR 3.5) between atopic dermatitis and infants with immunoglobulin E allergy to cow's milk, egg or peanut. Family studies on these infants have shown a link between atopic dermatitis and the genomic region 5q31 adjacent to the interleukin-4 gene cluster. Infantile colic (distress) affects 15-40% of infants in the first 4 months of life. Many theories of causation have been proposed, but a study from our centre showed that dietary modification, particularly that of breastfeeding mothers whose infants present with colic before the age of 6 weeks, alleviated symptoms. Colic associated with vomiting has been attributed to gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). This has been considered primarily a motility disorder, but a secondary form resulting from food protein intolerance has been described recently. We have also recently identified a group of infants with distressed behaviour attributed to GOR who have failed to respond to H2-receptor antagonists, prokinetic agents and multiple formula changes. Symptoms resolved on commencement of an elemental amino acid-based formula. In two-thirds of the patients, symptoms relapsed when challenged with low-allergen soy formula or extensively hydrolysed formula. We propose that a period of food protein intolerance is a part of the normal development of the immune system as it encounters common dietary proteins in infancy and early childhood. Future targets for research are development of appropriate dietary and management strategies for these entities and identification of genetic markers for these disorders. PMID:10480758

  2. ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION ASSURANCE & SECURE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, JUNE 5-6, 2012, ALBANY, NY ASIA & SKM '12 -48

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION ASSURANCE & SECURE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, JUNE 5-6, 2012, ALBANY, NY for identifying "pain points" that cause users to fail at accomplishing given tasks. These walkthroughs show management have not been addressed, and that problems are widespread, occurring on multiple platforms

  3. Developing aerosol retrieval algorithm applicable for multi-platform satellite observations in Far East Asia: problems and sensitivity tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M.; Kim, H.; Lee, D.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols have diverse impacts on human health, industrial activities, and the climate system of the earth. Given their large spatial and temporal variability, monitoring aerosols from multiple observation systems, especially from satellites, is essential, but it has been reported in the literature that there are large discrepancies of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) among different aerosol products, which prevents users from widely using those datasets by combining multiple data products observed at different times in a diurnal cycle. Major factors causing such discrepancies include the differences in cloud-screening and aerosol optical property models employed in respective retrieval algorithms. In this study a satellite-based aerosol retrieval algorithm is under development, which is intended to apply for the observations from multiple satellite platforms such as MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and Meteorological Imager aboard Communication, Ocean, Meteorological Satellite (COMS) in Far East Asia. While a retrieval algorithm applicable for multiple satellite platforms including a geostationary satellite has a limitation in terms of taking advantages of multi-channel information to better resolve aerosol optical properties during retrieval process, consistency in cloud-screening and aerosol optical property models is expected to help improve coherence in the retrieved AOT from different satellite platforms for their combined use. In this presentation, outstanding issues and problems to develop a single retrieval algorithm applicable to multiple satellite sensors and relevant results of sensitive tests are provided. Acknowledgment: This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER2012-2064.

  4. Retrieval and Validation of Aerosol Optical Properties over East Asia from TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Mijin; Choi, Myungje; Go, Sujung; Lim, HyunKwang; Ou, Mi-Lim; Goo, Tae-Young; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol is a significant component on air quality and climate change. In particular, spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol shows large variability over East Asia, thus has large effect in retrieving carbon dioxide from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). An aerosol retrieval algorithm was developed from TANSO- Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) onboard the GOSAT. The algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD), size distribution of aerosol, and aerosol type in 0.1 degree grid resolution and surface reflectance was estimated using the clear sky composite method. To test aerosol absorptivity, the reflectance difference method was considered using channels of TANSO-CAI. In this study, the retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) was compared with those of Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) and MODerate resolution Imaging Sensor (MODIS) dataset from September 2011 and August 2014. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and CAI show the reasonably good correlation with correlation coefficient of 0.77 and regression slope of 0.87 for the whole period. Moreover, those between MODIS and CAI for the same period show correlations with correlation coefficient of 0.7 ~ 0.9 and regression slope of 0.7 ~ 1.2, depending on season and comparison regions however, the largest error source in aerosol retrieval has been surface reflectance. Over ocean and some Land, surface reflectance tends to be overestimated, and thereby CAI-AOD tends to be underestimated. Based on the results with CAI algorithm developed, the algorithm is continuously improved for better performance.

  5. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    PubMed

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise regarding whether agriculture sectoral policy is coherent with public health sectoral policy across the region. PMID:21859775

  6. Low-Frequency Climate Trend Changes and Associated Extreme Rain in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, C.; Kim, J.; Liu, P.

    2011-12-01

    We performed an analysis of climate trends in monthly sea surface temperature from the Hadley Centre's Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 3 (ERSST.v3). Both data cover the period 1880-2009. A centennial global warming trend is first identified by applying the Hilbert-Huang Transform method to global SST data. The warming SST signal at each grid is then removed by linear regression against the global warming trend. The detrended and low-pass filtered SST is further analyzed by EOF method. The analysis in SST are further compared with another two analysis: an EOF analysis of the WOA ocean temperature data and a combined EOF analysis of the six variables (T, qv, h, u, v, w) at eight pressure levels (1000, 925, 850, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300 hPa) from the NCEP and ERA40 reanalysis. The three independent analyses consistently show two dominant oscillations. One is like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation/Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (PDO/IPO), the other is like Atlantic multidecadal Oscillaton (AMO) near 60-year period. The two oscillation can be traced in the ocean from surface down to 400-m. The PDO-like oscillations are characterized by warm temperature anomalies in the tropical lower troposphere in central and eastern Pacific, low-level convergent flows from the high pressure anomaly fields over the maritime continent/neighboring Oceans and Atlantic toward the equatorial Pacific warm SST. Straddling the equatorial Pacific warm SST over the north and south Pacific, cold temperature anomaly, low pressure and cyclonic circulation centers exist near the dateline at 40oS and 40oN. The above atmospheric features resemble the dynamic and thermodynamic fields in response to equatorial Pacific SST forcing. Corresponding to the AMO-like oscillations, the combined EOF modes show hemispheric asymmetric distribution with warm anomalies in northern hemisphere and cold anomalies in southern hemisphere with significant anomalies all occurring in high latitudes. Extenstive warm anomalies exist in the upper troposphere over Eurasia and north Pacific, and cold anomalies cover southern oceans. The warm anomalies over Eurasia is accompanied by anticyclonic circulation while the cold anomalies over southern oceans are with cyclonic circulation. Another important feature is the low pressure center over northern Atlantic in response to the warm SST there which is attributed to as the forcing for North Pacific change (high anomalies and anticyclonic circulation) as proposed by Zhang et al. (2007). The yearly (annual cumulative), warm-season (seasonal cumulative), and extreme rainfall (top 95% cumulative rainfall) in East Asian regions associated with the climate modes are further analyzed. It will be presented in the meeting.

  7. Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruyuki Nakajima; Soon-Chang Yoon; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; Guang-Yu Shi; Toshihiko Takemura; Akiko Higurashi; Tamio Takamura; Kazuma Aoki; Byung-Ju Sohn; Sang-Woo Kim; Haruo Tsuruta; Nobuo Sugimoto; Atsushi Shimizu; Hiroshi Tanimoto; Yousuke Sawa; Neng-Huei Lin; Chung-Te Lee; Daisuke Goto; Nick Schutgens

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces an international regional experiment, East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 (EAREX 2005), carried out in March–April 2005 in the east Asian region, as one of the first phase regional experiments under the UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) project, and discusses some outstanding features of aerosol characteristics and its direct radiative forcing in the east Asian region, with some

  8. Dual practice by doctors working in South and East Asia: a review of its origins, scope and impact, and the options for regulation.

    PubMed

    Hipgrave, David Barry; Hort, Krishna

    2014-09-01

    Health professionals often undertake private work whilst also employed by government. Such dual practice (DP) is found in both high-income and lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) around the world, with varying degrees of tolerance. This review focuses on DP in South and East Asia in the context of the rapidly expanding mixed health systems in this region. Although good data are lacking, health service uptake in South and East Asia is increasing, particularly in the private sector. Appropriately regulated, DP can improve health service access, the range of services offered and doctors' satisfaction. By contrast, weakly regulated DP can negatively affect public health service access, quality, efficiency and equity, as doctors often pursue the balance of public and private work that maximizes their income and other benefits. The environment for regulation of DP is changing rapidly, with improved communications opportunities, increasing literacy and rising civil society, particularly in this region. Currently, the options for regulating DP include (1) those which restrict the opportunities for dual practitioners to prioritize income and other benefits over their responsibility to the public; these require a level of regulatory capacity often missing in LMIC governments; and (2) those which not only tolerate public-sector doctors' private work but also encourage adequate health services for the general public. Growth of the private sector and weak regulation in South and East Asia increases the risk that dual practitioners will ignore the poor. Responsive and decentred regulation of doctors involving professional associations, civil society and other stakeholders is increasingly recommended. Moreover, as governments in LMIC strive for universal health coverage, market and financing opportunities for regulation of DP may arise, particularly involving insurers. This may also help to improve the current imbalance in the urban-rural distribution of doctors. PMID:24150504

  9. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal the Pleistocene history of a semi-aquatic bug (Microvelia douglasi douglasi) in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen; Zhu, Gengping; Chen, Pingping; Zhang, Danli; Bu, Wenjun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the Pleistocene history of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia douglasi douglasi Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Veliidae) in East Asia. We used M. douglasi douglasi as a model species to explore the effects of historical climatic fluctuations on montane semi-aquatic invertebrate species. Two hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENMs). First, we hypothesized that M. douglasi douglasi persisted in suitable habitats in southern Guizhou, southern Yunnan, Hainan, Taiwan and southeast China during the LIG. After that, the populations expanded (Hypothesis 1). As the spatial prediction in the LGM was significantly larger than in the LIG, we then hypothesized that the population expanded during the LIG to LGM transition (Hypothesis 2). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial data (COI+COII) and nuclear data (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2). Young lineages, relatively deep splits, lineage differentiation among mountain ranges in central, south and southwest China and high genetic diversities were observed in these suitable habitats. Evidence of mismatch distributions and neutrality tests indicate that a population expansion occurred in the late Pleistocene. The Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) revealed an unusual population expansion that likely happened during the cooling transition between LIG and LGM. The results of genetic data were mostly consistent with the spatial predictions from ENM, a finding that can profoundly improve phylogeographic research. The ecological requirements of M. douglasi douglasi, together with the geographical heterogeneity and climatic fluctuations of Pleistocene in East Asia, could have shaped this unusual demographic history. Our study contributes to our knowledge of semi-aquatic bug/invertebrate responses to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in East Asia. PMID:24845196

  10. The Silurian Hoedongri Formation in the Taebaeksan Basin of Korea Revisited: its Significance in the Tectonic Reconstruction of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, S.; Hong, J.; Jung, S.; Ree, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Silurian Hoedongri Formation of the Taebaeksan Basin of South Korea has been used as a key unit to the correlation of tectonic provinces of East Asia since the South China craton (or Yangtz block) contains Silurian-Devonian sequences as well as Cambrian-Ordovician ones in the Paleozoic basins while the North China craton (or Sino-Korea block) is devoid of Silurian-Devonian sequences. In the Biryongdong area near the type locality of the Hoedongri Formation, it has been reported that the gray limestone of the Hoedongri Formation unconformably overlies brownish gray limestone of the Ordovician Haengmae Formation. However, our detailed examination on the Biryongdong section reveals that both of the brownish gray and gray limestones are mylonitic marbles with the boundary between the two units being a healed fault breccia zone (~ 12 m thick). The main difference of the two units is that repeated cycles of plastic deformation and fracturing occurred in the underlying brownish gray marble ('Haengmae') while the gray marble ('Hoedongri') deformed mainly by intracrystalline plasticity. The mylonitic foliation strikes NW with a low to moderate dip angle (20-60°) to NE. The ridge-in-groove type lineation on foliation surface trends NNW. The shape-preferred foliation of elongated calcite grains are oblique to the mylonitic foliation defined by layers with a grain-size variation, indicating a top-to-the-SSE shear sense. The mylonitic marble consists of elongated remnant grains (80-120 ?m) with deformation twins and dynamically recrystallized matrix grains (10-40 ?m). Grain boundaries and twin boundaries are lobate or wavy, indicating dynamic boundary migration. Some layers of the gray mylonitic marble are composed entirely of larger (80-120 ?m) elongated calcite grains. In the brownish gray mylonitic marble unit, layers of brittle fracturing overprinting mylonitic foliation occur. In some of these layers, fragments (several cm - tens of cm) of the mylonitic marble are angular to subangular with coarse calcite fillings between the fragments. In other layers, mylonitic marble fragments are elongated with matrix foliation wrapping around them. These features suggest repeated cycles of plastic deformation and fracturing. Tectonic significance of this shear zone (at least 90 m thick) is not clear at present, and the regional extent and absolute age constraint of the shear zone should be clarified.

  11. Transient receptor potential is essential for high temperature tolerance in invasive Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia minor 1 cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhi-Chuang; Li, Qian; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor in affecting population dynamics and diffusion distribution of organisms. Alien species can successfully invade and colonize to various temperature environments, and one of important reasons is that alien species have a strong resistance to stress temperature. Recently, researchers have focused on the mechanisms of temperature sensing to determine the sensing and regulation mechanisms of temperature adaptation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) is one of the key components of an organism's temperature perception system. TRP plays important roles in perceiving temperature, such as avoiding high temperature, low temperature and choosing the optimum temperature. To assess high temperature sensation and the heat resistance role of the TRP gene, we used 3' and 5' rapid-amplification of cDNA ends to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of the TRP gene from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 (Middle East Asia Minor 1), examined the mRNA expression profile under various temperature conditions, and identified the heat tolerance function. This is the first study to characterize the TRP gene of invasive B. tabaci MEAM1 (MEAM1 BtTRP). The full-length cDNA of MEAM1 BtTRP was 3871 bp, and the open reading frames of BtTRP was 3501 bp, encoding 1166 amino acids. Additionally, the BtTRP mRNA expression level was significantly increased at 35°C. Furthermore, compared with control treatments, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults was significantly decreased under high temperature stress conditions after feeding with dsRNA BtTRP. Collectively, these results showed that MEAM1 BtTRP is a key element in sensing high temperature and plays an essential role in B. tabaci MEAM1 heat tolerance ability. Our data improved our understanding of the mechanism of temperature sensation in B. tabaci MEAM1 at the molecular level and could contribute to the understanding of the thermal biology of B. tabaci MEAM1 within the context of global climate change. PMID:25254364

  12. Transient Receptor Potential Is Essential for High Temperature Tolerance in Invasive Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia Minor 1 Cryptic Species

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Zhi-Chuang; Li, Qian; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor in affecting population dynamics and diffusion distribution of organisms. Alien species can successfully invade and colonize to various temperature environments, and one of important reasons is that alien species have a strong resistance to stress temperature. Recently, researchers have focused on the mechanisms of temperature sensing to determine the sensing and regulation mechanisms of temperature adaptation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) is one of the key components of an organism’s temperature perception system. TRP plays important roles in perceiving temperature, such as avoiding high temperature, low temperature and choosing the optimum temperature. To assess high temperature sensation and the heat resistance role of the TRP gene, we used 3? and 5? rapid-amplification of cDNA ends to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of the TRP gene from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 (Middle East Asia Minor 1), examined the mRNA expression profile under various temperature conditions, and identified the heat tolerance function. This is the first study to characterize the TRP gene of invasive B. tabaci MEAM1 (MEAM1 BtTRP). The full-length cDNA of MEAM1 BtTRP was 3871 bp, and the open reading frames of BtTRP was 3501 bp, encoding 1166 amino acids. Additionally, the BtTRP mRNA expression level was significantly increased at 35°C. Furthermore, compared with control treatments, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults was significantly decreased under high temperature stress conditions after feeding with dsRNA BtTRP. Collectively, these results showed that MEAM1 BtTRP is a key element in sensing high temperature and plays an essential role in B. tabaci MEAM1 heat tolerance ability. Our data improved our understanding of the mechanism of temperature sensation in B. tabaci MEAM1 at the molecular level and could contribute to the understanding of the thermal biology of B. tabaci MEAM1 within the context of global climate change. PMID:25254364

  13. Early Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia based on food-web and energy-flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsukawa, M.; Saiki, K.; Ito, M.; Obata, I.; Nichols, D.J.; Lockley, M.G.; Kukihara, R.; Shibata, K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, there has been global interest in the environments and ecosystems around the world. It is helpful to reconstruct past environments and ecosystems to help understand them in the present and the future. The present environments and ecosystems are an evolving continuum with those of the past and the future. This paper demonstrates the contribution of geology and paleontology to such continua. Using fossils, we can make an estimation of past population density as an ecosystem index based on food-web and energy-flow models. Late Mesozoic nonmarine deposits are distributed widely on the eastern Asian continent and contain various kinds of fossils such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, dinosaurs, mammals, bivalves, gastropods, insects, ostracodes, conchostracans, terrestrial plants, and others. These fossil organisms are useful for late Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystem reconstruction using food-web and energy-flow models. We chose Early Cretaceous fluvio-lacustrine basins in the Choyr area, southeastern Mongolia, and the Tetori area, Japan, for these analyses and as a potential model for reconstruction of other similar basins in East Asia. The food-web models are restored based on taxa that occurred in these basins. They form four or five trophic levels in an energy pyramid consisting of rich primary producers at its base and smaller biotas higher in the food web. This is the general energy pyramid of a typical ecosystem. Concerning the population densities of vertebrate taxa in 1 km2 in these basins, some differences are recognized between Early Cretaceous and the present. For example, Cretaceous estimates suggest 2.3 to 4.8 times as many herbivores and 26.0 to 105.5 times the carnivore population. These differences are useful for the evaluation of past population densities of vertebrate taxa. Such differences may also be caused by the different metabolism of different taxa. Preservation may also be a factor, and we recognize that various problems occur in past ecosystem reconstructions. Counts of small numbers of confirmed species and estimates of maximum numbers of species present in the basin are used for the analysis and estimation of energy flow. This approach applies the methods of modern ecosystem analysis. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondrial COI and 16sRNA Evidence for a Single Species Hypothesis of E. vitis, J. formosana and E. onukii in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jian-Yu; Han, Bao-Yu; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Tea green leafhopper is one of the most damaging tea pests in main tea production regions of East Asia. For lack of recognized morphological characters, the dominant species of tea green leafhoppers in Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan have always been named as Empoasca vitis Göthe, Jacobiasca formosana Paoli and Empoasca onukii MATSUDA, respectively. Furthermore, nothing is known about the genetic relationships among them. In this study, we collected six populations from Mainland China, four populations from Japan and one population from Taiwan, and examined the genetic distances in the COI and 16sRNA regions of mtDNA among them. The results showed that the genetic distances based on single gene or the combined sequences among eleven leafhopper populations were 0.3–1.2%, which were all less than the species boundary of 2%. Moreover, there were at least two haplotypes shared by two distinct populations from different regions. The phylogenetic analysis based on single gene or combined sets also supported that tea green leafhoppers from Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan were closely related to each other, and there were at least two specimens from different regions clustered ahead of those from the same region. Therefore, we propose that the view of recognizing the dominant species of tea green leafhoppers in three adjacent tea production regions of East Asia as different species is unreliable or questionable and suggest that they are a single species. PMID:25506929

  15. Asynchronous marine-terrestrial signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia associated with low- and high-latitude climate changes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Deke; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Zhenxia; Li, Tiegang; Shen, Caiming; Wang, Luo

    2013-06-11

    A high-resolution multiproxy record, including pollen, foraminifera, and alkenone paleothermometry, obtained from a single core (DG9603) from the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (ECS), provided unambiguous evidence for asynchronous climate change between the land and ocean over the past 40 ka. On land, the deglacial stage was characterized by rapid warming, as reflected by paleovegetation, and it began ca. 15 kaBP, consistent with the timing of the last deglacial warming in Greenland. However, sea surface temperature estimates from foraminifera and alkenone paleothermometry increased around 20-19 kaBP, as in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Sea surface temperatures in the Okinawa Trough were influenced mainly by heat transport from the tropical western Pacific Ocean by the Kuroshio Current, but the epicontinental vegetation of the ECS was influenced by atmospheric circulation linked to the northern high-latitude climate. Asynchronous terrestrial and marine signals of the last deglacial warming in East Asia were thus clearly related to ocean currents and atmospheric circulation. We argue that (i) early warming seawater of the WPWP, driven by low-latitude insolation and trade winds, moved northward via the Kuroshio Current and triggered marine warming along the ECS around 20-19 kaBP similar to that in the WPWP, and (ii) an almost complete shutdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation ca. 18-15 kaBP was associated with cold Heinrich stadial-1 and delayed terrestrial warming during the last deglacial warming until ca. 15 kaBP at northern high latitudes, and hence in East Asia. Terrestrial deglacial warming therefore lagged behind marine changes by ca. 3-4 ka. PMID:23720306

  16. Financial liberalisation, crisis, and restructuring: A comparative study of bank performance and bank governance in South East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Williams; Nghia Nguyen

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of changes in bank governance on bank performance for a sample of commercial banks operating in SE Asia between 1990 and 2003. We identify bank governance in terms of bank ownership and measure bank performance as rank order alternative profit efficiency, technical change, and productivity. The period was characterised by financial deregulation, the Asian crisis

  17. Emerging drug problems in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This session, “Emerging Drug Problems in Asia,” focused on emerging drug problems in Asia. Dr. Juana Tomás-Rosselló discussed “East and Southeast Asia: Emerging Drug Problems and Response” and Dr. Wei J. Chen discussed “Ketamine Use among Regular Tobacco and Alcohol Users as Revealed by Respondent Driven Sampling in Taipei: Prevalence, Expectancy, and Users' Risky Decision Making.” PMID:25267884

  18. Cross-Border Higher Education for Regional Integration:Analysis of the JICA-RI Survey on Leading Universities in East Asia. JICA-RI Working Paper. No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo; Yuki, Takako; Kang, Kyuwon

    2010-01-01

    Set against the backdrop of increasing economic interdependence in East Asia, the idea of regional integration is now being discussed as a long-term political process in the region. As in the field of the international economy, de facto integration and interdependence exist with respect to the internationalization of the higher education system…

  19. The East-West Center in Washington and Hokkaido University's Global Center of Excellence Program in cooperation with the Sasakawa Peace Foundation USA invite you to an Asia Pacific Security Seminar

    E-print Network

    Tachizawa, Kazuya

    in cooperation with the Sasakawa Peace Foundation USA invite you to an Asia Pacific Security Seminar: Japan for Global Security (New Delhi, Academic Foundation, 2007). #12; information is for East-West Center use ONLY and is not circulated. Please note that seating for this event

  20. 18/03/2010 11:46IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Français PlusNews Film & TV Photo Radio free subscription Mobile humanitarian news and analysis a project

  1. 17/03/2010 16:03IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Andy

    Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Français PlusNews Film & TV Photo Radio free subscription Mobile humanitarian news and analysis a project

  2. Education For All: A Committment and an Opportunity. National EFA Coordinators Meeting under the Sub-Regional EFA Forum for East and Southeast Asia Final Report (2nd, Bangkok, Thailand, December 10-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The working group of Sub-Regional Forum (SRF) and the Thematic Working Group (TWG) on Education for All (EFA) organized the second meeting of the SRF for East and Southeast Asia and the National EFA Coordinators in Bangkok, Thailand December 10-12, 2001. The meeting offered an opportunity for EFA coordinators to reflect on the outcomes of the EFA…

  3. Clinical and virological dynamics of a serotype O 2010 South East Asia lineage foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep using natural and simulated natural inoculation and exposure systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection dynamics of a recent field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), serotype O, topotype South East Asia, lineage Myamar ’98 were evaluated in sheep using four different systems for virus exposure. Two novel, simulated natural, inoculation systems consisting of intra-nasopharyngeal ...

  4. The ANU Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (Middle East and Central Asia) will offer a new degree in 2009: The Masters of Islam in the Modern World (MIMW). The program has been designed to

    E-print Network

    The ANU Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (Middle East and Central Asia) will offer a new degree in 2009: The Masters of Islam in the Modern World (MIMW). The program has been designed to provide-regional in its coverage. The Masters of Islam in the Modern World will be run under the academic responsibility

  5. The abrupt climate change at the Eocene–Oligocene boundary and the emergence of South-East Asia triggered the spread of sapindaceous lineages

    PubMed Central

    Buerki, Sven; Forest, Félix; Stadler, Tanja; Alvarez, Nadir

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Paleoclimatic data indicate that an abrupt climate change occurred at the Eocene–Oligocene (E–O) boundary affecting the distribution of tropical forests on Earth. The same period has seen the emergence of South-East (SE) Asia, caused by the collision of the Eurasian and Australian plates. How the combination of these climatic and geomorphological factors affected the spatio-temporal history of angiosperms is little known. This topic is investigated by using the worldwide sapindaceous clade as a case study. Methods Analyses of divergence time inference, diversification and biogeography (constrained by paleogeography) are applied to a combined plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data set. Biogeographical and diversification analyses are performed over a set of trees to take phylogenetic and dating uncertainty into account. Results are analysed in the context of past climatic fluctuations. Key Results An increase in the number of dispersal events at the E–O boundary is recorded, which intensified during the Miocene. This pattern is associated with a higher rate in the emergence of new genera. These results are discussed in light of the geomorphological importance of SE Asia, which acted as a tropical bridge allowing multiple contacts between areas and additional speciation across landmasses derived from Laurasia and Gondwana. Conclusions This study demonstrates the importance of the combined effect of geomorphological (the emergence of most islands in SE Asia approx. 30 million years ago) and climatic (the dramatic E–O climate change that shifted the tropical belt and reduced sea levels) factors in shaping species distribution within the sapindaceous clade. PMID:23723259

  6. Polymorphism of klotho G-395A and susceptibility of coronary artery disease in East-Asia population: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Changlin; Tang, Guanmin; Qian, Gang; Hu, Huilin; Gu, Aiming; Fang, Ying; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Shijun; Yao, Ming; Li, Jiayin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between polymorphism of Klotho G-395A and susceptibility of coronary artery disease (CAD) in East-Asia population. Methods: A total of 6 case-control studies involving 1560 patients and 1459 controls were analyzed in the study. PubMed, Embase, CBM disc, Wanfang database were searched for published case-control studies investigating the association between Klotho G-395A and CAD that were available before Dec. 2013. Fixed or random effect models were selected for odds ratio (OR) calculation. A Meta-analysis was performed to estimate heterogeneity and the pooled odds ratio (OR) to evaluate the relationship between Klotho G-395A polymorphism and CAD. The sensitivity analysis was also assessed. Results: There was no significant heterogeneity found (dominant genetic model: P = 0.2, I2 = 30.8%). The pooled OR (95% CI) value of the frequencies of the Klotho G-395A genotype (GA + AA)/GG calculated by fixed effects mode was 1.24 (95% CI:1.06-1.45), P = 0.009. There was no significant heterogeneity among the remaining articles after using random effect model or excluding the article with the largest weight or the article with larger frequencies of the allele A, respectively. And the pooled OR (95% CI) value of the frequencies of the genotype (GA + AA)/GG were similar. Publication bias was not found by Begg’s test. Conclusion: Klotho G-395A polymorphism may be a susceptible factor of CAD in East-Asia population. PMID:25932086

  7. Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Ruth; Ho, Jacqueline J; Crowther, Caroline A

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID) project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care information and health professionals' knowledge of evidence-based health care to assist in employing evidence base practice effectively. PMID:18680603

  8. Late Triassic volcanic activity in South-East Asia: New stratigraphical, geochronological and paleontological evidence from the Luang Prabang Basin (Laos)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Sébastien; Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Hallot, Erwan; Nalpas, Thierry; Poujol, Marc; Battail, Bernard; Jalil, Nour-Eddine; Steyer, Jean-Sébastien; Vacant, Renaud; Véran, Monette; Bercovici, Antoine; Diez, José Bienvenido; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Khenthavong, Bounxou; Vongphamany, Sotsy

    2013-07-01

    In South-East Asia, sedimentary basins displaying continental Permian and Triassic deposits have been poorly studied. Among these, the Luang Prabang Basin (North Laos) represents a potential key target to constrain the stratigraphic and structural evolutions of South-East Asia. A combined approach involving sedimentology, palaeontology, geochronology and structural analysis, was thus implemented to study the basin. It resulted in a new geological map, in defining new formations, and in proposing a complete revision of the Late Permian to Triassic stratigraphic succession as well as of the structural organization of the basin. Radiometric ages are used to discuss the synchronism of volcanic activity and sedimentation. The Luang Prabang Basin consists of an asymmetric NE-SW syncline with NE-SW thrusts, located at the contact between Late Permian and Late Triassic deposits. The potential stratigraphic gap at the Permian-Triassic boundary is therefore masked by deformation in the basin. The Late Triassic volcaniclastic continental deposits are representative of alluvial plain and fluvial environments. The basin was fed by several sources, varying from volcanic, carbonated to silicic (non-volcanic). U-Pb dating of euhedral zircon grains provided maximum sedimentation ages. The stratigraphic vertical succession of these ages, from ca. 225, ca. 220 to ca. 216 Ma, indicates that a long lasting volcanism was active during sedimentation and illustrates significant variations in sediment preservation rates in continental environments (from ˜100 m/Ma to ˜3 m/Ma). Anhedral inherited zircon grains gave older ages. A large number of them, at ca. 1870 Ma, imply the reworking of a Proterozoic basement and/or of sediments containing fragments of such a basement. In addition, the Late Triassic (Carnian to Norian) sediments yielded to a new dicynodont skull, attributed to the Kannemeyeriiform group family, from layers dated in between ˜225 and ˜221 Ma (Carnian).

  9. Population Burden of Betel Quid Abuse and Its Relation to Oral Premalignant Disorders in South, Southeast, and East Asia: An Asian Betel-Quid Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. Methods. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. Results. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%?99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%?99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%?89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Conclusions. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms. PMID:22390524

  10. Orientia tsutsugamushi, agent of scrub typhus, displays a single metapopulation with maintenance of ancestral haplotypes throughout continental South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wongprompitak, Patimaporn; Duong, Veasna; Anukool, Wichittra; Sreyrath, Lay; Mai, Trinh Thi Xuan; Gavotte, Laurent; Moulia, Catherine; Cornillot, Emmanuel; Ekpo, Pattama; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Buchy, Philippe; Frutos, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a major cause of febrile illness in rural area of Asia-Pacific region. A multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis was performed on strains isolated from human patients from 3 countries in Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. The phylogeny of the 56-kDa protein encoding gene was analyzed on the same strains and showed a structured topology with genetically distinct clusters. MLST analysis did not lead to the same conclusion. DNA polymorphism and phylogeny of individual gene loci indicated a significant level of recombination and genetic diversity whereas the ST distribution indicated the presence of isolated patches. No correlation was found with the geographic origin. This work suggests that weak divergence in core genome and ancestral haplotypes are maintained by permanent recombination in mites while the 56-kDa protein gene is diverging in higher speed due to selection by the mammalian immune system. PMID:25577986

  11. Ar-Ar and UPb ages of marble-hosted ruby deposits from Central and South-east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Garnier; G. Giuliani; H. Maluski; D. Ohnenstetter; E. Deloule

    2003-01-01

    Marble-hosted ruby deposits represent the first source of gemstones in Asia. The deposits from Jegdalek (Afghanistan), Hunza Valley (Pakistan), Nangimali (Azad-Kashmir), Chumar, Ruyil (Nepal), Mogok (Myanmar), Luc Yen, Yen Bai and Quy Chau (Vietnam) were dated using the 40Ar-39Ar laser stepwise heating technique on syngenetic micas. The following ages were obtained : 24.7 ± 0.3 Ma at Jegdalek ; 10.8

  12. Changes in extreme rainfall over South-East Asia and their link to the monsoon system in 21th century from CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freychet, N.; Chou, C.; Hsu, H.; Wu, C.

    2013-12-01

    The South-East Asia is well known for its recurrent heavy rainfall, either due to typhoons or monsoon systems. In a global warming scenario, extreme rainfall are expected to increase, both in intensity and frequency, because of the increase in air moisture. This increase often comes along with an augmentation of dry days frequency, indicating that the atmospheric water is released less frequently but more intensively. This can be explained by a rise of mid-level troposphere temperature, which increase the required CAPE for convection. Several studies already pointed out this aspect with the CMIP3 results. Here we investigate the change in extreme rainfall (i.e. the 99th percentile of precipitation) over South-East Asia, using the CMIP5 daily results. We compare the mean long term trend (i.e. the mean of 30 years at the end of the 21th century forecast), with the average of 30 years from historical runs. We do not only perform global statistical analysis, but we mainly look at the spatial pattern of changes, along with the modification of the monsoon system in this region. We also investigate the seasonal and monthly signal of changes. This study focus on rainfall over lands only, because of their possible social and economic impacts. The results show first a wild range between models regarding their sensitivity to the global warming. In the mean, they all show an increase in extreme rainfall. But the range of the change in intensity goes from 0 to 50 percent (increase), which point out great uncertainties. In all the models, the extreme rainfall increase much faster than the average precipitation. This increase is weaker during winter (about 10%) and stronger during summer (30%), characterizing an intensification in the monsoon system. This also means that the inter-seasonal signal should increase by the end of the century. The monsoon is not affected uniformly. We observe intra-seasonal variation, with enhance or decrease in winds velocities, and also differences in spatial modification. We investigate how these changes are connected to the increase of extreme rainfall over this region. Relative change in extreme rainfall intensity (in percent) over Asia (land only) in the CMIP5 models (black curves). The red curve represente the ensemble mean. The reference, for each model, correspond to the mean intensity of the extreme rainfall compute from 30 years of historical runs.

  13. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    PubMed

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses. PMID:23782901

  14. Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constraints on volatile organic compound emissions in east and south Asia and implications

    E-print Network

    Chance, Kelly

    a continuous 6-year record (1996­2001) of GOME satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) columns over east (NMVOCs), including isoprene, alkenes, HCHO, and xylenes. Mean monthly HCHO observations are compared to simulated HCHO columns from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model using state-of-science, ``bottom

  15. Positive natural selection of TRIB2, a novel gene that influences visceral fat accumulation, in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Ayumi; Miyashita, Hiroshi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Igase, Michiya; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro; Kagawa, Yasuo; Yanagisawa, Yoshiko; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Onda, Tomohiro; Okada, Koichi; Fukushima, Shogo; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2013-02-01

    Accumulation of visceral fat increases cardiovascular mortality in industrialized societies. However, during the evolution of the modern human, visceral fat may have acted as energy storage facility to survive in times of famine. Therefore, past natural selection might contribute to shaping the variation of visceral fat accumulation in present populations. Here, we report that the gene encoding tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) influenced visceral fat accumulation and was operated by recent positive natural selection in East Asians. Our candidate gene association analysis on 11 metabolic traits of 5,810 East Asians revealed that rs1057001, a T/A transversion polymorphism in 3'untranslated region (UTR) of TRIB2, was strongly associated with visceral fat area (VFA) and waist circumference adjusted for body mass index (P = 2.7 × 10(-6) and P = 9.0 × 10(-6), respectively). rs1057001 was in absolute linkage disequilibrium with a conserved insertion-deletion polymorphism in the 3'UTR and was associated with allelic imbalance of TRIB2 transcript levels in adipose tissues. rs1057001 showed high degree of interpopulation variation of the allele frequency; the low-VFA-associated A allele was found with high frequencies in East Asians. Haplotypes containing the rs1057001 A allele exhibited a signature of a selective sweep, which may have occurred 16,546-27,827 years ago in East Asians. Given the predominance of the thrifty gene hypothesis, it is surprising that the apparently non-thrifty allele was selectively favored in the evolution of modern humans. Environmental/physiological factors other than famine would be needed to explain the non-neutral evolution of TRIB2 in East Asians. PMID:23108367

  16. South-East Asia is the center of origin, diversity and dispersion of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Dounia; Milazzo, Joëlle; Adreit, Henri; Fournier, Elisabeth; Tharreau, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Inferring invasion routes and identifying reservoirs of diversity of plant pathogens are essential in proposing new strategies for their control. Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungus responsible for rice blast disease, has invaded all rice growing areas. Virulent genotypes regularly (re)emerge, causing rapid resistance breakdowns. However, the world-wide genetic subdivision of M. oryzae populations on rice and its past history of invasion have never been elucidated. In order to investigate the centers of diversity, origin and migration of M. oryzae on rice, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 55 populations from 15 countries. Three genetic clusters were identified world-wide. Asia was the center of diversity and the origin of most migrations to other continents. In Asia, two centers of diversity were revealed in the Himalayan foothills: South China–Laos–North Thailand, and western Nepal. Sexual reproduction persisted only in the South China–Laos–North Thailand region, which was identified as the putative center of origin of all M. oryzae populations on rice. Our results suggest a scenario of early evolution of M. oryzae on rice that matches the past history of rice domestication. This study confirms that crop domestication may have considerable influence on the pestification process of natural enemies. PMID:24320224

  17. The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Hurles, Matthew E.; Sykes, Bryan C.; Jobling, Mark A.; Forster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Linguistic and archaeological evidence about the origins of the Malagasy, the indigenous peoples of Madagascar, points to mixed African and Indonesian ancestry. By contrast, genetic evidence about the origins of the Malagasy has hitherto remained partial and imprecise. We defined 26 Y-chromosomal lineages by typing 44 Y-chromosomal polymorphisms in 362 males from four different ethnic groups from Madagascar and 10 potential ancestral populations in Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific. We also compared mitochondrial sequence diversity in the Malagasy with a manually curated database of 19,371 hypervariable segment I sequences, incorporating both published and unpublished data. We could attribute every maternal and paternal lineage found in the Malagasy to a likely geographic origin. Here, we demonstrate approximately equal African and Indonesian contributions to both paternal and maternal Malagasy lineages. The most likely origin of the Asia-derived paternal lineages found in the Malagasy is Borneo. This agrees strikingly with the linguistic evidence that the languages spoken around the Barito River in southern Borneo are the closest extant relatives of Malagasy languages. As a result of their equally balanced admixed ancestry, the Malagasy may represent an ideal population in which to identify loci underlying complex traits of both anthropological and medical interest. PMID:15793703

  18. Three new, early diverging Carex (Cariceae, Cyperaceae) lineages from East and Southeast Asia with important evolutionary and biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Starr, Julian R; Janzen, Francesco H; Ford, Bruce A

    2015-07-01

    Traditional Cariceae and Carex (1966 spp.) classifications recognised five genera (Carex, Cymophyllus, Kobresia, Schoenoxiphium, Uncinia) and four subgenera (Carex, Vignea, Vigneastra, Psyllophora). However, molecular studies have shown that only Carex, divided into five major lineages (the Core Carex, Schoenoxiphium, Core Unispicate, Vignea and Siderostictae Clades), is natural. These studies have also suggested that many early diverging tribal lineages are East Asian in origin, but the sampling of East Asian groups has been poor, and support for relationships within and among major Cariceae clades has been weak. To test deep patterns of relationship in Carex we assembled the longest sequence dataset yet (ITS, ETS 1f, matK, ndhF, rps16; ca. 4400bp) with taxonomic sampling focused on critical East and Southeast Asian Carex sections that have blurred subgeneric limits (Decorae, Graciles, Mundae) or have been at the heart of theories on tribal origins (Hemiscaposae, Indicae, Surculosae, Euprepes, Mapaniifoliae, Hypolytroides). Results indicate that subg. Vigneastra is highly polyphyletic (in five of seven major lineages recognised), and they provide the strongest support yet seen for all previously recognised major Cariceae clades in a single analysis (?93% BS). Moreover, results provide strong evidence for three previously unrecognised early diverging East and Southeast Asian lineages: a "Hypolytroides Clade" (sect. Hypolytroides) sister to the Siderostictae Clade, and for a "Dissitiflora Lineage" (sect. Mundae) and a morphologically diverse "Small Core Carex Clade" (sects. Graciles, Decorae, Mapaniifoliae, Euprepes, Indicae) as successive sisters to approximately 1400 species in the Core Carex Clade. Our findings also suggest that morphological diversification may have occurred in clades dominated by Asian species followed by canalization to a narrower range of morphologies in species-rich, cosmopolitan lineages. PMID:25858558

  19. The Oldest Gibbon Fossil (Hylobatidae) from Insular Southeast Asia: Evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O. Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891–1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here. PMID:24914951

  20. The oldest gibbon fossil (Hylobatidae) from insular Southeast Asia: evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891-1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here. PMID:24914951

  1. An Abrupt Centennial-Scale Drought Event and Mid-Holocene Climate Change Patterns in Monsoon Marginal Zones of East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wang, Nai'ang; Zhang, Chengqi

    2014-01-01

    The mid-latitudes of East Asia are characterized by the interaction between the Asian summer monsoon and the westerly winds. Understanding long-term climate change in the marginal regions of the Asian monsoon is critical for understanding the millennial-scale interactions between the Asian monsoon and the westerly winds. Abrupt climate events are always associated with changes in large-scale circulation patterns; therefore, investigations into abrupt climate changes provide clues for responses of circulation patterns to extreme climate events. In this paper, we examined the time scale and mid-Holocene climatic background of an abrupt dry mid-Holocene event in the Shiyang River drainage basin in the northwest margin of the Asian monsoon. Mid-Holocene lacustrine records were collected from the middle reaches and the terminal lake of the basin. Using radiocarbon and OSL ages, a centennial-scale drought event, which is characterized by a sand layer in lacustrine sediments both from the middle and lower reaches of the basin, was absolutely dated between 8.0–7.0 cal kyr BP. Grain size data suggest an abrupt decline in lake level and a dry environment in the middle reaches of the basin during the dry interval. Previous studies have shown mid-Holocene drought events in other places of monsoon marginal zones; however, their chronologies are not strong enough to study the mechanism. According to the absolutely dated records, we proposed a new hypothesis that the mid-Holocene dry interval can be related to the weakening Asian summer monsoon and the relatively arid environment in arid Central Asia. Furthermore, abrupt dry climatic events are directly linked to the basin-wide effective moisture change in semi-arid and arid regions. Effective moisture is affected by basin-wide precipitation, evapotranspiration, lake surface evaporation and other geographical settings. As a result, the time scales of the dry interval could vary according to locations due to different geographical features. PMID:24599259

  2. Why are simple control options for Toxocara vitulorum not being implemented by cattle and buffalo smallholder farmers in South-East Asia?

    PubMed

    Rast, Luzia; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Dhand, Navneet K; Khounsy, Syseng; Windsor, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    Toxocara vitulorum infection in large ruminants is endemic in many tropical countries and particularly in South-East Asia. A single treatment of calves with pyrantel at 14-21 days of age effectively controls the parasite. Despite this treatment being readily available, T. vitulorum infection remains common and widespread. To understand drivers of effective control of T. vitulorum infection, we examined treatment practices and knowledge of smallholder farmers of this parasite plus determined annual calf morbidity and mortality and identified potential risk factors for these estimates. Interviews were conducted with 273 smallholder farmers who had calves tested for T. vitulorum 4-6 months earlier. Reproductive rates of 0.6 and 0.4 calf per annum in cattle and buffalo respectively, and annual calf morbidity and mortality of 42.6% (CI 0.38-0.47) and 37.3% (CI 0.33-0.42) respectively, were identified. Interviewed farmers had either none (80.6%) or only minimal (19.4%) knowledge about T. vitulorum and only 2.5% of the farmers treated their calves for T. vitulorum using the recommended control regime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses with random effects showed that the number of adult cattle per household, T. vitulorum infection status of the household herd and farmer knowledge of T. vitulorum were significantly associated with calf morbidity and mortality. Financial analysis using partial budgeting showed a net benefit of USD 3.69, 7.46, 11.09 or 14.86 per calf when treating calves with pyrantel and attributing 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of morbidity and mortality to T. vitulorum infection. The study identified that poor reproduction, high calf morbidity and mortality combined with very limited farmer knowledge and effective control of endemic Toxocariasis, contribute to suboptimal large ruminant production in mixed smallholder farming systems in South-East Asia. The large net benefit per calf achievable by a single pyrantel treatment should drive implementation of this intervention by smallholder farmers, especially as demand for livestock products continues to increase in this region and forces a change to more production oriented farming. To support this, continued capacity building that ensures knowledge transfer of best practice T. vitulorum control to smallholder farmers is required. PMID:24290495

  3. Analysis of the seasonal variation of ozone in the boundary layer in East Asia using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model: What controls surface ozone levels over Japan?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyo Yamaji; Toshimasa Ohara; Itsushi Uno; Hiroshi Tanimoto; Jun-ichi Kurokawa; Hajime Akimoto

    2006-01-01

    Ozone (O3) concentrations in East Asia were simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model and their reproducibility was confirmed by comparing with observation data at Japanese monitoring sites. The model can reproduce the seasonal variation of surface O3 over Japan. In particular, for the southern parts of Japan, simulated surface O3 concentrations are strongly correlated with observations. Surface O3

  4. Conclusion: applying South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme science to land-use management policy and practice in a changing landscape and climate

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Rory P. D.; Nussbaum, Ruth; Fowler, David; Weilenmann, Maja; Hector, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The context and challenges relating to the remaining tropical rainforest are briefly reviewed and the roles which science can play in addressing questions are outlined. Key messages which articles in the special issue, mainly based on projects of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme (SEARRP), have raised of relevance to policies on land use, land management and REDD+ are then considered. Results from the atmospheric science and hydrology papers, and some of the ecological ones, demonstrate the very high ecosystem service values of rainforest (compared with oil palm) in maintaining high biodiversity, good local air quality, reducing greenhouse emissions, and reducing landslide, flooding and sedimentation consequences of climate change—and hence provide science to underpin the protection of remaining forest, even if degraded and fragmented. Another group of articles test ways of restoring forest quality (in terms of biodiversity and carbon value) or maintaining as high biodiversity and ecological functioning levels as possible via intelligent design of forest zones and fragments within oil palm landscapes. Finally, factors that have helped to enhance the policy relevance of SEARRP projects and dissemination of their results to decision-makers are outlined. PMID:22006974

  5. Past Trends and Current Status of Self-Reported Incidence and Impact of Disease and Nonbattle Injury in Military Operations in Southwest Asia and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Tribble, David R.; Putnam, Shannon D.; Mostafa, Manal; Brown, Theodore R.; Letizia, Andrew; Armstrong, Adam W.; Sanders, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the evolutional changes in disease and nonbattle injury in a long-term deployment setting, we investigated trends of selected disease and nonbattle injury (NBI) incidence among US military personnel deployed in ongoing military operations in Southwest Asia and the Middle East. Methods. Participants completed an anonymous questionnaire concerning diarrhea, acute respiratory illness (ARI), and NBIs. We compared incidence, morbidity, and risk associations of disease and NBI incidence with historical data. We analyzed a clinic screening form to describe trends in diarrhea incidence over a 3-year period. Results. Between April 2006 and March 2007, 3374 troops completed deployment questionnaires. Incidence of diarrhea was higher than that of ARI and NBI (12.1, 7.1, and 2.5 episodes per 100 person-months, respectively), but ARI and NBI resulted in more-frequent health system utilization (both P < .001) and decreased work performance (P < .001 and P = .05, respectively) than did diarrhea. Compared with historical disease and NBI incidence rates, diarrhea and NBI incidence declined over a 4-year period, whereas ARI remained relatively constant. Conclusions. Diarrhea, ARI, and NBI are important health concerns among deployed military personnel. Public health and preventive measures are needed to mitigate this burden. PMID:18923114

  6. [Cluster structure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations at hordein-coding loci in countries of Southwest Asia, North and Northeast Africa, the Middle East, and South Arabia].

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    The cluster population structure of barley landraces with known sampling localities in nine countries of Southwest Asia, the Middle East, North and Northeast Africa, and South Arabia was examined using the allele-frequency data for three hordein-coding loci. A total of 92 populations from Turkey, 56 populations from Syria, 34 from Jordan, 23 populations from Iraq, 6 from Morocco, 16 from Algeria, 34 from Egypt, 100 from Ethiopia, and 71 populations from Yemen with known sampling localities were included in the analysis. It was demonstrated that the cluster population structure in different countries was different and varied from a single cluster in Morocco to five clusters in Ethiopia. Furthermore, populations with sampling sites located at a considerable distance from one another were grouped into one cluster. It is suggested that the existence of several population clusters within a single country can be evidence of repeated population introduction, while the grouping of the populations with sampling sites considerably distant from one another into one cluster can indicate the distribution of once introduced populations of cultivated barley within countries through local farmer migration. PMID:25508675

  7. [Cluster structure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations at hordein-coding loci in countries of Southwest Asia, North and Northeast Africa, the Middle East, and South Arabia].

    PubMed

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V; Pukhal'ski?, V A

    2013-10-01

    The cluster population structure of barley landraces with known sampling localities in nine countries of Southwest Asia, the Middle East, North and Northeast Africa, and South Arabia was examined using the allele-frequency data for three hordein-coding loci. A total of 92 populations from Turkey, 56 populations from Syria, 34 from Jordan, 23 populations from Iraq, 6 from Morocco, 16 from Algeria, 34 from Egypt, 100 from Ethiopia, and 71 populations from Yemen with known sampling localities were included in the analysis. It was demonstrated that the cluster population structure in different countries was different and varied from a single cluster in Morocco to five clusters in Ethiopia. Furthermore, populations with sampling sites located at a considerable distance from one another were grouped into one cluster. It is suggested that the existence of several population clusters within a single country can be evidence of repeated population introduction, while the grouping of the populations with sampling sites considerably distant from one another into one cluster can indicate the distribution of once introduced populations of cultivated barley within countries through local farmer migration. PMID:25474896

  8. Some ecological aspects of the problem of arthropod-borne animal viruses in the Western Pacific and South-East Asia regions*

    PubMed Central

    Miles, J. A. R.

    1964-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the importance of arthropod-borne viruses in the Western Pacific region and in South-East Asia. This realization of the importance of these viruses as causes of human morbidity and mortality and of economic loss due to infection of domestic animals has led to studies attempting to elucidate the basic ecology of some of these viruses. The author reviews the extent of knowledge of the ecology of Japanese and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses and indicates possible mechanisms for the overwintering of the viruses based on experiments in which other viruses were mainly used. He discusses the limited available knowledge on the ecology of dengue and emphasizes the necessity of research on the possibility that this disease is a zoonosis. A brief discussion is also given of the haemorrhagic diseases which are found in these regions and a brief description of the state of knowledge on the ecology of Kyasanur Forest disease and epidemic nephroso-nephritis. A brief discussion is also included on the ecology of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer encephalitis. PMID:14153409

  9. Study of aerosol characteristics and aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative balance over the East Asia using observation data of SKYNET network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, P.; Takamura, T.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2013-12-01

    SKYNET is an observation network to collect data related to aerosols, clouds, and radiation using a variety of ground-based instruments. Among data of different sites around the world, multiyear data of typical sites of East Asia, which represent aerosols of different origins and backgrounds, are analyzed. This study mainly uses data observed by PREDE sky radiometer, pyranometer, pyrheliometer, microwave radiometer, and spectroradiometer. Firstly, we will present the temporal variations of aerosol optical parameters obtained from sky radiometers of selected sites. For a limited observation period, collocated observations of sky radiometer, CIMEL sun photometer, and spectroradiometer were performed at some sites. Secondly, the algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical parameters from spectral direct and diffuse irradiances of spectroradiometer that can suffer from cosine error will be introduced, and the results of inter comparison of aerosol optical parameters obtained from data of different instruments will be discussed. Finally, the effects of aerosols on atmospheric radiative balance over the selected observation sites will be presented using both modeled as well as observed global, direct, and diffuse irradiances.

  10. Selected water-soluble organic compounds found in size-resolved aerosols collected from urban, mountain and marine atmospheres over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng

    2011-07-01

    Primary (i.e. sugars and sugar-alcohols) and secondary (i.e. carboxylic acids) water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) in size-segregated aerosols from the urban and mountain atmosphere of China and from the marine atmosphere in the outflow region of East Asia were characterized on a molecular level. Levoglucosan is the most abundant compound among the quantified WSOCs in the urban and mountain atmosphere, whose concentration at the urban site was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that at the mountain and marine sites. In contrast, malic, succinic and phthalic acids were dominant among the measured WSOCs at the marine site. In the urban air, sugars except levoglucosan gave a bimodal size distribution with a large peak in fine range (<2.1 ?m) and a small peak in coarse range (?2.1 ?m) during winter, being opposite to those in spring. In contrast, these WSOCs at the mountain and marine sites dominated in the coarse range but diminished and even disappeared in the fine range. Geometric mean diameters (GMDs) of the measured WSOCs in the fine mode at the urban site were larger in winter than in spring. Levoglucosan and carboxylic acids except for azelaic and benzoic acids showed a larger GMD in the coarse mode at the marine site probably due to an increased hygroscopic growth.

  11. Cloud Radiative Forcing in East Asia Simulated from IAP/LASG GCM with a Physics-Based, Two-Moment Statistical-Numerical Cloud Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Wang, W. C.; Zhou, L.; Bao, Q.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    To improve the treatment of cloud microphysics, a physics-based, two-moment (mass and number) statistical-numerical cloud scheme has been incorporated into IAP/LASG global climate model and simulations conducted to study the model responses. This scheme allows aerosol-cloud interactions through aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei. Here we present the results of an analysis of the cloud radiative forcing focusing on East Asia. Compared with the previous treatment of one-moment cloud scheme together with an empirical formula for droplet size, the new scheme simulates larger low cloud cover, liquid water path, and droplet size, which reflect more solar radiation, emit more longwave radiation, thus yield a larger net cloud radiative forcing. We plan to use offline radiation code (RRTMG) to examine the individual effects of cloud cover (low, middle and high) and cloud microphysical properties on the solar and longwave radiation fluxes reaching the surface and their relative roles in affecting the surface temperature. Comparisons with available satellite and ground-based measurements will also be conducted.

  12. Assessment of atmospheric acidified pollutants trends observed by EANET in North-East Asia in the first decade of XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2015-04-01

    Owing to rapid development and subsequent enormous increase in energy consumption/fossil fuel use, anthropogenic emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides in China and other Asian countries surpass those in North America and Europe since mid-1990s. Consequently, regional air pollution has become an issue for the most of developing countries in North-East Asia. Since 1998, the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) provides constant monitoring of the air quality and precipitation (including gaseous and particulate phase chemistry) in 13 countries of the region. The measurements are conducted at 45 rural and remote stations using both filter pack sampling techniques and automatic monitoring equipment. In this study we present a comprehensive trend analysis of the long-term (last 15 years) air pollution monitoring data from selected EANET monitoring sites. Using several statistical approaches, we estimate the quality of the data and perform distribution tests, single out special events (detect outliers) and calculate an ensemble of trends (monthly, seasonal, long-term and quartile) and their statistical significance for a suite of observed compounds. Based on this analysis, we further estimate the statistics and overall significance of the observed temporal dynamics for each pollutant. Ultimately we derive more than 20 trend estimates for a total of up to 12 gas-phase and particulate compounds for each station. Our calculations ascertain that about half of the trends (either negative or positive) observed at the EANET stations in Russia, Korea and Japan are significant. Whilst an increase in SO2, HCl, Cl-, NO3 (except for the stations in Russia) concentrations is distinct, small or insignificant trends are reckoned for HNO3-. A marked decrease in K+ content is seen at all regarded stations. We commonly find station-wise correlation for the trends of the remaining compounds, and for several species we conclude a general spatial pattern, viz. an eastward increase in trend magnitudes in the north-south direction. We further identify special cases of statistically significant seasonal trends for the series that otherwise do not exhibit apparent long-term dynamics, i.e. show an insignificant overall trend. A case in point is the NH3 observational record at Mondy station (Russia), for which the spring-summer negative trends are comparable to the winter positive trends, and both significant. Finally, we discuss and compare these first results with an evaluation of changes in acid deposition over region from 2000 provided by WMO PC-SAG in its global wet deposition assessment (Vet et al., 2014). References: Vet, R., Artz, R. S., Carou, S., Shaw, M., Ro, C. U., Aas, W., Baker, A., Bowersox, V. C., Dentener, F., Galy Lacaux, C., Hou, A., Pienaar, J. J., Gillett, R., Forti, M. C., Gromov, S., Hara, H., Khodzher, T., Mahowald, N. M., Nickovic, S., Rao, P. S. P., and Reid, N. W.: A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus. Atmos. Environ., 93, 3-100, 2014.

  13. Distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate East Asia.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masayuki; Koike, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale of management according to the degree of urbanization. PMID:23741495

  14. Distribution of Wild Mammal Assemblages along an Urban–Rural–Forest Landscape Gradient in Warm-Temperate East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masayuki; Koike, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban–rural–forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban–rural–forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale of management according to the degree of urbanization. PMID:23741495

  15. The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The presence of ongoing local malaria transmission, identified though local surveillance and reported to regional WHO offices, by S-E Asian countries, forms the basis of national and international chemoprophylaxis recommendations in western countries. The study was designed to examine whether the strategy of using malaria transmission in a local population was an accurate estimate of the malaria threat faced by travellers and a correlate of malaria in returning travellers. Methods Malaria endemicity was described from distribution and intensity in the local populations of ten S-E Asian destination countries over the period 2003-2008 from regionally reported cases to WHO offices. Travel acquired malaria was collated from malaria surveillance reports from the USA and 12 European countries over the same period. The numbers of travellers visiting the destination countries was based on immigration and tourism statistics collected on entry of tourists to the destination countries. Results In the destination countries, mean malaria rates in endemic countries ranged between 0.01 in Korea to 4:1000 population per year in Lao PDR, with higher regional rates in a number of countries. Malaria cases imported into the 13 countries declined by 47% from 140 cases in 2003 to 66 in 2008. A total of 608 cases (27.3% Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)) were reported over the six years, the largest number acquired in Indonesia, Thailand and Korea. Four countries had an incidence > 1 case per 100,000 traveller visits; Burma (Myanmar), Indonesia, Cambodia and Laos (range 1 to 11.8-case per 100,000 visits). The remaining six countries rates were < 1 case per 100,000 visits. The number of visitors arriving from source countries increased by 60% from 8.5 Million to 13.6 million over the 6 years. Conclusion The intensity of malaria transmission particularly sub-national activity did not correlate with the risk of travellers acquiring malaria in the large numbers of arriving visitors. It is proposed to use a threshold incidence of > 1 case per 100,000 visits to consider targeted malaria prophylaxis recommendations to minimize use of chemoprophylaxis for low risk exposure during visits to S-E Asia. Policy needs to be adjusted regularly to reflect the changing risk. PMID:20920352

  16. Development and carbon sequestration of tropical peat domes in south-east Asia: links to post-glacial sea-level changes and Holocene climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommain, René; Couwenberg, John; Joosten, Hans

    2011-04-01

    Tropical peatlands of SE-Asia represent a significant terrestrial carbon reservoir of an estimated 65 Gt C. In this paper we present a comprehensive data synthesis of radiocarbon dated peat profiles and 31 basal dates of ombrogenous peat domes from the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo and integrate our peatland data with records of past sea-level and climate change in the region. Based on their developmental features three peat dome regions were distinguished: inland Central Kalimantan (Borneo), Kutai basin (Borneo) and coastal areas across the entire region. With the onset of the Holocene the first peat domes developed in Central Kalimantan as a response to rapid post-glacial sea-level rise over the Sunda Shelf and intensification of the Asian monsoon. Peat accumulation rates in Central Kalimantan strongly declined after 8500 cal BP in close relation to the lowering rate of the sea-level rise and possibly influenced by the regional impact of the 8.2 ka event. Peat growth in Central Kalimantan apparently ceased during the Late Holocene in association with amplified El Niño activity as exemplified by several truncated peat profiles. Peat domes from the Kutai basin are all younger than ˜8300 cal BP. Peat formation and rates of peat accumulation were driven by accretion rates of the Mahakam River and seemingly independent of climate. Most coastal peat domes, the largest expanse of SE-Asian peatlands, initiated between 7000 and 4000 cal BP as a consequence of a Holocene maximum in regional rainfall and the stabilisation and subsequent regression of the sea-level. These boundary conditions induced the highest rates of peat accumulation of coastal peat domes. The Late Holocene sea-level regression led to extensive new land availability that allowed for continued coastal peat dome formation until the present. The time weighted mean Holocene peat accumulation rate is 0.54 mm yr -1 for Central Kalimantan, 1.89 mm yr -1 for Kutai and 1.77 mm yr -1 for coastal domes of Sumatra and Borneo. The mean Holocene carbon sequestration rates amount to 31.3 g C m -2 yr -1 for Central Kalimantan and 77.0 g C m -2 yr -1 for coastal sites, which makes coastal peat domes of south-east Asia the spatially most efficient terrestrial ecosystem in terms of long term carbon sequestration.

  17. Intra-winter atmospheric circulation changes over East Asia and North Pacific associated with ENSO in a seasonal prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunyong; Kim, Hyeong-Seog; Min, Seung-Ki; Son, Hye-Young; Won, Duk-Jin; Jung, Hyun-Sook; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2015-02-01

    Though tropical SST anomalies associated with El Niño change slowly during the mature phase of El Niño, the resultant extratropical teleconnection patterns are quite different with time. In this study, the intra-winter changes in the teleconnection pattern associated with El Niño are investigated using the NCEP reanalysis and observational data and the high-resolution seasonal prediction data. The observational analyses show that there are distinctively changes in the teleconnection pattern over the North Pacific within the winter. In the early winter (November-December) of El Niño years, there is a distinctive anomalous Kuroshio anticyclone, which is closely related to the East Asian climate. In January, in contrast, the Kuroshio anticyclone suddenly disappears and a strong cyclonic flow, which is part of the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern, develops. It is suggested that the intra-winter changes are controlled by the relative roles of the equatorial central Pacific (CP) and western north Pacific (WNP) precipitation anomalies on the extratropical teleconnection over the North Pacific. On the other hand, the prediction data failed to capture the observed intra-winter changes in the teleconnection pattern, though the predictive skills for tropical SST and precipitation are high. It is revealed that this model's discrepancy in the extratropical teleconnection is partly originated from the failure in predicting the relative magnitude of CP and WNP precipitation anomalies. Further analyses on the ensemble spread of the prediction data support the relative roles of CP and WNP precipitation anomalies in affecting the extratropical circulation over the North Pacific.

  18. Ergonomics related to seating arrangements in the classroom: worst in South East Asia? The situation in Sri Lankan school children.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, I L K; Fernando, D N

    2009-01-01

    Sri Lanka is a resource-poor country in the South-East Asian region with good health indices. Ergonomics of children in educational environments is still novel in the region. An exploration into such issues and dissemination of the scientific evidence will stimulate policy makers in both education and health sector. An important ergonomic issue of the classroom is the seating arrangement. Essential aspects of seating include location of the chair and desk in relation to the blackboard and features of the chair and desk. Musculoskeletal pain is considered to be the most important negative effect due to mismatched ergonomics. A school-based descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a district of Sri Lanka to ascertain the distribution of selected ergonomic factors related to seating arrangements in the classroom of school-going early adolescents and to assess their relationship to musculoskeletal pain. A sample of 1607 school children of Grade 6,7 and 8 were selected using stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. There were 52.1% (N=838) females and 47.9% (N=769) males. Many ergonomic aspects related to classroom seating arrangements are not conducive for children. Children were seated with a mean distance of 398.04 cm (SD=132.09) to the blackboard. Nearly 23% of children had to turn more than 45~degrees to see the blackboard. A prevalence of > 80% mismatch was found between body dimensions of children and measurements of furniture. Musculoskeletal pain may have resulted from efforts to maintain stability while seated in incompatible furniture. Nearly 36% children complained of recurrent musculoskeletal pain. Musculoskeletal pain may have resulted from efforts to maintain stability while seated in incompatible furniture. Mismatched seat depth - buttock-popliteal length posed 1.59 times risk recurrent musculoskeletal pain. Despite, children perceived a good chair comfort. Use of backrest lowered the risk of recurrent pain. Results shows that programme planners can utilize such evidence to provide simple ergonomic solutions at national and school level. PMID:20075518

  19. Molecular analysis of bacterial diversity in mudflats along the salinity gradient of an acidified tropical Bornean estuary (South East Asia)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Brunei River and Bay estuarine system (BES) in the northwest of Borneo is acidic and highly turbid. The system supports extensive intertidal mudflats and presents a potentially steep salinity and pH gradient along its length (45 km). Temporal variation in physical parameters is observed diurnally due to seawater flux during tidal forcing, and stochastically due to elevated freshwater inflow after rains, resulting in a salinity range between 0 and 34 psu. High velocity freshwater run-off from acid sulphate formations during monsoon seasons results in highly variable and acidic conditions (pH 4) at the upper reaches of the BES, whereas the pH is relatively stable (pH 8) at the seaward extremes, due to mixing with seawater from the South China Sea. At their surfaces, the BES mudflats present microbial ecosystems driven by oxygenic phototrophs. To study the effect of various physical parameters on the bacterial diversity of the BES mudflats, surface samples were collected from six sites stretching over 40 km for molecular and phylogentic analysis. Results The bacterial diversity at these sites was compared by community fingerprinting analysis using 16S rRNA gene based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Results revealed functionally conserved, diatom-driven microbial mudflat communities composed of mainly novel, uncultured species. Species composition was evaluated as 50-70% unique for each site along the BES. Clustering of the sequences commonly occurred and revealed that proteobacterial diversity was related to the salinity gradient. When considering all phyla, the diversity varied consistently with physical parameters (including anthropogenic) that are expected to influence microbial composition. Conclusion The BES mudflats were found to comprise the typical functional groups of microorganisms associated with photosynthetic carbon flux, sulfur cycling (Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria), and decomposition (Bacteroidetes). From a structural perspective, however, the mudflats constituted discretely distributed communities along the physical gradient of the BES, composed of largely novel species of Bacteria. This study provides first insights into patterns of bacterial community structure in tropical South East Asian coastal ecosystems that are potentially threatened by increasing variability in pH and salinity, in line with predicted future environmental change. PMID:25392733

  20. Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages of marble-hosted ruby deposits from Central and South-east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, V.; Giuliani, G.; Maluski, H.; Ohnenstetter, D.; Deloule, E.

    2003-04-01

    Marble-hosted ruby deposits represent the first source of gemstones in Asia. The deposits from Jegdalek (Afghanistan), Hunza Valley (Pakistan), Nangimali (Azad-Kashmir), Chumar, Ruyil (Nepal), Mogok (Myanmar), Luc Yen, Yen Bai and Quy Chau (Vietnam) were dated using the 40Ar-39Ar laser stepwise heating technique on syngenetic micas. The following ages were obtained : 24.7 ± 0.3 Ma at Jegdalek ; 10.8 ± 0.3 to 5.4 ± 0.3 Ma at Hunza ; 17.2 ± 0.2 to 15.3 ± 0.1 Ma at Nangimali ; 4.6 ± 0.1 Ma at Ruyil ; 5.6 ± 0.4 Ma at Chumar ; 18.7 ± 0.2 to 17.1 ± 0.2 Ma at Mogok ; 33.8 ± 0.4 to 30.8 ± 0.8 Ma at Luc Yen ; 24.4 ± 0.4 to 23.2 ± 0.6 Ma at Yen Bai, 22.1 ± 0.6 to 21.6 ± 0.7 Ma at Quy Chau. These ages represent cooling ages and thus minimum ages for ruby formation. The ages obtained for Nangimali are close to the Ar-Ar cooling age of 19 Ma recorded in the Chichi granite, North to the ruby deposit. However, (C,O)-isotopic studies of the ruby-bearing marbles show no genetic relation between granite emplacement and ruby deposition in this area. The age found at Jegdalek is similar to the K-Ar ages obtained on the Sairobi pegmatitic dykes (20-26 Ma) and of the Jalalabad pluton (25 Ma), located close to the ruby deposit. At Mogok, the ruby deposits yield ages close to those obtained on high grade metamorphic and foliated intrusive regional rocks (15.8 ± 0.7 - 19.5 ± 1.0 Ma). The ages obtained at Chumar and Ruyil agree with those of the Lesser Himalaya Formation (12 - 6 Ma). Those found at Quy Chau agree with those found for the shear zone activity. Furthermore, U-Pb dating was done on zircons included in a ruby from Luc Yen and spinels in marble from Luc Yen and Hunza. The wide range of 238U-206Pb ages obtained for Luc Yen (266 - 45 Ma) evidences a complex metamorphic history. Ruby crystallised at 45 Ma during ductile activity of the Red River shear zone. At Hunza, an 238U-206Pb age of 94.0 ± 2.1 Ma obtained on inherited zircons confirms the U-Pb age obtained on zircons from the Karakorum batholith (95 Ma). Asian marble-hosted ruby deposits are directly linked with the tectonometamorphic activity of Cenozoic structures resulting from deformation of the Asian plate during India-Asia collision. Geochemical studies evidence that these rubies have a metamorphic origin and thus dating of these deposits provide an essential clue to decipher the timing of continental collision in Central and South-east Asia.

  1. The Ti/Al molar ratio as a new proxy for tracing sediment transportation processes and its application in aeolian events and sea level change in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huei-Fen; Yeh, Po-Yi; Song, Sheng-Rong; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Yang, Tien-Nan; Wang, Yong; Chi, Zhenqing; Lee, Teh-Quei; Chen, Min-Te; Cheng, Chien-Liang; Zou, Jianjun; Chang, Yuan-Pin

    2013-09-01

    Ti/Al molar ratios of sediments in various sedimentary environments are used to explain sediment transportation from source regions to sink areas. Samples were collected from outcrops, soils, fluvial, lake, and marine sediment environments. Initial Ti/Al molar ratios of sediments are controlled by those of parent soils or rocks. These ratios tend to decline gradually as a result of heavy-mineral gravity fractionation during transportation. Sedimentary Ti/Al molar ratios in sink areas such as lakes and pelagic environments are lower than those in source regions. In this study, for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Kaoping River, Ti/Al molar ratios decline considerably from downstream to estuary environments. Additionally, well sorted aeolian sands have extremely low Ti/Al molar ratios in northern China. The Ti/Al molar ratios of aerosol particles found in Taiwan and the East China Sea show reduced ratios as a result of Asia Dust Storm episodes. Furthermore, lower Ti/Al molar ratios in deep ocean sediments were discovered by tracing the distribution of sedimentary Ti/Al molar ratios in the South China Sea. When sea levels dropped during glacial periods, the river estuary was closer to deep marine areas and carried more terrestrial sediments into deep marine environments. The closer estuary with relatively higher Ti/Al ratio would lead increase of Ti/Al molar ratios in deep sea sediments. In this study, Ti/Al molar ratio is promoted as a new proxy to help with understanding changes in sedimentary environments.

  2. Multi-drug resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from the Middle East and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, B A; Wasfy, M O; Maksoud, M A; Hanna, N; Dueger, E; House, B

    2014-07-01

    Typhoid fever is common in developing countries, with an estimated 120 million infections and 700 000 annual deaths, worldwide. Fluoroquinolones have been the treatment of choice for infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). However, alarming reports of fluoroquinolone-resistance and failure of typhoid fever treatment have recently been published. To determine the proportion of S. Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (RSC) from six countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, 968 S. Typhi isolates collected between 2002 and 2007 from Egypt, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Qatar, Jordan and Iraq were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to five antibiotics using the disc-diffusion method. MDR was defined as resistance to amicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The E-test was employed to determine the MIC of ciprofloxacin only. Nalidixic acid resistance was evaluated as a marker for RSC. Interpretations were made according to CLSI guidelines. MDR strains were considerably more prevalent in Iraq (83%) and Pakistan (52%) compared with the other countries studied (13-52%). Nearly all isolates were susceptible (99.7%) to ceftriaxone. RSC was detected in a total of 218 isolates (22%), mostly from Iraq (54/59, 92%), Uzbekistan (98/123, 80%), Qatar (23/43, 54%) and Pakistan (31/65, 47%). Many of these (21%) were also MDR. Use of nalidixic acid resistance as an indicator for RSC was 99% sensitive and 98% specific. This study reinforces the need for routine antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance of enteric fever isolates and close review of current therapeutic policies in the region. PMID:25356352

  3. Synoptic Variability of Moisture Transport and Precipitation over Summertime East Asia and the Northwestern Pacific in Association with Upper Tropospheric Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horinouchi, T.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to provide overall understanding of the summertime synoptic variability of precipitation and moisture transport at midlatitude over East Asia and the northwestern Pacific. Using satellite precipitation and reanalysis data, a clear relationship is found between upper tropospheric disturbances (Rossby waves), surface precipitation, and lower tropospheric humidity. The upper tropospheric disturbances are characterized by the undulation of the 1.5 PVU contours of potential vorticity (PV) on the 350-K isentropic surfaces. Case studies suggest that a precipitation belt of several hundred kilometers wide and one to several thousand kilometers long is formed very frequently on the equatorward and low-PV side of the northernmost 1.5 PVU contours, which meander together around 40N. Lower tropospheric specific humidity is also enhanced there, and it falls sharply to the north of these contours. The synoptic situations associated with it include, but are not limited to, the familiar situation in which moist convection is enhanced ahead of upper-level troughs. These results are confirmed by a composite analysis over the 12 summers from 2001. A novel method of analyzing the forcing of the quasi-geostrophic potential enstrophy reveals that upper tropospheric disturbances in the area are propagated predominantly from the west along the Asian jet, and that they exert a significant forcing onto near-surface levels, while the opposite upward forcing is weak. A Q-vector analysis shows that the upwelling associated with the precipitation bands is forced predominantly by confluence. This circulation is frontogenetic, and surface fronts are often formed therein. The latitudinal extent of humid air masses is affected not only by this circulation but by low-level flows induced by upper-level disturbances in a cooperative manner. Latent heating in the precipitation bands is significant, but its role is passive to reduce the effective static stability. Results on the Atlantic is briefly touched.

  4. Multi-drug resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from the Middle East and Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, B A; Wasfy, M O; Maksoud, M A; Hanna, N; Dueger, E; House, B

    2014-01-01

    Typhoid fever is common in developing countries, with an estimated 120 million infections and 700 000 annual deaths, worldwide. Fluoroquinolones have been the treatment of choice for infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). However, alarming reports of fluoroquinolone-resistance and failure of typhoid fever treatment have recently been published. To determine the proportion of S. Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (RSC) from six countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, 968 S. Typhi isolates collected between 2002 and 2007 from Egypt, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Qatar, Jordan and Iraq were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to five antibiotics using the disc-diffusion method. MDR was defined as resistance to amicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The E-test was employed to determine the MIC of ciprofloxacin only. Nalidixic acid resistance was evaluated as a marker for RSC. Interpretations were made according to CLSI guidelines. MDR strains were considerably more prevalent in Iraq (83%) and Pakistan (52%) compared with the other countries studied (13–52%). Nearly all isolates were susceptible (99.7%) to ceftriaxone. RSC was detected in a total of 218 isolates (22%), mostly from Iraq (54/59, 92%), Uzbekistan (98/123, 80%), Qatar (23/43, 54%) and Pakistan (31/65, 47%). Many of these (21%) were also MDR. Use of nalidixic acid resistance as an indicator for RSC was 99% sensitive and 98% specific. This study reinforces the need for routine antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance of enteric fever isolates and close review of current therapeutic policies in the region. PMID:25356352

  5. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from sediment dumped into the sea by the Salween River, which travels the length of eastern Myanmar. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. A study on the aerosol optical properties over East Asia using a combination of CMAQ-simulated aerosol optical properties and remote-sensing data via a data assimilation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Han, K. M.; Park, M. E.; Lee, S.-S.; Kim, S.-B.; Shimizu, A.

    2011-12-01

    To more accurately estimate direct radiative forcing (DRF) by aerosols, and better investigate particulate pollution over East Asia, precise calculations of the optical properties of aerosols, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and aerosol extinction coefficient (?ext), are of primary importance. The aerosol optical properties over East Asia were investigated in this study, based on US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v4.5.1 model simulations. The CMAQ model simulations in this study were improved in several ways compared to those in a previous study (Song et al., 2008). Although the details of the improvements were described in the manuscript, the following points should be emphasized: (1) two data assimilation techniques were employed for producing more accurate AOD products and meteorological fields over East Asia; (2) updated/upgraded emission inventories were used in the CMAQ model simulations with a fine grid resolution of 30 × 30 km2; and (3) the 4-D particulate composition calculated from the CMAQ model simulations was converted into 3-D or 4-D aerosol optical products, using the Malm and Hand (2007) algorithm with significant further modifications. The results from the CMAQ model simulations (without assimilation) showed great improvements compared to those from a previous study. For example, in terms of the regression coefficients (R), R values were increased from 0.48-0.68 (previous study) to 0.62-0.79 (this study). The monthly-averaged CMAQ-simulated single scattering albedo (SSA) also agreed well with the AERONET SSA, with the exceptions of the Hong Kong and Taipei sites, where the air qualities were strongly influenced by active biomass burning events from January to April. There were also excellent matches between the vertical profiles of the CMAQ-simulated ?ext and LIDAR-retrieved ?ext. It was also found that the contributions of (NH4)2SO4 during summer, NH4NO3 during winter, sea-salt particles during winter and dust particles during spring to the total AOD were large over East Asia. In particular, the largest contribution of NH4NO3 to the total AOD was found over East Asia during winter. Therefore, it was suggested that this contribution of NH4NO3 should not be neglected. In order to produce more accurate AOD products, the CMAQ-simulated AODs were further assimilated with the MODIS-retrieved AODs. Both of the assimilated and AERONET AODs were better correlated with each other than the CMAQ-simulated and AERONET AODs. The obvious benefits from this study would be that with these improved aerosol optical properties, the particulate pollution (e.g. AOD can be served as a proxy to PM2.5 or PM10) and DRF by aerosols over East Asia can be more satisfactorily investigated in future.

  7. Development of tailored real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection and differentiation of serotype O, A and Asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus lineages circulating in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Reid, Scott M; Mioulet, Valerie; Knowles, Nick J; Shirazi, Nazeem; Belsham, Graham J; King, Donald P

    2014-10-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In countries where FMD is endemic, identification of the serotypes of the causative virus strains is important for vaccine selection and tracing the source of outbreaks. In this study, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays using primer/probe sets designed from the VP1 coding region of the virus genomes were developed for the specific detection of serotype O, A and Asia-1 FMD viruses (FMDVs) circulating in the Middle East. These assays were evaluated using representative field samples of serotype O strains belonging exclusively to the PanAsia-2 lineage, serotype A strains of the Iran-05 lineage and serotype Asia-1 viruses from three relevant sub-groups. When RNA extracted from archival and contemporary field strains was tested using one- or two-step rRT-PCR assays, all three primer/probe sets detected the RNA from homotypic viruses and no cross-reactivity was observed with heterotypic viruses. Similar results were obtained using both single- and multiplex assay formats. Using plasmid standards, the minimum detection level of these tests was found to be lower than two copies. The results illustrate the potential of tailored rRT-PCR tools for the detection and categorization of viruses circulating in the Middle East belonging to distinct subgroups of serotypes O, A and Asia-1. These assays can also overcome the problem of serotyping samples which are found positive by the generic rRT-PCR diagnostic assays but negative by virus isolation and antigen-detection ELISA which would otherwise have to be serotyped by nucleotide sequencing. A similar approach could be used to develop serotyping assays for FMDV strains circulating in other regions of the world. PMID:25016065

  8. Neurology in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. PMID:25666629

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of new particle formation in East Asia using an NPF-explicit WRF-chem model: North-south contrast in new particle formation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Takami, A.; Takamura, T.; Yoon, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Lim, H.-C.; Fast, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    recently developed new particle formation (NPF)-explicit version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-chem) model can explicitly calculate the growth and sink of nucleated clusters with 20 aerosol size bins from 1 nm to 10 µm in diameter. In this study, the model was used to investigate spatial and temporal variations in NPF event frequency and the concentrations of aerosols (condensation nuclei, CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within the boundary layer in East Asia in spring 2009. We found a distinct north-south contrast in the NPF frequency and mechanism in East Asia. NPF occurred mainly during limited periods over certain regions between 30° and 45°N (northeast China, Korea, and Japan, including regions around the active volcanoes Miyakejima and Sakurajima). In these latitudes, NPF was suppressed by high concentrations of preexisting particles under stagnant air conditions associated with high-pressure systems, although nucleation occurred more extensively during most of the simulation period. In contrast, south of 30°N, nucleation and NPF were both infrequent because of low SO2 emissions and H2SO4 concentrations. The period-averaged NPF frequency at 30°-45°N was three times that at 20°-30°N. This north-south contrast in NPF frequency was validated by surface measurements in outflow regions of East Asia. The simulated period- and domain-averaged contribution of secondary particles was estimated to be 44% for CN (>10 nm) and 26% for CCN at a supersaturation of 1.0%, though the contribution was highly sensitive to the amount and size distribution of primary aerosol emissions and the rate coefficient of the nucleation parameterization.

  10. Seasonal and rainfall-type variations in inorganic ions and dicarboxylic acids and acidity of wet deposition samples collected from subtropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Hsieh, Li-Ying; Kuo, Su-Ching; Chen, Chien-Lung; Wu, Pei-Ling

    2011-07-01

    Rainfall samples were collected over a period of 3 years and 8 months in subtropical East Asia. They are categorized into different rainfall types and analyzed to assess the ionic composition and its effect on the acidity of wet deposition in southern Taiwan. Only 4% of samples had a pH of <5.0, indicating that the study area is not impacted significantly by acid rain. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH by rainfall type was Spring Rain 5.74, Typhoon Rain 5.56, Summer Rain 5.46, Typhoon Outer Circulation (TOC) Rain 5.45, Plum Rain 5.32 and Autumn-Winter Rain 5.29. Dilution effects were important to the equivalent ionic concentration of different rainfall types. HCO 3-, SO 42- and Cl - were detected as major anions whereas NH 4+, Na + and Ca 2+ were major cations. CO 2-derived HCO 3- was the major ionic species in all but Typhoon Rain and Spring Rain, in which the major species were Na + and Cl - and Ca 2+, respectively. Excluding HCO 3-, the major species were NH 4+, Na + and Ca 2+ in Plum Rain, the secondary photochemical products SO 42-, NO 3- and NH 4+ in TOC Rain and Summer Rain, and Na + and Ca 2+ in Autumn-Winter Rain. Calculation of arithmetic means showed that dicarboxylic acids contributed between 0.25% and 0.53% of the total ionic concentration and of these, oxalic acid contributed the least (81.3% of the dicarboxylic acid) to TOC Rain and the most (96.1% of the dicarboxylic acid) to Spring Rain, suggestive of long-range transport in the latter. Differences in wet deposition composition were shown to be a result of differences in local emissions and long-range transport (hence of prevailing wind direction) during the period of rainfall and of the frequency and volume of rain that typifies each rainfall type. Principal component analysis (PCA) further revealed that traffic-related and industrial organic and inorganic pollutants, their secondary photochemical products, sea salts, and dust are important contributors to wet deposition. Moreover, the ratio of malonic acid to succinic acid (M:S ratio) indicated that both traffic and secondary photochemical reactions are major contributors to all but TOC Rain, for which the M:S ratio of 4.54 indicates a relative abundance of pollutants from secondary photochemical reactions. An ion balance (IB) ratio analysis demonstrated the validity of the results in this research.

  11. Regional-scale simulation of transport and transformations of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia: diurnal variations investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Qing; Lammel, Gerhard; Cheng, Yafang

    2015-04-01

    Semi-volatile PAHs are major pollutants of urban air, mostly regionally transported and reaching remote environments[1]. Some semi-volatile PAHs are carcinogenic. About 22% of global PAHs emissions are in China. The transport and sinks (atmospheric reactions, deposition) of semi-volatile PAHs in East Asia are studied using a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem [2]). For this purpose, PAHs' gas and particulate phase chemical reactions and dry and wet deposition processes are included. We use emissions of 2008 [3] which include technical combustion processes (coal, oil, gas, waste and biomass) and open fires and apply diurnal time functions as those of black carbon. The model was run for phenanthrene (3-ring PAH, p = 1.5×10-2 Pa at 298 K) and benzo(a)pyrene (5-ring PAH, p = 7×10-7 Pa) for July 2013 with hourly output and 27 km horizontal grid spacing. The comparison of model predicted phenanthrene concentrations with measurements at a rural site near Beijing (own data, unpublished) validates the model's ability to simulate diurnal variations of gaseous PAHs. The model's performance is better in simulating day time than night time gaseous PAHs. The concentrations of PAHs had experienced significant diurnal variations in rural and remote areas of China. Elevated concentration levels of 40-60 ng m-3 for phenanthrene and 1-10 ng m-3 for benzo(a)pyrene are predicted in Shanxi, Guizhou, the North China Plain, the Sichuan Basin and Chongqing metropolitan areas due to the high emission densities at those locations. References [1] Keyte, I.J., Harrison, R.M., and Lammel, G., 2013: Chemical reactivity and long-range transport potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - a review, Chem. Soc. Rev., 42, 9333-9391. [2] Grell, G.A, Peckham, S.E, Schmitz, R, McKeen, S.A, Frost, G, Skamarock, W.C, and Eder, B., 2005: Fully coupled online chemistry within the WRF model, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6957-6975. [3] Shen, H. Z., Huang, Y., Wang, R., Zhu, D., Li, W., Shen, G. F., Wang, B., Zhang, Y. Y., Chen, Y. C., Lu, Y., Chen, H., Li, T. C., Sun, K., Li, B. G., Liu, W. X., Liu, J. F., and Tao, S., 2013: Global atmospheric emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 1960 to 2008 and future predictions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 6415-6424.

  12. Comparison of phenolic compounds and the effects of invasive and native species in East Asia: Support for the novel weapons hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Y.-O.; Lee, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    One prediction of the novel weapons hypothesis (NWH) for the dominance of exotic invasive plant species is that the allelopathic effects of successful invaders will, in general, be more biochemically inhibitory to native species and microbes in invaded regions than the native plants themselves. However, no study has compared biochemical concentrations, compositions, or effects of large numbers of native species to those of large numbers of invasive species. In this context we tested the allelopathic and antimicrobial potentials of nine native plant species and nine invasive species in East Asia by comparing their broad phenolic contents and the effects of extracts made from each of the species on target plants and soil fungi. Three of the invasive species, including Eupatorium rugosum, had higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds than any of the native species, and the mean concentration of total phenolics for invasive species was 2.6 times greater than the mean for native species. Only scopoletin was novel to the invasive species, being found in all of nine invasive species, but not in the native species. More importantly, the effects of the total suites of phenolic compounds produced by invasive species differed from the effects of phenolics produced by natives. Extracts of invasive species reduced radicle growth of the three test plant species by 60-80%, but extracts of native species reduced radicle growth by only 30-50%. Extracts of invasive species reduced shoot growth of the three test species by 20-40%, but the overall effect of native species' extract was to stimulate shoot growth. The antimicrobial activity of invasive species was also significantly higher than that of native species. It should be noted that phenolics are just one component of a plant's potential allelopathic arsenal and non-phenolic compounds are likely to play a role in the total extract effect. For example, extracts of P. americana contained the lowest levels of phenolic compounds, but exhibited the strongest inhibition effect. We could not determine whether the greater inhibitory effects of the extracts from invasive species were due to novel combinations of chemicals or higher concentrations of chemicals, but our results are consistent with the predictions of the NWH. ?? 2010 The Ecological Society of Japan.

  13. This extended abstract appeared in Proceedings of the 2006 ACM Symposium on Information, computer and communications security (AsiaCCS '06)

    E-print Network

    Abdalla, Michel Ferreira

    for the TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol. The goal is to provide a technique that allows users and communications security (AsiaCCS '06) (March 21­24, 2006, Taipei, Taiwan), pages 35­45, ACM Press, New York, NY, USA. Provably Secure Password-Based Authentication in TLS Michel Abdalla1, Emmanuel Bresson2, Olivier

  14. Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Blurring Borders, Changing Balance. Routledge Research on Public and Social Policy in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to systematically chart and comparatively assess the trend towards private higher education in South East Asia. Caught between conflicting imperatives of spiralling demand, and limited resources, the balance between public and private higher education systems in South East, South, and East Asia has shifted markedly. The…

  15. Long-term Follow-up Results of a Multi-institutional Phase 2 Study of Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in East and Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Shingo, E-mail: s_kato@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences of Japan, Chiba (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, Gunma (Japan); Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Siriraj Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Cao, Jianping [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Soochow (China); Xu, Xiaoting [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow (China); Devi, C. R. Beena; Swee, Tang Tieng [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Hospital Umum Sarawak, Kuching (Malaysia); Calaguas, Miriam J.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Medical Center, Quezon City, the Philippines (Philippines); Reyes, Rey H. de los [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Manila, the Philippines (Philippines); Cho, Chul-Koo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dung, To Anh [Department of Breast and Gynecology Radiotherapy, National Cancer Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Supriana, Nana [Department of Radiation Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta (Indonesia); Erawati, Dyah [Division of Radiotherapy, Dr Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya (Indonesia); Mizuno, Hideyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences of Japan, Chiba (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences of Japan, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term survival and toxicity of a multi-institutional phase 2 study of concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer in east and southeast Asia. Methods and Materials: Ten institutions from 8 Asian countries participated in the study. Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky stage IIB and 60 with stage IIIB) were treated with CCRT. Radiation therapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiation therapy and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered during the course of radiation therapy. Treatment results were evaluated by the rates of local control, overall survival, and late toxicities. Results: Median follow-up was 63.7 months, and the follow-up rate at 5 years was 98%. The 5-year local control and overall survival rates for all patients were 76.8% and 55.1%, respectively. The 5-year rates of major late toxicities of the rectum and bladder were 7.9% and 0%, respectively. Conclusions: The long-term results have suggested that CCRT is safe and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in east and southeast Asia. However, further efforts are needed to improve overall survival.

  16. 78 FR 3067 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Looking East: Rubens's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Looking East: Rubens's Encounter With Asia'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...objects to be included in the exhibition ``Looking East: Rubens's Encounter with Asia,'' imported from abroad for...

  17. Global challenges in the management of congenital cataract: proceedings of the 4th International Congenital Cataract Symposium held on March 7, 2014, New York, New York.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Phoebe D; Courtright, Paul; Wilson, M Edward; Lewallen, Susan; Taylor, David Samuel; Ventura, Marcelo C; Bowman, Richard; Woodward, Lee; Ditta, Lauren C; Kruger, Stacey; Haddad, Danny; El Shakankiri, Nihal; Rai, Salma Kc; Bailey, Tehara; Lambert, Scott R

    2015-04-01

    Childhood cataracts have become a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness in many areas of the world. Here we summarize regional focus group discussions from the 4th Annual International Congenital Cataract Symposium on the current situation, challenges, and recommendations for the management of congenital cataracts in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Central America, South America, and developed nations. Strategies for managing congenital cataracts must be adapted and developed according to regional conditions. A basic framework for acceptable outcomes must focus on developing systems to address the critical components of education, access, quality care, and good follow-up. PMID:25892047

  18. Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1244302 The determinants of bank stock returns' co-movements in East Asia

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1244302 The determinants of bank stock, 87031 Limoges, France Abstract We examine co-movements of bank stock returns in eight East Asian correlations among banks within each country are computed and used as a dependent variable in weighted least

  19. The impact of land cover generated by a dynamic vegetation model on climate over East Asia in present and possible future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M.-H.; Boo, K.-O.; Martin, G. M.; Lee, J.; Lim, G.-H.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates the impacts of land cover change, as simulated by a dynamic vegetation model, on the summertime climatology over Asia. The climate model used in this study has systematic biases of underestimated rainfall around Korea and overestimation over the South China Sea. When coupled to a dynamic vegetation model, the resulting change in land cover is accompanied by an additional direct radiative effect over dust-producing regions. The direct radiative effect of the additional dust contributes to increasing the rainfall biases, while the land surface physical processes are related to local temperature biases such as warm biases over North China. In time-slice runs for future climate, as the dust loading changes, anomalous anticyclonic flows are simulated over South China Sea, resulting in reduced rainfall over the South China Sea and more rainfall toward around Korea and South China. In contrast with the rainfall changes, the influence of land cover change and the associated dust radiative effects are very small for future projection of temperature, which is dominated by atmospheric CO2 increase. The results in this study suggest that the land cover simulated by a dynamic vegetation model can affect, and be affected by, model systematic biases on regional scales over dust emission source regions such as Asia. In particular, analysis of the radiative effects of dust changes associated with land cover change is important in order to understand future changes of regional precipitation in global warming.

  20. Chemical characteristics of aerosols transported from Asia to the East China Sea: an evaluation of anthropogenic combined nitrogen deposition in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tokuhiro; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    Deposition of terrestrial aerosols is one of the major means of fertilizing the oligotrophic ocean waters. In order to understand the biogeochemical significance of aerosols transported from the Asian continent, and deposited over the East China Sea, we studied their chemical properties by making continuous measurements on board R/V Hakuho Maru in autumn, a season of lower dust events. Outflows of anthropogenic substances were observed over the East China Sea. The average concentration of non-sea-salt (nss)-SO 42- in aerosols was 8.7±6.8 ?g m -3, a value typical for polluted atmosphere of a highly industrialized urban area in South China. Fine mode NH 4+ mainly occurred as (NH 4) 2SO 4 and/or NH 4HSO 4 while in coarse mode it was formed from intermodal coagulation of ammonium particles in fine and coarse aeorosols. On the other hand, the mean concentration of NO 3- (1.8±1.2 ?g m -3) was lower than that in the urban atmosphere. Non-sea-salt SO 42- were derived from combustion sources and marine biological processes, the latter accounting to 0-38%. Nitrate in coarse mode was associated with Ca 2+ and Na + perhaps due to replacement reactions. Our estimates of the annual atmospheric aerosol deposition fluxes of NH 4+ and NO 3- to the East China Sea were 270 Gg N yr -1 and 160 Gg N yr -1, respectively. These atmospheric inputs are comparable to the riverine inputs of the Changjiang River. The total combined nitrogen deposition could account for a biological fixation of about 2.5 Tg C (approximately 0.1-9% of the new production) in the East China Sea annually, which could actually be larger since the autumn season experience minimal dust storms.

  1. Continents - Asia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brooke Robertshaw

    2010-03-26

    Second graders will learn about the seven continents and animals that live in those environments. I have a dream speech Eggleston, Va Welcome to the largest continent, Asia! First, let's see the map of Asia! You will click on this site. Next, while on this site you can answer questions on the worksheet. Then you finish the questions. Finally,close the website by closing the red x in the right hand ...

  2. The impact of land cover generated by a dynamic vegetation model on climate over east Asia in present and possible future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M.-H.; Boo, K.-O.; Martin, G. M.; Lee, J.; Lim, G.-H.

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the impacts of land cover change, as simulated by a dynamic vegetation model, on the summertime climatology over Asia. The climate model used in this study has systematic biases of underestimated rainfall around Korea and overestimation over the South China Sea. When coupled to a dynamic vegetation model, the resulting change in land cover is accompanied by an additional direct radiative effect over dust-producing regions. Both the change in land surface conditions directly and the effect of increased bare-soil fraction on dust loading affect the climate in the region and are examined separately in this study. The direct radiative effect of the additional dust contributes to increasing the rainfall biases, while the land surface physical processes are related to local temperature biases such as warm biases over North China. In time slice runs for future climate, as the dust loading changes, anomalous anticyclonic flows are simulated over South China Sea, resulting in reduced rainfall over the South China Sea and more rainfall near Korea and south China. In contrast with the rainfall changes, the influence of land cover change and the associated dust radiative effects are very small for a future projection of temperature, which is dominated by atmospheric CO2 increase. The results in this study suggest that the land cover simulated by a dynamic vegetation model can affect, and be affected by, model systematic biases on regional scales over dust emission source regions such as Asia. In particular, the analysis of the radiative effects of dust changes associated with land cover change is important in order to understand future changes in regional precipitation in global warming.

  3. A comparison study between CMAQ-simulated and OMI-retrieved NO2 columns over East Asia for evaluation of NOx emission fluxes of INTEX-B, CAPSS, and REAS inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. M.; Lee, S.; Chang, L. S.; Song, C. H.

    2015-02-01

    Comparison between the CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model)-calculated and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument)-retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns was carried out for 2006 over East Asia (100-150° E; 20-50° N) to evaluate the bottom-up NOx emission fluxes of INTEX-B, CAPSS, and REAS v1.11 inventories. The three emission inventories were applied to the CMAQ model simulations for the countries of China, South Korea, and Japan, respectively. For the direct comparison between the two NO2 columns, the averaging kernels (AKs) obtained from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI)/DOMINO v2.0 daily product were applied to the CMAQ-simulated data. The analysis showed that the two tropospheric NO2 columns from the CMAQ model simulations and OMI observations (?CMAQ,AK and ?OMI) had good spatial and seasonal correlation, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.71 to 0.96. In addition, the normalized mean errors (NMEs) between the ?CMAQ,AK and ?OMI were found to range from ~ 40 to ~ 63%. The ?CMAQ,AK were, on annual average, ~ 28% smaller (in terms of the NMEs) than the ?OMI, indicating that the NOx emissions used were possibly underestimated in East Asia. Large absolute differences between the ?CMAQ,AK and ?OMI were found, particularly over central eastern China (CEC) during winter (annual averaged mean error of ~ 4.51 × 1015 molecules cm-2). Although such differences between the ?CMAQ,AK and ?OMI are likely caused by the errors and biases in the NOx emissions used in the CMAQ model simulations, it can be rather difficult to quantitatively relate the differences to the accuracy of the NOx emissions, because there are also several uncertain factors in the CMAQ model, satellite-retrieved NO2 columns and AK products, and NOx and other trace gas emissions. In this context, three uncertain factors were selected and analyzed with sensitivity runs (monthly variations in NOx emissions; influences of different NOx emission fluxes; and reaction probability of N2O5 radicals). Other uncertain or possible influential factors were also discussed to suggest future direction of the study.

  4. Pathology in East Timor.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stephen R

    2002-10-01

    East Timor is the newest nation in Southeast Asia and, with its recent turbulent history, also one of the poorest. Infectious and parasitic diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria are endemic, and the poor infrastructure in the wake of Indonesia's sudden withdrawal has left the country with enormous health challenges. Australia's key role in the emergence of East Timor as an independent country brings with it a long-term interest in the future development of its health services, including pathology. PMID:12408349

  5. Trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 column density over East Asia during 2000-2010: multi-satellite observations and model simulations with the updated REAS emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; Irie, H.; Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.

    2013-04-01

    Satellite observations of the tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) are closely correlated to surface NOx emissions and can thus be used to estimate the latter. In this study, the NO2 VCDs simulated by a regional chemical transport model with data from the updated Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2.1 were validated by comparison with multi-satellite observations (GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI) between 2000 and 2010. Rapid growth in NO2 VCD driven by expansion of anthropogenic NOx emissions was revealed above the central eastern China region, except during the economic downturn. In contrast, slightly decreasing trends were captured above Japan. The modeled NO2 VCDs using the updated REAS emissions reasonably reproduced the annual trends observed by multi-satellites, suggesting that the NOx emissions growth rate estimated by the updated inventory is robust. On the basis of the close linear relationship of modeled NO2 VCD, observed NO2 VCD, and anthropogenic NOx emissions, the NOx emissions in 2009 and 2010 were estimated. It was estimated that the NOx emissions from anthropogenic sources in China beyond doubled between 2000 and 2010, reflecting the strong growth of anthropogenic emissions in China with the rapid recovery from the economic downturn during late 2008 and mid-2009.

  6. Clinical and virological dynamics of a serotype O 2010 South East Asia lineage foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep using natural and simulated natural inoculation and exposure systems.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Pacheco, Juan M; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B; Ferreira, Helena C de Carvalho; Vosloo, Wilna; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Within-host infection dynamics of a recent field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), serotype O, topotype South East Asia, lineage Myamar'98 were evaluated in sheep using four different systems for virus exposure. Two novel, simulated natural, inoculation systems consisting of intra-nasopharyngeal (INP) deposition and aerosol inoculation were evaluated in comparison with two conventional systems: coronary band inoculation and direct contact exposure. All four exposure systems were efficient in generating consistently severe, generalized FMD with synchronous clinical characteristics within exposure groups, indicating that this Myanmar98 strain is highly virulent in sheep. Clinical and virological dynamics were similarly rapid following INP- and coronary band inoculation, with both systems leading to significantly earlier detection of virus shedding when compared to aerosol inoculation and contact exposure. The data presented herein support application of the two optimized simulated natural inoculation systems as valid alternatives to conventionally used exposure systems for studies of FMDV pathogenesis and vaccinology in sheep. Furthermore, the data suggest that targeted exposure of the ovine pharynx is highly efficient for generating consistent FMDV infection, which supports critical involvement of this anatomic region as a site of primary virus replication in sheep. PMID:25937316

  7. Impacts of land use/cover changes on surface climate over east Asia for extreme climate cases using RegCM2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Myoung-Seok; Lee, Dong-Kyou

    2004-01-01

    Systematic biases were found in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Regional Climate Model (NCAR RegCM2) through the 10-year east Asian summer simulations. In the simulations, positive and negative surface temperature biases of 2°-4°C occurred systematically over north China and Mongolia. The model also produced excessive precipitation over land but less precipitation over the southern ocean of the model domain. In this study, impacts of land cover changes (LCC) on the systematic biases were investigated through the cool/wet and warm/dry summer climate simulations using two types of land cover maps using RegCM2. One type was an NCAR land cover map, and the other was a current land cover map derived from satellite data. Simulated latent heat flux and wind speed increased noticeably over central and north China, where deciduous broad leaf trees have been replaced by mixed farm and irrigated crop. As a result, the systematic positive biases over central and north China were greatly reduced regardless of climate regimes. Cooling in central and north China resulted in a pressure gradient decrease between the east Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean. The decrease in pressure gradient suppressed northward transport of moisture from south China and the South China Sea. The change reduced not only excessive precipitation over north China and Mongolia but also less precipitation over south China. However, in LCC, precipitation increased in the Korean Peninsula and the Japan Islands, in particular, during July and August. As a result, LCC resulted in cooler and drier summer climate over north China, but cooler and wetter summer climate over the Korean Peninsula and the Japan Islands irrespective of climate regimes. In general, the impacts of LCC were relatively significant in the warm and dry summer.

  8. Regional modeling of tropospheric NO2 vertical column density over East Asia during the period 2000-2010: comparison with multisatellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; Irie, H.; Kurokawa, J.-I.; Ohara, T.

    2014-04-01

    Satellite observations of the tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) are closely correlated to, and thus can be used to estimate, surface NOx emissions. In this study, the NO2 VCD simulated by a regional chemical transport model with emissions data from the updated Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2.1 were validated through comparison with multisatellite observations during the period 2000-2010. Rapid growth in NO2 VCD (~11% year-1) driven by the expansion of anthropogenic NOx emissions was identified above the central eastern China (CEC) region, except for the period during the economic downturn. In contrast, slightly decreasing trends (~2% year-1) were identified above Japan accompanied by a decline in anthropogenic emissions. To systematically compare the modeled NO2 VCD, we estimated sampling bias and the effect of applying the averaging kernel information, with particular focus on the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) data. Using the updated REAS, the modeled NO2 VCD reasonably reproduced annual trends observed by multisatellites, suggesting that the rate of increase of NOx emissions estimated by the updated REAS inventory would be robust. Province-scale revision of emissions above CEC is needed to further refine emission inventories. Based on the close linear relationship between modeled and observed NO2 VCD and anthropogenic NOx emissions, NOx emissions in 2009 and 2010, which were not covered by the updated REAS inventory, were estimated. NOx emissions from anthropogenic sources in China in 2009 and 2010 were determined to be 26.4 and 28.5 Tg year-1, respectively, indicating that NOx emissions increased more than twofold between 2000 and 2010. This increase reflected the strong growth of anthropogenic emissions in China following the rapid recovery from the economic downturn from late 2008 until mid-2009. Our method consists of simple estimations from satellite observations and provides results that are consistent with the most recent inventory of emissions data for China.

  9. Vertical variation of optical properties of mixed Asian dust/pollution plumes according to pathway of air mass transport over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, S.-K.; Müller, D.; Lee, C.; Lee, K. H.; Shin, D.; Kim, Y. J.; Noh, Y. M.

    2015-06-01

    We use five years (2009-2013) of multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements at Gwangju, South Korea (35.10° N, 126.53° E) for the identification of changes of optical properties of East Asian dust depending on its transport path over China. Profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratios, and backscatter-related Ångström exponents (wavelength pair 355/532 nm) were measured at Gwangju. Linear particle depolarization ratios were used to identify East Asian dust layers. We used backward trajectory modeling to identify the pathway and the vertical position of dust-laden air masses over China during long-range transport. Most cases of Asian dust events can be described by the emission of dust in desert areas and subsequent transport over highly polluted regions of China. The Asian dust plumes could be categorized into two classes according to the height above ground at which these plumes were transported: (case I) the dust layers passed over China at high altitude levels (> 3 km) until arrival over Gwangju, and (case II) the Asian dust layers were transported near the surface and within the lower troposphere (< 3 km) over industrialized areas before they arrived over Gwangju. We find that the optical characteristics of these mixed Asian dust layers over Gwangju differ depending on their vertical position above ground over China and the change of height above ground during transport. The mean linear particle depolarization ratio was 0.21 ± 0.06 (at 532 nm), the mean lidar ratios were 52 ± 7 sr at 355 nm and 53 ± 8 sr at 532 nm, and the mean Ångström exponent was 0.74 ± 0.31 for case I. In contrast, plumes transported at lower altitudes (case II) showed low depolarization ratios (0.13 ± 0.04 at 532 nm), and higher lidar ratio (63 ± 9 sr at 355 nm and 62 ± 8 sr at 532 nm) and Ångström exponents (0.98 ± 0.51). These numbers show that the optical characteristics of mixed Asian plumes are more similar to optical characteristics of urban pollution. We find a decrease of the linear depolarization ratio of the mixed dust/pollution plume depending on transport time if the pollution layer traveled over China at low heights, i.e., below approximately 3 km above ground. In contrast, we do not find such a trend if the dust plumes traveled at heights above 3 km over China. We need a longer time series of lidar measurements in order to determine in a quantitative way the change of optical properties of dust with transport time.

  10. Fragmentation of Asia in the Permian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. McElhinny; B. J. J. Embleton; X. H. Ma; Z. K. Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Asia is a composite continent formed by the accretion of crustal blocks1-3. A likely sequence of events is that Siberia collided with a Kazakhstan block which together then collided with Europe along the Urals in Permo-Triassic times2. This was followed by the sucessive accretion of various blocks of south and east Asia to Siberia, culminating in the collision of India

  11. East Asian Security in 2025 

    E-print Network

    Heavin, Reagan; Hudson, Adam; Krueger, Brandon; O'Neil, Sean; Rozell, Griffin; Suma, Matt

    2008-01-01

    : Competition, Cooperation, Plateau? Reagan Heavin Adam Hudson Brandon Krueger Sean O’Neil Griffin Rozell Matt Suma 24 April 2008 East Asian Security in 2025 Agenda • Conclusions • Projections • Drivers • Four Outcomes • Questions East Asian Security in 2025... Security in 2025 Drivers • Economic Growth – Energy – Demographics – State capacity • Chinese Foreign Policy – Regional relations – Military strategy • US Reaction East Asian Security in 2025 Four Outcomes for Asia in 2025 Outcome 1: Sino...

  12. Asia Pacific Clean Energy International OTEC Symposium

    E-print Network

    Robert Varley September 9, 2013 #12;2 Lockheed Martin's OTEC Roadmap 1st 100 MW Plant 100 MW+ Plants 10, luxury lifestyle, healthcare and sports and culture Lockheed Martin and Reignwood Group to Develop Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Power Plant Lockheed Martin & Reignwood OTEC Memorandum of Agreement Signing

  13. Asia Observer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This "start page for observers of Asian affairs" complements resources such as Asia Society (described in the January 2, 1998 Scout Report) by providing an omnibus of links to news outlets, government resources, special topics and academic Websites, Asian newspapers, reference texts, human rights organizations, and more. In addition, the Find an Expert section allows users to access two large databases of scholars and researchers in Asian policy and Asian history and culture.

  14. Socio-economic variations in tobacco consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: results from the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) survey.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Kin, Foong; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2008-03-01

    Aim To examine the association of socio-economic position (education, income and employment status) with cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Design and setting The data were based on a survey of adult smokers conducted in early 2005 in Thailand and Malaysia as part of the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) project. Participants A total of 1846 men in Thailand and 1906 men in Malaysia. Measurement Participants were asked questions on daily cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit in face-to-face interviews. Findings Analyses were based on multivariate regression models that adjusted for all three socio-economic indicators. In Thailand, higher level of education was associated strongly with not having self-efficacy, associated weakly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, associated weakly with high cigarette consumption and was not associated with having an intention to quit. Being employed was associated strongly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption or self-efficacy. In Malaysia, higher level of education was not associated with any of the outcomes. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, and was not associated with the other outcomes. Being employed was associated moderately with higher cigarette consumption and was not associated with the other outcomes. Conclusion Socio-economic and cultural conditions, as well as tobacco control policies and tobacco industry activities, shape the determinants of smoking behaviour and beliefs. Existing knowledge from high-income countries about disparities in smoking should not be generalized readily to other countries. PMID:18269370

  15. Introduction: the Asia-Pacific HRM model revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm Warner

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces a symposium which 'revisits' the Asia-Pacific HRM model, much discussed in recent literature. It argues that, while the IR\\/HRM systems of the countries in the region are prima facie heterogeneous, there is both commonality and diversity. It posits the four logical cases of 'hard convergence', 'soft convergence', 'soft divergence' and 'hard divergence'. It argues that the most

  16. [Fujian oversea Chinese and Chinese traditional pharmacist in Southeast Asia].

    PubMed

    Hua, B; Du, J

    2000-10-01

    Hakka from Yongding and southern part of Fujian, engaged in Chinese traditional medicine enterprise in south - east Asia, make up the majority of overseas from Fujian. They played an important part in the development of traditional Chinese medicine and insurance of people's health, in planting Chinese herbs, opening pharmaceutical factory, organizing pharmaceutical company and associations of medicine etc. They made great contributions to the communication and cooperation of medicine between PR China and other countries, especially Fujian and south - east Asia. PMID:11871437

  17. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  18. Pacific-East Asian Teleconnection: How Does ENSO Affect East Asian Climate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Wang; Renguang Wu; Xiouhua Fu

    2000-01-01

    Observational evidence is presented to show a teleconnection between the central Pacific and East Asia during the extreme phases of ENSO cycles. This Pacific-East Asian teleconnection is confined to the lower troposphere. The key system that bridges the warm (cold) events in the eastern Pacific and the weak (strong) East Asian winter monsoons is an anomalous lower-tropospheric anticyclone (cyclone) located

  19. Understanding the financial crisis in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhagwan Chowdhry; Amit Goyal

    2000-01-01

    The financial crisis of East Asia in 1997 was largely unanticipated and was characterized by sharp falls in asset prices and currency values in several countries simultaneously. Many empirical models have been developed to predict the occurrence of such crisis. However, the out-of-sample performance of these models is disappointing. Most theoretical explanations of the crisis emphasize the role of banking

  20. Asia's financial crisis: lessons and policy responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramon Moreno; Gloria Pasadilla; Eli Remolona

    1998-01-01

    This paper argues that fundamental weaknesses in Asian financial systems that had been masked by rapid growth were at the root of East Asia's 1997 currency and financial crisis. These weaknesses were caused by the lack of incentives for effective risk management created by implicit or explicit government guarantees against failure. The weakness of the financial sector was accentuated by

  1. CACGP Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicerone, Ralph J.

    1980-10-01

    This is the second of several issues to contain papers presented at the Symposium on Budget and Cycles of Trace Gases and Aerosols in the Atmosphere. (Journal of Geophysical Research, 85, August 20, 1980, contained the first group of papers.) Held August 12-18, 1979, in Boulder, Colorado, the symposium was part of the Fourth International Conference of the Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (CACGP). The principal convenor of the symposium was the past CACGP Secretary, P. Goldsmith, of the Meteorological Office, Bracknell, United Kingdom; his efforts were complemented by the past CACGP President, E-. A. Martell, of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.

  2. Symposium on Understanding and Influencing Consumer Food Behaviours for Health: Executive Summary Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofia V Amarra; Yeong Boon Yee; Adam Drewnowski

    Food consumption patterns in Asia are rapidly changing. Urbanization and changing lifestyles have diminished the consumption of traditional meals based on cereals, vegetables and root crops. These changes are accompa- nied by an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among Asian populations. ILSI Southeast Asia and CSIRO, Australia jointly organized the Symposium on Understanding and Influencing Food Behaviours for Health, fo-

  3. East Asia review 1978-79. Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Surjaningrat, S; Pardoko, R H; Sumbung, P P; Soedarmadi, M

    1980-11-01

    The Indonesia family planning program has undergone many changes in policy and strategy. Since 1979 it has shifted emphasis from solely attempting to control population growth, to broadening its scope to include other areas of development. The program concentrates on the most densely populated areas of the country such as Bali and Java, as well as including a nutrition program thereby integrating functions of fieldworkers from the ministries of Health, Agriculture, and Trade and Cooperation. In rural areas, program maintenance has shifted from the government to the community; acceptor groups and women's clubs manage contraception resupply posts. Oral contraceptives are the most widely chosen form of birth control. These were originally purchased from the U.S. but are now being manufactured in Indonesia. Tables are given, showing the decline in fertility rates from 5.5 through the 1960s, to 4.0 in 1974/5. This decline correlates with the expansion of the family planning program. PMID:7456107

  4. Growing typhoon influence on east Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liguang Wu; Bin Wang; Shuqin Geng

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global climate change will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. Since the global warming has been underway, it is meaningful to ask: Are there evidences of observed changes in tropical cyclone activity? Using best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two

  5. Retirement Income Systems in East Asia1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanam S. Phang

    Social security and pension systems in most of the Asian countries have a relatively short history and thus are less developed both in its formal coverage and substantive protection than in other parts of the world with comparable levels of economic development. The extended family had long been a cultural tradition and a major source of old-age income support in

  6. The East Asian summer monsoon: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding Yihui; Johnny C. L. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Summary The present paper provides an overview of major problems of the East Asian summer monsoon. The summer monsoon system over East Asia (including the South China Sea (SCS)) cannot be just thought of as the eastward and northward extension of the Indian monsoon. Numerous studies have well documented that the huge Asian summer monsoon system can be divided into

  7. Age of Asia: Resources for Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Maintained by Kristina Kade Troost, the East Asian Librarian at Duke University, this site was created as a resource for student research projects in a business school course entitled Age of Asia. Some of the resources listed are located at Duke but the majority are freely accessible to anyone. At the site, users will find information on the course, country profiles, book and periodical databases, links to Asian newspapers, electronic databases, government sources and several special topics. Either as a stand-alone resource or as a model for an instructor's research/resource page, this site is a welcome addition to courses on Asia.

  8. CACGP symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicerone, Ralph J.

    1981-06-01

    This is the last of four issues to have a section devoted to papers presented at the Symposium on Budget and Cycles of Trace Gases and Aerosols in the Atmosphere. (Journal of Geophysical Research, 85, August 20, 1980, contained the first group of papers; October 20, 1980, contained the second; and December 20, 1980, contained the third.) Held August 12-18, 1979, in Boulder, Colorado, the symposium was part of the Fourth International Conference of the Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (CACGP). The principal convenor of the symposium was the past CACGP Secretary, P. Goldsmith, of the Meteorological Office, Bracknell, United Kingdom; his efforts were complemented by the past CACGP President, E. A. Martell, of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.

  9. Symposium: Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.B.; Bruce, W.R.; Fry, R.J.M.; Hoffman, D.

    1986-01-01

    There is much interest in the factors that cause cancer in humans. This symposium was planned as a discussion of the emerging knowledge of carcinogenesis that is being obtained from research. Focus was also placed on the implications found in cancer epidemiology. 11 refs.

  10. Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: The Latin American Challenge to East Asian Conventional Wisdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Wood

    1997-01-01

    The experience of East Asia in the 1960s and 1970s supports the theory that greater openness to trade tends to narrow the wage gap between skilled and unskilled workers in developing countries. In Latin America since the mid-1980s, however, increased openness has widened wage differentials. This conflict of evidence is probably not the result of differences between East Asia and

  11. Cross-Current Contribution : A Study on East Asian Influence on Modern Architecture in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyon-Sob Kim

    2009-01-01

    This research started from the premise that East Asia - China, Korea and Japan - played a remarkable role in the development of modern architecture. In this study, attention is paid to the lack of a synthetic research about the influence of East Asia on European modernism as a counterpart to its influence on American modernism. Thus, the intention of

  12. Structure of the upper mantle and transition zone beneath Southeast Asia from traveltime tomography

    E-print Network

    Li, Chang

    Tomographic images of the mantle beneath East Asia were obtained from the inversion of traveltime data from global and regional seismograph networks and from temporary arrays on and around the Tibetan plateau. Our results ...

  13. The Asia Foundation: Multimedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Asia Foundation counts 21 countries as members of the Asia-Pacific region that it concerns itself with, to "build a peaceful, prosperous, just, and open Asia-Pacific region." The "Multimedia" section of their website contains both slideshows and videos. There are many short videos that highlight the Asia Foundation's Books for Asia program, which provides books to schoolchildren whose schools and families have limited access. The video "Return to Khishig Undur: The Tale of Peter Rabbit" is worth watching, as it tells the heartwarming story of students in a 4th grade class in a remote village in Mongolia who each received a copy of The Tale of Peter Rabbit from the Asia Foundation. This book was chosen as a result of the over 10,000 people who voted for a children's book in the "Choose a Book. Change a Life" campaign.

  14. EAST AFRICA EAST AFRICA

    E-print Network

    Denham, Graham

    in rwanda Helped review and develop nurse training curriculum and overall medical education in Rwanda.7+million SHARCNET Access granted to all partner universities in East Africa CIDA UPCD project, Rebuilding Star grant for diabetes diagnostics project in Kenya led by Jin Zhang (2011) $100thousand Formation

  15. Vitamin D in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Green; Bernard Venn

    \\u000a Suboptimal vitamin D status is common throughout Asia particularly in women and in infants. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is\\u000a endemic in parts of northern Asia. Vitamin D inadequacy may also be contributing to the burden of osteoporosis and other diseases\\u000a in the region. Vitamin D intakes are low in Asia and food fortification is uncommon. In the north cold temperatures

  16. Holocene sea levels and palaeoenvironments, Malay-Thai Peninsula, southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Horton; P. L. Gibbard; G. M. Milne; R. J. Morley; C. Purintavaragul; J. M. Stargardt

    2005-01-01

    Sedimentological and palynological investigations of Great Songkhla Lakes, east coast of the Malay-Thai Peninsula, Southeast Asia, reveal sedimentary sequences rich in palynomorph assemblages dominated by pollen of mangroves and freshwater swamps. Compared with other regions in Southeast Asia the assemblages are of relatively low diversity. Geochronological data indicate that the Great Songkhla Lakes record one of the earliest mangrove environments

  17. Implications of lake level variations at 6 ka and 18 ka in mainland Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boqiang Qin; Ge Yu

    1998-01-01

    The inland lake level changes in arid or semi-arid mainland Asia at 6 ka and 18 ka have been reconstructed by means of survey of literature through compilations of sedimentological, biogeological and hydrological data. The results show that most lakes identical in low water stands at present. But the lakes from East and South Asia are characterised by a lower

  18. Freshwater fishes of Southeast Asia: potential for the aquarium fish trade and conservation issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter K. L. Ng; H. H. Tan

    1997-01-01

    SoutheastAsia is an area rich in biodiversity, with a high degree ofendemism in both flora and fauna. Many freshwater fish specieshave been exploited for the ornamental fish trade. As thepopulation in South East Asia increases, vast tracts of forestsare cleared for agricultural, industrial and urbanizationpurposes. To conserve and sustainably exploit the wild fishpopulation, measures should be adopted to protect this

  19. ESP in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Tony, Ed.

    Seven conference papers discuss English language training and political development in Asia, including language project design and evaluation, counterparting, sustainability, appropriate technology, and languages and the politics of development. Papers included are: "Linguistic and Cultural Considerations of Writing ELT Texts for Use in Asia

  20. AED in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of AED endeavors in Asia. AED's work in Asia has centered on institution-building, taking advantage of its…

  1. Behavioral finance in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Kim; John R. Nofsinger

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the Pacific-Basin Finance Journal's special issue on behavioral finance in Asia. We first briefly discuss behavioral finance in general, and then we explain why behavioral finance in Asia is an important topic worth studying. We describe the papers published in this special issue, and in doing so, we place the papers within the appropriate context of the

  2. Englishes in Asia: Communication, Identity, Power and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Andy, Ed.

    This collection of papers comprises proceedings from the 5th English in South East Asia Conference, held in December 2000 at Curtin University of Technology in Perth. The 19 papers include the following: (1) "Global English and Local Language Policies" (Robert Phillipson); (2) "Hong Kong Parents' Preference for English-Medium Education: Passive…

  3. PREFACE: XVIII International Scientific Symposium in Honour of Academician M. A. Usov: Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    XVIII International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' (for students and young scientists) was organized under the guidance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Being one of the oldest technical higher education institutions which trains specialists who contribute to scientific research in geosciences, The Institute of Natural Resources of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU INR) was chosen to hold the symposium. In 2014 The Institute of Natural Resources celebrated its 113th anniversary. It was founded in 1901 by V.A. Obruchev, the first geologist in Siberia, member of USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, and the first Laureate of the Lenin Prize. He was recognized all over the world as a prominent scientist in the area of geology. INR is the first institute of geological education and geosciences in the Asian part of Russia. Siberian Mining and Geological Schola, established by V.A. Obruchev and M.A. Usov, has been retaining its significance for discovery, exploration and development of mineral resources not only in Siberia, in the Far East and North-East of the country, but also in Central Asia. There are a lot of outstanding scientists, engineers and manufacturers among alumni of The Institute of Natural Resources. The institute is proud of M.A. Usov, the student and first postgraduate of V.A. Obruchev, first professor and academician in Siberia, whose name is associated with the development of the mining industry in Siberia; Academician K.I. Satpaev, the founder and first president of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan; Professor N.N. Urvantsev, the discoverer of the unique Norilsk ore deposits in the north of East Siberia and Professor M.K. Korovin, who considered West Siberia deposits to be prospective for oil-gas exploration. There are over 35 000 graduates of the institute and more than 450 of them became explorers of mineral deposits including one Nobel laureate, 50 laureates of the Lenin and State Prizes, more than 250 researchers with DSc and PhD, 15 academicians and corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Sciences and five Heroes of Socialist Labor. Within the scope of the symposium there were 21 panels and workshop, being held over four days. The symposium was unique because it covered all scientific fields of geology and subsurface development: methods of prospecting and exploration for minerals and hydrocarbons, including space geological research and geoinformation systems in geology, as well as the ecological problems and integrated use of mineral resources, land management, natural resource law and economics. The students and young scientists of Russia, foreign and CIS countries participated in the symposium. The investigations presented at the symposium shed light on the latest achievements made by means of modern techniques and original methods of interpretation; the results of experimental studies and computer technologies in geology, oil and gas production and geoecology; the analysis of theoretical and experimental studies on various geological problems and environmental protection. The reports consider the vital issues and the latest achievements of stratigraphy, paleontology, tectonics, historical and regional geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, petrography, lithology, metallogeny, hydrogeology and engineering geology, geophysics, petroleum geology, oil and gas field development and processing of hydrocarbon and mineral resources, geoinformation systems (GIS) in geology, space geological research, oilfield equipment upgrading, modern techniques of mineral exploration, production, transportation and storage of oil and gas, drilling, mining engineering, geoecology, hydrogeoecology, environmental protection engineering, integrated use of mineral resources, land management, mining and natural resources law, and economical problems of mineral resources sectors in Russia and CIS countries. There is a special panel for t

  4. Spotlight on Inner Asia: The Bizarre Bazaar. Teacher and Student Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Forum for Global Education, New York, NY.

    Inner and Central Asia extends as far east as central China and as far west as areas in the Middle East. The changing empires over time (as well as the "shifting sands" of the geographic landmass) made it difficult to consider this as a single area. Moreover, the cultural exchanges which took place across this landmass, the transport of ideas as…

  5. Responding to the threat of global warming: Options for the Pacific and Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Streets; T. A. Siddiqi

    1989-01-01

    In June 1989, Argonne National Laboratory and the Environment and Policy Institute of the East-West Center jointly sponsored a workshop that was held at the East-West Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The primary goal of the workshop was to explore the options that the countries of the Pacific and Asia have for dealing with the threat of global warming. The countries

  6. Adult Mortality in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongwei Zhao

    \\u000a Asia, the largest and most populous continent in the world, has experienced a rapid demographic transition since the end of\\u000a World War II. According to a recent estimate by the United Nations Population Division (UN Population Division 2009), between\\u000a 1950–1955 and 2005–2010 life expectancy at birth in Asia has increased from 41 to 69 years and the total fertility rate

  7. International Conference "New Horizons of East Asian Studies in the Age of Globalization"

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 International Conference "New Horizons of East Asian Studies in the Age of Globalization Taiwan University Creative Globalization The age of Global Studies Taipei, Taiwan Journal of East Asia This paper is a comment on a conference "New Horizons of East Asian Studies in the Age of Globalization

  8. East Asian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.

    East Asian observations are of established importance in Applied Historical Astronomy. The earliest astronomical records from this part of the world (China, Japan and Korea) originate from China. These observations, mainly of lunar eclipses, are recorded on oracle bones from the period ca. 1300 - 1050 BC. Virtually all later Chinese and other East Asian astronomical records now exist only in printed copies. The earliest surviving series of solar eclipse observations from any part of the world is contained in the Chunqiu (722 - 481 BC), a chronicle of the Chinese state of Lu. However, not until after 200 BC, with the establishment of a stable empire in China, do detailed astronomical records survive. These are mainly contained in specially compiled astrological treatises in the official dynastic histories. Such records, following the traditional style, extend down to the start of the present century. All classes of phenomena visible to the unaided eye are represented: solar and lunar eclipses, lunar and planetary movements among the constellations, comets, novae and supernovae, meteors, sunspots and the aurora borealis. Parallel, but independent series of observations are recorded in Japanese and Korean history, especially after about AD 800. Sources of Japanese records tend to be more diverse than their Chinese and Korean counterparts, but fortunately Kanda Shigeru (1935) and Ohsaki Shyoji (1994) have made extensive compilations of Japanese astronomical observations down to the 1860s. Throughout East Asia, dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar.

  9. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment. PMID:19200631

  10. HRD Issues in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "The History of Human Resource Development in Taiwan from 1949 to 1999" (Christine M. Kuo, Gary N. McLean) finds that, contrary to the belief of most Taiwanese scholars that HRD (human resource development) in Taiwan is a new field, the roots of HRD in that country originated in the 1950s. It…

  11. Internationalization of Higher Education in the Developing and Emerging Countries: A Focus on Transnational Higher Education in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Futao Huang

    2007-01-01

    This article begins with an introduction to the context and general situation of transna- tional higher education (TNHE) in Asia, especially in East and Southeast Asia. It then examines development of TNHE in some selected Asian countries from different per- spectives and provides a detailed description of TNHE in China. The article concludes by discussing challenges and opportunities for the

  12. Internationalization of Higher Education in the Developing and Emerging Countries: A Focus on Transnational Higher Education in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2007-01-01

    This article begins with an introduction to the context and general situation of transnational higher education (TNHE) in Asia, especially in East and Southeast Asia. It then examines development of TNHE in some selected Asian countries from different perspectives and provides a detailed description of TNHE in China. The article concludes by…

  13. EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia Homepage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1997 by the European Commission (EC) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia involves international, regional, and local nonprofit organizations in an effort to bring "reproductive health services within reach of populations in South and South-East Asia that are thus far not or under-served." The Initiative focuses on seven Asian countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. The main page of the site offers background information and links for each of the seven countries, overviews of current projects, newsletters and fact sheets, and other related resources.

  14. Seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall using a multi-model ensemble system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Lee, Doo-Young; Yoo, Jin?Ho

    2015-04-01

    Using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers, the prediction skills of climate models in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP Indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index or each MPI. Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by hybrid dynamical-statistical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using a hybrid dynamical-statistical approach compared to the dynamical forecast alone. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  15. Final report, International Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Donald L.

    2000-03-20

    This meeting included technical presentations of state-of-the-art research which were integrated with tutorials and workshops by practicing technologies in the broad field of environmental biotechnology. This meeting was designed to be, in every respect, truly global. Over 150 excellent abstracts from around the world were accepted. For example, presentations were heard from technical workers in Southeast Asia, Russia, China, Europe, North Africa, India, and the US. By having these selected presenters, as well as identified experienced tutors with focused workshops, all participants benefited from this interactive symposium. A number of social events further promoted informal exchange of ideas, discussions of technical problems, and exploration of new applications. This international symposium on environmental biotechnology was on the campus of Northeastern University but all Boston area universities were included and participated using designed conference Co-Chairs. This symposium, with an attendance of several hundred people, was considered a major success. Workers with experience in one area of environmental biotechnology learned from the wealth of established backgrounds of those in other areas of environmental biotechnology. To formally disseminate conference results, it was pre-arranged that all technical presentations were reviewed for formal publications.

  16. First comparison of OMI-DOAS total ozone using ground-based observations at a megacity site in East Asia: Causes of discrepancy and improvement in OMI-DOAS total ozone during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyunkee; Lee, Hanlim; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Yun-Gon

    2014-08-01

    This study compares, for the first time, the total ozone columns derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OMI-DOAS algorithm) (TOCs-OMI) with those obtained from ground-based Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers (TOCs-Ground) in Seoul, a megacity in northeast Asia, over the 3 years between 2008 and 2010. We found a seasonal mean underestimation of 2.68% (maximum 18.33% on a single day) in TOCs-OMI when compared with TOCs-Ground from Seoul, particularly during the summer seasons (June, July, and August) of our study period: 20 of the 30 days when this underestimation of TOCs-OMI was greatest occurred during the summer. The causes of such large underestimations in summer TOCs-OMI were investigated, and we found that the ghost column densities (GCDs) used in the current OMI-DOAS algorithm did not fully account for the tropospheric ozone amounts below the cloud top in Seoul, particularly during the summer season when surface ozone is enhanced due to active photochemical reactions. We propose the use of New TOCs-OMI based on New GCDs that were calculated using ozonesonde data for the limited number of days when such data were available. The mean bias errors (MBE) against the TOCs-Ground of the New TOCs-OMI and original TOCs-OMI were -0.60% and -2.16%, respectively, which demonstrates the greater accuracy of the New TOCs-OMI. To increase the amount of New TOCs-OMI data available for comparison with the TOCs-Ground data, the regression equation for the relationship between the ozonesonde data and OMI-DOAS cloud pressure data was used to increase the availability of New GCD data for each measurement date that TOCs-OMI data were available for. This procedure reduced the MBE of the original TOCs-OMI by 1.29%, 1.67%, and 1.29% in June, July, and August, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the underestimation of GCDs is one of the major causes of the underestimation of TOCs-OMI during the summer season and suggests that improvements could be achieved using the proposed correction for these GCDs.

  17. Asia-Pacific.com!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Asia-Pacific.com!, an invaluable resource for users interested in business and economics in Asia and the Pacific Rim, offers an informative assortment of resources, news, and data. The site links to respected media sources throughout the region including Singapore Business Times, Jakarta Post, and The Australian, as well as in-depth journal articles, and book reviews, tables of contents, and purchasing information. Data analysis includes links to economic sources, company annual reports, and trade reports. Users are also invited to send their questions and queries to Asia-Pacific.com!'s panel of experts, who include George T. Haley, Associate Professor/ Director of Marketing and International Business Programs at the University of New Haven, Usha C.V. Haley, Associate Professor of Strategy and International Business at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Tan Chin Tiong, Professor and Provost of the new Singapore Management University.

  18. The Asia pacific cohort studies collaboration: a decade of achievements.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-12-01

    The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) was established in the late 1990s when there was a distinct shortfall in evidence of the importance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Asia. With few exceptions, most notably from Japan, most of the published reports on cardiovascular disease in the last century were from Western countries, and there was uncertainty how far etiological associations found in the West could be assumed to prevail in the East. Against this background, APCSC was set up as a pooling project, combining individual participant data (about 600,000 subjects) from all available leading cohort studies (36 from Asia and 8 from Australasia) in the region, to fill the knowledge gaps. In the past 10 years, APCSC has published 50 peer-reviewed publications of original epidemiological research, primarily concerned with coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This work has established that Western risk factors generally act similarly in Asia and in Australasia, just as they do in other parts of the world. Consequently, strategies to reduce the prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, and smoking are at least as important in Asia as elsewhere- and possibly more important when the vast size of Asia is considered. This article reviews the achievements of APCSC in the past decade, with an emphasis on coronary heart disease. PMID:25689943

  19. East-West Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started in 1960 by the U.S. Congress, the East-West Center's primary purpose is "to strengthen relations and understanding among the peoples and nations of Asia, the Pacific, and the United States." To accomplish this purpose, the Center serves as a functional hub for education, cooperative research, and scholarly dialogue. On their homepage, visitors can look over the latest news from scholars at the Center, look over a list of upcoming events sponsored by the Center, and also learn about some of their most recent publications. Academics visiting the site may wish to click on over to the "Research" area. Here they will find information on their primary areas of interest, which include population and health, environmental change, and politics and governance. Finally, visitors should look at their "Publications" area, as it includes free downloads, abstracts, and access to ordering information.

  20. Rabies in South Asia: fighting for elimination.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Fazle-Rabbi; Basher, Ariful; Amin, Mohammad R; Hassan, Nazia; Patwary, Mohammad I

    2015-01-01

    South Asia is regarded as the hot spot for the tourist and travelers. Unfortunately, three big countries (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) of this region belong to top five rabies endemic countries of the world. Around 55,000 people die of rabies every year globally and 45% of them belong to South and South East Asia. Countries are now working on the elimination of rabies by the year 2020. Elimination of animal rabies is the pivotal of controlling human rabies. Dog (primary source) registration, population control and mass vaccination are the different ways of eliminating animal rabies. Pre (for risk groups including travelers) and post-exposure vaccine is the core for controlling human rabies. Post-exposure vaccine consists of nerve tissue vaccine and tissue culture vaccine. Due to low antigenicity and post-vaccine neurological complications all countries of South Asia except Pakistan have phased out the production and use of nerve tissue vaccine. To reduce the cost intramuscular regimen is now largely replaced by intradermal regimen and equine rabies immunoglobulin will probably replace human immunoglobulin in future for category III animal bite. 'SAARC' took initiatives for rabies elimination through 'SAARC development fund' which would hopefully play a vital role in regional collaboration to make the region rabies free. PMID:25858305

  1. Supply Chain Dynamics in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Banomyong

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively new topic but is a key challenge for all Asia based manufacturers and traders trying to integrate into the global market. The purpose of this paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. Many of these issues are related to the importance of a properly managed supply chain in

  2. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the following…

  3. ASIA-EUROPE MEETING (ASEM): fostering a multipolar world order through inter-regional cooperation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Reiterer

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception in 1996 ASEM has provided an opportunity for focussing relations between the EU and East Asia as a forum\\u000a for informal multilayered dialogue and building a framework for enhanced cooperation in the political, economic and social\\/cultural\\u000a fields. Inter-regionalism, of which ASEM is the incarnation in the EU-Asia relationship, developed into an important policy\\u000a tool of the EU

  4. Evolution of the Turfan Basin, Chinese Central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Allen; B. F. Windley; Zhang Chi; Guo Jinghui

    1993-01-01

    The Turfan Basin extends approximately 550 km east-west by 100 km north-south within northwest China and is located between branches of the intracontinental Tien Shan orogenic belt. At present it is an intermontane foreland basin loaded by southward transported thrust sheets at its northern margin. This deformation is a long-distance manifestation of the India-Asia collision, but the orientation and location

  5. Evolution of the Turfan Basin, Chinese central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Allen; B. F. Windley; Chi Zhang; Jinghui Guo

    1993-01-01

    The Turfan Basin extends approximately 550 km east-west by 100 km north-south within northwest China and is located between branches of the intracontinental Tien Shan orogenic belt. At present it is an intermontane foreland basin loaded by southward transported thrust sheets at its northern margin. This deformation is a long-distance manifestation of the India-Asia collision, but the orientation and location

  6. Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic Geodynamics of Central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Buslov; Y. Fujiwara; K. Iwata; N. N. Semakov

    2004-01-01

    Correlation and synthesis of published and new structural, paleomagnetic and geochronological data from Central Asia show the important role of strike-slip faulting in their evolution. The pattern of major strike-slip faults outlines a terrane collage produced by a Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous collision of the Gondwana-derived Altai-Mongolia-Tuva composite microcontinent with Siberia, and a Late Carboniferous-Permian collision of East Europe and Kazakhstan,

  7. Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum activity throughout the Far East region was on the upswing during 1980. In spite of increased interest in many parts of the Far East, no major new discoveries were reported. From India to Indonesia, old fields are being rehabilitated and previously uneconomic areas are being looked at again. Indonesia set a new record in 1980 for the number of exploratory wells drilled. Peninsular Malaysia set a record for oil production. Overall, however, 1980 was a banner year for petroleum exploration in the Far East. Sri Lanka saw its first foreign contractor interest in several years. India made major moves toward increasing exploration by offering offshore and onshore blocks to foreign contractors . Bangladesh and even Burma signed exploitation contracts with Japanese investors in order to increase production. Malaysia offered new acreage blocks for the first time in several years. Indonesia and the Philippines also actively encouraged exploration by offering new contract areas. One country in the Far East that did not participate in the 1980 oil boom was China. Taiwan also carried on, as in previous years with the Chinese Petroleum Corporation as the only operator. Japanese and South Korean activities were at approximately the same level as in previous years, although drilling did start in the joint development zone. Total production of the Far East reporting region declined slightly. One significant aspect of 1980 petroleum activities throughout the Far East region is the growing acceptance by various Far East countries of Asian investment for developing and exploring for hydrocarbons. Japan is the major investor, but South Korean interests and the Chinese Petroleum Corporation also began to invest in petroleum rights in other Asian countries. The main area for investment continued to be Indonesia. 39 figures, 9 tables.

  8. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in eastern Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

  9. Asbestos in Asia.

    PubMed

    Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases. PMID:25819225

  10. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  11. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51–46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ?63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic–modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ?50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. PMID:22908291

  12. Islam in Southeast Asia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Asia Society in New York City has struck educational and cultural gold again with their inventive and insightful look into the emergence of Islam in Southeast Asia. On the homepage, visitors are treated to a moving collage of images that feature items from their collection. After watching the images cycle through for a minute, visitors should click on the "Essays" area to get started. Each essay is illuminated by a slideshow, and the topics covered here include the visual arts, religious practices, and geography. Educators will want to click on over to the "Curriculum" area which features lesson plans and activities like "Hajj and Local Indonesian Pilgrimage" and "Women, Education and the Veil in Contemporary Indonesia". The other sections of the site include "Images", "Maps", along with a glossary of relevant terms and an extended bibliography. The site is rounded out by a video of an Indonesian puppet show and a set of interactive maps that track the spread of Islam across Eurasia and maritime trade in Southeast Asia from the 12th to the 15th centuries.

  13. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Nong Zhou; Shan Lv; Guo-Jing Yang; Thomas K Kristensen; N Robert Bergquist; Jürg Utzinger; John B Malone

    2009-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases

  14. Monday 16 June 14:30 Central Asia and the South Caucasus: International Relations and Foreign Thursday 19 June 09:30 Islamic History in South Asia.

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    . Monday 23 June 09:30 Social Anthropology of the Middle East. 14:30 Persian Language Paper. Tuesday 24 Policies. Thursday 19 June 09:30 Islamic History in South Asia. Friday 20 June 09:30 Arabic: Language Language Paper. Hebrew Language Paper. Turkish Language Paper. Thursday 26 June 09:30 Israel: History

  15. Space Symposium/76

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A symposium dealing with career opportunities in the aerospace program for minorities was conducted and evaluated. The symposium was attended by students from eleven predominantly minority colleges and universities in and around Washington, D. C. and the eastern region, and from high schools in five jurisdictions of the Washington metropolitan area. Speakers included representatives of Howard University, NASA, and private industry. On display during the symposium was a NASA exhibit of moon rocks, space shuttles, a lunar module, command module, pacemaker, LANDSAT, and other items of interest.

  16. CPTAC Scientific Symposium

    Cancer.gov

    On behalf of the National Cancer Institute and the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, you are invited to the First Annual CPTAC Scientific Symposium on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. The purpose of this symposium, which consists of plenary and poster sessions, is for investigators from CPTAC community and beyond to share and discuss novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data. All scientists who use, or wish to use CPTAC data are welcome to participate at this free event. The symposium will be held at the Natcher Conference Facility on the main campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

  17. Invasive aliens on tropical East Asian islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Corlett

    2010-01-01

    Tropical East Asia (TEA) has numerous islands, both continental and oceanic. This study uses information on invasive aliens\\u000a in terrestrial habitats on these islands to test the generality of the continental-oceanic contrast in invasibility, assess\\u000a the conservation impacts of invasive species, and suggest ways to mitigate these. The continental islands of Hong Kong and\\u000a Singapore are worst-case scenarios for continental

  18. Symposium on thermal anemometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers given at a symposium on thermal anemometry. Topics include: wind turbines x-probe measurements in turbine wakes, air flow metering, fluid flow, and hot-film and hot-wire anemometers.

  19. Liver Transplantation: East versus West

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Akash; Vadeyar, Hemant; Rela, Mohamed; Shah, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has evolved rapidly since the first successful liver transplant performed in1967. Despite a humble beginning, this procedure gained widespread acceptance in the western world as a suitable option for patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) by the beginning of the 1980s. At present, approximately 25,000 liver transplants are being performed worldwide every year with approximately 90% one year survival. The techniques of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) developed in East Asia in the 1990s to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children and scarcity of deceased donors. While deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) constitutes more than 90% of LT in the western world, in India and other Asian countries, most transplants are LDLT. Despite the initial disparity, outcomes following LDLT in eastern countries have been quite satisfactory when compared to the western programs. The etiologies of liver failure requiring LT vary in different parts of the world. The commonest etiology for acute liver failure (ALF) leading to LT is drugs in the west and acute viral hepatitis in Asia. The most common indication for LT due to ESLD in west is alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), while hepatitis B virus (HBV) predominates in the east. There is a variation in prognostic models for assessing candidature and prioritizing organ allocation across the world. Model for end–stage liver disease (MELD) is followed in United States and some European centers. Other European countries rely on the Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) score. Some parts of Asia still follow chronological order of listing. The debate regarding the best model for organ allocation is far from over. PMID:25755506

  20. Proceedings of the Linux Symposium

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Organizers Andrew J. Hutton, Steamballoon, Inc. C. Craig Ross, Linux Symposium Review Committee Andrew J Hat, Inc. C. Craig Ross, Linux Symposium Proceedings Formatting Team John W. Lockhart, Red Hat, Inc

  1. Financing in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Newendorp, T. (Taylor-DeJongh Inc., Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Opportunities to develop power projects continue to expand in Asia. Knowing who the financial players are and how they function is an important step along the project development path. The five principal international financing institutions whose mandate is either to support economic development in the developing world or to support export of goods and services from the US destined for international projects are: the World Bank; the Asian Development Bank; the International Finance Corp.; the Export-Import Bank of the US; and the Overseas Private Investment Corp.

  2. Transnational Poster Art: Former East Germany and Latin America, 1970-1989

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site highlights revolutionary art from the former East Germany. Hosted by the Stanford University Library. this site features 25 posters commissioned by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) government during the 1970s and 80s. The posters address themes such as anti-(American) imperialism and solidarity with leftist movements in Latin America, Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.

  3. Current status of esophageal cancer – West versus East: the European point of view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rüdiger Siewert; Burkhard H. A. von Rahden; Hubert J. Stein

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal cancer and its treatment differ largely between the West and the East because West and East are concerned – at least in part – with different diseases: squamous cell cancers are the prevailing tumor type in Japan and other parts of Asia whereas this entity is now clearly outnumbered in Europe and North America by esophageal adenocarcinoma. The latter

  4. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  5. Widespread skin rash following travel to South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Creamer, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A 21-year-old man presented with a widespread, intensely pruritic skin rash, which developed acutely 5 days after returning from a backpacking holiday in Thailand. On initial presentation to his general practitioner, an erythematous, papular rash was noted in the upper right back, with smaller clusters of lesions on the buttocks and right arm. Based on the anatomical distribution of the lesions, a preliminary diagnosis of shingles was made. Over the following 2 weeks, the lesions failed to improve, and new snake-like lesions appeared. A dermatologist made the diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans. The skin lesions rapidly resolved following oral albendazole therapy. PMID:24557477

  6. Financial institutions and the financial crisis in East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haizhou Huang; Chenggang Xu

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional reasons for the soft-budget constraint problem; and how the soft-budget constraint problem creates conditions which may result in a financial crisis. As a consequence of soft-budget constraints, bad projects do not stop; bad loans accumulate; and banks and depositors do not receive bad news on time. Poorly informed depositors are then likely to herd to overinvest

  7. Communication and Culture in East Asia: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, Sharon

    This annotated bibliography lists books, articles, and other related sources dealing with the areas of Asian culture and communication. The 87 citations are organized under the following headings: (1) Asian Culture and Communication (in general); (2) China; (3) Japan; and (4) Korea. (HB)

  8. Six Educational Evaluation Projects in South East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawadisevee, Amara; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reports from Indonesia evaluate a national survey of Indonesian language achievement and an educational radio program for rural semiliterates; from Malaysia, a teacher-parent program for poor readers and a moral education program; and from Thailand, newly created community secondary schools and the earnings effects of an adult education program.…

  9. Aerosol Optical Depths In South/South East Asia

    E-print Network

    Frank, Thomas D.

    Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram #12 Jammu and Kashmir Kerala Madhya Pradesh Manipur Meghalaya Karnataka Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram #12

  10. East Asia review, 1976-7: Korea (South).

    PubMed

    Han, D W; Cho, N H

    1978-09-01

    The Korean fourth 5-year Economic Development Plan (1977-1981) is formulated to reduce the population growth with a population increase targeted at 16.0 in 1981, the crude birth rate at 23.9, and the crude death rate at 6.0. Incentive approaches include: 1) allocating public housing for sterilization acceptors with 2 or fewer children; 2) paying low-income people for undergoing sterilization; 3) providing tax exemption for only 2 children; 4) providing corporate tax exemptions for employee family planning services; and 5) revising family laws to give women inheritance rights. 85% of the couples practise contraception. There is a target female sterilization of 160,000 for 1978 and a deemphasization of condoms and oral contraceptives; in addition, abortion services are being increased. The program budget has increased from a 1975 budget of 3095 million won to 8512 million won (U.S. $17.7 million) in 1977. PMID:734708

  11. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Williams, J D; Moosdeen, F; Teoh-Chan, C H; Lim, V K; Jayanetra, P

    1989-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Salmonella and Shigella, requires surveillance worldwide. This study describes results of surveys in Hong Kong, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur. All strains were isolated in hospitals which have large community catchment areas in addition to specialised hospital units. The prevalence of resistant strains was high in all areas. Gram-negative bacteria such as Enterobacter associated with hospital infections were resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins, with gentamicin resistance ranging from about 20% in Kuala Lumpur and Hong Kong, to 35% in Bangkok. Ninety-seven percent of Shigella isolated in Thailand were resistant to ampicillin. About 10% of Salmonella were resistant to chloramphenicol in all three centres. PMID:2504618

  12. TQM AT WEST, EAST ASIA AND RUSSIA: ARE WE DIFFERENT?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Selivanova; Jan Eklöf

    The article is devoted to an analysis of main differences and similarities in TQM practice in Western, Russian and Asian companies. Analytical results are based on comparative studies of data collected in 12 countries: Russia, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Finland, Estonia, Denmark, Australia, India, Sweden, England, New Zealand in 1990-s. It is shown in the study that Western and Asian companies

  13. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Regional Office for South-East Asia

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , and "Emergency Program for Mitigation of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Bangladesh" has been designed for Mitigation of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Bangladesh has been implemented based on theAction Plan AND REVIEW OF ACTION PLAN FOR ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN BANGLADESH FOCUSING ON HEALTH Assignment Report: 7

  14. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Regional Office for South-East Asia

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    this report. Point 1. The emergency program for mitigation of arsenic contamination in groundwater. COMBINING EPIDEMIOLOGICALSURVEILLANCE WITH WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE 10 7. CONTRIBUTION TO ARSENIC RELATED relates to my third visit to Bangladesh concerning the problems of arsenic in drinking water. It completes

  15. Cooperative Regional Bibliographic Projects in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hwa-Wei

    1977-01-01

    Seven projects operating in five countries (Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia) are described in terms of development, current status, and activities. Most notable are the Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC) and the International Serials Data System Regional Centre (ISDS). (JAB)

  16. UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM POSTER GUIDELINES

    E-print Network

    UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM POSTER GUIDELINES aresty.rutgers.edu/symposium Please follow the guidelines below for poster formatting to ensure that we are able to print your poster and that it matches your expectations. At the Symposium, we will provide thumbtacks or ticky-tack to hang your poster

  17. The Digital South Asia Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Since the last time the Scout Report looked in on The Digital South Asia Library, it has grown tremendously, and scholars with an interest in reference and research materials on South Asia will be delighted to learn about the many new additions to the site. The project is based at the Center for Research Libraries, and participants in the project include the Library of Congress, the Asia Society, the British Library, and the South Asia Microform Project. The materials are contained within eight primary sections on the homepage, including "Indexes", "Images", "Maps", and "Statistics". The "Maps" section contains two complete Imperial gazetteers of India, along with "A Historical Atlas of South Asia" from 1992. Next, the "Statistics" area contains the "Statistical Abstract relating to British India" from 1840 to 1920. Overall, the site is a standout resource for those studying this region, and educators will find much to recommend to their students who are seeking primary and secondary source materials.

  18. SMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013 ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    #12;SMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013SMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013 SUCCESS STORIES · Sacramento City UnifiedSMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013 ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION Elisabeth Brinton #12;SMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013SMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013 ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SCHOOLS · The Business

  19. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. East Asian latecomer firms: Learning the technology of electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Hobday

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces the idea of the latecomer firm to explore how the four dragons of East Asia (South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore) learned to innovate in electronics. The paper examines the historical progress of technological development and sets out the institutional mechanisms by which firms acquired foreign technology. Using one case study from each country, the paper

  1. Aerosol Absorption Near Beijing During EAST-AIRE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yang; S. Howell; B. Huebert; J. Zhuang

    2006-01-01

    To understand the aerosol absorption that had been observed offshore during ACE-Asia, we took a suite of instruments (including a 7 wavelength aethalometer) to a site 70 km ESE of Beijing in March of 2005 to measure the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption as a part of the EAST-AIRE program. Confidence in filter methods suffers a bit because several corrections

  2. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O. (Mobil Oil Corp., New York, NY); Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  3. Department of Languages and Cultures of Asia University of Wisconsin-Madison

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    ? · Persian is an important language of the Middle East and Central Asia. It has about 62 million native language to learn! Persian has no grammatical gender, so there is no worrying about masculine and feminine nouns! · Persian is an ancient language with roots dating back to the Persian Empire of the 6th Century

  4. Department of Languages and Cultures of Asia University of Wisconsin-Madison

    E-print Network

    Scharer, John E.

    ? · Persian is an important language of the Middle East and Central Asia. It has about 62 million na ve language to learn! Persian has no gramma cal gender, so there is no worrying about masculine and feminine declensions! · Persian is an ancient language with roots da ng back to the Persian Empire of the 6th Century B

  5. Abrupt post-glacial climate events in West Asia and North Africa monsoon domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Gasse; Elise van Campo

    1994-01-01

    Regions beyond the present or past penetration of the Indian and African monsoons have experienced several large and abrupt climatic fluctuations over the past 13 14C kyr. Pollen and lake records from West Asia (Western Tibet and Rajasthan), East Africa (Ethiopia) and West Africa (Western Sahara, Sahel and subequatorial Africa) were selected on the basis of chronological control, sensitivity of

  6. Aerosol Optical Properties and Chemical Composition Measured on the Ronald H. Brown During ACE-Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Quinn; T. S. Bates; T. L. Miller; D. Coffman

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties were made onboard the NOAA R\\/V Ronald H. Brown during the ACE-Asia Intensive Field Program to characterize Asian aerosol as it was transported across the Pacific Ocean. The ship traveled across the Pacific from Hawaii to Japan and into the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan. Trajectories indicate that remote

  7. K. Chemla, Kyoto, 3-6-1993. p. 1 Rfrence : "Algebraic Equations East and West until the Middle Ages", in K. Hashimoto, C. Jami, L.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    K. Chemla, Kyoto, 3-6-1993. p. 1 Référence : "Algebraic Equations East and West until the Middle Ages", in K. Hashimoto, C. Jami, L. Skar (éds.), East Asian Science: Tradition and Beyond: Papers from the Seventh International Conference on the History of Science in East Asia, Kyoto, 2-7 August 1993, Kansai

  8. Potential cooperative measures on nuclear issues in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center

    1997-08-01

    Cooperation on nuclear issues is receiving increased attention in Asia. In Northeast Asia, where the nuclear industry is well-developed, cooperation in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle could help deal with issues such as disposition of spent fuel and long term storage options. In Southeast Asia, where countries are just beginning to introduce nuclear energy, cooperation would be useful in developing standards for the nuclear industry. Throughout Asia, nuclear research and power activities can raise concerns about safety, environmental pollution and proliferation. The sharing of relevant information, i.e. cooperative monitoring, will be essential to addressing these issues. In fact, a number of regional interactions on nuclear issues are already occurring. These range from training exchanges sponsored by the more advanced states to participation in environmental monitoring of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Several states are considering sharing information from their nuclear facilities; some exchanges of radiation data are already in place. The KEDO reactor project will involve close working relations between the nuclear experts of South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the US. Areas for further regional cooperation are discussed.

  9. Pediatric rheumatology in Southeast Asia: insights from the Singapore experience.

    PubMed

    Arkachaisri, Thaschawee

    2011-04-01

    Pediatric rheumatology is a well-established subspecialty in just 4 of 11 Southeast Asia countries. With the development of a dedicated pediatric rheumatology clinical program in Singapore and the establishment of an Internet-based registry, insights into local disease descriptions and epidemiology are possible. Concurring with reports from other parts of Asia and the West, a comparable proportion of referrals were for nonrheumatic conditions, although specific disease distributions were different. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), vasculitides, and systemic lupus erythematosus are among the common rheumatic diseases seen in Singapore. Other than Henoch-Schönlein purpura and Kawasaki disease, other forms of systemic vasculitides are rare. JIA subtype distribution was unique, with enthesitis-related JIA showing predominance. Epidemiologic data are limited. Singapore has less of a biologic accessibility issue than other countries in Southeast Asia due to a stronger economy and strong financial support from foundations/organizations. As a multicultural Asian society, Singapore has traditional/alternative medicine practice as part of its health care system. Raising pediatric rheumatic disease awareness in the medical community and among the public is crucial to improving referral behavior and avoiding diagnosis delay and improper management. An urgent need exists for pediatric rheumatologists in Southeast Asia. With many differences between the East and West, establishment of a local, comprehensive, hands-on pediatric rheumatology fellowship training program may be a better strategy to decrease the patient-to-doctor ratio, eventually leading to an improvement in overall childhood-onset rheumatic disease outcomes. PMID:21181313

  10. Asia Society: Islamic Calligraphy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from the Asia Society is actually two exhibitions in one: Traces of the Calligrapher and Writing the Word of God: Calligraphy and the Qur'an. The former focuses on the men and women who have practiced calligraphy, or beautiful writing, the most esteemed of the Islamic visual arts, while the latter provides a few samples of their craft. In the opening section, "Tools and Materials", visitors can view pens, brushes, and all manner of writing instruments, including containers in which they are stored. "The Training and Practice" section offers a glimpse at exercises used by calligraphers to hone their skills, such as an album of calligraphy exercises from Turkey. Finally, the section "Writing the Word of God" displays leaves from the Qur'an, arranged chronologically - from a folio of a Qur'an in Hijazi script, mid-7th century to a selection of the Qur'an in muhaqqaq script, Iraq, probably Baghdad, ca. 1370.

  11. 25. First floor, east wall bathroom, looking east Veterans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. First floor, east wall bathroom, looking east - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  12. Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum

    E-print Network

    Xu, Shuhua

    , Lanhai Wei1 , Chuanchao Wang1 , Shilin Li1 , Xingqiu Huang3 , Li Jin1,2,4 , Hui Li1 *, the Genographic and source are credited. Funding: This study was supported by the Genographic Project to Fudan University

  13. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL HAZARDS IN THE REGION OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA AND SOUTH ASIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Faber; A. Kos; B. Becker; M. Kaufmann; P. Stamp; K. Seeland; A. Grün; S. L. Ranamukhaarachchi; G. P. Shivakoti; L. Samarakoon; O. Shipin; Loy Rego

    Following the devastating consequences of the Banda Aceh with the Earthquake followed by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, focus has been directed towards the high vulnerability and low robustness of the affected societies, infrastructure and natural resources in regard to natural hazards. A proposal for an ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) lead project in

  14. The near-eastern roots of the Neolithic in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Gangal, Kavita; Sarson, Graeme R; Shukurov, Anvar

    2014-01-01

    The Fertile Crescent in the Near East is one of the independent origins of the Neolithic, the source from which farming and pottery-making spread across Europe from 9,000 to 6,000 years ago at an average rate of about 1 km/yr. There is also strong evidence for causal connections between the Near-Eastern Neolithic and that further east, up to the Indus Valley. The Neolithic in South Asia has been far less explored than its European counterpart, especially in terms of absolute (14)C) dating; hence, there were no previous attempts to assess quantitatively its spread in Asia. We combine the available (14)C data with the archaeological evidence for early Neolithic sites in South Asia to analyze the spatio-temporal continuity of the Neolithic dispersal from the Near East through the Middle East and to the Indian subcontinent. We reveal an approximately linear dependence between the age and the geodesic distance from the Near East, suggesting a systematic (but not necessarily uniform) spread at an average speed of about 0.65 km/yr. PMID:24806472

  15. The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gangal, Kavita; Sarson, Graeme R.; Shukurov, Anvar

    2014-01-01

    The Fertile Crescent in the Near East is one of the independent origins of the Neolithic, the source from which farming and pottery-making spread across Europe from 9,000 to 6,000 years ago at an average rate of about 1 km/yr. There is also strong evidence for causal connections between the Near-Eastern Neolithic and that further east, up to the Indus Valley. The Neolithic in South Asia has been far less explored than its European counterpart, especially in terms of absolute (14C) dating; hence, there were no previous attempts to assess quantitatively its spread in Asia. We combine the available 14C data with the archaeological evidence for early Neolithic sites in South Asia to analyze the spatio-temporal continuity of the Neolithic dispersal from the Near East through the Middle East and to the Indian subcontinent. We reveal an approximately linear dependence between the age and the geodesic distance from the Near East, suggesting a systematic (but not necessarily uniform) spread at an average speed of about 0.65 km/yr. PMID:24806472

  16. Regional carbon dynamics in monsoon Asia and its implications for the global carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Pan, S.; Liu, J.; McGuire, A.D.; Moore, B., III

    2003-01-01

    Data on three major determinants of the carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems are used with the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to simulate the combined effect of climate variability, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and cropland establishment and abandonment on the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and monsoon Asian ecosystems. During 1860-1990, modeled results suggest that monsoon Asia as a whole released 29.0 Pg C, which represents 50% of the global carbon release for this period. Carbon release varied across three subregions: East Asia (4.3 Pg C), South Asia (6.6 Pg C), and Southeast Asia (18.1 Pg C). For the entire region, the simulations indicate that land-use change alone has led to a loss of 42.6 Pg C. However, increasing CO2 and climate variability have added carbon to terrestrial ecosystems to compensate for 23% and 8% of the losses due to land-use change, respectively. During 1980-1989, monsoon Asia as a whole acted as a source of carbon to the atmosphere, releasing an average of 0.158 Pg C per year. Two of the subregions acted as net carbon source and one acted as a net carbon sink. Southeast Asia and South Asia were sources of 0.288 and 0.02 Pg C per year, respectively, while East Asia was a sink of 0.149 Pg C per year. Substantial interannual and decadal variations occur in the annual net carbon storage estimated by TEM due to comparable variations in summer precipitation and its effect on net primary production (NPP). At longer time scales, land-use change appears to be the important control on carbon dynamics in this region. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antarctic Meteorite Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Sixth Antarctic Meteorite Symposium was held in Tokyo, Japan, February 19 and 20. Sponsored by the National Institute of Polar Research, the symposium brought Japanese scientists together with several Americans and two Chinese to discuss current research on meteorites, emphasizing research on meteorites collected in Antarctica. The symposium, now an annual event, owes its origin to the recent success of Japanese polar scientists in collecting large numbers of meteorite specimens in the Yamato Mountains, a program now successfully emulated by U.S. parties to the Allan Hills and adjacent regions.Forty-seven papers were delivered orally, primarily in Japanese (the abstract volume was printed in English), on subjects that included location, field collection, and curation of specimens (6); classification and description of meteorites from Yamato Mountains and Allan Hills (14); mineralogical and petrological studies (8); chemical and isotopic studies (8); exposure ages and terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites (3); magnetic and other physical properties (5); and Chinese meteorites (3).

  18. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  19. Intensity patterns in eastern Asia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evernden, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of the intensity patterns of earthquakes of E Asia indicates a strong regional pattern of attenuation parameter k and systematic correlation of this pattern with topography, P residuals, and level of seismicity as in the USA.-Author

  20. Asia: Showing the Changing Seasons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1998-09-09

    SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for Asia. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring (for the Northern Hemisphere).