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1

Cranes in East Asia; proceedings of the symposium held in Harbin, People's Republic of China, June 9-18, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introductory Remarks (R.C. Stendell) I appreciate the opportunity to be in Harbin and participate in the international scientific workshop on Cranes in East Asia. I would like to provide some background information on how this meeting came to be. Almost one year ago, in July 1997, Dr. Kun John of the Seoul National University contacted the U.S. Geological Surveya??s Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) requesting that we host a meeting of scientists from the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic Peoplea??s Republic of Korea (DPRK) to discuss the biology and ecology of cranes on the Korean peninsula. Dr. John and his colleagues expressed concern about three species of cranes that migrate up and down the Korean Peninsula and use the Demilitarized Zone. The species of interest are the Red-crowned Crane, White-naped Crane, and the Hooded Crane. The primary question was the conservation of these species in this part of the world. Another concern involved exploring potential economic values and opportunities associated with these species. Dr. Richard Johnson, and economist at MESC, assumed responsibility as the primary MESC contact to help bring about this meetinga?|

Johnson, R. L., (Edited By); Hongfei, Zou; Stendell, R.C.

2001-01-01

2

Asia Materials symposium May 24, 2014  

E-print Network

4th Asia Materials symposium May 24, 2014 South Building No. 8, 6F, room 623 Tokyo Institute of Technology (Ookayama Campus) Program 9:30 Opening (Martin Vacha, Editor-in-Chief, NPG Asia Materials) Session 1: Invited talks by young researches from TokyoTech 9:35 Nobuhiro Matsushita (Materials & Structures

Furui, Sadaoki

3

Can East Asia rise again?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, the economies of East Asia have been confronted by two major economic recessions, the first caused by the East Asian financial crisis, and the second by the slump in the ‘new economy.’ The causes of these two recessions, their scope and their influences differ significantly and during these periods of economic downturn the economies affected have adopted

Tzong-Shian Yu

2003-01-01

4

Precipitation chemistry in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of precipitation in East Asia was analyzed on the basis of the results of cooperative monitoring performed during the period from 1992 to 1993. The wet deposition of soluble ions was characterized by two major factors; the geographical distribution of precursor production through natural and anthropogenic activities, and the meteorological conditions such as wind system and rainfall

Shin-ichi Fujita; Akira Takahashi; Jian-Hua Weng; Lian-Fen Huang; Hui-Kang Kim; Cheng-Kang Li; Frank T. C. Huang; Fu-Tien Jeng

2000-01-01

5

Economic Outlook for East Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An Institute for Developing Economies (IDE) publication, the 1999 Economic Outlook for East Asia analyzes the East Asian countries in 1998 and presents forecasts for 1999 (in English and Japanese). According to IDE, Thailand and South Korea will begin to see signs of recovery in the coming year, as the impact of the new Miyazawa Initiative is felt, although Hong Kong will remain "afflicted" by recession. Malaysia and Singapore are also expected to recover as will the Philippines, Vietnam, and Taiwan. As a whole, the growth rate for the East Asian economies is predicted to rise to 3.1 percent in 1999 from 0.1 percent, and general prices are forecast to "swing back" to a single-digit inflation rate of 6.6 percent.

1998-01-01

6

3, 655678, 2007 East Asia and the  

E-print Network

-latitude continents and reduced CO2 concentration. The East Asia and the North Pacific are interesting region because that at the present day (PD). In the present study, we will focus on the East Asia and the North Pacific region, which. It is also suggested that the northerly wind in the lower-troposphere associated with the East Asian winter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Near East/South Asia Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts regarding South Asia and the Near East. Titles include: France Condemns Turkish Government for 'Genocide'; Congressmen Ask State Department to Pursue Ashjian's Case; Engineerin...

1983-01-01

8

Technology Education in East Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports from the first international technology education conference in Asia provide insight into the state of the field in Asia. Looks at difficulties, teacher education, and change in Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and the People's Republic of China. (JOW)

Ku, George

1996-01-01

9

Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum  

E-print Network

Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum X, Qin Z, Wen B, Xu S, Wang Y, et al. (2011) Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping

Xu, Shuhua

10

Facing East: Portraits From Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we understand the individual? And perhaps equally importantly, how does the world of portraiture provide insight into individuals? These are thorny questions that have occupied the minds of some of the world's philosophers and artists for millennia. Across the continent of Asia, this meditative and artful process has created thousands of interesting portraits. A few of them have been placed on display by the curators at the Freer & Sackler Galleries in this online exhibit, which also has a real-life analog currently on display. In this exhibit, visitors can move around various parts of Asia as they examine various images of people (both well known and unknown), accompanied by brief text passages. Additionally, visitors can view thematic introductions to the objects featured here that include "Likeness & Identity" and "Portraits & Memory".

2006-01-01

11

Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

12

Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes  

PubMed Central

East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

2013-01-01

13

East Asia: The Road to Recovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book by the World Bank Group examines factors contributing to East Asia's financial collapse and makes suggestions for economic recovery. Seven chapters spanning East Asian trade and competition and the sector at the heart of the crisis--the financial sector, may be downloaded individually. Figures displaying the evolution of interest rates in Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand (January 1996-July 1998) and a discussion of social effects are provided in the final chapter entitled "Priorities for a Sustainable Recovery."

1998-01-01

14

Rethinking Capital Flows for Emerging East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s, emerging countries have been urged to welcome foreign capital inflows. The result has often been a pattern of surges, where excessive inflows were followed by damaging “sudden stops†and reversals. This was dramatically evident in the Asian crisis of 1997–1998. Since that crisis, the emerging countries of East Asia have typically run current account surpluses and have

Stephen Grenville

2012-01-01

15

The Misnomer of East Asia Summer Monsoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terminology East Asian summer monsoon is used to refer to the heavy rainfall in southeast China including the Yangtze River Valley starting in May and ending in August (e.g., Chen and Chang 1980, Tao and Chen 1987, Ding 1992, Chang et al. 2000a.) This rainfall region is associated with the Mei-Yu front, which extends to Japan and its neighborhood and is called Baiu there. The Mei-Yu front becomes prominent in May and has a slow northward movement. From May to July the elongated rain belt moves from the southeast coast of China to the Yangtze River Valley. The rain belt extends north-east-ward to south of Japan in May and later covers Korea also. The purpose of this note is to point out that the terminology of East Asian summer monsoon is a misnomer to refer to the portion of this rainbelt residing over East Asia, in the sense that it is not a monsoon.

Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode

2004-01-01

16

CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA)  

E-print Network

CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA) VOLUME 13 NUMBER 1 (2006) ISSN'S GROWING INFLUENCE IN CENTRAL ASIA 6 INAUGURAL PHD SCHOLARSHIP 7 CAIS SEMINARS 8 GROWING INTEREST IN ARABIC lectures on `Afghanistan's relations with Central Asia'. Dr Abdullah and Professor Saikal presented

17

Climate change and health in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the public health and societal implications of climate change in South East Asia, and create a framework for planning national and regional responses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper elaborates on the adverse consequences of climate change in South East Asia, the current efforts taken by the regional countries, the current barriers

Jacob Kumaresan; Jai P. Narain; Nalini Sathiakumar

2011-01-01

18

Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

2005-01-01

19

NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to develop a better understanding of the impacts of aerosols on regional-to-global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

2005-01-01

20

Energy Scenarios for East Asia: 2005-2025  

E-print Network

We describe several scenarios for economic development and energy use in East Asia based on the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. Historic ...

Paltsev, Sergey

21

Near East/South Asia Report. No. 2764.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on the Near East and South Asia. Titles include: Hoffman Discusses Liberation Front Party's Foreign Relations; Pakistan Envoy Tells Hopes for Better Relations; Delegate Speaks ...

1983-01-01

22

China's emergence in East Asia under alternative trading arrangements  

E-print Network

China's emergence in East Asia under alternative trading arrangements Hiro Leea,* , David Roland China's accelerated global emergence has changed trade patterns in the Asia-Pacific region and exerted to China, Japan, and the United States using a dynamic global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model

Kammen, Daniel M.

23

SYMPOSIUM REPORT SUPPLEMENT Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma in Asia Pacific  

E-print Network

SYMPOSIUM REPORT SUPPLEMENT Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma in Asia Pacific and the ARIA in athletes,19,33,34 and rhinitis and its links with asthma in children,35­41 have been addressed in the ARIA

Boyer, Edmond

24

THE SIXTH MIDDLE EAST SYMPOSIUM ON STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES  

E-print Network

THE SIXTH MIDDLE EAST SYMPOSIUM ON STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES FOR INFRASTRUCTURE APPLICATIONS 2011 First Announcement & Call for Papers Luxor, Egypt December 16-19, 2011 Smart and Sustainable Structures Egyptian.mesc6-egypt.com LUXOR, is probably the most interesting destination in Egypt. In this city, the former

25

Estimating the incidence of colorectal cancer in South East Asia  

PubMed Central

Aim To estimate the burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in South East Asia. Methods We reviewed the evidence from the published literature found through a systematic review in Medline, Embase, and Global Health and from unpublished data on cancer registries, which were sourced from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Incidence rates were summarized by calculating descriptive statistics and meta-analysis estimates. Results The crude mean incidence of CRC in South East Asia for both sexes was 6.95/100?000 population and the incidence increased with age. The crude meta-analysis estimate was 6.12/100?000 population (95% confidence interval 5.64-6.60/100?000) and the number of new CRC cases for 2000 was 32?058 (29?544-34?573). Conclusion The rates of CRC in South East Asia were much lower than those reported for high-income countries, but higher than those reported for Sub Saharan Africa. PMID:24382847

Kokki, Inka; Papana, Angeliki; Campbell, Harry; Theodoratou, Evropi

2013-01-01

26

South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

Laird, John

1991-01-01

27

17.433 / 17.434 International Relations of East Asia, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

The aim of this lecture course is to introduce and analyze the international relations of East Asia. With four great powers, three nuclear weapons states and two of the world's largest economies, East Asia is one of the ...

Fravel, M. Taylor

28

Introduction: History, Politics and Identity in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strength of nationalism in East Asia has in recent years attracted a great deal of attention, both among the scholarly community and in the media. However, with the notable exception of Japan, little attention has been devoted to the subject of history education. As a result, the ways in which history education across the region both…

Vickers, Edward

2002-01-01

29

Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

Lee, Hyuk-Jin

2010-01-01

30

CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA)  

E-print Network

CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA) VOLUME 13 NUMBER 2 (2006) ISSN publishers, as well as Pakistan and the Emergence of Islamic Militancy in Afghanistan (London: Ashgate, 2005 shortage, and that its undergraduate offerings be expanded to include a course on `Islam in Australia

31

CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA)  

E-print Network

CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA) VOLUME 12 NUMBER 1 (2005) ISSN by the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (CAIS) and IPIS in 2000 to foster wider cooperation and mutual, PUBLICATIONS, OUTREACH ACTIVITIES 15 CENTRE COURSES 16 #12;2 CENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (CAIS) CENTRE

32

Study of atmospheric mercury budget in East Asia using STEM-Hg modeling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asia is the largest source region of global anthropogenic mercury emissions, and contributes to atmospheric mercury concentration and deposition in other regions. Similarly, mercury from the global pool also plays a role in the chemical transport of mercury in East Asia. Annual simulations of atmospheric mercury in East Asia were performed using the STEM-Hg modeling system to study the

Li Pan; Che-Jen Lin; Gregory R. Carmichael; David G. Streets; Youhua Tang; Jung-Hun Woo; Suraj K. Shetty; Hsing-Wei Chu; Thomas C. Ho; Hans R. Friedli; Xinbin Feng

2010-01-01

33

"The Greater Middle East & Central Asia in 2020: Implications for American Foreign Policy"  

E-print Network

"The Greater Middle East & Central Asia in 2020: Implications for American Foreign Policy: Economic Prospects for the Middle East and Central Asia in 2020 Dr. Juha Kahkonen Deputy Director of Middle East and Central Asia Department International Monetary Fund (IMF) "The Economic Situation, Challenges

Meyers, Steven D.

34

Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars: Asia, Asian Studies and the National Security State: A Symposium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars has placed online the full text of a recent symposium on "Asia, Asian Studies and the National Security State." The symposium consists of a powerful article by Bruce Cumings, challenging the ideological roots of Asian Studies, with eight responses by a wide range of people active in the profession. The symposium focuses on two moments in the creation and development of Asian studies in the United States. "First, the symposium examines the birth of the field -- during the height of the Cold War -- as a creation of the national-security state, or what Cumings calls the state/intelligence/foundation nexus, which structured, financed, and set formative research agendas and methodologies at the time. Second, the symposium assesses how the sea changes in the contemporary Asian regional and global situations relate to emerging scholarly trends."

Scholars., Committee O.

1997-01-01

35

Education and Development in East Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the specific role that formal education has played in the development process of the East Asian regions since World War II. The essays emphasize education's role as a source of growth and analyze its links with economic, social, and political domains in the post-war period. The writers hope to demonstrate both the changing…

Morris, Paul, Ed.; Sweeting, Anthony, Ed.

36

Academic Economic Opinion in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of economists' opinions have been reported from around the world over the past two decades, but never (as far as we are aware) from a non-Western country. This article presents the results of our survey of academic economists drawn from ten East Asian nations.Respondents gave their views on a number of economic propositions ranging across issues of deregulation, government

Malcolm Anderson; Richard Blandy; Sarah Carne

1993-01-01

37

COPD in Asia: where East meets West.  

PubMed

COPD is a global health concern, and is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, it is currently the sixth leading cause of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality of the disease is predicted for the coming decades. These increases are mainly linked to the epidemic of tobacco exposure and indoor and outdoor air pollution in Asian countries. The burden of COPD in Asia is currently greater than that in developed Western countries, both in terms of the total number of deaths and the burden of disease, as measured in years of life lost and years spent living with disability. The types of health-care policies and the practice of medicine vary considerably among the regions of Asia and have an impact on the burden of disease. Treatment aims in Asian countries are based on evidence-based management guidelines. Barriers to the implementation of disease management guidelines are related to issues of resource conflict and lack of organizational support rather than cultural differences in medical practice. To reduce this burden of COPD in Asian countries, there is a need for a multifaceted approach in improving awareness of prevalence and disease burden, in facilitating accurate diagnosis of COPD among chronic respiratory diseases, in championing health policies that reduce the burden of the main risk factors for COPD and in the wider use of evidence-based management for COPD. PMID:18252918

Tan, Wan C; Ng, Tze P

2008-02-01

38

Asia Federation Report on International Symposium on Grid Computing 2009 (ISGC 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides an overview of developments in the Asia-Pacific region, based on presentations made at the International Symposium on Grid Computing 2009 (ISGC 09), held 21-23 April. This document contains 14 sections, including a progress report on general Asia-EU Grid activities as well as progress reports by representatives of 13 Asian countries presented at ISGC 09. In alphabetical order, these are: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.

Grey, Francois

39

The human genetic history of East Asia: weaving a complex tapestry.  

PubMed

East Asia encompasses a wide variety of environments, peoples, cultures and languages. Although this review focuses on East Asia, no geographic region can be considered in isolation in terms of human population history, and migrations to and from East Asia have had a major impact. Here, we review the following topics: the initial colonization of East Asia, the direction of migrations between southeast Asia and northern Asia, the genetic relationships of East Asian hunter-gatherers and the genetic impact of various social practices on East Asian populations. By necessity we focus on insights derived from mitochondrial DNA and/or Y-chromosome data; ongoing and future studies of genome-wide SNP or multi-locus re-sequencing data, combined with the use of simulation, model-based methods to infer demographic parameters, will undoubtedly provide additional insights into the population history of East Asia. PMID:20178766

Stoneking, Mark; Delfin, Frederick

2010-02-23

40

Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

2011-01-01

41

New Mycomya species from South-East Asia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) .  

PubMed

Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are revised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia. PMID:24943632

Väisänen, Rauno

2014-01-01

42

Food in health security in South East Asia.  

PubMed

With a global economic crisis, undernourished peoples in South East Asia, as elsewhere, face even greater food insecurity. Future challenges to food availability include increasing food prices, increasing population size and climate change. National policies are required which emphasise improved intersectoral coordination, enhanced government credibility and accountability, as well as a shift in food aid to investment in agriculture and the empowerment of independent institutions. PMID:19965337

Tuyen, Le Danh

2009-01-01

43

Russia's economic and strategic interests in North-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Since the middle of the 1990s and especially after Vladimir Putin assumed the presidency Russia started to pursue an active\\u000a foreign policy in North East Asia, an area considered vital for Russian national political, economic and strategic interests.\\u000a While continuing to use every available method to conduct this policy Moscow placed special emphasis on promoting economic\\u000a cooperation with the neighboring

Gennady Chufrin

2003-01-01

44

Empires of East Asia Tuesdays and Thursdays, 1-4:15, Class location TBA  

E-print Network

Chinese who studied abroad enrolled at Japanese universities. Today, East Asia is a region of tense heritage. In this course, we seek to understand the history of East Asia in a wider regional context studied one or more East Asian countries will find that this course, with its focus on connections between

45

A Report to the Australian Development Assistance Bureau. Regional Symposium on Distance Teaching in Asia (Penang, Malaysia, May 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports and summaries of papers presented at the 1981 Regional Symposium on Distance Teaching in Asia are presented. The symposium, which was represented by 22 countries, was organized by the Universiti Sains (University of Science) Malaysia as part of the activities associated with the completion of 10 years of off-campus program facilities. The…

Reid-Smith, Edward R.

46

The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented and discussed their contribution to better understand the impacts of aerosols on regional-to- global climate, hydrological and carbon cycles, and tropospheric chemistry.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

2003-01-01

47

Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia (EEPSEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1993, the Economy and Environment Program for South East Asia (EEPSEA) supports training and research in environmental and resource economics in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao PDR, China, and Sri Lanka. Information on EEPSEA research projects, workshops, postdoctoral awards, and organizational structure is available in addition to the educational guide How to Design a Research Project in Environmental Economics. Full-text publications include policy briefs on issues of environmental regulation, in-depth research reports (1997-present), and a recently released series of Special Papers.

1997-01-01

48

Asia Federation Report on International Symposium on Grid Computing (ISGC) 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides an overview of developments in the Asia-Pacific region, based on presentations made at the International Symposium on Grid Computing 2010 (ISGC 2010), held 5-12 March at Academia Sinica, Taipei. The document includes a brief overview of the EUAsiaGrid project as well as progress reports by representatives of 13 Asian countries presented at ISGC 2010. In alphabetical order, these are: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.

Grey, Francois; Lin, Simon C.

49

HRD in Asia. Symposium 3. [AHRD Conference, 2001].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) in Asia. "The Experiences of HRD Professionals Participating in Continuing Professional Development in Taiwan" (Yu-Shu [Jason] Chen) reports on a study that was based on the method of hermeneutic phenomenology and conducted to describe and interpret the experiences of…

2001

50

Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives. PMID:23024679

ITO, HIROTO; SETOYA, YUTARO; SUZUKI, YURIKO

2012-01-01

51

School of East Asian Studies Employability Statement Graduates of the School of East Asian Studies go on to rewarding careers East Asia  

E-print Network

on the knowledge of the East Asian region, the skills and experience, and the high level of cultural agilitySchool of East Asian Studies Employability Statement Graduates of the School of East Asian Studies in practical contexts Our teaching addresses questions that are of global, as well as East Asia-regional

Martin, Stephen John

52

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia)  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) The Arab World, Iran ­ 1700 Session 4 ­ Sectarianism v democratic change Islam and democracy Dr Hisham Hellyer, Brookings, Chancellor, ANU #12;Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) Friday 27 June

Botea, Adi

53

Analysis of the direct and indirect effect of Russian fire over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been growing interest in the influence of biomass burning aerosols originated from Russian fire on chemistry and climate over East Asia. This study focuses on the analysis of direct and indirect effect of biomass burning aerosols from Russian fire on East Asia in May 2003 when biomass burning emission was substantial. The radiative forcing by the aerosols was

H. Lee; J. H. Kim

2010-01-01

54

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East & Central Asia)  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East & Central Asia) BULLETINCENTRE FOR ARAB & ISLAMIC STUDIES (THE MIDDLE EAST & CENTRAL ASIA) VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2 (2003) ISSN 1322 0462 ISRAEL with the British promise to establish the Jewish state. He feels that peace, which he is convinced could

55

Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.  

PubMed

The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental outflow from Eurasia. The same tendency is not found for SO4(2-). PMID:22168108

Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

2011-11-01

56

Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

2013-12-01

57

Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective  

PubMed Central

Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia. PMID:22664492

Ghimire, M.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Narain, J.P.

2012-01-01

58

Dynamically Downscaled Future Climate Change over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses the future climate change over East Asia using the Global/Regional Integrated Model System (GRIMs) - Regional Model Program (RMP). The RMP is forced by two types of future climate scenarios produced by the Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2; the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Analyses for the current (1980-2005) climate are performed to evaluate the RMP's ability to reproduce precipitation and temperature. Two different future (2006-2050) simulations are compared with the current climatology to investigate the climatic change. The RMP reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of precipitation and temperature satisfactorily. The spatial distribution of the simulated climatology is generally worse in RMP than those from the HG2, but the distributions of monsoonal precipitation are adequately captured. Furthermore, the RMP shows higher reproducibility of climate extreme accompanying excessive heat wave and precipitation. In the future, the strong warming is distinct with intensified monsoonal precipitation. In particular, extreme weather conditions are increased and intensified over South Korea. The heat wave is increased by twice with decreased variability. In RCP 8.5 downscaling, frequency and variability of heavy rainfall are increased by 24% and 31.5%, while they are similar to current climate in RCP 4.5 downscaling. This study indicates that future climate projection accompanying climate extreme and its variability over East Asia can be adequately addressed on the RMP test-bed, and the climatic change progressed without stabilization increases occurrence and intensity of extreme weather conditions.

Lee, J.; Hong, S.; Chang, E.; Suh, M.; Kang, H.

2012-12-01

59

SHORT PERIOD SURFACE WAVE DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS FROM AMBIENT SEISMIC NOISE IN NORTH AFRICA, THE MIDDLE EAST, AND CENTRAL ASIA  

E-print Network

, THE MIDDLE EAST, AND CENTRAL ASIA Michael H. Ritzwoller1 , Nikolai M. Shapiro1 , Michael E. Pasyanos2-band seismic data obtained in North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia. The goal is to improve, the Middle East, and Central Asia as a step toward calibrating the propagation of surface waves

Shapiro, Nikolai

60

Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation from East China Sea and a PSV stack of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) provides information on the mechanisms of the geodynamo and can also be used for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale. In this study, we constructed PSV curves of relative rapidly deposited Holocene marine sequence from East China Sea. Results show that the dominant magnetic carriers are pseudo-single domain (PSD) to multidomain (MD) magnetites. Paleomagnetic directions are preserved by coarse-grained magnetite, even affected by post-depositional diagenetic alteration. The PSV record of core MD06-3040 exhibits six major inclination peaks and five declination swings during the Holocene. The periodicities for inclination are about 2000 and 550 years, and for declination are about 1400 and 500 years. The PSV of MD06-3040 is comparable to archeomagnetic and historic results for the last 2500 years and to PSV results from lake sediments in southern China and Japan during the Holocene. A PSV stack of East Asia is constructed by sedimentary and archeological PSV results, which can be used as an important reference curve for a large region, and the PSV correlation between sites can be applied for relative dating of East Asia.

Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Hongbo; Deng, Chenglong; Liu, Qingsong

2014-11-01

61

HRD in Asia. Symposium 35. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of three symposia papers on human resources development (HRD) in Asia. "The Impact of Action Learning on the Conflict-Handling Styles of Managers in a Malaysian Firm" (Antony Hii, Michael J. Marquardt) presented results of a quantitative study of a three-month action learning program on managers' conflict-management skills.…

2000

62

Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

2002-01-01

63

Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more northerly flora are a subset of the genera present in a more southerly flora. Main conclusions: The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

2003-01-01

64

Diabetes in South-East Asia: an update.  

PubMed

According to the recent estimates by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), South East-Asia (SEA) Region consisting of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Mauritius and Maldives, is home to more than 72 million adults with diabetes in 2013 and is expected to exceed 123 million in 2035. Nearly 95% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is relatively rare in these countries, its prevalence is also rising. Furthermore, a large number (24.3 million) of people also have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Several characteristic differences are seen in the clinical and immunological presentation of these people when compared with their European counterparts. A sharp increase in the prevalence of T2DM has been observed in the SEA Region, both in urban and rural areas, which is mostly associated with the lifestyle transitions towards urbanisation and industrialisation. Evidence suggests that a large portion of T2DM may be preventable by lifestyle modification. However, morbidity and early mortality occur as a result of inadequate healthcare facilities for early detection and initiation of therapy, as well as suboptimal management of diabetes and associated morbidities. This is largely preventable by primary prevention of diabetes and enhancing awareness about the disease among the public and the healthcare providers. There is an urgent need for concerted efforts by government and non-governmental sectors to implement national programmes aimed at prevention, management and surveillance of the disease. PMID:24300015

Ramachandran, Ambady; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan

2014-02-01

65

Atmospheric chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia.  

PubMed

This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15-70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of ?19ClPAHs and ?9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610fg-TEQm(-3) respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4240000fg-TEQm(-3) respectively. PMID:24997898

Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

2014-09-01

66

Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?  

PubMed Central

The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

2011-01-01

67

Women's cardiovascular health: perspectives from South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented. PMID:22525668

Rajadurai, Jeyamalar; Lopez, Eleanor A; Rahajoe, Anna Ulfah; Goh, Ping Ping; Uboldejpracharak, Yingnoi; Zambahari, Robaayah

2012-08-01

68

The humanitarian relief supply chain : analysis of the 2004 South East Asia earthquake and Tsunami  

E-print Network

Humanitarian relief supply chains are not well documented. This thesis describes humanitarian relief supply chains in general and those specifically utilized in the 2004 South East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami relief effort. ...

Russell, Timothy Edward

2005-01-01

69

Update on polio eradication in the world health organization South-East Asia region, 2013.  

PubMed

There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25 000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014. PMID:25316838

O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

2014-11-01

70

Evolution of upper mantle beneath East Asia and the Tibetan Plateau from P-wave tomography  

E-print Network

The main objective of the research presented in this thesis is to improve our understanding for the evolution of the upper mantle beneath East Asia and the Tibetan Plateau through high resolution P-wave tomography. The ...

Li, Chang, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

71

East Asia and Pacific Summer Institutes for U.S. Graduate Students  

NSF Publications Database

... Pacific Summer Institutes for U.S. Graduate Students (EAPSI) Program Solicitation NSF 05-617 ... Pacific Summer Institutes for U.S. Graduate Students (EAPSI) Synopsis of Program: The East Asia ...

72

The East Asia Regional Advisory Board The Fuqua School of Business  

E-print Network

The East Asia Regional Advisory Board The Fuqua School of Business Joe O. ROGERS, PhD. G'74 of the Taiwan Fund. He was U.S. Ambassador to the Asian Development Bank under President Ronald Reagan where he

Reif, John H.

73

BANKS, FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION AND THE 'INTEREST RATE PREMIUM PUZZLE' IN EAST ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simple theoretical framework to explorethe role of banks, bank inefficiencies and financial liberalization inexplaining the sustained interest rate premium offered in a number ofemerging economies in East Asia despite evidence of fairly credibleex-ante fixed exchange rates (Thailand in particular).Key words: banks, currency crisis, East Asia, financial liberalization,interest rates, ThailandJEL Classification: F30, F32, F4121. Background and Introduction...

Ramkishen S. Rajan

1999-01-01

74

Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation  

PubMed Central

This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps. PMID:24818109

Parikh, Purvish M.; Raja, T.; Mula-Hussain, L.; Baral, R. P.; Ingle, P.; Narayanan, P.; Tsikai, N.; Baki, M. O.; Satyapal, N.; Adusei, K. O.; Popoola, A.; Musibi, A.; Nyaim, E.; Tsomo, U.; Opio, C.; Jamshed, A.; Reddy, P.

2014-01-01

75

Possible transcontinental dust transport from North Africa and the Middle East to East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the evening of 25 March 2003 until 27 March an Asian dust event (Kosa) was observed at a total of 37 routine meteorological observatories in Japan, although no significant dust storms had been observed in the arid regions of China and Mongolia. A numerical simulation with a three-dimensional global aerosol transport model and meteorological observations reveal that the observed mineral dust particles were generated through dust storms in North Africa and the Middle East on 19 March. The simulation predicted that dust particles generated in the Sahara Desert and Arabian Peninsula on 19 March would be transported north of the Tien Shan Mountains in China and arrive over Japan in about 6-7 days. It also indicated that over 50% of the dust particles in Japan on 26-27 March came from North Africa, about 30% from the Middle East, and only about 10% from China in the boundary layer. The simulated result is consistent with polarization lidar and sky radiometer observations, indicating that the simulation is realistic. The simulation indicates that the Kosa phenomenon was caused by a mixture of transported dust and anthropogenic pollutants. The simulation of this dust event suggests the possible importance of dust transport from the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula to East Asia.

Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Chiba, Masaru; Matsumura, Takatsugu; Nagai, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Uchiyama, Akihiro; Tsunematsu, Nobumitsu; Kai, Kenji

76

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-01-01

77

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

78

Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

79

FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices. Aubert et al introduce a novel technique of synthesizing composite nanomaterials and Cross and coworkers characterize Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films co-doped with Bi and Fe to enhance PZT capacitor ferroelectric properties. These articles are closely related to the global environmental load and energy issues that require solutions in modern ceramics technology. We hope that this focus issue will help advance not only ceramics-related but also other fields of materials science.

Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

2010-10-01

80

Common Misconceptions about Students from South?East Asia Studying in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

International students from South?East Asia who study in Australia are often portrayed negatively compared to local students in terms of learning and study practices. This article discusses some of the misconceptions held by university teachers and administrators about South?East Asian students studying in Australia and examines them in the light of recent research. In particular, it challenges the views that

Denise Chalmers; Simone Volet

1997-01-01

81

Strategy for a Regional Exchange Rate Arrangement in East Asia: Analysis, Review and Proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses major conceptual and empirical issues relevant to the exchange rate policies of East Asian economies. Given the high degree of economic integration, intra-regional exchange rate stability remains an important objective in East Asia. But the current uncoordinated practice of each economy managing exchange rates or maintaining a de facto dollar peg is not optimal for this purpose.

Masahiro Kawai; Shinji Takagi

2005-01-01

82

An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia. Situated on…

Lindow, Megan

2007-01-01

83

The Monsoon of East Asia and its Global Associations-A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations concerning the summer and winter monsoons of East Asia and their global associations are reviewed. The seasonal mean structure, transient variation, including intraseasonal to interannual, and synoptic to planetary scale fluctuations are discussed separately for the two monsoon components. Similarities and differences between the East Asian monsoon and that of India are also surveyed. We also present a description

Ka-Ming Lau; Mai-Tsun Li

1984-01-01

84

Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

2011-01-01

85

Empires of East Asia (HIST S306, 2013) Tuesdays and Thursdays, 1-4:15, Class location TBA  

E-print Network

Chinese who studied abroad enrolled at Japanese universities. Today, East Asia is a region of tense heritage. In this course, we seek to understand the history of East Asia in a wider regional context studied one or more East Asian countries will find that this course, with its focus on connections between

86

Seasonal and intraseasonal climatology of summer monsoon rainfall over East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a documentation of the seasonal and intraseasonal rainfall climatology of summer monsoon rainfall over East Asia, using monthly and 10-d precipitation data from East Asian stations. These data are then related to satellite measurements of longwave radiation and large-scale circulation field. Major rainfall regimes and multiple monsoon onsets are identified, indicating that, in general, monsoon rainfall over East Asia evolves with wavelike progression from north to south from April to September. Abrupt changes in the major rainbands are related to the phase-locking between intraseasonal oscillations found in this study, such as the 40-d and 20-d rainfall fluctuations, and the seasonal monsoon cycle.

Lau, K.-M.; Yang, G. J.; Shen, S. H.

1988-01-01

87

Seasonal characteristics of precipitation in 1998 over East Asia as derived from TRMM PR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation radar data derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used to study precipitation characteristics in 1998 over East Asia (10° 38°N, 100° 145°E), especially over mid-latitude land (continental land) and ocean (East China Sea and South China Sea). Results are compared with precipitations in the tropics. Yearly statistics show dominant stratiform rain events over East Asia (about 83.7% by area fraction) contributing to 50% of the total precipitation. Deep convective rains contribute 48% to the total precipitation with a 13.7% area fraction. The statistics also show the unimportance of warm convective rain in East Asia, contributing 1.5% to the total precipitation with a 2.7% area fraction. On a seasonal scale, the results indicate that the rainfall ratio of stratiform rain to deep convective rain is proportional to their rainfall pixel ratio. Seasonal precipitation patterns compare well between Global Precipitation Climatology Project rainfall and TRMM PR measurements except in summer. Studies indicate a clear opposite shift of rainfall amount and events between deep convective and stratiform rains in the meridional in East Asia, which corresponds to the alternative activities of summer monsoon and winter monsoon in the region. The vertical structures of precipitation also exhibit strong seasonal variability in precipitation Contoured Rainrate by Altitude Diagrams (CRADs) and mean profiles in the mid-latitudes of East Asia. However, these structures in the South China Sea are of a tropical type except in winter. The analysis of CRADs reveals a wide range of surface rainfall rates for most deep convective rains, especially in the continental land, and light rain rate for most stratiform rains in East Asia, regardless of over land or ocean.

Fu, Yunfei; Lin, Yihua; Liu, Guosheng; Wang, Qiang

2003-07-01

88

Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.  

PubMed

Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

Moore, Malcolm A

2014-07-01

89

Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

Moore, Malcolm A.

2014-01-01

90

A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

2011-12-01

91

A(H5N1) Virus Evolution in South East Asia  

PubMed Central

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is an ongoing public health and socio-economic challenge, particularly in South East Asia. H5N1 is now endemic in poultry in many countries, and represents a major pandemic threat. Here, we describe the evolution of H5N1 virus in South East Asia, the reassortment events leading to high genetic diversity in the region, and factors responsible for virus spread. The virus has evolved with genetic variations affecting virulence, drug-resistance, and adaptation to new host species. The constant surveillance of these changes is of primary importance in the global efforts of the scientific community. PMID:21994553

Gutierrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Naughtin, Monica Jane; Horm, Srey Viseth; San, Sorn; Buchy, Philippe

2009-01-01

92

Climate change and food security in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change causes serious food security risk for East Asian countries. The United Nations Framework Con- vention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has recognized that the climate change will impact agriculture and all nations should prepare adaptations to the impacts on food security. This article reviews the context of adaptation rules and current policy development in East Asian region. The UNFCCC

Yi-Yuan Su SJD; Yi-Hao Weng; Ya-Wen Chiu

93

School Effectiveness in East Asia: Concepts, Origins, and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies several effective-school characteristics of East Asian schools, including community support, teacher professionalism, attention to quality, and high expectations. Discusses major dimensions of East Asian culture: the individual-community dimension, the effort-ability dichotomy, and the holistic-analytic quality in analyses. Traces…

Cheng, Kai-ming; Wong, Kam-cheung

1996-01-01

94

Undernutrition among children in South and South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Undernutrition remains a major public health problem among children living in Asia. Although the burden is maximal among poorer, rural and Indigenous communities, the problem affects the majority in many Asian countries, especially in South Asia. In order to prevent the pervasive consequences of undernutrition, strategies that address this burden are required. Successful implementation of strategies may be limited by the complex aetiology of undernutrition, including the political setting. Rising food insecurity because of climate change, land use for biofuel production and the recent global financial crisis threaten to exacerbate childhood malnutrition. In this review, we describe the burden of undernutrition among Asian children and discuss contributing factors and potential solutions. PMID:20854320

Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

2010-09-01

95

China and arms control: Transition in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Asian security environment in transition from the Cold War structure to whatever replaces it, prospects for arms control initiatives in the region and the attitudes and cooperative mechanisms to implement effective regimes are in a state of flux. Within Asia, Beijing`s conventional and nuclear defense modernization programs, combined with its active arms export program, make China a central

P. H. B. Godwin; J. J. Schulz

1994-01-01

96

Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project entitled…

Menton, Linda K.

2007-01-01

97

The perils of hyper-vigilance: the war on terrorism and the surveillance state in South-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis examines the puzzle as to why the intelligence structures of South-East Asia largely failed to detect the evolving threat of violently inclined radical Islamic groups, despite the existence of elaborate and pervasive internal security arrangements within the states of the region. The article explores this issue by positing contending viewpoints about how authoritarianism in South-East Asia might have

David Martin Jones; Michael Smith

2002-01-01

98

The regional integration that didn't happen: cooperation without integration in early twenty-first century East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade ago, in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis, numerous observers expected regional integration to take off in East Asia. What, meanwhile, has actually happened? This paper argues that while overall inter-state cooperation has certainly intensified in East Asia during this period, there has been no significant expansion of multilateral, as opposed to bi- or minilateral cooperation and

Douglas Webber

2010-01-01

99

Population genetic structure of crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus in East Asia, revealed by analysis of the mitochondrial control region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population genetic structure of the crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus in East Asia was examined with a 427-bp hypervariable portion of the mtDNA control region. A total of 262 samples were collected and 75 haplotypes were obtained. Neutrality tests (Tajima's and Fu's) suggested that Lutjanus erythropterus in East Asia had experienced a bottleneck fol- lowed by population expansion since the

Junbin Zhang; Zeping Cai; Liangmin Huang

2006-01-01

100

A projection of future changes in summer precipitation and monsoon in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future potential changes in precipitation and monsoon circulation in the summer in East Asia are projected using the latest\\u000a generation of coupled climate models under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios\\u000a (SRES) A1B scenario (a medium emission scenario). The multi-model ensemble means show that during the period of 2010–2099,\\u000a the summer precipitation in East

Ying Sun; YiHui Ding

2010-01-01

101

Inverse correlation between ancient winter and summer monsoons in East Asia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a scientific debate on the relationship between ancient winter and summer monsoons in East Asia. Some scholars think\\u000a that East Asian winter and summer monsoons are anti-correlated, and others think not. For this reason, this study is motivated\\u000a to assess their linkage from the paleoclimate simulation perspective, through analyzing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and\\u000a mid-Holocene (MH) climate

BoTao Zhou; Ping Zhao

2009-01-01

102

Targeting China: U.S. Nuclear Planning and Massive Retaliation in East Asia, 19531955  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses how the U.S. National Security Council, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Strategic Air Command (SAC)devised highly classified plans for nuclear war against the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the period after the July 1953 Korean armistice. The Eisenhower administration was seeking to rely more heavily on nuclear weapons in East Asia. Important differences of

Matthew Jones

2008-01-01

103

Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia WEIHUA YUAN  

E-print Network

Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia WEIHUA YUAN LASG, such as plateau, plain, basin, and sea (Fig. 1), cause robust regional- scale diurnal features of summer rainfall form 1 November 2011) ABSTRACT Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

Homes, Christopher C.

104

Viruses associated with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) of fish in south-east Asia  

E-print Network

Viruses associated with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) of fish in south-east Asia GN with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in the past decade. The heterogeneous nature of these isolates, together. birnavirus / réovirus / rhabdovirus lAsie / SUE l poisson INTRODUCTION Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

Ho, Laina

106

Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…

Keeny, S. M., Ed.

107

Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand in east Asia—a numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were investigated numerically by an Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new deflation module of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from

Hiroaki Terada; Hiromasa Ueda; Zifa Wang

2002-01-01

108

Provisions, practices and performances of constitutional review in democratizing East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis of the institutional design and actual performance of constitutional review in five newly democratized nations in East Asia shows that during the last two decades the judiciary has come to play an increasingly important political role in South Korea, Taiwan and Indonesia. Constitutional courts in these three countries are more active in counterbalancing executive and legislative power than

Aurel Croissant

2010-01-01

109

Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

2013-07-01

110

History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

2000-01-01

111

Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently become apparent that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation in several countries of South and South-east Asia is adding arsenic to soils and rice, thus posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and to the health and livelihoods of affected people in those countries. This paper describes the many environmental, agricultural and social factors that determine practical

Hugh Brammer

2009-01-01

112

Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

2008-01-01

113

Flexible BBC Exchange Rate System and Exchange Rate Cooperation in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prevent competitive depreciations, excessive inflows of foreign capital and crisis contagion in the region, cooperation in exchange rate and monetary policy is very desirable, considering the fact that countries in East Asia have high trade dependence among them and similar trade patterns with each other. The BBC system proposed will be examined and the new BBC system

Yen Kyun Wang

2008-01-01

114

The East Asia Regional Advisory Board The Fuqua School of Business  

E-print Network

University's Fuqua School of Business. She holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation, and was namedThe East Asia Regional Advisory Board The Fuqua School of Business Renee HARTMAN, B'05 Co in Beijing. Renee holds a BBA from Emory University's Goizueta School of Business, and an MBA from Duke

Reif, John H.

115

Did a boom in money and credit precede east Asia's recent currency crisis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the relationship between money and credit and episodes of sharp depreciation in East Asia by: (i) examining the growth rates of money and credit variables around depreciation episodes; (ii) estimating the impact of money and credit variables on the probability of a sharp depreciation episode using logit models; (iii) evaluating the signals contained in money and credit

Ramon Moreno

1999-01-01

116

Was there a boom in money and credit prior to East Asia's recent currency crisis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the relationship between money and credit and episodes of sharp depreciation in East Asia by (i) examining growth rates of money and credit variables around depreciation episodes; (ii) estimating the impact of money and credit variables on the probability of a share depreciation episode using logit models; (iii) evaluating the signals contained in money and credit variables

Ramon Moreno

1998-01-01

117

Contemporary crustal deformation in east Asia constrained by Global Positioning System measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements collected since the early 90's allow us to derive geodetic velocities at 16 permanent stations in east Asia and 68 campaign mode sites in north China. The resulting velocity field shows the following: (1) Contrary to the early inferences that the Shanxi Rift has accommodated significant right-slip motion, our results suggest that the rift system,

Zheng-kang Shen; Chengkun Zhao; An Yin; Yanxing Li; David D. Jackson; Peng Fang; Danan Dong

2000-01-01

118

A Review of HRD Research in Three Areas of East Asia: Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research focusing on Human Resource Development (HRD) in East Asia is attracting increasing attention. The purpose of the study is to explore the definition and practice of HRD, together with influencing cultural factors, in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan. The results indicate a difference in the definition and implementation of HRD…

Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Jie; Paprock, Kenneth E.; Lynham, Susan A.; Li, Jie

2004-01-01

119

Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 23 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across six themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, and Change"; (4) "Aesthetics, Celebrations and Values"; (5)…

Beville, Francie; Boone, Mark; Chapman, Kelly; Crump, Claudia; Curtis, Lonnie; Erickson, Stacy; Kaiser-Polge, Tami; Klus, John A.; Luebbehusen, Mary Lou; Rea, Patrick S.; Ward, Mary E.

120

Brand power and state power: Rise of the new media networks in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, digital technology and global deregulatory forces have facilitated the restructuring of East Asia's mediascape - resulting in complex, internationalized relationships within the regional political economy. Transnational media corporations - such as AOL Time Warner and News Corporation - are negotiating strategically important positions in regional distribution and branded content markets, in the pursuit of 'consumer segments'

William Atkins

2003-01-01

121

Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asia is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury

Suraj K. Shetty; Che-Jen Lin; David G. Streets; Carey Jang

2008-01-01

122

Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West Africa  

E-print Network

Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West Africa Yongkang Xue,1,2 H and West African monsoon development and are among the most important mechanisms governing the development of the monsoon. The results were obtained by conducting simulations for five months of 1987 using a general

Xue, Yongkang

123

Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market…

Kim, Terri

2007-01-01

124

Global perspectives on animal welfare: Asia, the Far East, and Oceania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In Asia and the Far East, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have

S. A. Rahman; L. Walker; W. Ricketts

125

Tropospheric air pollution modeling on a regional scale: Case studies for east and southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asia has seen a phenomenal industrial growth in the past few decades resulting in significant increases in pollutant emissions. In this work, a 3-D regional-scale numerical investigation with the STEM - III model is carried out to explore and assess the environmental impacts of these tropospheric pollutants. Several case scenarios are studied to understand the influence of each on

Mahesh Jayawant Phadnis

1999-01-01

126

Promoting Learner Autonomy: Student Perceptions of Responsibilities in a Language Classroom in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of communicative language teaching in East Asia, the idea of learner autonomy has become a topic of discussion and a goal among language teachers. The idea of autonomy raises important questions that need to be further explored, particularly in terms of students taking responsibility for learning. While examining the English…

Sakai, Shien; Takagi, Akiko; Chu, Man-Ping

2010-01-01

127

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) NUMBER 1 (2007)  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) VOLUME 14, NUMBER 1 (2007) ISSN 1322 0462 CONTENTS CENTRE NEWS 2 NEW PHD STUDENTS 4 IRAQ AND THE FUTURE OF POLITICAL ISLAM 5 James Piscatori of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies and Wadham College, University of Oxford, has

128

Japan' s Role in Responding to the Crisis in Southeast Asia and the East Asian Regionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the economic crisis erupted in Southeast Asia, there has been a tendency towards the revival of East Asian regionalism. Existing regional cooperation, the IMF and other international institutions were not effective in dealing with the crisis. The US also did not pay much attention. Thus crisis-hit countries sought helps from major powers in the region. On the other hand,

Sigit WITJAKSONO

129

Radial-Velocity Searches for Exoplanets in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hundreds of extrasolar planets have been discovered around various types of stars by various techniques during the past decade. Among them precise radial velocity measurements for stars are fundamental technique to detect and confirm exoplanets. In this paper activities in East-Asian region in this research field are introduced: East-Asian Planet Search Network, which is a network searching for planets around evolved intermediate-mass stars, and Subaru/IRD project, which will search for habitable planets around M-type dwarfs using infrared radial-velocity method.

Sato, Bun'ei

2014-04-01

130

Inequality and Growth Reconsidered: Lessons from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Asian economies have experienced rapid growth over three decades, with relatively low levels of income inequality, and appear to have also achieved reductions in income inequality. We argue that policies that reduced poverty and income inequalities, such as emphasizing high-quality basic education and augmenting labor demand, also stimulated growth. Closing two virtuous circles, rapid growth and reduced inequality led

Nancy Birdsall; David Ross; Richard Sabot

1995-01-01

131

Characterizing exchange rate policy in East Asia: A reconsideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frankel and Wei [Frankel, J. A., & Wei, S.-J. (1994). Yen bloc or dollar bloc: Exchange rate policies of the East Asian economies. In I. Takatoshi & A. Krueger (Eds.), Macroeconomic linkages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press] developed and popularized a method for uncovering the implicit weights assigned to major international currencies constituting a currency basket. We extend the methodology

Hwee Kwan Chow; Yoonbai Kim; Wei Sun

2007-01-01

132

Demand for international reserves: evidence from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the demand for international reserves in nine East Asian economies during the period 1970-2005 using panel cointegration and Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS). The panel cointegration tests find the existence of a long-run relationship between the demand for international reserves and its determinants. The panel group FMOLS results indicate that current account balance and total external

Eliza Nor; M. Azali; Siong Hook Law

2009-01-01

133

English language education in East Asia: some recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent developments in English language education in each of the

Guangwei Hu; Sandra Lee McKay

2012-01-01

134

ICT Experience in East Asia and Modelling for Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The remarkable development in ICT (Information and Communication Technology) was observed in the past decades that it has an increasing impact on economic and social activities in the world. ICT have had a significant role in the economic growth for developed and developing countries. The countries have been very dynamic in recent years in East

Okur Dincsoy, Meltem

2010-01-01

135

Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) predictions of the tropospheric ozone budget over east Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Langley Research Center and University of Wisconsin Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is used to estimate the tropospheric ozone budget over east Asia during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission. The computed ozone budget explicitly accounts for stratosphere/troposphere exchange (STE) and in situ ozone production using on-line chemical calculations. The east Asian O3 budget is computed during the period from 7 March to 12 April 2001. Gross formation dominates STE by a ratio of 7 to 1 in east Asia during TRACE-P. However, this ratio is strongly influenced by altitude of the tropopause. Approximately 30% of the ozone that is advected across the tropopause over east Asia is subsequently advected out over the western Pacific within the upper 4 km of the troposphere by the Japan jet. The average net photochemical production (gross formation-gross destruction) within the regional domain is 0.37 Tg d-1 or 7% of the average flux at the eastern boundary of the domain during the TRACE-P time period. The budget analysis shows a very close balance between sources and sinks within the RAQMS regional domain during the TRACE-P time period. This balance results in very small average accumulation (˜1 Tg) of O3 in the east Asian region and very little net export averaged over the period (0.03 Tg d-1). The low ozone export from east Asia predicted by RAQMS during TRACE-P is a consequence of relatively high dry deposition rates, which are 37% of the gross ozone formation (1.469 Tg d-1) within the TRACE-P regional domain.

Pierce, R. B.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Schaack, T.; Lenzen, A.; Zapotocny, T.; Johnson, D.; Kittaka, C.; Buker, M.; Hitchman, M. H.; Tripoli, G.; Fairlie, T. D.; Olson, J. R.; Natarajan, M.; Crawford, J.; Fishman, J.; Avery, M.; Browell, E. V.; Creilson, J.; Kondo, Y.; Sandholm, S. T.

2003-11-01

136

China and arms control: Transition in East Asia  

SciTech Connect

With the Asian security environment in transition from the Cold War structure to whatever replaces it, prospects for arms control initiatives in the region and the attitudes and cooperative mechanisms to implement effective regimes are in a state of flux. Within Asia, Beijing`s conventional and nuclear defense modernization programs, combined with its active arms export program, make China a central player in present arms control regimes and any future agreements. While the end of the Cold War and the demise of the Soviet Union meant that China lost much of its strategic significance, Beijing`s growing economic and military power guarantee that it will be a major source affecting regional stability - or instability - for the foreseeable future. At present, China is viewed by many as a less-than-perfect partner in efforts to achieve a more effective Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), an agreement on a comprehensive test ban (CTB) treaty before 1996 and other non-proliferation and arms control initiatives. To understand why this is so, and to appreciate how the current transition in thinking among China`s elites can help or hinder these initiatives over the long term, it is necessary to more clearly see the post-Cold War world and Asia from Beijing`s perspective.

Godwin, P.H.B. [National War College, Washington, DC (United States); Schulz, J.J.

1994-11-01

137

Genetic counseling/consultation in South-East Asia: a report from the workshop at the 10th Asia pacific conference on human genetics.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the workshop 'Genetic Counseling/Consultations in South-East Asia' at the 10(th) Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in December 2012. The workshop brought together professionals and language/communication scholars from South-East Asia, and the UK. The workshop aimed at addressing culture- and context-specific genetic counseling/consultation practices in South-East Asia. As a way of contextualizing genetic counseling/consultation in South-East Asia, we first offer an overview of communication-oriented research generally, drawing attention to consultation and counseling as part of a communicative continuum with distinctive interactional features. We then provide examples of genetic counseling/consultation research in Hong Kong. As other countries in South-East Asia have not yet embarked on communication-oriented empirical research, we report on the current practices of genetic counseling/consultation in these countries in order to identify similarities and differences as well as key obstacles that could be addressed through future research. Three issues emerged as 'problematic': language, religion and culture. We suggest that communication-oriented research can provide a starting point for evidence-based reflections on how to incorporate a counseling mentality in genetic consultation. To conclude, we discuss the need for creating a platform for targeted training of genetic counselors based on communication-oriented research findings. PMID:24048708

Zayts, Olga; Sarangi, Srikant; Thong, Meow-Keong; Chung, Brian Hon-yin; Lo, Ivan Fao-man; Kan, Anita Sik-yau; Lee, Juliana Mei-har; Padilla, Carmencita David; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Faradz, Sultana M H; Wasant, Pornswan

2013-12-01

138

Modeling study of ozone seasonal cycle in lower troposphere over east Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of three mountain sites (Mount Tai, Hua and Huang) newly founded in east-central China and several other sites from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in east Asia (EANET) and WMO World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), we investigate seasonal cycle of ozone over east Asia and its budgets in east-central China by using a regional chemical transport model (NAQPMS). The observations show a striking ozone pattern of two sharp peaks in May-June and September-October at three mountain sites in east-central China which are higher than those observed at other mountain sites in Europe and North America. Ozone budgets analysis by the model confirms that maximum of net photochemical productions reaches 31.8, 15.1, and 11.4 ppbv/d at Mount Tai, Hua, and Huang, respectively. The net photochemical production dominates the formation of ozone maximums at Mount Tai and Hua in June, and the importing transport also plays a comparable importance at Mount Huang. In comparison with those in the western North Pacific, east-central China shows stronger net photochemical productions, which are comparable to anthropogenic sources regions in Europe and North America.

Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Gao, Chao; Pochanart, Pakpong; Wang, Xiquan

2007-11-01

139

The United States Security Strategy for the East Asia-Pacific Region 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Defense recently released a review of security arrangements in East Asia and the Pacific, where close to 100,000 military personnel are currently stationed. Despite criticisms that the permanent stationing of these troops and another 100,000 in Europe is costly and unnecessary, the report argues, "our military presence in Asia serves as an important deterrent to aggression, often lessening the need for a more substantial and costly US response later." The report, which is available online and in .pdf format, outlines the key concepts behind the US presence in the region and discusses security and strategy issues for the next century.

140

Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia  

SciTech Connect

Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

2012-05-01

141

The carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia over the last two decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes regional study provides a synthesis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia, a region comprised of China, Japan, North and South Korea, and Mongolia. We estimate the current terrestrial carbon balance of East Asia and its driving mechanisms during 1990-2009 using three different approaches: inventories combined with satellite greenness measurements, terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle models and atmospheric inversion models. The magnitudes of East Asia's terrestrial carbon sink from these three approaches are comparable: -0.293±0.033 PgC yr-1 from inventory-remote sensing model-data fusion approach, -0.413±0.141 PgC yr-1 (not considering biofuel emissions) or -0.224±0.141 PgC yr-1 (considering biofuel emissions) for carbon cycle models, and -0.270±0.507 PgC yr-1 for atmospheric inverse models. Here and in the following, the numbers behind ± signs are standard deviations. The ensemble of ecosystem modeling based analyses further suggests that at the regional scale, climate change and rising atmospheric CO2 together resulted in a carbon sink of -0.289±0.135 PgC yr-1, while land-use change and nitrogen deposition had a contribution of -0.013±0.029 PgC yr-1 and -0.107±0.025 PgC yr-1, respectively. Although the magnitude of climate change effects on the carbon balance varies among different models, all models agree that in response to climate change alone, southern China experienced an increase in carbon storage from 1990 to 2009, while northern East Asia including Mongolia and north China showed a decrease in carbon storage. Overall, our results suggest that about 13-27% of East Asia's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning have been offset by carbon accumulation in its terrestrial territory over the period from 1990 to 2009. The underlying mechanisms of carbon sink over East Asia still remain largely uncertain, given the diversity and intensity of land management processes, and the regional conjunction of many drivers such as nutrient deposition, climate, atmospheric pollution and CO2 changes, which cannot be considered as independent for their effects on carbon storage.

Piao, S. L.; Ito, A.; Li, S. G.; Huang, Y.; Ciais, P.; Wang, X. H.; Peng, S. S.; Nan, H. J.; Zhao, C.; Ahlström, A.; Andres, R. J.; Chevallier, F.; Fang, J. Y.; Hartmann, J.; Huntingford, C.; Jeong, S.; Levis, S.; Levy, P. E.; Li, J. S.; Lomas, M. R.; Mao, J. F.; Mayorga, E.; Mohammat, A.; Muraoka, H.; Peng, C. H.; Peylin, P.; Poulter, B.; Shen, Z. H.; Shi, X.; Sitch, S.; Tao, S.; Tian, H. Q.; Wu, X. P.; Xu, M.; Yu, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.; Zhu, B.

2012-09-01

142

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

2010-07-01

143

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

2010-04-01

144

Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

2004-01-01

145

Climate change and food security in East Asia.  

PubMed

Climate change causes serious food security risk for East Asian countries. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has recognized that the climate change will impact agriculture and all nations should prepare adaptations to the impacts on food security. This article reviews the context of adaptation rules and current policy development in East Asian region. The UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol have established specific rules for countries to develop national or regional adaptation policies and measurements. The current development of the ASEAN Strategic Plan on food security is inspiring, but the commitments to implementation by its members remain an issue of concern. We suggest that the UNFCCC enhances co-operation with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and other international organizations to further develop methodologies and technologies for all parties. Our findings suggest that agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors in terms of risks associated with climate change and distinct programmatic initiatives are necessary. It's imperative to promote co-operation among multilateral organizations, including the UNFCCC, FAO, World Health Organization, and others. PMID:19965364

Su, Yi-Yuan; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen

2009-01-01

146

An unrecognized major collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia during the Late Cretaceous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions at plate boundaries induce stresses that constitute critical controls on the structural evolution of intraplate regions. However, the traditional tectonic model for the East Asian margin during the Mesozoic, invoking successive episodes of paleo-Pacific oceanic subduction, does not provide an adequate context for important Late Cretaceous dynamics across East Asia, including: continental-scale orogenic processes, significant sinistral strike-slip faulting, and several others. The integration of numerous documented field relations requires a new tectonic model, as proposed here. The Okhotomorsk continental block, currently residing below the Okhotsk Sea in Northeast Asia, was located in the interior of the Izanagi Plate before the Late Cretaceous. It moved northwestward with the Izanagi Plate and collided with the South China Block at about 100 Ma. The indentation of the Okhotomorsk Block within East Asia resulted in the formation of a sinistral strike-slip system in South China, formation of a dextral strike-slip system in North China, and regional northwest-southeast shortening and orogenic uplift in East Asia. Northeast-striking mountain belts over 500 km wide extended from Southeast China to Southwest Japan and South Korea. The peak metamorphism at about 89 Ma of the Sanbagawa high-pressure metamorphic belt in Southwest Japan was probably related to the continental subduction of the Okhotomorsk Block beneath the East Asian margin. At about 89 Ma, the north-northwestward change of motion direction of the Izanagi Plate led to the northward movement of the Okhotomorsk Block along the East Asian margin, forming a significant sinistral continental transform boundary similar to the San Andreas fault system in California. Sanbagawa metamorphic rocks in Southwest Japan were rapidly exhumed through the several kilometers wide ductile shear zone in the lower crust and upper mantle level. Accretionary complexes successively accumulated along the East Asian margin during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous were subdivided into narrow and subparallel belts by the upper crustal strike-slip fault system. The departure of the Okhotomorsk Block from the northeast-striking Asian margin resulted in the occurrence of an extensional setting and formation of a wide magmatic belt to the west of the margin. In the Campanian, the Okhotomorsk Block collided with the Siberian margin, in Northeast Asia. At about 77 Ma, a new oceanic subduction occurred to the south of the block, ending its long-distance northward motion. Based on the new tectonic model, the abundant Late Archean to Early Proterozoic detrital zircons in the Cretaceous sandstones in Kamchatka, Southwest Japan, and Taiwan are interpreted to have been sourced from the Okhotomorsk Block basement which possibly formed during the Late Archean and Early Proterozoic.

Yang, Y.

2013-12-01

147

Solar cycle modulation of the ENSO impact on the winter climate of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how the East Asian winter climate response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) varies with the 11-year solar cycle. The results indicate that the ENSO and East Asian climate relationship is robust and significant during winters with low solar (LS) activity, with evident warming in the lower troposphere over East Asia, which can be closely linked to the decreased pressure gradient between the cold Eurasian continent and the warm Pacific. Moreover, during the LS and El Niño winters, there is a typical rainfall response in Southeast Asia, with wet conditions over South China and dry conditions over the Philippines, Borneo, Celebes, and Sulawesi, which can be explained by the anticyclone over the western North Pacific (WNP). However, during high solar activity winters, both the surface temperature and rainfall anomalies are much less closely associated with the ENSO. The possible mechanism for this solar modulation of the ENSO-related East Asian climate anomalies may be the change in the tropospheric circulation with the ENSO in both tropical and extratropical regions. Particularly, in the LS cases, an anomalous WNP anticyclone is intensified and a noticeable cyclone occupies northern Northeast Asia, resulting from the changing location and strength of the large-scale Walker circulation induced by the more pronounced sea surface temperature anomalies associated with the ENSO. Further investigation with long historic data confirms that the relationship between the ENSO and the East Asian winter climate anomalies depends on the phases of 11 year solar cycle, with enhanced East Asian climate variation during the LS winters.

Zhou, Qun; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Wen

2013-06-01

148

Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

PubMed Central

It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

149

Impacts of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions on Climate Change in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate impact by anthropogenic drivers gives high concerns in climate change simulation. IPCC AR4 emphasized the role of aerosol on climate besides the GHGs due to its negative significant radiative forcing. We find that climate feedback of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia through direct and indirect (aerosol-cloud interaction) radiative process using HadGEM2-AO developed by the UK Met office. Due to the industrial revolution and population growth, total anthropogenic aerosol emissions have grown dramatically over East Asia; sulfate aerosol is the dominant component accounting for about 50% of total aerosol optical depth at 550nm (Figure 1). An increased amount of aerosols might increase the CCN number concentration and lead to more, but smaller, cloud droplets for fixed liquid water content. This increases the albedo of the cloud, resulting in enhance reflection and a cooling effect. And smaller drops require longer growth times to reach size at which they easily fall as precipitation. This effect called the cloud lifetime effect may enhance the cloud cover (Figure 2), with a persistent positive correlation between cloud cover and aerosol optical depth. Particularly, aerosols have an influence on the amount of cloud cover (SC, ST, and NS) through the interaction with precipitation efficiency of low level clouds. As a result of perturbations of East Asia aerosols from preindustrial to present day, a net radiative flux at the top of atmosphere is estimated to be -4 W/m2, with a regional mean surface cooling of 1.2 K. More detailed analysis will be shown at the conference. Fig. 1. (a) Total AOD distributions (b) Changes in decadal mean AOD over East Asia. Fig 2. Cloud cover distributions classified by ISCCP cloud types.

Shim, S.; Jung, Y.; Baek, H.; Cho, C.

2013-12-01

150

Familial capitalism in global institutional contexts: Implications for corporate governance and entrepreneurship in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the world’s firms have a familial dimension; including some of the most dynamic and emerging markets of East Asia.\\u000a However, this important aspect of organizing economic activity remains understudied and misunderstood. A central theme of\\u000a this article is that while families matter in economic activity throughout the world, they matter in different ways depending\\u000a on the institutional context.

Lloyd P. Steier

2009-01-01

151

Exchange Rate Volatility and Growth in Emerging Europe and East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate volatility on growth in Emerging Europe and East Asia. Exchange rate stability\\u000a has been argued to affect growth negatively as it deprives countries from the ability to react in a flexible way to asymmetric\\u000a real shocks and increases the probability of speculative capital inflows and overheating. In contrast, exchange rate stability\\u000a can

Gunther Schnabl

2009-01-01

152

Plate tectonic reconstruction of South and East Asia since 43 Ma using seismic tomographic constraints: role of the subducted ';East Asia Sea' (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithosphere that subducts at convergent plate boundaries provides a potentially decipherable plate tectonic record. In this study we use global seismic tomography to map subducted slabs in the upper and lower mantle under South and East Asia to constrain plate reconstructions. The mapped slabs include the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and Banda Sea, the Molucca Sea, Celebes Sea, the Philippine Sea and Eurasia, New Guinea and other lower mantle detached slabs. The mapped slabs were restored to the earth surface and used with Gplates software to constrain a globally-consistent, fully animated plate reconstruction of South and East Asia. Three principal slab elements dominate possible plate reconstructions: [1] The mapped Pacific slabs near the Izu-Bonin and the Marianas trenches form a subvertical slab curtain or wall extending down to 1500 km in the lower mantle. The ';slab curtain' geometry and restored slabs lengths indicate that the Pacific subduction zone has remained fixed within +/- 250 km of its present position since ~43 Ma. In contrast, the Tonga Pacific slab curtain records at least 1000 km trench rollback associated with expansion of back-arc basins. [2] West of the Pacific slab curtain, a set of flat slabs exist in the lower mantle and record a major 8000km by 2500-3000km ocean that existed at ~43 Ma. This now-subducted ocean, which we call the ';East Asian Sea', existed between the Ryukyu Asian margin and the Lord Howe hotspot, present-day eastern Australia, and fills a major gap in Cenozoic plate reconstructions between Indo-Australia, the Pacific Ocean and Asia. [3] An observed ';picture puzzle' fit between the restored edges of the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Indian Ocean slabs suggests that the Philippine Sea was once part of a larger Indo-Australian Ocean. Previous models of Philippine Sea plate motions are in conflict with the location of the East Asian Sea lithosphere. Using the mapped slab constraints, we propose the following 43 Ma to 0 plate tectonic reconstruction. At ~43 Ma a major plate reorganization occurred in South and East Asia marked by Indian Ocean Wharton ridge extinction, initiation of Pacific Ocean WNW motions and the rapid northward motion of the Australian plate. The Philippine Sea and Molucca Sea were clustered at the northern margin of Australia, northwest of New Guinea. During the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with Australia, accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. The East Asian Sea was subducted under the northward-moving Philippine Sea and Australia plates, and the expanding Melanesian and Shikoku-Parece Vela backarc basins. At ~20 to 25 Ma the Philippine Sea and Molucca Sea were fragmented from Indo-Australia and began to have a westward component of motion due to partial Pacific capture. Around 1-2 Ma the Philippine Sea was more fully captured by the Pacific and now has rapid Pacific-like northwestward motions.

Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V.

2013-12-01

153

Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations  

PubMed Central

Background The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the Andaman Islands, is inconsistent with this scenario. Results In this study, we collected more than 5,000 male samples from 73 East Asian populations and reconstructed the phylogeography of the D-M174 lineage. Our results suggest that D-M174 represents an extremely ancient lineage of modern humans in East Asia, and a deep divergence was observed between northern and southern populations. Conclusion We proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages. The Neolithic expansion of Han culture and the last glacial maximum are likely the key factors leading to the current relic distribution of D-M174 in East Asia. The Tibetan and Japanese populations are the admixture of two ancient populations represented by two major East Asian specific Y chromosome lineages, the O and D haplogroups. PMID:18959782

Shi, Hong; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Dong, Yong-Li; Qi, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lu-Fang; Tan, Si-Jie; Ma, Runlin Z; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Wells, R Spencer; Jin, Li; Su, Bing

2008-01-01

154

Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive ‘species pumps’ particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10–17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region. PMID:23446524

Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

2013-01-01

155

Model intra-comparison of transboundary sulfate loadings over springtime east Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over east Asia, a spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols from source to outflow regions has not fully evaluated by simulations. In the present study, we executed a global aerosol-transport model (SPRINTARS) during April 2006 to investigate the spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols using multiple measurements including surface mass concentration, aerosol optical thickness, and vertical profiles of extinction coefficients for spherical particles. We also performed sensitivity experiments to estimate possible uncertainties of sulfate mass loadings caused by macrophysical processes; emission inventory, dynamic core, and spatial resolution. Among the experiments, although a difference in the surface sulfate mass concentrations over east Asia was large, none of the simulations in the present study as well as regional models reproduced the spatial gradient of the surface sulfate from the source over China to the outflow regions in Japan. The sensitivity of different macrophysical factors to the surface sulfate differs from that to sulfate loadings in the column especially in the marine boundary layers (MBL). Therefore, to properly simulate the transboundary air pollution over east Asia is required to use multiple measurements in both the source and outflow regions especially in the MBL during the polluted days.

Goto, D.; Ohara, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takemura, T.; Kajino, M.; Dai, T.; Matsui, H.; Takami, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Aoki, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Shimizu, A.

2013-12-01

156

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 RE-buIldIng A STRong STATE AMIdST A STRong SoCIETy 4 ChInA'S EnTRy InTo CEnTRAl ASIA'S SouThERn TIER 5 SECuRITy All and Islamic Studies and the Asia-Pacific College of Diplomacy conducted a training program for Afghan

157

What caused the cool summer over northern Central Asia, East Asia and central North America during 2009?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cool and wet weather conditions hit northern Central Asia, East Asia and central North America during the 2009 summer in concert with a strong jet stream and a prominent meandering upper-level circulation in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes despite the fact that the year 2009 is the fifth warmest year globally in the modern record. It is found that the conspicuous atmospheric variability in the entire Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the summer of 2009 was caused by a combination of teleconnections associated with significant tropical thermal forcings, strong polar forcing, and interaction between high-frequency weather events and climate anomalies. The strong negative circumglobal teleconnection pattern associated with the deficient Indian summer monsoon rainfall and developing El Niño condition was the major contributor to the cool and wet summer in June. On the other hand, the July weather conditions were attributable to the high-latitude impact of the unprecedented negative Arctic Oscillation, together with the Rossby wave response to the subtropical heating generated by convective activities over the Western North Pacific summer monsoon region. It is also noted that enhanced storm track activity and frequent cold surges from high-latitudes may have played a role in the cool and wet summer over the regions of interest.

Ha, Kyung-Ja; Chu, Jung-Eun; Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin; Hameed, Saji N.; Watanabe, Masahiro

2012-12-01

158

Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

2003-01-01

159

Capacity-Building for Curriculum Specialists in East and South-East Asia. Final Report of the Training Seminar (Bangkok, Thailand, December 12-16, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents topics addressed at the December 2000 seminar on Capacity-Building for Curriculum Specialists from East and South-East Asia. Part 1, "Rethinking the Framework and the Capacities Needed for Curriculum Reform," gives some perspectives on trends and issues in curriculum change for the 21st century, both internationally and within…

Gregorio, Lucille C., Ed.; Byron, Isabel, Ed.

160

http://swat.tamu.edu/conferences/2013-seea/ SWAT Workshop and Conference in South East and East Asia (SWAT SEEA III), Bogor, Indonesia  

E-print Network

East and East Asia (SWAT SEEA III), Bogor, Indonesia "In commemoration of the World Day to Combat Padjadjaran, City of Bogor http://ipbicc.com/aboutus HOSTS: Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia their local conditions. This time WASWAC is coordinating with institutions inside and outside Indonesia

161

Long-term trends of sulfur deposition in East Asia during 1981-2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a chemical transport model to investigate the long-term trends of sulfur deposition in East Asia during 1981-2005. The model reproduced the observed spatial distributions in East Asia of the rate of wet deposition of non-seasalt sulfate (nss-SO42-), volume-weighted mean concentrations of nss-SO42- in precipitation, precipitation, and concentrations in air of gaseous sulfur dioxide and particulate nss-SO42-. The model also reproduced well observed seasonal variations and long-term trends of wet deposition of nss-SO42- in Japan from 1988 to 2005. The increasing rate of wet deposition of nss-SO42- in Japan during 1991-2005 was demonstrated with 99.9% significance for both observed and modeled data. The annual rate of total (wet + dry) sulfur deposition in Japan increased from 15.6 Gmol S y-1 in 1981-1985 to 23.9 Gmol S y-1 in 2001-2005 in response to both increasing contributions from Chinese emissions and the eruption of Miyakejima volcano in 2000. During that 25-year period, approximately 2.1% of the sulfur from Chinese emissions was deposited in Japan. Over the same period, the rate of deposition of sulfur in East Asia increased gradually from 14.2 mmol S m-2 y-1 to 24.0 mmol S m-2 y-1, and the contribution of emissions from China to total sulfur deposition in East Asia increased from 65% to 77%. The contribution of Miyakejima volcano was 3% during 2001-2005. The increase in the sulfur deposition rate was remarkably high on the North China Plain, around Guangzhou, and south of Chongqing. The rate of increase in East Asia was greatest in winter, although the rate of sulfur deposition was highest in summer. Sulfur flux from China to Japan increased by a factor of 2.5 at altitudes of 0-3000 m from 1981 to 2005.

Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Morino, Yu; Uno, Itsushi; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Hara, Hiroshi

2012-11-01

162

Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.  

PubMed

This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

2014-01-01

163

Partnership between Korean and Texas in the 21st Century OnTuesday,April6UTSA'sEastAsia  

E-print Network

GeneralChohascoveredhis foreigndiplomatcareerinmany countriessuchasSingapore,Russia, Germany,andtheU.S.forthepast26 years speaks at UTSA's East Asia Institute on April 6. 2010 Korean figure skater Yuna Kim: 2010 Winter OlympicsKoreabutwithotherEastAsian countriesaswell.Expected comple8onofthecanalistobe 2014.ConsulGeneralCho men8onedtheimportanceoftrade with

Dodla, Ramana

164

Phylogeography of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia: Pleistocene isolation, population expansion and secondary contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the impact of Pleistocene glacial cycles on geographical distribution and genetic structure of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia using sequence variation of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and cytochrome b gene segments. Phylogenies revealed four distinct but shallow structured lineages in Eriocheir s. s. Three lineages dominated the East China Sea-Yellow Sea, the Sea

Jiawu Xu; Tin-Yam Chan; Ling Ming Tsang; Ka Hou Chu

2009-01-01

165

Aerosol retrieval over East Asia from GOSAT-CAI measurements during the DRAGON campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In East Asia, ground and satellite observation is important because aerosols are very complex in this region. For this reason, we developed an algorithm for the East Asia where optical properties of aerosol are integrated from AERONET sun-photometers to generate lookup table (LUT). Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation -Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) launched in January 2009 onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) iprovides unique channels in UV, visible and NIR to retrieve aerosol informations. This algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol type in 0.1 degree x 0.1 degree and 1.1 degree x 1.0 degree resolutions. To distinguish aerosol absorptivity, we also utilized blue channels from of Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) launched in March 2010 onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). Surface reflectance of this region is determined from 45-day composite of Rayleigh and gas corrected reflectance. Particularly we compared the retrieved AOD with those of AERONET during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) - Asia campaign period and the found reasonalbe agreements between the two results.

Lee, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Choi, M.; Go, S.; Lim, H.

2013-12-01

166

Changing patterns of HIV epidemic in 30 years in East Asia.  

PubMed

The HIV epidemic in East Asia started relatively late compared to the rest of the world. All countries or areas, except for North Korea, had reported HIV and AIDS cases, with China being the major contributor to the epidemic. Though initially driven by injecting drug use in China, East Asia did not experience an explosive spread. Strong commitment in China and early harm reduction programs in Taiwan managed to reduce transmission substantially among injecting drug users. In contrast to China and Taiwan, injection drug use has accounted just a little, if not at all, for the spread of HIV in other East Asian counties. However, following a global trend, sexual contact has become a major route of infection across the region. While much progress has been achieved in this region, with the epidemic among other key populations relatively stable, the emerging epidemic through sex between men is a growing concern. Recent estimates suggest that HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) has reached 6.3 % in China, 7.5 % in Mongolia, and ranges between 8.1 %-10.7 % in Taiwan and between 2.7 %- 6.5 % in South Korea. In Japan, 74 % of male HIV cases were among MSM in 2012, while Hong Kong has witnessed a sharp increase of HIV cases among MSM since 2004. There is urgent need to address issues of discrimination and stigma toward homosexuality, and to strengthen the strategies to reach and care for this population. PMID:24664878

Suguimoto, S Pilar; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-saaidi, Christina; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

2014-06-01

167

MICS-Asia II: Modeling gaseous pollutants and evaluating an advanced modeling system over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced modeling system with a "one-atmosphere" perspective, Models-3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, driven by MM5/NCEP reanalysis data as the meteorology, and GEOS-Chem outputs as boundary values was applied to simulate the O 3, and other gaseous pollutants (SO 2 and NO 2) evolution among other atmospheric chemicals for July 2001. Comparisons had been made with other models in the MICS-II exercise for the same period. Statistics of both monthly and daily means show that the model skill is very good in reproducing O 3 and SO 2 with small to moderate RMSE. The model species capture the day-to-day and spatial variability of the observations. The same O 3 model concentrations that overpredict most of the EANET observations in the MICS-II study may have underpredicted ones from monitoring networks in Beijing area that is not included in this paper. Vertical O 3 profiles at 4 ozonesonde sites are well predicted in July 2001. In fact, our model is among the best of those MICS-II models within the 2-km surface layer. The meteorology near surface and lower troposphere is well reproduced. Compared to SO 2 and O 3, the NO 2 gas concentrations are simulated less well, but the correlation coefficient is still significant. The choice of reanalysis meteorological fields and different boundary conditions generated by different global models may result in diverse spatial patterns exhibited by MICS-II models and ours. Our spatial distributions of O 3 shows a high concentration patch covering Beijing, a moderate to high pattern across Korea and Japan Sea, and a low but extensive pattern enclosing southern China, Taiwan, and East Sea. Extension of the pattern to southern China coincides with the existence of pollution problems in Guangdong and Taiwan, but overprediction of O 3 over the region deserves further improvement by various factors. One of them can be the grid resolution to resolve the complex orography in or close to the ocean. Another factor can be the refinement of local land use data that changes the micro-meteorology in favor of more air pollution events.

Fu, Joshua S.; Jang, Carey J.; Streets, David G.; Li, Zuopan; Kwok, Roger; Park, Rokjin; Han, Zhiwei

168

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-01-01

169

A climatology of extratropical cyclones over East Asia during 1958-2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climatology of extratropical cyclones (ECs) over East Asia (20°-75°N, 60°-160°E) is analyzed by applying an improved objective detection and tracking algorithm to the 4-time daily sea level pressure fields from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data. A total of 12914 EC processes for the period of 1958-2001 are identified, with an EC database integrated and EC activities reanalyzed using the objective algorithm. The results reveal that there are three major cyclogenesis regions: West Siberian Plain, Mongolia (to the south of Lake Baikal), and the coastal region of East China; whereas significant cyclolysis regions are observed in Siberia north of 60°N, Northeast China, and Okhotsk Sea-Northwest Pacific. It is found that the EC lifetime is largely 1-7 days while winter ECs have the shortest lifespan. The ECs are the weakest in summer among the four seasons. Strong ECs often appear in West Siberia, Northeast China, and Okhotsk Sea-Northwest Pacific. Statistical analysis based on k-means clustering has identified 6 dominating trajectories in the area south of 55°N and east of 80°E, among which 4 tracks have important impacts on weather/climate in China. ECs occurring in spring (summer) tend to travel the longest (shortest). They move the fastest in winter, and the slowest in summer. In winter, cyclones move fast in Northeast China, some areas of the Yangtze-Huaihe River region, and the south of Japan, with speed greater than 15 m s-1. Explosively-deepening cyclones are found to occur frequently along the east coast of China, Japan, and Northwest Pacific, but very few storms occur over the inland area. Bombs prefer to occur in winter, spring, and autumn. Their annual number and intensity in 1990 and 1992 in East Asia (EA) are smaller and weaker than their counterparts in North America.

Zhang, Yingxian; Ding, Yihui; Li, Qiaoping

2012-06-01

170

Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)  

PubMed Central

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

Gonzalez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simon, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpcio

2012-01-01

171

Decadal Change in Summer Climatological IntraSeasonal Oscillation in North-East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As noted in the opening of the "Climate and Environmental changes in East Asia region" session, the climate in East Asia is "one of most complex" system not only in its spatial coherency but also in the timescale it spans. Although there had been a numerous works on each timescale, e.g., synoptic, sub-seasonal, annual, decadal, and so on, a quantitative analysis on the decal (long-term) change in sub-seasonal (short-term) variability is relatively insufficient despite its scientific and socioeconomic impact. Studies on Chukwookee, an ancient rainfall data in Seoul, Korea, revealed the existence of the long-term variability in summer precipitation structure spanning from decadal to multi-centennial time scales. Number of studies on East Asian climate system also documented the abrupt regime shift in summer mean state during mid-1990s and showed the change in relationship between eat Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and el Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)/western North Pacific summer Monsoon (WNPSM). It is a known fact that the East Asian summer monsoon system, including that affecting the summer precipitation structure over Korean peninsula, exhibits a significant intraseasonal oscillation. Recently, however, the climatological intraseasonal oscillation (CISO) that used to occur in summer monsoon season over this region seems to have undergone a significant decadal change. In this study, the detailed structure of the decadal change in CISO over the north East Asian summer monsoon is documented and the relationship with those in other circulation field is reported. Also, the possible linkage and mechanism of such regime shift is discussed.

Kim, Wonmoo; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

2010-05-01

172

Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes over East Asia through AsiaFlux and improved MODIS gross primary production data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate estimation of carbon fluxes over terrestrial ecosystems provides useful information in studying the global carbon cycle. Estimates of carbon fluxes such as gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) have been commonly used as indicators of the global carbon budgets. Eddy covariance (EC) flux towers are operating all over the world, networking each other. The towers provide temporally continuous measurements of carbon, water and energy over terrestrial ecosystems as being the best way to estimate ecosystem fluxes up to date. However, the EC flux towers only cover the scale of footprint, having difficulty in representing fluxes at the regional or continental scale. For upscaling flux tower data, satellite products that cover vast areas at high temporal resolution can be used. While many studies were conducted to estimate carbon fluxes from satellite products using process-based modeling and empirical modeling approaches, there are still great uncertainties in carbon flux estimation due to biases and errors associated with in-situ measurements, spatio-temporal discrepancy between satellite products and in-situ measurements, and relatively less accurate satellite products. In this paper, NEE and GPP were estimated using machine learning techniques including random forest, Cubist, and support vector regression. Various satellite products were used as independent variables such as land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, leaf area index, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, GPP, evapotranspiration, rainfall, normalized difference water index obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). However, MODIS GPP based on the light use efficiency (LUE) model has some uncertainties derived from input data used in this model such as coarse spatial resolution of the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) meteorological data, upstream data of MODIS land cover use, FPAR, LAI, and model parameters. MODIS GPP data was improved using enhanced input variables by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data with high spatial resolution instead of DAO data, reflecting topographic characteristics over East Asia. GPP estimated using the enhanced input variables was compared with original MODIS GPP and in situ GPP to analyze the degree of improvements. Finally, improved GPP data were incorporated into the machine learning empirical models to estimate NEE. The spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP and NEE) over East Asia were also examined considering vegetation type and topography.

Kim, Miae; Im, Jungho; Lee, Junghee; Shin, Minso; Lee, Sanggyun

2014-05-01

173

Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over the East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the East Asia. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 ?g/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in the SMA (Seoul Metropolitan Area). The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency of underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) scheme for the dust emission with CAMx was tested for its applicability in assessing impact of the fugitive dust on air quality in the China region and SMA. The performance of ADMS2 dust emission was evaluated to depict not only onset times of the dust storm event but also to estimate the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event against the surface measurements and satellite measurements over East Asia. The surface observations were from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) monitoring sites in China and the intensive monitoring stations in the SMA. The results show that the CAMx predictions of PM10 with ADAM2 scheme were relatively in a good agreement with the observations. They, however, occasionally over-predicted the PM10 concentrations during non-dust event periods and under-predicted the PM10 concentrations during dust event periods. Details of model comparison for other chemical species and implication of dust emission schemes on the air quality will be discussed in the presentation. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The Eco-technopia 21 project'.

Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.; choi, D.

2013-12-01

174

Changbai intraplate volcanism and deep earthquakes in East Asia: a possible link?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of intraplate volcanoes in Northeast Asia is considered to be associated with upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Among these intraplate volcanoes, Changbai is the largest and most active one, and very deep earthquakes (500-650 km depths) in the Pacific slab under East Asia occur ˜300 km to the east of the Changbai volcano. Integrating the findings of geophysical, geochemical and petrologic studies so far, we suggest a link between Changbai volcanism and the deep earthquakes in the Pacific slab. Many large shallow earthquakes occurred in the Pacific Plate in the outer-rise areas close to the oceanic trench, and sea water may enter down to a deep portion of the oceanic lithosphere through the active normal faults which generated the large outer-rise earthquakes. Sea water or fluids may be preserved in the active faults even after the Pacific Plate subducts into the mantle. Many large deep earthquakes are observed that took place in the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asian margin. At least some of the large deep earthquakes are caused by the reactivation of faults preserved in the subducting slab, and the fluids preserved in the faults within the slab may cause the observed non-double-couple components of the deep earthquake faulting. Fluids preserved in the slab may be released to the overlying mantle wedge through large deep earthquakes. Because large deep earthquakes occur frequently in the vicinity of the Changbai volcano, many more fluids could be supplied to this volcano than in other areas in Northeast Asia, making Changbai the largest and most active intraplate volcano in the region.

Zhao, Dapeng; Tian, You

2013-11-01

175

On the role of resolution and topography in the simulation of East Asia precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In this paper, we investigate the role that horizontal resolution plays in the simulation of East Asia precipitation. Two\\u000a sets of numerical experiments are performed using the Regional Climate Model (RegCM2) nested in one-way mode within the CSIRO\\u000a global coupled atmosphere-ocean model. In the first set we use the actual RegCM2 topography at the selected model resolutions,\\u000a which are 45,

Xuejie Gao; Ying Xu; Zongci Zhao; J. S. Pal; F. Giorgi

2006-01-01

176

Korean VLBI Network: the First Dedicated Mm-Wavelength VLBI Network in East Asia  

E-print Network

Korean VLBI Network (KVN) is the first dedicated mm-wavelength VLBI Network in East Asia and will be available from the middle of 2008. KVN consists of three stations and has the maximum observation frequency of 129 GHz with the maximum baseline length of 480 km. KVN has unique characteristics in the multifrequency, simultaneous observing system. By taking advantage of this we are considering various science topics, including not only maser emitting regions and young stellar objects in our galaxy, but also extragalactic objects. Construction of the first site is in progress. We are concurrently developing components, including receivers, data acquisition systems, and a correlator, and also arranging the international collaboration.

Kiyoaki Wajima; Hyun-Goo Kim; Seog-Tae Han; Duk-Gyoo Roh; Do-Heung Je; Se-Jin Oh; Seog-Oh Wi; Korean VLBI Network Group

2005-11-02

177

Evaluation of simulated precipitation: Recent trends in extreme indices over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate research, particularly application studies for water, agriculture, forestry, fishery and energy management require fine scale multi-decadal information of meteorological, oceanographic and land states. Unfortunately, spatially and temporally homogeneous multi-decadal observations of these variables in high horizontal resolution are non-existent. Some long term surface records of temperature and precipitation exist, but the number of observation is very limited and the measurements are often contaminated by changes in instrumentation over time. Some climatologically important variables, such as soil moisture, surface evaporation, and radiation are not even measured over most of East Asia. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to provide valuable regional finescale information, especially in regions where the climate variables are strongly regulated by the underlying topography and the surface heterogeneity. We investigated the ability of a regional climate model to provide the characteristics of East Asian climate focusing on summer and winter monsoon using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system [GRIMs; Hong et al. 2013]. The model can reproduce large scale features associated the East Asian summer and winter monsoon in terms of 30-year (1979-2008) seasonal mean climate. However, accurate prediction of monsoon precipitation is still a challenging task. Precipitation is one of the most important results generated during the model simulation. It is also generally the most difficult variable to simulate correctly in a regional model. Therefore, we will focus on precipitation to examine variability and uncertainty over East Asia in terms of extreme indices. The assessment of simulated precipitation is expected to provide the high-quality data that can be used in various application areas such as hydrology or environmental model forcing.

Yhang, Yoo-Bin

2014-05-01

178

Natural positive selection and north-south genetic diversity in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have identified a north–south cline in genetic variation in East and South-East Asia, but these studies have not formally explored the basis of these clinical differences. Understanding the origins of these variations may provide valuable insights in tracking down the functional variants in genomic regions identified by genetic association studies. Here we investigate the genetic basis of these differences with genome-wide data from the HapMap, the Human Genome Diversity Project and the Singapore Genome Variation Project. We implemented four bioinformatic measures to discover genomic regions that are considerably differentiated either between two Han Chinese populations in the north and south of China, or across 22 populations in East and South-East Asia. These measures prioritized genomic stretches with: (i) regional differences in the allelic spectrum for SNPs common to the two Han Chinese populations; (ii) differential evidence of positive selection between the two populations as quantified by integrated haplotype score (iHS) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH); (iii) significant correlation between allele frequencies and geographical latitudes of the 22 populations. We also explored the extent of linkage disequilibrium variations in these regions, which is important in combining genetic association studies from North and South Chinese. Two of the regions that emerged are found in HLA class I and II, suggesting that the HLA imputation panel from the HapMap may not be directly applicable to every Chinese sample. This has important implications to autoimmune studies that plan to impute the classical HLA alleles to fine map the SNP association signals. PMID:21792231

Suo, Chen; Xu, Haiyan; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Ong, Rick TH; Sim, Xueling; Chen, Jieming; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Kar-Seng; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Jianjun; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien-Yin; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

2012-01-01

179

Seasonal forecast skill of East Asia summer monsoon using CCA associated with ENSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction of precipitation associated with East Asian summer monsoon band is not easy using state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) which participate in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report (IPCC-AR5). Also, those models have problems in realistic simulation of rain band, which may result from its complex features including narrow meridional scale characterized by moisture contrast. The intensity of the East Asian summer monsoon is highly correlated with the western North Pacific subtropical High variability which is the most dominant climate anomaly in the western North Pacific-East Asian region in summer season. Based on this relationship, we suggest a seasonal prediction model using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The forecast skill by the seasonal prediction model for East Asia summer monsoon region is discussed in this study. In particular, it is suggested that the forecast skill of the prediction system, which depends on geographical locations, is relatively high during El Nino rather than La Nina. Also the controlling factors for changes in the forecast skill are discussed in association with ENSO.

Lee, Kang-Jin; Kwon, MinHo; Jung, Myung-Il

2014-05-01

180

Regional Climate Simulations of Summer Diurnal Rainfall Variations over East Asia and Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the simulations of summer (June-August) precipitation over East Asia by the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3), with emphasis on the diurnal variations of precipitation over Southeast China (PSEC) during the 1998-2002 summer seasons. The evaluation focuses on the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations in PSEC as proposed by previous observational studies. It is found that the diurnal variations of PSEC are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs). In particular, the Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption (GFC) produces reasonable diurnal variations of PSEC. Other CPSs such as the Emanuel scheme produces a weaker late-afternoon maximum of PSEC, and the Kuo scheme as well as the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption (GAS) is unable to simulate the occurrence of the late-afternoon maximum of PSEC. The simulations show that the adoption of the GFC scheme reproduces the large-scale land-sea breeze circulation and the moisture flux convergence that have been documented by previous studies as the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations of PSEC. This feature illustrates the importance of convective cloud feedback at the diurnal timescale in maintaining the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of precipitation over East Asia are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

Huang, W.-R.; Chan, J. C. L.

2012-04-01

181

The Effects of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in ChinaRegions on East Asia Monsoons  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we examine the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China on East Asia monsoons and its precipitation processes by using the CAM3.0 model. It is demonstrated that sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China both have the effects to weaken East Asia monsoons in both summer and winter seasons. However, they certainly differ from each other in affecting vertical structures of temperature and atmospheric circulations. Their differences are expected because of their distinct optical properties, i.e., scattering vs. absorbing. Even for a single type of aerosol, its effects on temperature structures and atmospheric circulations are largely season-dependent. Applications of T-test on our results indicate that forcing from black carbon aerosols over China is relatively weak and limited. It is also evident from our results that the effects of synthetic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon together) on monsoons are not simply a linear summation between these two types of aerosols. Instead, they are determined by their integrated optical properties. Synthetic aerosols to a large degree resemble effects of sulfate aerosols. This implies a likely scattering property for the integration of black carbon and sulfate aerosols in China.

Yang, Bai [ORNL; Liu, Yu [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China; Sun, Jiaren [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Guangzhou, China

2009-01-01

182

Polio-free certification and lessons learned - South-East Asia region, march 2014.  

PubMed

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide. By 2006, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by more than 99%, and only four remaining countries had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. The last confirmed WPV case in India occurred in January 2011, leading the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Regional Commission for the Certification of Polio Eradication (SEA-RCC) in March 2014 to declare the 11-country South-East Asia Region (SEAR), which includes India, to be free from circulating indigenous WPV. SEAR became the fourth region among WHO's six regions to be certified as having interrupted all indigenous WPV circulation; the Region of the Americas was declared polio-free in 1994, the Western Pacific Region in 2000, and the European Region in 2002. Approximately 80% of the world's population now lives in countries of WHO regions that have been certified polio-free. This report summarizes steps taken to certify polio eradication in SEAR and outlines eradication activities and lessons learned in India, the largest member state in the region and the one for which eradication was the most difficult. PMID:25340910

Bahl, Sunil; Kumar, Rakesh; Menabde, Nata; Thapa, Arun; McFarland, Jeffrey; Swezy, Virginia; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Jafari, Hamid S; Elsner, Linda; Wassilak, Steven G F; Kew, Olen M; Cochi, Stephen L

2014-10-24

183

Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia  

PubMed Central

The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia. PMID:20974952

Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

2010-01-01

184

Pleistocene loess in the humid subtropical forest zone of East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

deposits in Asia have been used as indicators of palaeoclimate, because they are usually found bordering deserts. This paper reports extensive and thick deposits of loess in tropical southwest China, between latitudes 18 and 23°30'N, which is 1300 km south of known, and extensively researched loess deposits in north China. The present climate of the reported loess areas is hot and humid, with mean annual rainfall of 1000-2000 mm, and vegetation of subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest. This compares with less than 400 mm rainfall and vegetation of semi-desert steppe, in areas of current loess accumulation on desert margins in north China. The source area of the loess, which is dated by optical luminescence to the late Pleistocene, from 90-222 ka, is thought to be the exposed East Asian Shelf, which was up to 140 m below present sea level during Quaternary arid phases. Recent research on the nature of the shelf environment, and the relatively large particle size of the loess, suggests a local origin. The reported loess is not interbedded with palaeosols, and small amounts of soil cover the loess, compared with well developed soils in loess in semiarid regions in north China. This is explained by elimination of the supply source by sea level rise following each arid phase, as continued dust supply appears necessary for soil to form. This preliminary report of loess in southwest China conflicts with palynological evidence, and suggests that recent reconstructions of Pleistocene aridity in east Asia may be conservative.

Nichol, Janet E.; Nichol, Douglas W.

2013-05-01

185

Decreasing emissions of NOx relative to CO2 in East Asia inferred from satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, global CO2 emission inventories are mainly based on bottom-up estimates that rely, for example, on reported fossil fuel consumptions and fuel types. The associated uncertainties propagate into the CO2-to-NOx emission ratios that are used in pollution prediction and monitoring, as well as into biospheric carbon fluxes derived by inverse models. Here we analyse simultaneous and co-located satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY (ref. ; SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) of the column-average dry-air mole fraction of CO2 (refs , ) and NO2 (refs , , ) for the years 2003-2011 to provide a top-down estimate of trends in emissions and in the ratio between CO2 and NOx emissions. Our analysis shows that the CO2-to-NOx emission ratio has increased by 4.2 +/- 1.7% yr-1 in East Asia. In this region, we find a large positive trend of CO2 emissions (9.8 +/- 1.7% yr-1), which we largely attribute to the growing Chinese economy. This trend exceeds the positive trend of NOx emissions (5.8 +/- 0.9% yr-1). Our findings suggest that the recently installed and renewed technology in East Asia, such as power plants, transportation and so on, is cleaner in terms of NOx emissions than the old infrastructure, and roughly matches relative emission levels in North America and Europe.

Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Schneising, O.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.

2014-11-01

186

Newer antidepressant drug use in East Asian psychiatric treatment settings: REAP (Research on East Asia Psychotropic Prescriptions) Study  

PubMed Central

Aims Antidepressant use in East Asia is poorly documented. We compared patients given newer and older antidepressants to test the hypothesis, suggested in the literature, that use of newer antidepressants is associated with treatment settings rather than specific diagnostic categories. Methods We compared rates of use of older (pre1990) vs. newer antidepressants among 1898 patients identified as antidepressant treated at 21 centres in five East Asian countries (China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan) in 2003. Demographics, treatment setting and clinical factors associated with preferential use of newer drugs were tested in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Newer antidepressants were included in the treatment regimens of 67.5% (N = 1282/1898) of study subjects. Prescription for newer antidepressants was significantly associated with younger age (z = ?4.55, d.f. = 1888, P < 0.001), hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07, 1.64, P < 0.01] and treatment within psychiatric hospitals (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.27, 2.00, P < 0.001). On multivariate analyses, treatment with newer antidepressants was independently associated with younger age (P < 0.001), country (P < 0.001) and treatment within private hospitals (P < 0.001), but not with sex or diagnosis of affective or anxiety disorders (all P > 0.1). Conclusion Demographic factors and treatment settings appear to influence antidepressant choice more than clinical factors such as diagnosis. PMID:17076698

Sim, Kang; Lee, N B; Chua, Hong C; Mahendran, Rathi; Fujii, Senta; Yang, Shu-yu; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Si, Tianmei; He, Yan L; Lee, Min S; Sung, Kil M; Chung, Eun K; Chan, Yiong H; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay H; Sartorius, Norman; Baldessarini, Ross J

2007-01-01

187

Characteristics of the Lidar Ratio Determined from Lidar and Sky Radiometer Measurements in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present aerosol lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio; the ratio between optical extinction and backscatter), which is an important parameter used in the determination of the aerosol extinction profiles and subsequently the aerosol optical depth (AOD), determined by combining simultaneous elastic-backscatter lidar and sky radiometer measurements in East Asia. In this study, sky radiometer-derived AOD is used as a constraint and the lidar ratio is calculated when the discrepancy of AOD between lidar and sky radiometer is less than 0.5%. The annual mean lidar ratio (with standard deviation) at 532 nm calculated from 4-year measurements of elastic backscatter lidar and sky radiometer in Seoul, Korea, is found to be 61.7×16.5 sr, and weak seasonal variations are noted with a maximum in summer (68.1×16.8 sr) and a minimum in winter (57.2×17.9 sr). The lidar ratios for clean, dust, and polluted conditions are estimated to be 45.0×9.5 sr, 51.7×13.7 sr, and 62.2×13.2 sr, respectively. While the lidar ratio for the polluted condition is appears to be consistent with previous studies (50-70), clean and dust conditions tend to have larger values, compared to previous estimates (clean: 30-40, dust: 40-50). We also calcualte the lidar ratio from simultaneous observations of ground-based lidar and sky radiometer at six locations (Seoul, Gosan, Fukue, Osaka, Chiba, and Tsukuba) during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) - NE Asia 2012 campaign. The mean lidar ratios are estimated to be 60~70 sr. During the dust event on 27-29 April 2013, the lidar ratio is decreased to 50~60 sr, which is consistent with other previous studies in East Asia (e.g., Catrall et al., JGR, 2005; Liu et al., App. Opt., 2002; Murayama et al., JGR, 2003). Detailed results will be presented.

Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Yoon, S.

2013-12-01

188

Seasonal prediction experiments of the summer droughts and floods during the early 1990?s in east asia with numerical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown by the observed data that during the early 1990?s, the severe disastrous climate occurred in East Asia. In the summer of 1991, severe flood occurred in the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River basin of China and in South Korea, and it also appeared in South Korea in the summer of 1993. However, in the summer of 1994, a dry and hot summer was caused in the Huaihe River basin of China and in R. O.K.. In order to investigate the seasonal predictability of the summer droughts and floods during the early 1990?s in East Asia, the seasonal prediction experiments of the summer droughts and floods in the summers of 1991-1994 in East Asia have been made by using the Institute of Atmopsheric Physics-Two-Level General Circulation Model (IAP-L2 AGCM), the IAP-Atmosphere / Ocean Coupled Model (IAP-CGCM) and the IAP-L2 AGCM including a filtering scheme, respectively. Compared with the observational facts, it is shown that the IAP-L2 AGCM or IAP-CGCM has some predictability for the summer droughts and floods during the early 1990?s in East Asia, especially for the severe droughts and floods in China and R. O. K.. In this study, a filtering scheme is used to improve the seasonal prediction experiments of the summer droughts and floods during the early 1990?s in East Asia. The predicted results show that the filtering scheme to remain the planetary-scale disturbances is an effective method for the improvement of the seasonal prediction of the summer droughts and floods in East Asia.

Huang, Ronghui; Li, Xu; Yuan, Chongguang; Lu, Riyu; Moon, Sung-Euii; Kim, Ung-Jun

1998-12-01

189

United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region  

SciTech Connect

The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

NONE

1995-02-01

190

HLA variation reveals genetic continuity rather than population group structure in East Asia.  

PubMed

Genetic differences between Northeast Asian (NEA) and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations have been observed in numerous studies. At the among-population level, despite a clear north-south differentiation observed for many genetic markers, debates were led between abrupt differences and a continuous pattern. At the within-population level, whether NEA or SEA populations have higher genetic diversity is also highly controversial. In this study, we analyzed a large set of HLA data from East Asia in order to map the genetic variation among and within populations in this continent and to clarify the distribution pattern of HLA lineages and alleles. We observed a genetic differentiation between NEA and SEA populations following a continuous pattern from north to south, and we show a significant and continuous decrease of HLA diversity by the same direction. This continuity is shaped by clinal distributions of many HLA lineages and alleles with increasing or decreasing frequencies along the latitude. These results bring new evidence in favor of the "overlapping model" proposed previously for East Asian peopling history, whereby modern humans migrated eastward from western Eurasia via two independent routes along each side of the Himalayas and, later, overlapped in East Asia across open land areas. Our study strongly suggests that intensive gene flow between NEA and SEA populations occurred and shaped the latitude-related continuous pattern of genetic variation and the peculiar HLA lineage and allele distributions observed in this continent. Probably for a very long period, the exact duration of these events remains to be estimated. PMID:24449274

Di, Da; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

2014-03-01

191

A synoptic and dynamical characterization of wave-train and blocking cold surge over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through an agglomerative hierarchical clustering method, cold surges over East Asia are classified into two distinct types based on the spatial pattern of the geopotential height anomalies at 300 hPa. One is the wave-train type that is associated with developing large-scale waves across the Eurasian continent. The other is the blocking type whose occurrence accompanies subarctic blocking. During the wave-train cold surge, growing baroclinic waves induce a southeastward expansion of the Siberian High and strong northerly winds over East Asia. Blocking cold surge, on the other hand, is associated with a southward expansion of the Siberian High and northeasterly winds inherent to a height dipole consisting of the subarctic blocking and the East Asian coastal trough. The blocking cold surge tends to be more intense and last longer compared to the wave-train type. The wave-train cold surge is associated with the formation of a negative upper tropospheric height anomaly southeast of Greenland approximately 12 days before the surge occurrence. Further analysis of isentropic potential vorticity reveals that this height anomaly could originate from the lower stratosphere over the North Atlantic. Cold surge of the blocking type occurs with an amplifying positive geopotential and a negative potential vorticity anomaly over the Arctic and the northern Eurasia in stratosphere. These anomalies resemble the stratospheric signature of a negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. This stratospheric feature is further demonstrated by the observation that the blocking type cold surge occurs more often when the Arctic Oscillation is in its negative phase.

Park, Tae-Won; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Deng, Yi

2014-08-01

192

Verification and intercomparison of QPFs and PQPFs from TIGGE over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) and probabilistic QPFs (PQPFs) are obtained from The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) database during the 2008-2011 summer, including the data from six operational ensemble prediction systems (EPSs): ECMWF, UKMO, NCEP, CMC, JMA and CMA. Forecasts of 24-h accumulated precipitation are evaluated at 1° grid spacing over East Asia against new satellite-based precipitation estimate product TRMM 3B42 V7, which applies gauge relative weighting and is more accurate compared to its former version. Ensemble mean of QPFs is compared using different kinds of verification scores. Results show that the gap of predictability between the best and worst EPS is about 3 days, while it becomes larger in the East Asian Tropics and smaller in the East Asian Subtropics. JMA and CMC have the least forecast errors for light to moderate rain, while ECMWF is more accurate for heavy rain. All EPSs overestimate light rain events and underestimate heavy rain events, while they can discriminate between light and heavy rain events about 3-day lead time in the East Asian Subtropics. Various measures of PQPFs show that CMC is more skillful for light rain events, while ECMWF produces the best PQPFs for moderate to heavy rain events. All EPSs suffer from severe deficiency of ensemble spread except CMC, and PQPFs show a dry bias at the low end and a wet bias at the high end, indicating overconfident samples. Different EPS shows large variation in forecast performance. CMC is the most reliable but least sharp EPS. JMA is marked with a noteworthy wet bias of 1-2 day forecasts in the East Asian Tropics, which causes the discontinuity of skill with the forecast lead time.

Su, Xiang; Yuan, Huiling

2013-04-01

193

Growing threat of intense tropical cyclones to East Asia over the period 1977-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of intense tropical cyclones (TCs) to East Asia has increased in recent decades. Integrated analyses of five available TC data sets for the period 1977-2010 revealed that the growing threat of TCs primarily results from the significant shift that the spatial positions of the maximum intensity of TCs moved closer to East Asian coastlines from Vietnam to Japan. This shift incurs a robust increase in landfall intensity over east China, Korea and Japan. In contrast, an increase of TC genesis frequency over the northern part of the South China Sea leads to a reduction in the maximum TC intensity before landfall, because of their short lifetime; thus, there are no clear tendencies in the landfall intensity across Vietnam, south China and Taiwan. All changes are related to the strengthening of the Pacific Walker circulation, closely linked with the recent manifestation that the warming trend of sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific is much higher than that in the central to eastern Pacific.

Park, Doo-Sun R.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Joo-Hong

2014-01-01

194

East Asia Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in East Asia. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in East Asia. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of East Asia DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in East Asia. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of water. DEP imagery shows along the rim of the Tarim Basin three areas of concentrated point sources can be found: 1.) in the west the area that lies between the cities of Kashi, Shache, and Xakur, 2.) in the north the area located between the cities of Wensu, Xinhe, Qiman, to Awat, and 3.) in the east the region stretching from Lop Nur northwest to Tikanlik and southeast to Miran. A remarkable result we found is the frequency of dust plume generation in the Turpan basin. Previous studies do not identify this basin as a major dust source area. With the high resolution of the DEP imagery we can identify the dust plumes that originate along the slopes of and at the foot of the Bogda Shan and Karlik mountains. Cross referencing the location of the point sources with an atlas and maps shows the point sources correlate to ephemeral streams, saltpans, and farmed land. Further discussion will be given on dust sources areas in other parts of China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Russia.

Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

2011-12-01

195

A Primary Study on Influence of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Monsoon to East Asia Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abastract Large amplitude stationary Rossby wave trains with wavelength which emerges from North Africa to East Asia along the west jet in the middle latitude areas. It has been identified in the mid-upper troposphere during summer based on the correlation analysis between Dynamic Plateau Monsoon Index (DPMI) and zonal velocity at 500-200hPa. The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau monsoon would influence the East Asia monsoon by general circulation indirectly. It is show that an enhanced anticyclone is located in the area of the central and eastern Pacific in composite maps of four relatively strong summer DPMI years. The west Pacific subtropical high located westward and made the equatorial westerly and the cross-equatorial flow weaken. The South China Sea summer monsoon is weaker than normal. The south wind enhances over the south of Yangtze River and South China areas. The anomalous southwesterly flow in the northwest side of the west Pacific subtropical high dominates over the Yangtze River Valley. It is propitious to maintain the rain-belt and bring more rainfall there. A muffled anticyclone is located in the area of the central and eastern Pacific contrarily in composite maps of four relatively weak summer DPMI years contrastively. The west Pacific subtropical high moved eastward and makes the equatorial westerly and the cross-equatorial flow strengthen. The South China Sea summer monsoon is stronger than normal. The south wind enhances over the north of Yellow River and Northeast China areas. The anomalous southwesterly flow in the northwest side of the west Pacific subtropical high dominates over the Huang-Huai Valley. It is propitious to maintain rain-belt and bring more rainfall there. Key words: Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Monsoon; East Asia Monsoon; General circulation Acknowledgments. This work was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB951701), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41175068 and 40875005) and the European Commission (Call FP7-ENV-2007-1, Grant nr. 212921) as part of the CEOP-AEGIS project.

Xun, X.; Hu, Z.

2012-04-01

196

Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.  

PubMed

This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio-cultural acceptance of tobacco use is still a major challenge in tobacco control efforts for the governments and stakeholders in the South-East Asia Region. The myth that chewing tobacco is less harmful than smoking tobacco needs to be addressed with public awareness campaigns. Advocacy on the integration of tobacco control with poverty alleviation campaigns and development programs is urgently required. Law enforcement is a critical area to be strengthened and supported by WHO and the civil society organizations working in the area of tobacco control. PMID:22089683

Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

2011-01-01

197

The ANU Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (Middle East and Central Asia) will offer a new degree in 2009: The Masters of Islam in the Modern World (MIMW). The program has been designed to  

E-print Network

The ANU Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (Middle East and Central Asia) will offer a new degree and islamic studies (the middle east and Central asia) Contents Centre news 2 Pakistan-afghanistan 4 future

198

Emissions of black carbon in East Asia estimated from observations at a remote site in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia, including China, is the largest source of anthropogenic black carbon (BC). In estimating the BC emissions from this region, it is advantageous to use BC mass concentrations measured at remote locations on the ocean appropriately distant from the large sources because of spatially uniform distributions through mixing during transport. We made continuous measurements of the BC mass concentration with an accuracy of about 10% at Cape Hedo on Okinawa Island, Japan, in the East China Sea, from February 2008 to May 2009, simultaneously with carbon monoxide (CO). The seasonal median BC concentrations at Hedo were highest (0.23-0.31 ?g m-3 at standard temperature and pressure) in winter and spring when plumes from China, predominantly northern China north of 33°N, were often transported to the site. A three-dimensional chemical transport model is used to calculate the mass concentration of BC using the annual mean emission inventory of Zhang et al. (2009) for the base year 2006. The model results and the observed BC-CO correlation are used to exclude the BC data substantially influenced by wet deposition. The calculated BC mass concentrations agree with those observed to within about 30% in air strongly affected by emissions in China for winter and spring on average. We estimate the annually averaged BC emission flux over the whole of China to be 1.92 Tg yr-1 with an uncertainty of about 40%. This value is very close to the value of 1.81 Tg yr-1 estimated by Zhang et al. (2009). The overall uncertainty of 40% of the present estimate is a substantial improvement in the uncertainty (208%) of the bottom-up inventory.

Kondo, Y.; Oshima, N.; Kajino, M.; Mikami, R.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Verma, R. L.; Kajii, Y.; Kato, S.; Takami, A.

2011-08-01

199

Impact of aerosol indirect effect on surface temperature over East Asia  

PubMed Central

A regional coupled climate–chemistry–aerosol model is developed to examine the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on surface temperature and precipitation over East Asia. Besides their direct and indirect reduction of short-wave solar radiation, the increased cloudiness and cloud liquid water generate a substantial downward positive long-wave surface forcing; consequently, nighttime temperature in winter increases by +0.7°C, and the diurnal temperature range decreases by ?0.7°C averaged over the industrialized parts of China. Confidence in the simulated results is limited by uncertainties in model cloud physics. However, they are broadly consistent with the observed diurnal temperature range decrease as reported in China, suggesting that changes in downward long-wave radiation at the surface are important in understanding temperature changes from aerosols. PMID:16537432

Huang, Yan; Dickinson, Robert E.; Chameides, William L.

2006-01-01

200

[Tsunami in South-East Asia--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].  

PubMed

On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-East Asia. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection. PMID:18399180

Streuli, Rolf A

2008-01-01

201

Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

2002-10-09

202

Resilience and well-being among children of migrant parents in South-East Asia.  

PubMed

There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia-a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N=1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment. PMID:22966930

Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

2012-01-01

203

Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.  

PubMed

The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-East Asia Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities. PMID:23442393

Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N

2012-01-01

204

Resilience and Well-Being Among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia—a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment. PMID:22966930

Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

2012-01-01

205

Effect of drought stress on isoprene emission from two major Quercus species native to East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of drought on isoprene emission from 2 major Quercus species native to East Asia is investigated. Three individuals of Quercus serrata and 2 individuals of Quercus crispula continued to emit isoprene under moderate and severe drought conditions, although the emission rates were lower than under normal conditions. Diurnal variation in the isoprene emission rates was monitored in real-time when temperature and light intensity were changed stepwise to imitate natural conditions. Under normal and moderate drought conditions, isoprene emission showed hysteresis with regard to the environmental parameters, but generally followed the common G93 model. Under severe drought conditions, isoprene emission rates were not explained using given coefficients in the G93 model, probably due to a depletion of isoprene substrate.

Tani, Akira; Tozaki, Daisuke; Okumura, Motonori; Nozoe, Susumu; Hirano, Takashi

2011-11-01

206

Changes of extreme events in regional climate simulations over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes of extreme events due to greenhouse effects (2 x CO2) over East Asia, with a focus on the China region its simulated by it regional climate model (RegCM2), are investigated, The model is nested to a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model (CSIRO R21L9 AOGCM). Analysis of the control run of the regional model indicates that it can reproduce well the extreme events in China. Statistically significant changes of the events are analyzed Results show that both daily maximum and daily minimum temperature increase in 2 x CO2 conditions, while the diurnal temperature range decreases. The number of hot spell days increases while the number of cold spell days decreases. The number of rainy days and heavy rain days increases over some sub-regions of China. The 2 x CO2 conditions also cause some changes in the tropical storms affecting China.

Gao, X. J.; Zhao, Z. C.; Giorgi, F.

207

Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

2013-01-01

208

SHORT PERIOD SURFACE WAVE DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS FROM AMBIENT SEISMIC NOISE IN NORTH AFRICA, THE MIDDLE EAST, AND CENTRAL ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have begun to apply ambient noise surface wave tomography to broad-band seismic data obtained in North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia. The goal is to improve the calibration of surface wave propagation in aseismic areas. The basic idea of the method is that ambient seismic noise contains a significant component of Rayleigh wave energy that is excited

Michael H. Ritzwoller; Nikolai M. Shapiro; Michael E. Pasyanos; Gregory D. Bensen; Yingjie Yang

209

Endangered Peoples of Southeast & East Asia: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and East Asia and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie E.…

Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.

210

A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to environmental impacts that occur, and (3) the accuracy of an

Bart Durlinger; Angèle Reinders; Marten Toxopeus

211

Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia: Observations and model results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December

Zifa Wang; Hajime Akimoto; Itsushi Uno

2002-01-01

212

Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

2005-01-01

213

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago  

E-print Network

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years Cishan Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and common millet (or broom- corn millet; Panicum miliaceum) were generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Pani- cum miliaceum) or foxtail

Liu, Kam-biu

214

Curie point depth based on spectrum analysis of the magnetic anomaly data in East and Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bottom of the magnetized crust determined from the spectral analysis of residual magnetic anomalies is generally interpreted as the level of the Curie point isotherm. A method to estimate the depth extent of magnetic sources (Curie point depth analysis) was applied to the magnetic anomalies of East and Southeast Asia. Although the geologic and physiographic complexities of this area

A. Tanaka; Y Okubo; O Matsubayashi

1999-01-01

215

On Thursday, September 1, 2011 the East Asia Institute welcomed Dr. Jung Soo Park, Director of the Houston Korean  

E-print Network

of the TaLK Program will be paired with a Korean instructor to teach English to elementary school children of the Houston Korean Education Center to introduce Teach and Learn in Korea (TaLK) and English Program In Korea to teach English overseas. These programs accepts people from East Asia Institute September 1, 2011 Dr

Dodla, Ramana

216

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 IRAn `Islam in the Modern World' on 8 August 2007. Participating in the discussion were a number of leading scholars of Islam. CAIS staff and postgraduate students participated in the event. The discussion

217

Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

2014-09-01

218

Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

2014-04-01

219

Evaluation of precipitation from reanalyses and satellite products in Australia and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation estimates from reanalyses and satellite observations are routinely used as forcing in global and regional hydrologic models but their accuracy is rarely systematically evaluated. The discrepancies and biases of different precipitation outputs are important, casting potentially high uncertainty in the results from hydrological models and their applications. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, JRA-25 and NCEP-DOE) and three satellite precipitation estimates (TRMM 3B42V6, CMORPH and PERSIANN) as well as a simple ensemble mean of the products. Grid cells with reasonable gauge density from two high resolution gauge-only daily precipitation analyses for Australia (SILO) and East Asia (APHRODITE) were used to evaluate daily time series for 2003-2007. We computed metrics of detection and agreement in daily precipitation. To account for differences in precipitation regime, results were stratified by rainfall seasonality and the geographical domain was divided into southern Australia (SAu), northern Australia (NAu) and south and east Asia (SEA). Reanalyses showed higher detection performance, with best performers being ERA-Interim in SAu and NAu and JRA-25 in SEA, as well as when averaged over the three sub domains. The exception was the monsoon months in SEA; for which satellite estimates from TRMM and CMORPH showed slightly better performance. Over the three sub domains combined, the ensemble mean generally outperformed both reanalyses and satellite precipitation, with higher correlation coefficient, lower root mean square difference and closer agreement in terms of a rainfall intensity proxy (the ratio of monthly precipitation amount to total days with precipitation). The results of the simple ensemble mean show the value in the additional information captured from the (co)variance of the multiple input sources. This finding suggests that, depending on rainfall regime and/or location, a combination of selected reanalysis and satellite products may lead to better precipitation estimates and thus more accurate hydrological applications than any single method.

Peña Arancibia, J. L.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.

2012-04-01

220

Resolution dependence of cross-tropopause ozone transport over east Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed analysis of mesoscale transport of ozone across the tropopause over east Asia during the spring of 2001 is conducted using regional simulations with the University of Wisconsin Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (UWNMS), in situ flight data, and a new two-scale approach to diagnosing this ozone flux. From late February to early April, synoptic activity regularly deformed the tropopause, leading to observations of ozone-rich (concentration exceeding 80 ppbv) stratospheric intrusions and filaments at tropospheric altitudes. Since model resolution is generally not sufficient to capture detailed small-scale mixing processes, an upper bound on the flux is proposed by assuming that there exists a dynamical division by spatial scale, above which the wind conservatively advects large-scale structures, while below it the wind leads to irreversible transport through nonconservative random strain. A formulation for this diagnosis is given and applied to ozone flux across the dynamical tropopause. Simulations were chosen to correspond with DC-8 flight 15 on 26-27 March over east Asia during the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P) campaign. Local and domain-averaged flux values using this method agree with other numerical and observational studies in similar synoptic environments. Sensitivity to numerical resolution, prescribed divisional spatial scale, and potential vorticity (PV) level is investigated. Divergent residual flow in regions of high ozone, and PV gradients tended to maximize flux magnitudes. We estimated the domain-integrated flow of ozone out of the lowermost stratosphere to be about 0.127 Tg/day. Spectral analysis of the wind field lends support for utilization of this dynamical division in this methodology.

Büker, M. L.; Hitchman, Matthew H.; Tripoli, Gregory J.; Pierce, R. B.; Browell, E. V.; Avery, M. A.

2005-02-01

221

Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand in east Asia—a numerical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were investigated numerically by an Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS). AQPMS consists of advection, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, gas-phase chemistry and the liquid-phase chemistry. A new deflation module of the yellow sand (Asian soil dust) was designed to provide explicit information on the dust loading. Different from the previous ones for Sahara and Australian deserts, this new one includes three major predictors, i.e., the friction velocity, the surface humidity and the predominant weather system, while this module was linked to the AQPMS. For model validation, the predicted pH values and sulfate- and nitrate-ion levels of precipitation, together with the surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants, were compared with the measured values at atmospheric monitoring stations, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Firstly, the trend of the acid rain in East Asia due to the rapid increase of Chinese pollutants emission was investigated, and a remarkably rapid increase of acid rain area was predicted in the period from 1985 to 1995, the monthly mean pH values showing the decrease of 0.3-0.8 in the area from the center to northeast in China, and 0.1-0.2 even in Japan and Korea. Secondly, the simulation results of April 1995 exhibited a strong neutralization of the precipitation by the yellow sand. The monthly mean pH values in the northern China showed a remarkable increase of 0.6-1.8 by neutralization effect of the yellow sand, while the increases in the southern China were less than 0.1. Even in Korea and Japan the yellow sand caused the increase of the pH value of rain by 0.1-0.2.

Terada, Hiroaki; Ueda, Hiromasa; Wang, Zifa

222

Inter-Annual Variability of Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia during 2000-2011 summers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols degrade air quality, perturb atmospheric radiation, and impact regional and global climate. Due to a rapid increase of anthropogenic emissions, aerosol loading over East Asia (EA) is markedly higher than other industrialized regions, motivating a need to characterize the evolution of aerosols and understand the associated drivers. Based on the MISR satellite data during 2000-2011, a wave-like inter-annual variation of summertime aerosol optical depth (SAOD) is observed over the highly populated North China Plain (NCP) in East Asia. Specifically, the peak to trough ratio of SAOD ranges from 1.4 to 1.6, with a period of 3-4y. This variation pattern differs apparently from what has been seen in EA emissions, indicating a periodic change in regional climate pattern during the past decade. Investigations on meteorological fields over the region reveal that the high SAOD is generally associated with enhanced Philippine Sea Anticyclone Anomaly (PSAA), which weakens southeasterlies over northeastern EA and depresses air ventilation. Alternatively, a higher temperature or lower relative humidity is found to be coincident with reduced SAOD. The behavior of PSAA has been found previously to be modulated by the El Niño southern oscillations (ENSO), which thereby could disturb the EA SAOD as well. Rather than changing coherently with the ENSO activity, SAOD peaks over the NCP are found to be accompanied by the rapid transition of El Niño warm to cold phases developed four months ahead. An index measuring the ENSO development during January-April is able to capture the inter-annual variability of NCP SAOD during 2000-2011. This indicates a need to integrate the consideration of large-scale periodic climate variability in the design of regional air quality policy.

Liu, J.; Liu, Y.; Tao, S.

2013-12-01

223

Synergistic impacts of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on summer surface O3 in East Asia.  

PubMed

A factor separation technique and an improved regional air quality model (RAQM) were applied to calculate synergistic contributions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs), biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to daily maximum surface 03 (O3DM) concentrations in East Asia in summer (June to August 2000). The summer averaged synergistic impacts of AVOCs and NOx are dominant in most areas of North China, with a maximum of 60 ppbv, while those of BVOCs and NOx are notable only in some limited areas with high BVOC emissions in South China, with a maximum of 25 ppbv. This result implies that BVOCs contribute much less to summer averaged O3DM concentrations than AVOCs in most areas of East Asia at a coarse spatial resolution (1 degree x 1 degree) although global emissions of BVOCs are much greater than those of AVOCs. Daily maximum total contributions of BVOCs can approach 20 ppbv in North China, but they can reach 40 ppbv in South China, approaching or exceeding those in some developed countries in Europe and North America. BVOC emissions in such special areas should be considered when 03 control measures are taken. Synergistic contributions among AVOCs, BVOCs and NOx significantly enhance O3 concentrations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region and decrease them in some areas in South China. Thus, the total contributions of BVOCs to O3DM vary significantly from day to day and from location to location. This result suggests that 03 control measures obtained from episodic studies could be limited for long-term applications. PMID:23923425

Qu, Yu; An, Junling; Li, Jian

2013-03-01

224

Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.  

PubMed

According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970

Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

2014-01-01

225

Cancer epidemiology and control in peninsular and island South-East Asia - past, present and future.  

PubMed

Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor and the Philippines constitute peninsular and island South-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity, with Chinese elements added to the basic Austromalaysian populations, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and underlying risk factors. The fact of problems are shared in common, particularly regarding increasing cancer rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of available data for cancer registration, epidemiology and control was conducted. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung, followed by the liver, colon or the prostate in the majority of cases, while breast and cervical cancers predominate in most female populations. However, there are interesting differences among the racial groups, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer, point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. A major task is persuading the general populace of the efficacy of early detection and clinical treatment. PMID:20553070

Moore, Malcolm A; Manan, Azizah Ab; Chow, Khuan Yew; Cornain, Santoso F; Devi, C R Beena; Triningsih, F X Ediati; Laudico, Adriano; Mapua, Cynthia A; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Noorwati, S; Nyunt, Kan; Othman, Nor Hayati; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Sinuraya, Evlina Suzanna; Yip, Cheng Har; Sobue, Tomotaka

2010-01-01

226

Dissolved platinum in major rivers of East Asia: Implications for the oceanic budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved platinum concentrations of eleven large pristine river systems in East Asia (˜200 samples) were determined to better constrain the oceanic platinum budget. Most samples had concentrations less than 1.4 pM; relatively high concentrations up to 5.8 pM were measured in only approximately 6% of the samples. The median Pt concentrations of the individual river systems had only a small range, from 0.18 pM (Duman) to 0.63 pM (Huang He), and the difference in Pt yield mainly resulted from the difference in runoff. The rivers draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau - the Salween, Mekong, Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Hong (Red), and Huang He (Yellow) - had higher Pt yield than the rivers of the Russian Far East - the Amur, Lena, Yana, Indigirka, and Kolyma. If the discharge-weighted mean Pt concentration of our samples (0.36 pM) is extrapolated globally, the estimated riverine flux of dissolved Pt to the ocean is 13 × 103 mol y-1. Based on this riverine flux, the estimated oceanic residence time of Pt is 24 ± 10 kyrs. A 50% release and 50% uptake of Pt in estuaries would modify this to 16 kyrs and 45 kyrs, respectively.

Soyol-Erdene, Tseren-Ochir; Huh, Youngsook

2012-06-01

227

Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over East Asia and Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the East Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in East Asia, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfall—the moisture flux convergence—over Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.

2013-04-01

228

Re-analysis of data on the space radiation environment above south-east Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new analysis was performed on the hand held HRM 3 gamma ray detector data collected from Shuttle missions STS-41B, 41C, 41D, 41G, and 51A. The new analysis shows no evidence for the existence of enhanced levels of radiation in low Earth orbit over South East Asia (i.e., in the area bounded by longitudes 100 to 190 deg east and latitudes 10 deg south to 15 deg north) as previously suggested. Variation in the detector count rates with geographical location are shown to be consistent with the variation of the cosmic ray flux with geomagnetic latitude, and also show expected increases due to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer belt electrons. However, at times poor quantitative agreement is found between the expected positions of the SAA or outer electron belt, and the Shuttle's geographical location on the occasions when high count rates were observed. It is believed that this lack of correlation is a result of the sensitivity of the trapped particle environment to geographical position and magnetospheric activity.

Truscott, P. R.

1989-11-01

229

Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central Asia. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in East Asia. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in East China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in East China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer" of 1816 in Europe and North America and led to coldness and famines in the Chinese province Yunnan, depends crucially on the ENSO state of the coupled model. A comparison with reconstructed El Niño events shows a moderate cool climate with wet (in the south) and extreme dry anomalies (in the north) persisting for several years.

Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

2013-02-01

230

The role of aerosol absorption in driving clear-sky solar dimming over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-based observations indicate a significant decreasing trend in clear-sky downward surface solar radiation (SSR) over East Asia since the 1960s. This "dimming" is thought to be driven by the region's long-term increase in aerosol emissions, but little work has been done to quantify the underlying physical mechanisms or the contribution from aerosol absorption within the atmospheric column. Given the distinct climate impacts that absorption-driven dimming may produce, this constitutes an important, but thus far rather neglected, line of inquiry. We examine experiments conducted in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's atmospheric general circulation models, AM2.1 and AM3, in order to analyze the model-simulated East Asian clear-sky SSR trends. We also use the models' stand-alone radiation module to examine the contribution from various aerosol characteristics in the two models (such as burden, mixing state, hygroscopicity, and seasonal distribution) to the trends. Both models produce trends in clear-sky SSR that are comparable to that observed but via disparate mechanisms. Despite their different aerosol characteristics, the models produce nearly identical increases in aerosol absorption since the 1960s, constituting as much as half of the modeled clear-sky dimming. This is due to a compensation between the differences in aerosol column burden and mixing state assumed in the two models, i.e., plausible clear-sky SSR simulations can be achieved via drastically different aerosol parameterizations. Our novel results indicate that trends in aerosol absorption drive a large portion of East Asian clear-sky solar dimming in the models presented here and for the time periods analyzed and that mechanistic analysis of the factors involved in aerosol absorption is an important diagnostic in evaluating modeled clear-sky solar dimming trends.

Persad, Geeta G.; Ming, Yi; Ramaswamy, V.

2014-09-01

231

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2404 ± 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China and from South Korea increased, while emissions from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.

Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

2014-05-01

232

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2437 ± 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per-capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China increased rapidly and emissions from South Korea increased slightly, while emissions from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.

Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

2013-08-01

233

Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic) stretching, rifting and postrift subsidence were widely shown with the formation of oil and gas sedimentary basins with a thick sedimentary cover (West Siberian, Turan, Caspian, Middle Amur, Songliao), large igneous provinces (South Urals, West and East Siberian, Central Kazakhstan, Trans-Baikal, etc.) and rift systems (Mongol-Transbaikal, Baikal, etc.). The aim of further research under the existing joint projects should be identifying and tracing the boundaries of the Arctic-Asian mobile belt, study and correlation of geological complexes-indicators of major tectonic events, reconstruction of the history of the accretionary belt with superimposed oil and gas bearing sedimentary basins as a tectonic structure of the global level.

Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

2014-05-01

234

ZOOSYSTEMA 2005 27 (4) Publications Scientifiques du Musum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. www.zoosystema.com 725 The genus Cryptocercus in East Asia  

E-print Network

used for any Chinese or Russian specimen collected in the vast and extremely diverse East-Asian region. matilei Grandcolas 2000, and C. kyebangensis Grandcolas, 2001, bring the number of East Asian species, Paris. www.zoosystema.com 725 The genus Cryptocercus in East Asia: distribution and new species (Insecta

235

Transport of NOx in East Asia identified by satellite and in situ measurements and Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dioxide (NO2) columns observed from space have been useful in detecting the increase of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in East Asia, particularly China, coinciding with rapid economic growth during the past several decades. NO2 columns retrieved above a particular location reflect a combination of local NOx emissions and transported NOx from upwind sources. In this study, we demonstrate the transport of NOx emitted in East Asia using satellite and surface in situ measurements and Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations. Enhanced satellite NO2 columns in the Yellow Sea (between China and South Korea) and the East Sea (between South Korea and Japan), and different seasonal variations of NO2 in China, North and South Korea, and Japan, suggest the importance of NOx transport in understanding the local NOx budget. Lagrangian transport model simulations with tracers of different chemical lifetimes identify source-receptor relationships that explain high NO2 over the oceans and springtime peaks in Korea and Japan, with China being the most likely source region. Our results have important implications for studies using satellite NO2 retrievals to derive NOx emissions at local scales in regions adjacent to large sources, such as in East Asia, Europe, and the Eastern U.S.

Lee, H.-J.; Kim, S.-W.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, C.-H.; Park, R. J.; Trainer, M.; Woo, J.-H.

2014-03-01

236

Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean.  

PubMed

Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5° N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1° N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from East Asia. The air-sea gas exchange of CUPs was generally dominated by net deposition. Latitudinal trends of fugacity ratios of ?-endosulfan, chlorothalonil, and dacthal showed stronger deposition of these compounds in East Asia than in Chukchi Sea, while trifluralin showed stronger deposition in Chukchi Sea (-455 ± 245 pg/m(2)/day) than in the North Pacific (-241 ± 158 pg/m(2)/day). Air-sea gas exchange of chlorpyrifos varied from net volatilizaiton in East Asia (<40° N) to equilibrium or net deposition in the North Pacific and the Arctic. PMID:22103582

Zhong, Guangcai; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

2012-01-01

237

Long range transport of acidic species over East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean in winter monsoon - a numerical analysis  

SciTech Connect

In winter season, wind system in East Asia is generally dominated by monsoon. The monsoon is caused by persistent high pressure over Siberia and low pressure over Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea, the high pressure which is formed by radiative cooling of air mass over the continent. In Japan area, the monsoon appears as westerly or northwesterly, and usually brings heavy snow over the Japan Sea side of Japanese islands. Since the air mass associated with the monsoon passes over strong emission sources of the East Asia continent, it carries much air pollutants. Significant part of the pollutants should fall to the surface with snow over Japanese islands, and the rest of the pollutants would be distributed into troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean. In this study, to estimate mass budget of air pollutants released over countries in East Asia we have performed 3-D transport/chemistry/deposition simulations for the area of East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean for one month of March, 1994, when an extensive field observation campaign called TEM-WEST Phase B (Pacific Exploratory Mission-West){close_quotes} was conducted. The simulation model includes most of the important chemical species such as NO{sub x}, HNO{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, sulfate, hydrocarbons, O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, etc., and covers 3-D region from 80 to 180 degrees east in longitude, 10 degrees south to 60 degrees north in latitude, and earth`s surface to 10 hPa in vertical. The simulation results will be discussed in connection with the PEM-WEST(B) observation.

Kitada, Toshihiro; Nishizawa, Masato; Isogawa, Seiji [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan); Kondo, Yutaka [Nagoya Univ., Toyokawa (Japan)

1996-12-31

238

Impact of meteorological anomalies in the 2003 summer on Gross Primary Productivity in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern Eurasia experienced anomalous weather conditions in the 2003 summer. We examined how forest ecosystems responded to the meteorological anomalies during the period using the dataset collected at flux monitoring sites in Asia, including a boreal forest in Mongolia, temperate forests in China and Japan, and a sub-tropical forest in China, as well as the dataset from satellite remote sensing. From July to August 2003, an active rain band stayed in the mid-latitude in East Asia for an unusually long period. Under the influence of the rain band, the Gross Primary Production (GPP), of temperate forests was 20-30% lower in the 2003 summer than in other years due to significant reduction in the Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD). The GPP of a cool-temperate forest in the north of the rain band was slightly enhanced by the higher PPFD; however, the GPP of a sub-tropical forest located in the south of the rain band was reduced by drought stress due to extremely hot and dry conditions. The correlation coefficients for the year-to-year changes in the PPFD and GPP during mid-summer were calculated, and the spatial distribution was examined. The spatial pattern of the PPFD was calculated by satellite data, and that of the GPP was estimated by a regression-type model, which was trained and tested by ground observation data. The correlation was positive in the mid- and high-latitudes since light was an essential factor of the summer GPP. On the other hand, a negative correlation appeared in the lower latitudes, suggesting that the water limitation was much more important than the PPFD in the region. Our study illustrated that the integration of flux data from wide areas by combining satellite remote sensing data can help us gain an understanding of the ecosystem responses to large-scale meteorological phenomena.

Saigusa, N.; Ichii, K.; Murakami, H.; Hirata, R.; Asanuma, J.; den, H.; Han, S.-J.; Ide, R.; Li, S.-G.; Ohta, T.; Sasai, T.; Wang, S.-Q.; Yu, G.-R.

2010-02-01

239

Impact of meteorological anomalies in the 2003 summer on gross primary productivity in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern Eurasia experienced anomalous weather conditions in the 2003 summer. We examined how forest ecosystems responded to the meteorological anomalies during the period using the dataset collected at flux monitoring sites in Asia, including a boreal forest in Mongolia, temperate forests in China and Japan, and a sub-tropical forest in China, as well as the dataset from satellite remote sensing. From July to August 2003, an active rain band stayed in the mid-latitude in East Asia for an unusually long period. Under the influence of the rain band, the gross primary production (GPP) of temperate forests was 20-30% lower in the 2003 summer than in other years due to significant reduction in the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The GPP of a cool-temperate forest in the north of the rain band was slightly enhanced by the higher PPFD; however, the GPP of a sub-tropical forest located in the south of the rain band was reduced by drought stress due to extremely hot and dry conditions. The correlation coefficients for the year-to-year changes in the PPFD and GPP during mid-summer were calculated, and the spatial distribution was examined. The spatial pattern of the PPFD was calculated by satellite data, and that of the GPP was estimated by a regression-type model, which was trained and tested by ground observation data. The correlation was positive in the mid- and high-latitudes since light was an essential factor of the summer GPP. On the other hand, a negative correlation appeared in the lower latitudes, suggesting that the water limitation was much more important than the PPFD in the region. Our study illustrated that the integration of flux data from wide areas by combining satellite remote sensing data can help us gain an understanding of the ecosystem responses to large-scale meteorological phenomena.

Saigusa, N.; Ichii, K.; Murakami, H.; Hirata, R.; Asanuma, J.; den, H.; Han, S.-J.; Ide, R.; Li, S.-G.; Ohta, T.; Sasai, T.; Wang, S.-Q.; Yu, G.-R.

2009-09-01

240

Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over East Asia  

SciTech Connect

A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.

Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

2012-01-16

241

Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the East Asia region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent destructive earthquakes in East-Asia claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in East Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).

Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.

2013-12-01

242

Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

2013-01-01

243

Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini).  

PubMed

Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovisp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickaisp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoisp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovisp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timurisp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoisp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedisp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixisp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskiisp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidussp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyinom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedli?ka, 1967, syn. n.;Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedli?ka, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

Anichtchenko, Alexander

2011-01-01

244

Large-scale transport of pollution aerosol over the east coast of Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Asia contains many large pollution sources whose emissions can be transported over large areas of North Pacific. In order to characterize this transport, we collected a sixty-day series of daily aerosol samples concurrently from Sapporo, Japan and Vladivostok, CIS from April to May, 1991. These were analyzed for non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate and nitrate. The arithmetic mean concentrations of nss-sulfate (4.66 ± 2.68 ?g m-3) and nitrate (2.58 ± 1.62 ?g m-3) in Vladivostok were 70% and 40% higher than the corresponding concentrations of nss-sulfate (2.69 ± 2.06 ?g m-3) and nitrate (1.86 ± 1.42 ?g m-3) in Sapporo. Several episodic peaks of nss-sulfate and nitrate in Vladivostok corresponded to the peaks observed in Sapporo, which is located approximately 700 km east of Vladivostok. About 40% and 25% of the variance in the nss-sulfate and nitrate concentrations at the two sites could be explained by the large-scale transport of substances under the strong winds from the west and southwest This suggests that the high concentrations are associated with strong regional sources located to windward of these cities and that the concentrations that we measured are probably representative of a large area of the coastal western North Pacific Ocean.

Uematsu, Mitsuo; Sugita, Takafumi; Anikiev, Vladimir V.; Medvedev, Alexander N.

1992-11-01

245

Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions  

PubMed Central

Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n?=?49 studies), mortality (n?=?28), nutrition (n?=?24), and infectious diseases (n?=?33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n?=?56 studies), socioeconomic (n?=?50) and biological sampling (n?=?25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103

McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry

2011-01-01

246

Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South East Asia: Descriptive situational assessment  

PubMed Central

Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South East Asia. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions. PMID:25285274

Kesavadev, Jothydev; Sadikot, Shaukat M.; Saboo, Banshi; Shrestha, Dina; Jawad, Fatema; Azad, Kishwar; Wijesuriya, Mahendra Arunashanthi; Latt, Tint Swe; Kalra, Sanjay

2014-01-01

247

Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.  

PubMed

Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617

Douglas, I

1999-11-29

248

Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South East Asia: Descriptive situational assessment.  

PubMed

Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South East Asia. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions. PMID:25285274

Kesavadev, Jothydev; Sadikot, Shaukat M; Saboo, Banshi; Shrestha, Dina; Jawad, Fatema; Azad, Kishwar; Wijesuriya, Mahendra Arunashanthi; Latt, Tint Swe; Kalra, Sanjay

2014-09-01

249

Derivation of regression coefficients for sea surface temperature retrieval over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the regression-based algorithms for deriving SST from satellite measurements, regionally optimized algorithms normally perform better than the corresponding global algorithm. In this paper, three algorithms are considered for SST retrieval over the East Asia region (15° 55°N, 105° 170°E), including the multi-channel algorithm (MCSST), the quadratic algorithm (QSST), and the Pathfinder algorithm (PFSST). All algorithms are derived and validated using collocated buoy and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5) observations from 1997 to 2001. An important part of the derivation and validation of the algorithms is the quality control procedure for the buoy SST data and an improved cloud screening method for the satellite brightness temperature measurements. The regionally optimized MCSST algorithm shows an overall improvement over the global algorithm, removing the bias of about -0.13°C and reducing the root-mean-square difference (rmsd) from 1.36°C to 1.26°C. The QSST is only slightly better than the MCSST. For both algorithms, a seasonal dependence of the remaining error statistics is still evident. The Pathfinder approach for deriving a season-specific set of coefficients, one for August to October and one for the rest of the year, provides the smallest rmsd overall that is also stable over time.

Ahn, Myoung-Hwan; Sohn, Eun-Ha; Hwang, Byong-Jun; Chung, Chu-Yong; Wu, Xiangqian

2006-05-01

250

The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants  

PubMed Central

South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

2011-01-01

251

Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South East Asia for action planning and surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South East Asia for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and (3) building capacity to improve tobacco control planning in the participating countries. Design: A structured conceptualisation methodology known as concept mapping was used. The process included brainstorming, sorting and rating of statements describing industry activities. Statistical analyses used multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Interpretation of the maps was participatory, using regional tobacco control researchers, practitioners, and policy makers during a face to face meeting. Participants: 31 participants in this study come from the four countries represented in the project along with six people from the Johns Hopkins Blomberg School of Public Health. Conclusions: The map shows eight clusters of industry activities within the four countries. These were arranged into four general sectors: economics, politics, public relations and deception. For project design purposes, the map indicates areas of importance and feasibility for monitoring tobacco industry activities and serves as a basis for an initial discussion about action planning. Furthermore, the development of the map used a consensus building process across different stakeholders or stakeholder agencies and is critical when developing regional, cross border strategies for tracking and surveillance. PMID:18218787

Stillman, F; Hoang, M; Linton, R; Ritthiphakdee, B; Trochim, W

2008-01-01

252

Interventions to improve the use of antimalarials in south-east Asia: an overview.  

PubMed Central

There are few drugs for malaria, and those which are available for use are subject to rapid development of resistance. Curiously, little effort has been made to improve drug use in malaria-endemic countries and to assess the benefits of such improvements. Advances can be made in public understanding of the value of ingesting a full regimen of antimalarials, in order to achieve complete cure, and in improving simple technologies (blister packaging) to achieve the same result. Better efforts can be made to reduce the availability of fake or substandard drugs in the marketplace. In this article, we describe the outcome of a concerted effort to improve drug compliance and drug quality in an area of multidrug resistance for malaria. These research efforts, guided by the Task Force for Improved Use of Antimalarials, characterized the problems in drug compliance in South-East Asia, and developed interventions to improve drug use in the various countries. Interventions involved drug packaging, public information campaigns, and assessments of drug quality. Results show that blister packaging worked best to improve drug compliance and that the increased cost of packaged medication did not limit its use. Drug quality was a major problem in unregulated countries and should be improved. PMID:9763718

Gomes, M.; Wayling, S.; Pang, L.

1998-01-01

253

Combined Dust Detection Algorithm by Using MODIS Infrared Channels over East Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new dust detection algorithm is developed by combining the results of multiple dust detectionmethods using IR channels onboard the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) between two wavelength channels has been used widely in previous dust detection methods. However, BTDmethods have limitations in identifying the offset values of the BTDto discriminate clear-sky areas. The current algorithm overcomes the disadvantages of previous dust detection methods by considering the Brightness Temperature Ratio (BTR) values of the dual wavelength channels with 30-day composite, the optical properties of the dust particles, the variability of surface properties, and the cloud contamination. Therefore, the current algorithm shows improvements in detecting the dust loaded region over land during daytime. Finally, the confidence index of the current dust algorithm is shown in 10 × 10 pixels of the MODIS observations. From January to June, 2006, the results of the current algorithm are within 64 to 81% of those found using the fine mode fraction (FMF) and aerosol index (AI) from the MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The agreement between the results of the current algorithm and the OMI AI over the non-polluted land also ranges from 60 to 67% to avoid errors due to the anthropogenic aerosol. In addition, the developed algorithm shows statistically significant results at four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites in East Asia.

Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Lee, Sukjo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seok; Ou, Steve

2014-01-01

254

Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.  

PubMed

The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements. PMID:25000779

Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

2014-04-01

255

Global perspectives on animal welfare: Asia, the Far East, and Oceania.  

PubMed

In Asia and the Far East, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have taken initiatives to establish Animal Welfare Boards and enact laws for the prevention of cruelty to animals, but their efforts are far too limited to be of any significance and financial constraints and lack of personnel inhibit the implementation of the laws that do exist. In New Zealand and Australia, legislation and strong consultation procedures at governmental and community level strive to regulate and improve the welfare of animals in all spheres, but in other Oceanic countries there is a need for both an update in, or establishment of, legislation covering animal welfare. Limited progress has been made due to the status of the Veterinary Services and a lack of resources. Although some public and educational awareness programmes are carried out, increasing exposure to international media and attitudes of visiting tourists suggest that further awareness work needs to be undertaken. To address the problems of animal welfare in developing countries, it would be inappropriate to adopt the international standards that are implemented in the developed countries. Each developing country should evolve its own standards based on its own individual priorities. PMID:16358511

Rahman, S A; Walker, L; Ricketts, W

2005-08-01

256

Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an East Asian domain containing 164 × 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 ± 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE Asia field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G.G., Woo, J.-H., Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., 2007a. Top-down estimate of mercury emissions in China using four-dimensional variational data assimilation. Atmospheric Environment 41, 2804-2819) in China for the year 2001. The estimated natural emission helps explain the gap between the anthropogenic emission estimates based on activity data (e.g., Pacyna, J.M., Pacyna, E., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S., 2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4048-4063; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) and the emission inferred from field observations (e.g., Jaffe, D., Prestbo, E., Swartzendruber, P., Weiss-Penzias, P., Kato, S., Takami, A., Hatakeyama, S., Kajii, Y., 2005. Export of atmospheric mercury from Asia. Atmospheric Environment 39, 3029-3038; Weiss-Penzias, P., Jaffe, D., Swartzendruber, P., Hafner, W., Chand, D., Prestbo, E., 2007. Quantifying Asian and biomass burning sources of mercury using the Hg/CO ratio in pollution plumes observed at the Mount Bachelor observatory. Atmospheric Environment 41, 4366-4379) in the region.

Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey

257

Cenozoic East Asia plate tectonic reconstructions using constraints of mapped and unfolded slabs from mantle seismic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subducted slabs were mapped in the mantle under East Asia using MITP08 global seismic tomography (Li et al., 2008), Benioff zone seismicities and published local tomography. 3D gridded slab surfaces were constructed by manually picking and correlating the midpoint of fast seismic anomalies along variable cross-section orientations. The mapped slabs were structurally 'unfolded' and restored to the spherical Earth surface to assess their pre-subduction geometries. Gplates software was used to constrain plate tectonic reconstructions using the unfolded slabs. The unfolded SE Asia upper mantle slabs reveal a 'picture puzzle' fit along their edges that suggests a larger NE Indo-Australian ocean once existed that included the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea. Deeper lower mantle detached slabs indicate an early to mid-Cenozoic 'East Asia Sea' between east Sundaland and the Pacific that stretched from the Ryukyu Islands north of present-day Taiwan southward to Sulawesi. The unfolded slab constraints produced gap and overlap incompatibilities when used in published plate tectonic reconstructions. Here a plate tectonic reconstruction incorporating the unfolded slab constraints is proposed that has the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea clustered at the northern margin of Australia during the early Cenozoic. At the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with 'Australia-like' plate motions and overrode the 'East Asia Sea'. Plate motions were accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. Between 25 to 15 Ma the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea plates were fragmented from the greater Indo-Australian ocean. The Philippine Sea was captured by the Pacific plate and now has Pacific-like westward motions.

Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.

2012-12-01

258

Assessment of future climate change over East Asia due to the RCP scenarios downscaled by GRIMs-RMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses future climate change over East Asia using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system—Regional Model Program (RMP). The RMP is forced by two types of future climate scenarios produced by the Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2 (HG2); the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for the intergovernmental panel on climate change fifth assessment report (AR5). Analyses for the current (1980-2005) climate are performed to evaluate the RMP's ability to reproduce precipitation and temperature. Two different future (2006-2050) simulations are compared with the current climatology to investigate the climatic change over East Asia centered in Korea. The RMP satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of precipitation and temperature. The spatial distribution of the simulated large-scale features and precipitation by the RMP is generally less reflective of current climatic conditions than that is given by the HG2, but their inter-annual variations in East Asia are better captured by the RMP. Furthermore, the RMP shows higher reproducibility of climate extremes including excessive heat wave and precipitation events over South Korea. In the future, strong warming is distinctly coupled with intensified monsoonal precipitation over East Asia. In particular, extreme weather conditions are increased and intensified over South Korea as follows: (1) The frequency of heat wave events with temperature greater than 30 °C is projected to increase by 131 and 111 % in the RCP 8.5 and 4.5 downscaling, relative to the current climate. (2) The RCP 8.5 downscaling shows the frequency and variability of heavy rainfall to increase by 24 and 31.5 %, respectively, while the statistics given by the RCP 4.5 downscaling are similar to those of the current climate.

Lee, Ji-Woo; Hong, Song-You; Chang, Eun-Chul; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk

2014-02-01

259

A regional air-sea coupled model and its application over East Asia in the summer of 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional air-sea coupled model, comprising the Regional Integrated Environment Model System (RIEMS) and the Princeton Ocean\\u000a Model (POM) was developed to simulate summer climate features over East Asia in 2000. The sensitivity of the model’s behavior\\u000a to the coupling time interval (CTI), the causes of the sea surface temperature (SST) biases, and the role of air-sea interaction\\u000a in the

Yongjie Fang; Yaocun Zhang; Jianping Tang; Xuejuan Ren

2010-01-01

260

CLM3-simulated soil moisture in East Asia and its possible response to global warming during 1979 through 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological processes related to soil moisture play an important role in determining regional and global climate. In this study, using a state-of-art Community Land Model (CLM) developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), we simulated soil moisture in East Asia and its possible response to global warming through a long off-line experiment under 0.5° (longitude) × 0.5° (latitude)

ChuanLi Du; XiaoDong Liu; WanLi Wu

261

Will a Mature People's Republic of China Theater Ballistic Missile Capability Encourage Military Solutions in the East Asia-Pacific Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The question of how the People's Republic of China's (China) ongoing development of a theater ballistic missile (TBM) capability will impact on East Asia-Pacific regional security is considered. A mature Chinese TBM capability, without a countervailing U....

P. J. Battin

2002-01-01

262

Simulation of nitrate aerosol concentrations over East Asia with the model system RAMS-CMAQ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is used to analyse the geographical and the seasonal characteristics of nitrate aerosol (ANO3) concentration distributions over East Asia. Three-dimensional concentrations in January, March, April, July and October of 2001 are simulated, and for the evaluation of model performances, the simulated values of wind direction, wind speed, temperature, specific humidity, nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxide (NO2), ANO3 and ammonium aerosol (ANH4) are compared with the observational data obtained onboard the P-3B aircraft during its four consecutive flights over the South China Sea, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the water areas to the east of Japan conducted on 13, 17, 18 and 21 March 2001. The observed data are 5-min averaged and the model results with a 1-hour temporal resolution are interpolated to the aircraft location and time using trilinear interpolation. Comparison shows that the observed values exhibit strong temporo-spatial variations, and the model reproduces these variations reasonably well. The simulated values of wind direction, wind speed, temperature and specific humidity are generally in good agreement with the observed ones, their correlation coefficients reach 0.66, 0.94, 0.99 and 0.96, respectively. Comparison also shows that the average mixing ratios of modelled and observed NO, NO2, ANO3 and ANH4 agree reasonably well with each other, the correlation coefficient for ANO3 and ANH4 are larger than 0.8, but the simulated standard deviations are smaller than the observed one, and the correlation coefficient for NO and NO2 are 0.48 and 0.44. Analysis of horizontal distributions of monthly averaged ANO3 concentrations in the boundary layer indicates that the ANO3 mixing ratios have noticeable differences among the four seasons. Generally the concentrations are high in the winter, spring and fall and low in the summer, and seasonal variations are typically strongest over China and Japan. Highest concentrations are found over eastern China where emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are high and long-range transport may cause elevated concentrations in remote areas under favourable meteorological conditions, but the seasonal variation in the ANO3 concentrations is heavily influenced by the changes in precipitation and temperature.

Zhang, Meigen; Gao, Lijie; Ge, Cui; Xu, Youping

2007-07-01

263

Ethnic Related Selection for an ADH Class I Variant within East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely studied enzymes and the evolution of the mammalian gene cluster encoding these enzymes is also well studied. Previous studies have shown that the ADH1B*47His allele at one of the seven genes in humans is associated with a decrease in the risk of alcoholism and the core molecular region with this allele has been selected for in some East Asian populations. As the frequency of ADH1B*47His is highest in East Asia, and very low in most of the rest of the world, we have undertaken more detailed investigation in this geographic region. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report new data on 30 SNPs in the ADH7 and Class I ADH region in samples of 24 populations from China and Laos. These populations cover a wide geographic region and diverse ethnicities. Combined with our previously published East Asian data for these SNPs in 8 populations, we have typed populations from all of the 6 major linguistic phyla (Altaic including Korean-Japanese and inland Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Hmong-Mien, Austro-Asiatic, Daic, and Austronesian). The ADH1B genotyping data are strongly related to ethnicity. Only some eastern ethnic phyla or subphyla (Korean-Japanese, Han Chinese, Hmong-Mien, Daic, and Austronesian) have a high frequency of ADH1B*47His. ADH1B haplotype data clustered the populations into linguistic subphyla, and divided the subphyla into eastern and western parts. In the Hmong-Mien and Altaic populations, the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) and relative EHH (REHH) tests for the ADH1B core were consistent with selection for the haplotype with derived SNP alleles. In the other ethnic phyla, the core showed only a weak signal of selection at best. Conclusions/Significance The selection distribution is more significantly correlated with the frequency of the derived ADH1B regulatory region polymorphism than the derived amino-acid altering allele ADH1B*47His. Thus, the real focus of selection may be the regulatory region. The obvious ethnicity-related distributions of ADH1B diversities suggest the existence of some culture-related selective forces that have acted on the ADH1B region. PMID:18382665

Li, Hui; Gu, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoyun; Speed, William C.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Golub, Efim I.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

2008-01-01

264

Assessing Future Climate Changes in the East Asia due to the RCP scenarios downscaled by Regional Spectral Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses future climate change over East Asia using the Regional Spectral Model (RSM). The RSM is forced by two types of future climate scenarios produced by the Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2 (HG2); the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for the intergovernmental panel on climate change fifth assessment report (AR5). Analyses for the current (1980-2005) climate are performed to evaluate the RSM's ability to reproduce precipitation and temperature. Two different future (2020-2050) simulations are compared with the current climatology to investigate the climatic change over East Asia. The RSM satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of precipitation and temperature. The spatial distribution of the simulated large-scale features and precipitation by RSM shows generally improved pattern compared to that is given by the HG2. In addition, their inter-annual variations in Japan are better captured by the RSM. Assessment of future climate changes over the East Asia will be discussed.

Ham, Suryun; Yoshimura, Kei; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

2014-05-01

265

Preliminary results from measurement of methane at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea for understanding emissions in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Importance of methane (CH4) to the global biogeochemical cycle and climate change has been well documented, and while the total global methane emissions are relatively well known, the strength of each source component and their trends are not, due to the varied biological and anthropogenic sources of emissions. This is especially true in East Asia, where strong expected emissions of CH4 from fossil fuel mining and burning as well as rice agriculture remain less understood. In this study, we present atmospheric measurements of methane and preliminary analysis of the results. Measurement site for this study is at Gosan, a remote background site located on Jeju Island, Korea. Due to its central location in East Asia, monitoring of both background and pollution from the surrounding regions is possible, thus ideal for monitoring methane emissions in East Asia. To facilitate high-quality continuous measurements, an automated measurement system with a GC-FID has been created and tested at Seoul National University. Identification of the dominant CH4 emission sources could be better understood by analyzing correlation with other anthropogenically and biogenically emitted compounds such as CO (important indicator for fossil fuel burning) and chlorinated compounds (emitted from biomass burning and the use of coal). Advanced air mass transport modeling will also be used to analyze different emission patterns by region.

Lee, E.; Kim, J.; Ahn, K.; Park, M.; Kim, K.

2010-12-01

266

Changes in relationships between surface air temperature and precipitation over East Asia associated with the 1976/1977climate shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in surface air temperature and precipitation are closely associated because of their thermodynamic relations. The climate shift in the late 1970s and associated changes in precipitation over East Asia have been well reported. However, how the relationships between surface air temperature and precipitation respond to the climate shift is not yet well understood. The issue is explored in the study by using the observed mean (Tmean ), daily maximum (Tmax ) and minimum (Tmin ) surface air temperatures and precipitation during the period of 1953-2000. Results show that relationships between Tmean and precipitation experienced remarkable changes over certain areas of East Asia after the climate shift with evident seasonal dependencies. In winter, after the climate shift significant negative correlations occupied more areas over Mongolia and China. By contrast, in summer significant negative correlations which existed over almost entire East Asia during the pre-shift period were mostly weakened with exception of enhanced correlations over some small isolated areas. While the changes in the relationships Tmax and precipitation showed a similar spatial pattern to that of Tmean , the Tmin -precipitation correlation did not. The results are useful for further testing climate simulations of the relationships between surface air temperature and precipitation.

Wu, L.

2013-12-01

267

Assessment of the RegCM4 over East Asia and future precipitation change adapted to the RCP scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

this study, we investigated spatial and temporal changes in precipitation over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) East Asia domain, for present (1986-2005) and future (2031-2050) periods using the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4). Future meteorology produced by the Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2 coupled with the Atmosphere-Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) following global climate change scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5) was used as meteorological boundary conditions for the RegCM4. Six subregions (South Korea, North China, South China, Japan, Mongolia, and India) in the CORDEX East Asia domain were considered for analysis. The RegCM4 simulated spatial distributions of precipitation over East Asia with a correlation coefficient of 0.7 against Climate Research Unit data. The simulation skills of its temporal variability varied based on geographical regions and seasons, showing relatively poorer performance (underestimation in rainfall amount) in summer than in winter, in general. The future climate simulations by the RegCM4 presented that the East Asian continental regions will be warmer and more humid, leading to increased precipitation amounts, especially in the summer. The summer precipitation amount was projected to increase by about 5%, on average, over the East Asian domain, 5-15% in most subregions, and even higher (44% and 24%) in the South Korean region for the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, respectively. It was also expected that heavy rainfall (> 50 mm/d) events may occur more frequently in the future possibly owing to meteorological changes that are favorable to convective heavy precipitation.

Oh, Seok-Geun; Park, Ju-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok

2014-03-01

268

An upper-mantle S-wave velocity model for East Asia from Rayleigh wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new shear velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the East Asia region derived by inverting Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements between 10 and 145 s combined with previously published Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 150 and 250 s. Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves along more than 9500 paths were measured and combined to produce 2D dispersion maps for 10-145 s periods. The group velocity maps benefit from the inclusion of new data recorded by the China National Seismic Network and surrounding global stations. The increase in available data has resulted in enhanced resolution compared with previously published group velocity maps; the horizontal resolution across the region is about 3° for the periods used in this study. The new shear wave velocity models indicate varying velocity structure beneath eastern China, which yields estimates of a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth from around 160 km beneath the Yangtze block to approximately 140 km beneath the western part of the North China Craton (NCC), up to depths of 70-100 km beneath the eastern NCC, Northeast China, and the Cathaysia block. The models reveal the subduction of two opposite-facing continental plates under the southern and northern margin of Tibet. An obvious low-velocity anomaly appears in the top 200 km of the upper mantle beneath northern Tibet, which is inconsistent with the presence of subducted Asian or Indian mantle lithosphere beneath northern Tibet. The Cenozoic volcanism fields in the Mongolian plateau are characterized by an obvious upper mantle negative anomaly, but no signature of deep-seated plume was observed. This study was supported by the international cooperation project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2011DFB20120) and NSFC (41074067).

Li, Y.; Wu, Q.; Pan, J.; Zhang, F.; Sun, L.

2013-12-01

269

Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among adults in WHO South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is an understudied problem in South-East Asia. Information on SLT use among the adult population was collected from various available sources. SLT use prevalence varies among countries in the region. The prevalence of SLT use is known for all countries at national level in the region with the exception of Bhutan and DPR Korea. For Bhutan, data pertains to Thimphu only. There is no available data on SLT use for DPR Korea. Using all available data from Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, SLT use was found to be higher among males as compared to females; however, in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Thailand, SLT use was higher among females as compared to males. Among males, prevalence of SLT use varied from 51.4% in Myanmar to 1.1% in Thailand. Among females, the prevalence of SLT use varied from 27.9% in Bangladesh to 1.9% in Timor-Leste. The prevalence also varies in different parts of countries. For instance, the prevalence of current use of SLT in India ranges from 48.7% in Bihar to 4.5% in Himachal Pradesh. In Thailand, prevalence of current use of tobacco use varies from 0.8% in Bangkok to over 4% in the northern (4.1%) and northeastern (4.7%) region. Among all SLT products, betel quid was the most commonly used product in most countries including Bangladesh (24.3%) and Thailand (1.8%). However, Khaini (11.6%) chewing was practiced most commonly in India. Nearly 5% of the adult population used tobacco as dentifrice in Bangladesh and India. SLT is more commonly used in rural areas and among disadvantaged groups. Questions from standard "Tobacco Questions for Surveys (TQS)" need to be integrated in routine health system surveys in respective countries to obtain standardized tobacco use data at regular intervals that will help in providing trends of SLT use in countries. PMID:23442396

Sinha, D N; Gupta, P C; Ray, Cecily; Singh, P K

2012-01-01

270

An upper-mantle S-wave velocity model for East Asia from Rayleigh wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new shear velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the East Asia region derived by inverting Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements between 10 and 145 s combined with previously published Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 150 and 250 s. Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves along more than 9500 paths were measured and combined to produce 2D dispersion maps for 10-145 s periods. The group velocity maps benefit from the inclusion of new data recorded by the China National Seismic Network and surrounding global stations. The increase in available data has resulted in enhanced resolution compared with previously published group velocity maps; the horizontal resolution across the region is about 3° for the periods used in this study. The new shear-wave velocity models indicate varying velocity structure beneath eastern China, which yields estimates of a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth from around 160 km beneath the Yangtze block to approximately 140 km beneath the western part of the North China Craton (NCC), up to depths of 70-100 km beneath the eastern NCC, Northeast China, and the Cathaysia block. The models reveal the subduction of two opposite-facing continental plates under the southern and northern margin of Tibet. An obvious low-velocity anomaly appears in the top 200 km of the upper mantle beneath northern Tibet, which is inconsistent with the presence of subducted Asian or Indian mantle lithosphere beneath northern Tibet. The Cenozoic volcanism fields in the Mongolian plateau are characterized by an obvious upper mantle negative anomaly, but no signature of deep-seated plume was observed.

Li, Yonghua; Wu, Qingju; Pan, Jiatie; Zhang, Fengxue; Yu, Daxin

2013-09-01

271

WHO framework convention on tobacco control and its implementation in South-East Asia region.  

PubMed

The birth of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took place in response to the global tobacco epidemic and it became the most important global tobacco control instrument. Duly recognizing tobacco use as an important public health problem and in the wake of rising prevalence of and mortality related to tobacco use, almost all Member States of the South-East Asia Region signed and ratified the WHO FCTC. Following the ratification, Member countries have enacted comprehensive national tobacco control laws and regulations. Most countries have covered some important provisions, such as tax and price measures, smoke-free places, health warnings, a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, and a ban on tobacco sales to minors. In spite of innumerable constraints and challenges, particularly human, infrastructural and financial resources, Member countries have been doing their best to enforce those legislations and regulations as effectively as possible. In order to educate the general public on the harmful effects of tobacco, mass health campaigns have been organized which are being continued and sustained. However, some of the important areas that need attention in due course of time are tax raises, illicit trade, tobacco industry interference and alternate cropping systems. All Member States in the Region are striving harder to achieving the goals and provisions of the Framework Convention through actively engaging all relevant sectors and addressing the tobacco issue holistically, and thus protecting the present and future generations from the devastating health, social, economic and environmental consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:22089686

Sinha, Dhirendra N; Narain, Jai P; Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Rinchen, Sonam

2011-01-01

272

Numerical Simulation of Dust Aerosol and Its Future Changes over East Asia by a RCM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICTP regional climate model coupled with a dust aerosol model (RegCM3-dust) is employed to simulate dust production, its climatic effects, and the futures changes over East Asia. Firstly, two sets of experiments are completed with the high resolution global model output data from the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC3.2_hires), one for current (1991-2000), the other for future (2091-2100, following the A1B scenario) climate and dust aerosol. Simulated current climates by both MIROC3.2_hires and RegCM3-dust model are inter-compared and evaluated against observations, while the results of climate change (future-current) from above two models are analyzed also. Simulated dust aerosols by RegCM3-dust are compared with the satellite data and the changes of dust aerosols are predicted. Then, another two experiments with the radiative effects of dust aerosols for different periods are conducted. The modeled dust aerosols climate effect and its regional feedbacks are assessed. Our main conclusions are as follows: Both MIROC3.2_hires and RegCM3-dust can reproduce well the atmospheric circulation over East Asia. The simulated multi-years mean surface air temperature is colder/warmer than observations in the range of 1-2°C by MIROC3.2_hires/ RegCM3-dust. The lesser bias can be found in RegCM3-dust simulation for JJA, while in MIROC3.2_hires for DJF, the RegCM3-dust shows a cold bias over region. Both models overestimate the precipitation in the northern part of the model domain and show a bias of ±25% in the most southern part of model domain. The main inadequacy of models is an underestimate of precipitation over Southeast China in winter. In general, no obvious improvements are shown in RegCM3-dust compared to MIROC3.2_hires. The pattern of changes (future-current) in surface air temperature by RegCM3-dust is similar to MIROC3.2_hires, characterized with a larger increase in northern part than in southern part and the maximum rise is found in winter. The differences between MIROC3.2_hires and RegCM3-dust are found in the areas covered by snow, where the temperature rise by MIROC3.2_hires is much higher than by RegCM3-dust. The multi-years mean precipitations increase over most simulation region by MIROC3.2_hires, while decrease over Northeast China and the lower-middle reaches of Yangtze River by RegCM3-dust, due to the decrease in JJA and SON. The mean precipitations over Tibet Plateau in snow covered seasons increase by MIROC3.2_hires and decrease by RegCM3-dust. The seasonally averaged comparisons of simulated AOD and DI to observations show that the RegCM3-dust has the ability of reproduce the averaged seasonal spatial and temporal distribution of dust aerosol over East Asia by the MIROC3.2_hires driven. The modeled dust emission and load are rational also. However, the same model deficiency is found compared to NCEP driven experiments. The dust emission decreases over the snow free areas and increases over the areas covered by snow in the future. An increase of the multi-years mean dust emission by 2% is shown over the domain, with the increase from December to March due to the decrease of snow amount and reduction from April to November because of the decreased wind speeds. The projected frequencies of high dust emission show the same identities. The multi-years mean dust load increases by 14%, while a little decreases in MAM and August. The distribution of the surface and TOA radiative forcing from dust aerosol in both current and future run are in agreement with that in NCEP- driven simulation. The surface cooling with a little more cooler in the future run can be found. Unsystematic precipitation change is shown, with the only exception over the Taklimakan Desert, where precipitation increases in both current and future run. The dust radiative forcing induces a negative feedback mechanism on dust emission and dust load, the differences of this feedback between the current and future run are related to the value of dust emission and dust load themselves.

Zhang, Dongfeng; Gao, Xuejie; Zakey, Ashraf; Giorgi, Filippo; Solmon, Fabien

2010-05-01

273

Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

2010-05-01

274

On the regional distributions of background carbon monoxide concentrations observed in East Asia during 1991-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations observed at Mt. Waliguan in China (WLG), Ulaan Uul in Mongolia (UUM), Tae-ahn Peninsula in Korea (TAP) and Ryori in Japan (RYO) were analysed between 1991 and 2008. The average annual concentration of CO, a toxic air pollutant, was the highest at TAP (235±44 ppb), followed by RYO (169±35 ppb), UUM (154±27 ppb) and WLG (138±24 ppb). These data obtained in East Asia were also compared with CO data from Mauna Loa, Hawaii. CO tends to be highest in spring and lowest in summer in East Asia, with the exception of WLG. TAP had the highest CO concentrations in all seasons compared with WLG, UUM and RYO, and displays a wide short-term variability in concentration. This is caused by large-scale air pollution owing to its downwind location, close to continental East Asia. CO concentrations observed at TAP were analysed as follows: according to the origin of the isentropic backward trajectory and its transport passage; as continental background airflows (CBG); regionally polluted continental airflows (RPC); oceanic background airflows (OBG); and partly perturbed oceanic airflows (PPO). The high concentrations of CO at TAP are because of the airflow originating from the East Asian continent, rather than the North Pacific. RPCs, which pass through eastern China, appear to have high CO concentrations in spring, autumn and winter. It is noteworthy that the overall trend at TAP does not show an increase despite the fact that energy use in China approximately doubled from 1991 to 2008. OBGs, however, are affected by North Pacific air masses with low CO concentrations in summer.

Kim, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Tans, P. P.

2010-02-01

275

Regional climate projection based on RCP scenarios in the CORDEX East Asia Domain Using RegCM4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional climate projection data is essential to the adaptation and risk management for the expected climate change. In this stduy, we reproduced regional climate over CORDEX East Asia for 72 years from 1979 to 2050 with 50-km resolution using the latest regional climate model version 4, RegCM4, driven by HadGEM2-AO with about 135-km resolution under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5/4.5. Simulation skills of RegCM4 for the present climate (1980-2005, spin up time: 1979) over CORDEX East Asia are evaluated with CRU-TS (Climate Research Unit Time-Series) 3.0 and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). And KMA ground observation data are also used for the detailed assessment of RegCM4 over South Korea. The evaluation results showed that RegCM4 reasonalbly simulated the spatial distribution, and inter-annual and seasonal variations of surface air temperature. However, it showed a non-negligible systemartic biases in the precipitation. In particular, the rainband accompanied by the seasonal march of East Asian summer monsoon was simulated too southward, below 30° N comparing to the GPCP. As a reulst, summer precipitation over South Korea and Japan island was significantly underestimated. Under RCP8.5 (RCP4.5) scenario, annual mean temperature over the CORDEX East Asia is expected to increase by + 1.6 oC(+1.4oC) above the present level (1980-2005) by the end of the future simulation period. Most of the regions (South-Korea, South-China, North-China, India, Japan, Mongolia) show the increaseing trend of surface air temperature. On the other hand, the future changes of precipitation are not systemaic at the most of regions and seasons. More detailed results including projected regional climate change will be discussed in the presentation.

Suh, M. S.; Oh, S. G.; Cha, D. H.; Kang, H. S.

2012-04-01

276

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1244302 The determinants of bank stock returns' co-movements in East Asia  

E-print Network

, 87031 Limoges, France Abstract We examine co-movements of bank stock returns in eight East Asian economies, there are only a few studies of bank domestic contagion for the Asian region.1 In most returns' co-movements in East Asia Carlos Bautistaa, Philippe Rousb and Amine Tarazib* a University

Boyer, Edmond

277

Estimating absorbing black carbon and organic carbon optical properties from AERONET and MISR data over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative forcing due to carbonaceous aerosols is one of the largest source of uncertainties in global and regional climate change. Black carbon and organic carbon from biomass and fossil fuel are two major types of carbonaceous aerosols. In this study we use available ground based and satellite observations to infer the optical properties of black and organic carbon. NASA's AERONET and MISR data over East Asia provide the observational basis. We use the spectral variations in the observed aerosol extinction optical depth and absorption optical depth to categorize the optical properties including their mixing state with other aerosols such as dust and other inorganic aerosols. We create 8 different categories of aerosol mixtures: Dust, Biomass Burning, Fossil Fuel, Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Dust with Biomass Burning, Mixed Dust with Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Biomass Burning with Fossil Fuel, and Mixed Dust, Biomass Burning, with Fossil Fuel, over the following 6 regions of East Asia: Nepal, Gobi, North Industrial China, South Industrial China, Southeast Asia, and Korea/Japan. Our results are compared with independent surface observations over China using Aethalometers and Single Particle Soot Photometers.

Chen, B.; Ramanathan, V.; Huang, J.; Zhang, G. J.; Xu, Y.

2011-12-01

278

Demographic transitions and migration in prehistoric East/Southeast Asia through the lens of nonmetric dental traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region. PMID:24954129

Matsumura, Hirofumi; Oxenham, Marc F

2014-09-01

279

Relationships between emission sources and air mass characteristics in East Asia during the TRACE-P period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-range transport of pollutants influenced by anthropogenic and natural emission sources in East Asia is investigated by using backward trajectory analysis along the NASA TRACE-P flight tracks and a numerical simulation with the three-dimensional chemical transport model (STEM-2k1). Observation-based regional distributions of trace gases are reconstructed using the observations obtained by measurements on board the DC-8 and P3-B aircrafts. Systematic features of the spatial distribution for each species are identified. It is found that the observed concentrations of CO and some NMHCs, and the ratios between these species, are highly associated with the source distribution features and their regional characteristics. Reconstructed fields of the observed and modeled ethane/CO and ethane/propane are found to reproduce well the estimated emission ratios in East Asia. We also investigated the time rate of change of the concentration of species and their ratio along the trajectory. From this analysis the propane/ethane and propane/acetylene ratios are shown to preserve their emission ratios during regional transport. However systematic differences in the propane vs. acetylene/CO relationships are found between the model and observation values. This analysis suggests that further efforts are needed to improve the estimates of biomass burning emissions in SE Asia. The results presented in this paper also suggest ways to further extend the capabilities to derive observation-based inventories.

Kurata, G.; Carmichael, G. R.; Streets, D. G.; Kitada, T.; Tang, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Thongboonchoo, N.

280

A comparison study between CMAQ-estimated and OMI-retrieved NO2 columns using averaging kernels over East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOx plays an important role in the tropospheric chemistry such as the ozone and secondary aerosol formations. Also, rapid increase of atmospheric NOx mixing ratios over China has been reported, based on GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY)-based observations. However, there has been large uncertainty in the bottom-up NOx emission in East Asia. Therefore, we need to investigate the accuracy of the bottom-up NOx emission in East Asia, particularly utilizing satellite-retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns. In order to carry out such investigation, two retrieved OMI products were taken from the Level-2 DOMINO product version 2 (using KNMI algorithm) and from the Level-2 OMNO2 product version 2.1 (using NASA algorithm). The two OMI products were well correlated (R=0.98) over Central East China, CEC. Also, averaging kernels (AKs) were applied to chemistry-transport model (CTM) simulations over East Asia for direct comparison between CTM-estimated NO2 columns and satellite-observed NO2 columns in this study. When the AKs were not applied to the CTM, the CMAQ-calculated NO2 columns were much larger by a factor of 1.6 than the OMI-retrieved NO2 columns for winter over the CEC areas. However, the CMAQ-calculated NO2 columns with the AKs were comparable with those from OMI observations. Applying AKs from the KNMI algorithm to the CMAQ-estimated NO2 columns showed seasonally good correlations with the OMI-retrieved NO2 columns, particularly over East China (R=0.80 - 0.90). The CMAQ-estimated NO2 columns with the AKs from the NASA algorithm showed larger values than the OMI-retrieved NO2 columns despite of good correlation coefficient (R=0.78 - 0.91 over East China) because the AKs from the NASA algorithm are vertically even larger by factors of approximate 2 - 10 than those from the KNMI algorithm over East China. The differences between two NO2 columns using the NASA algorithm were much larger than those using the KNMI algorithm, particularly during the winter episodes. In addition, several sensitivity analyses were made about several factor related to this study: i) seasonal variations of NOx emission over China; ii) reaction probability of N2O5 on aerosols for wither; iii) OH recycling for summer.

Han, K.; Lee, S.; Park, R.; Song, C.; Kang, Y.; Jung, W.; Ahan, S.

2013-12-01

281

Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare simulated precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) from 1980 to 2007 under different cumulus parameterization schemes with the observed data. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of precipitation and SAT, but that the model overestimates precipitation with the rainfall center moving northwestward and underestimates SAT for annual simulations. Annual, interannual variations and the anomalies in precipitation and SAT for different climate subregions are well captured by the model. Therefore, RIEMS2.0 shows good stability and does well in simulating the long-term climate and climate changes in China. Further analysis on RIEMS2.0’s performance in East Asia shows that the model can reproduce the characteristics of the East Asia Monsoon system, as well the rain belt movement. Simulated results and observed data for the monthly mean precipitation and SAT correlate well. There is nice consistency for the anomalies between the simulation and observation. RIEMS2.0 can disclose regional climate characteristics in East Asia in a certain degree.

Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

2010-12-01

282

Multiple introductions of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses into East Asia in 2010-2011.  

PubMed

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. Sporadic introductions of this virus into FMD-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. In 2010 and 2011, incursions of the FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland Southeast Asia, caused extensive outbreaks across East Asia. In this study, 12 full genome FMDV sequences for representative samples collected from the People's Republic of China (PR China) including the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Republic of Korea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and The Russian Federation were generated and compared with additional contemporary sequences from viruses within this lineage. These complete genomes were 8119 to 8193 nucleotides in length and differed at 1181 sites, sharing a nucleotide identity ? 91.0% and an amino acid identity ? 96.6%. An unexpected deletion of 70 nucleotides within the 5'-untranslated region which resulted in a shorter predicted RNA stem-loop for the S-fragment was revealed in two sequences from PR China and Hong Kong SAR and five additional related samples from the region. Statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provide evidence that these outbreaks in East Asia were generated by two independent introductions of the O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage sometime between August 2008 and March 2010. The rapid emergence of these viruses from Southeast Asia highlights the importance of adopting approaches to closely monitor the spread of this lineage that now poses a threat to livestock industries in other regions. PMID:24007643

Valdazo-González, Begoña; Timina, Anna; Scherbakov, Alexey; Abdul-Hamid, Nor Faizah; Knowles, Nick J; King, Donald P

2013-01-01

283

Vertical transport mechanisms of black carbon over East Asia in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of vertical transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols and their three-dimensional transport pathways over East Asia in spring were examined through numerical simulations for the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign in March-April 2009 using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The simulations reproduced the spatial distributions of mass concentration of BC and its transport efficiency observed by the A-FORCE campaign reasonably well, including its vertical and latitudinal gradients and dependency on precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during the transport. During the A-FORCE period, two types of pronounced upward BC mass fluxes from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the free troposphere were found over northeastern and inland-southern China. Over northeastern China, cyclones with modest precipitation were the primary uplifting mechanism of BC. Over inland-southern China, both cumulus convection and orographic uplifting along the slopes of the Tibetan Plateau played important roles in the upward transport of BC, despite its efficient wet deposition due to a large amount of precipitation supported by an abundant moisture supply by the low-level southerlies. In addition to the midlatitude (35-45°N) eastward outflow within the PBL (21% BC removal by precipitation during transport), the uplifting of BC over northeastern and inland-southern China and the subsequent BC transport by the midlatitude lower tropospheric (50% BC removal) and subtropical (25-35°N) midtropospheric westerlies (67% BC removal), respectively, provided the major transport pathways for BC export from continental East Asia to the Pacific.

Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Moteki, N.; Matsui, H.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

2013-12-01

284

Ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia: how does season modify the association?  

PubMed

Previous studies in East Asia have revealed that the short-term associations between tropospheric ozone and daily mortality rate were strongest in winter, which is opposite to the findings in North America and Western Europe. Therefore, we investigated the season-varying association between ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia from 1979 to 2010. Time-series Poisson regression models were used to analyze the association between ozone and daily nonaccidental mortality rate in each city, testing for different temperature lags. The best-fitting model was obtained after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to pool the city-specific estimates. An interquartile-range increase of the moving average concentrations of same-day and previous-day ozone was associated with an increase of 1.44% (95% posterior interval (PI): 1.08%, 1.80%) in daily total mortality rate after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. The corresponding increases were 0.62% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.16%) in winter, 1.46% (95% PI: 0.89%, 2.03%) in spring, 1.60% (95% PI: 1.03%, 2.17%) in summer, and 1.12% (95% PI: 0.73%, 1.51%) in fall. We found significant associations between short-term exposure to ozone and higher mortality rate in East Asia that varied considerably from season to season with a significant trough in winter. PMID:25139207

Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Samoli, Evangelia; Yang, Xin; Kan, Haidong

2014-10-01

285

A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.  

PubMed

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

Yokoyama, Shinji

2014-04-01

286

East-west differences in ionospheric total electron content at midlatitude over the Far East Asia region: geomagnetic quiet and active conditions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous study provides evidence of the longitudinal change supporting the thermospheric zonal wind mechanism by examining the climatology of peak electron density (NmF2), electron density (Ne) of different altitudes in the Far East regions with a longitude separation of up to 40-60 degree based on 3 pair ground ionosondes (Zhao et al., 2013). Now we describe variations in total electron content (TEC) in the Far East Asia region exhibiting pronounced longitudinal asymmetry. Patterns were uncovered by applying an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition procedure to a 15 year ground-based GPS TEC data set. The first EOF mode describes a longitude pattern versus semiannual variation unlikely associated with geomagnetic declination. The second EOF mode exist systematic longitude difference versus a clear seasonal variation that has close relationship with geomagnetic declination. This longitude asymmetry show its maximum during the daytime for the late spring and summer period which would suggest that geomagnetic activity may play important role in making the longitude difference here. Then we make a statistical results on the east-west different response during geomagnetic activity and found that within same geomagnetic latitude, the negative storms are more pronounced and apt to propagate to lower latitude in the East side. This study is meaningful for building subtle region ionospheric model during both quiet and active periods.

Zhao, Biqiang

287

Reconstruction of the thermal environment evolution from subsurface temperature distribution in large cities in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature changes at the ground surface propagate into the underground and disturb the subsurface temperature structure. Analyzing disturbances in the subsurface temperature structure, we can reconstruct the past ground surface temperature (GST) change, which is closely related to the past surface air temperature change. This method can be applied to studies of thermal environment evolution in urban areas such as the development of “heat islands”. As part of an international multidisciplinary research project “Human Impacts on Urban Subsurface Environments”, we have been investigating GST histories in and around several large cities in East Asia, including Bangkok and Tokyo. We have also started a study on the subsurface thermal environment in Saitama prefecture, located on the north of Tokyo, as a research project of CESS (Center for Environmental Science in Saitama). The eastern part of Saitama prefecture is densely populated and considered to be a part of Tokyo Metropolitan area. In this presentation, we show the results of GST history reconstruction in the both areas. In Bangkok area, we conducted measurements of temperature profiles in groundwater monitoring wells at 45 sites in 2004, 2006, and 2008. In Saitama, we measured temperature profiles at 15 sites in 2009. We examined the shapes of the temperature profiles and selected ones that are not significantly disturbed by groundwater flow. Reconstruction of GST history for the last several hundred years was made at six sites in the Bangkok area and at two sites in the Saitama area. We used a multi-layer model that allows layers with different thermal properties, determining layer boundaries based on lithology of the formations around the wells. All of the reconstructed GST histories show surface warming in the last century. In the Bangkok area, the amount of the temperature increase ranges from 0.4 to 2.6 K and is larger in the city than in the area to the west of Bangkok and in the northern rural area. This tendency may reflect difference in the degree of urbanization or human activities. In the Saitama area, the GST increased by more than 2.5 K at both of the two sites, which are located in the densely populated part. The two sites in Saitama and the site at the center of Bangkok all show large GST increase, whereas the onset time of warming appears to be different among the three sites. These results should be combined with other information on development of the two large cities to investigate the main cause of the surface warming, e.g., increase in the surface air temperature and land use change. We also estimated the amount of heat stored in the subsurface after 1900 based on the reconstructed GST histories.

Hamamoto, H.; Goto, S.; Vuthy, M.; Nishijima, J.; Yamano, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Miyakoshi, A.; Hachinohe, S.; Sasaka, K.; Shiraishi, H.

2009-12-01

288

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTRE nEWS 2  

E-print Network

IAloguE: ThE WAy To pEACE 4 A pAlESTInIAn pEACE dIvIdEnd 6 ISlAMIC fInAnCE & BAnkIng 8 Anu puBlIC lECTuRES 9 SEMInCentre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTRE nEWS 2 d to Australia was sponsored by the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies, ANU and the Centre for Dialouge, Monash

289

Impact of the November/December Arctic Oscillation on the following January temperature in East Asia  

E-print Network

in Europe, it is much colder on the East Asian continent than other regions at similar latitudes, except Oscillation (AO) on winter East Asian temperature (TEA) and the possible mechanisms. It was found therefore emerges in the NP and favors a weaker East Asian winter monsoon. Warmer January TEA is eventually

290

Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) predictions of the tropospheric ozone budget over east Asia  

E-print Network

average accumulation ($1 Tg) of O3 in the east Asian region and very little net export averaged overRegional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) predictions of the tropospheric ozone budget over east calculations. The east Asian O3 budget is computed during the period from 7 March to 12 April 2001. Gross

Liu, Hongyu

291

The variation of the heat sources in East China in the early summer of 1984 and their effects on the large-scale circulation in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distributions and daily variations of the apparent heat source ( Q 1 )and the apparent moisture sink (Q2) in East China in the early summer of 1984 have been estimated with the budget calculation method. It has been found that during this time period, there occurred three significant episodes of strong heating that corresponded to the three events of heavy rainfalls prior to, during and post to the onset of meiyu (plum rains). The peaks of Q1 were generally found at 200 hPa, with the heating rate of 6‡-10‡C/day observed, while the peaks of Q2 were located at about 700 hPa, with their magnitudes being 12‡-20‡C/day. The vertical distribution of Q1 and Q2 indicates the importance of eddy vertical flux. In other words, the convective activity plays a very important role in the processes of precipitation in East Asia in the early summer. This result is different from the finding obtained by Luo and Yanai (1984) in their calculation of the case of 1979. They pointed out that in the early summer of 1979 the continuous precipitation dominated the region of East China. Among the three terms of Q1 and Q2, the maximum contribution was made from the adiabatic term, which was caused by strong ascending motion. The adiabatic cooling produced by this term may compensate for the heating created by the condensation process. In addition, it has been revealed that the three significant heating processes were closely related to the seasonal transition from spring to summer in East China. One major synoptic event associated with it showed up in the sudden jump of the upper tropospheric, subtropical jet-stream from 30‡N to 40‡N. So did the planetary frontal zone in East China.

Ding, Yihui; Hu, Jian

1988-06-01

292

The role of aerosol absorption in solar dimming over East Asia and its implications for regional climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-based observations have identified statistically significant trends in clear-sky surface solar radiation (SSR) over South and East Asia since the 1960s. The trends are generally negative, indicating a reduction in clear-sky SSR or a "dimming." The dimming is strongly driven by aerosol emissions over the region, but little work has been done to quantify the particular aerosol mechanisms that produce the trend or the contribution to the surface values from aerosol absorption within the atmospheric column. The redistribution of shortwave radiation that these aerosol effects imply has the potential to significantly impact regional circulation and precipitation. We conduct experiments over East Asia in two generations of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Atmospheric General Circulation Model, AM2.1 and AM3, in order to analyze the characteristics of the SSR trends that the models produce and to understand the particular aerosol mechanisms responsible. AM2.1 and AM3 have significantly different aerosol treatments, including differences in aerosol mixing and interactivity with model meteorology. We use the models' standalone radiation module to analyze how various aerosol characteristics in the two models (such as aerosol mixing state, hygroscopicity, and seasonal distribution) contribute to the trends produced. We find that the two models produce similar trends in clear-sky SSR, comparable to the observed trend, but via significantly different aerosol mechanisms with different regional climate implications. Both models' dimming trends, however, are strongly driven by increased aerosol absorption since 1960. The implications of this redistribution of solar heating between the surface and atmosphere for Asia's regional climate will be discussed.

Ming, Yi; Persad, Geeta; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam

2014-05-01

293

Volatility basis-set approach simulation of organic aerosol formation in East Asia: implications for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction and controllable amounts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosol (OA) simulations using the volatility basis-set approach were made for East Asia and its outflow region. Model simulations were evaluated through comparisons with OA measured by aerosol mass spectrometers in and around Tokyo (at Komaba and Kisai in summer 2003 and 2004) and over the outflow region in East Asia (at Fukue and Hedo in spring 2009). The simulations with aging processes of organic vapors reproduced the mass concentrations, temporal variations, and formation efficiencies of observed OA at all of the sites reasonably well. As OA mass was severely underestimated in the simulations without the aging processes, the oxidations of organic vapors are essential for reasonable OA simulations over East Asia. By considering the aging processes, simulated OA concentrations increased from 0.24 to 1.28 ?g m-3 in the boundary layer over the whole of East Asia. OA formed from the interaction of anthropogenic and biogenic sources was also enhanced by the aging processes. The fraction of controllable OA was estimated to be 87% of total OA over the whole of East Asia, which indicated that most of the OA in our simulations were formed anthropogenically (from controllable combustion sources). A large portion of biogenic secondary OA (78% of biogenic secondary OA) was formed through the influence of anthropogenic sources. These fractions were higher than the fraction of anthropogenic emissions. An important reason for these higher controllable fractions was higher oxidant concentrations and the resulting faster oxidation rates of OA precursors by considering anthropogenic sources. Both the amounts (from 0.18 to 1.12 ?g m-3) and the fraction (from 75 to 87%) of controllable OA were increased by aging processes of organic vapors over East Asia.

Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Takami, A.; Fast, J. D.; Kanaya, Y.; Takigawa, M.

2014-09-01

294

Future change of extreme temperature climate indices over East Asia with uncertainties estimation in the CMIP5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How well the climate models simulate extreme temperature over East Asia and how the extreme indices would change under anthropogenic global warming are investigated. The indices studied include hot days (HD), tropical nights (TN), growing degree days (GDD), and cooling degree days (CDD) in summer and heating degree days (HDD) and frost days (FD) in winter. The representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP 4.5) experiments for the period of 2075-2099 are compared with historical simulations for the period of 1979-2005 from 15 coupled models that are participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). To optimally estimate future change and its uncertainty, groups of best models are selected based on Taylor diagrams, relative entropy, and probability density function (PDF) methods previously suggested. Overall, the best models' multi-model ensemble based on Taylor diagrams has the lowest errors in reproducing temperature extremes in the present climate among three methods. Selected best models in three methods tend to project considerably different changes in the extreme indices from each other, indicating that the selection of reliable models are of critical importance to reduce uncertainties. Three groups of best models show significant increase of summerbased indices but decrease of the winter-based indices. Over East Asia, the most significant increase is seen in the HD (336 ± 23.4% of current climate) and the most significant decrease is appeared in the HDD (82 ± 4.2%). It is suggested that the larger future change in the HD is found over in the Southeastern China region, probably due to a higher local maximum temperature in the present climate. All of the indices show the largest uncertainty over Southeastern China, particularly in the TN (~3.9 times as large as uncertainty over East Asia) and in the HD (~2.4). It is further noted that the TN reveals the largest uncertainty over three East Asian countries (~1.7 and 1.4 over Korea and Japan, respectively). These future changes in extreme temperature events have an important implication for energy-saving applications and human molarity in the future.

Seo, Ye-Won; Kim, Hojin; Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Moon, Ja-Yeon

2014-10-01

295

Dynamics of the Seismogenic Layer for Deforming Zones in Central and East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present solutions for the seismogenic layer of the India-Eurasia collision zone by utilizing a forward dynamic modeling approach, where body force distributions, inferred lateral variations in linear effective viscosity, and known far-field velocity boundary conditions are defined. Body forces are the differences in gravity potential energy per unit area calculated as the depth integral of vertical stress from the surface down to a common depth reference of 20 km below sea level (assumed long-term brittle-ductile transition). Velocity boundary conditions are defined using long-term plate motion estimates. Effective viscosities in our models are proportional to the long-term friction on faults and are inversely proportional to strain rates inferred from Kostrov summation of Quaternary fault observations. Lateral variations in effective viscosity for the modeled layer span over 5 orders of magnitude. We neglect stresses due to flexure as well as small shear stresses at the base of the crustal layer. Our dynamic approximation is oversimplified because the width of the deforming zone for even geometrically simple faults increases with depth. Moreover, the long-term brittle-ductile transition depth (our proxy for the base of our model seiemogenic layer) is likely spatially variable and not at uniform depth below sea level. Nevertheless, this approach does produce quantitative insight on the question of frictional strength for faults within deforming upper crust. Self-consistent dynamic strain rate tensor solutions to the force-balance equations are solved and tested for fitness with the kinematic strain rate tensor styles inferred from Quaternary fault observations and from CMT solutions. We assume an isotropic relationship between dynamic strain rate tensor directions and kinematic strain rate directions and assume that these are appropriate strain field indicators. Dynamic model velocity fields are scored via reduced chi-square misfit with GPS velocity observations at over 2500 GPS locations. Preliminary models defined with fault friction values of ? = 0.025 for the Burma region, ? = 0.10 - 0.25 for the Tibetan Plateau region, and ? > 0.6 for the megathrust system as well as for north central and far east Asia achieve optimal fit to Quaternary deformation indicators. Successful models indicate that deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with velocity boundary conditions within Burma and parts of the Tibetan Plateau. The dynamic stress and strain rate tensor fields and the dynamic velocity field each are acutely sensitive to the intrinsic mechanical properties of the faults, the density of available fault fabric, and perhaps to contributions from horizontal basal tractions. We test our models of the seismogenic layer, which do not account for contributions from basal tractions, to the effect of deeper lithospheric loads. Initial results indicate that such loads are generally smaller than the stresses associated with our models of the seismogenic layer. Stresses associated from deeper sources together with stresses from the seismogenic layer yield dynamical model output that may enhance the fit to deformation indicators.

Klein, E. C.; Flesch, L. M.; Holt, W. E.

2010-12-01

296

Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia—China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the China Geological Survey (CGS) to conduct a mineral resource assessment of Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Dexing deposit in eastern China that contains more than 8,000,000 metric tons of copper. In addition, large parts of the area are undergoing active exploration and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits. Three tracts were delineated to be permissive for Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia: the Manchuride, Coastal Pacific, and East Qinling tracts, all Jurassic through Cretaceous in age. The tracts are based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits is possible. These tracts range in area from about 170,000 to about 1,400,000 km2. Although maps at a variety of scales were used in the assessment, the final tract boundaries are intended for use at a scale of 1:1,000,000. These Mesozoic deposits in East Asia all formed in post-subduction environments, environments newly recognized as permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits. Based on the grade, tonnage, and geologic characteristics of the known deposits, two tracts, Manchuride and Coastal Pacific, were evaluated using the general (Cu-Mo-Au) porphyry copper grade and tonnage model. The East Qinling tract was evaluated using the molybdenum-rich (Cu-Mo) model. Assessment participants estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits at different levels of confidence for each permissive tract. These estimates were then combined with the selected grade and tonnage models using Monte Carlo simulation to generate quantitative probabilistic estimates of undiscovered resources. Resources in future extensions of deposits with identified resources were not specifically evaluated. Assessment results, presented in tables and graphs, show mean amounts of metal and rock in undiscovered deposits at different quantile levels, as well as the arithmetic mean for each tract. This assessment estimated a mean total of about 44 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the assessed permissive tracts in East Asia. This represents nearly 4 times the 12 known deposits. Predicted mean (arithmetic) resources that could be associated with these undiscovered deposits are about 198,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper and about 3,900 t of gold, as well as byproduct molybdenum and silver. The reported identified resources for those 12 known deposits total about 23,000,000 t of copper and about 850 t of gold. The assessment area is estimated to contain nearly nine times as much copper in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits as has been identified to date. This report includes an overview of the assessment results and summary tables. Descriptions of each tract are included in appendixes, with estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits, and probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. A geographic information system that accompanies the report includes tract boundaries and a database of known porphyry copper deposits and prospects.

Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R., Jr.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy

2012-01-01

297

Summertime land-sea thermal contrast and atmospheric circulation over East Asia in a warming climate—Part I: Past changes and future projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) contrast, an index of tropospheric thermodynamic structure and dynamical circulation, has shown a significant increase in recent decades over East Asia during the boreal summer. In Part I of this two-part paper, observational data and the results of transient warming experiments conducted using coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs) are analyzed to examine changes in land-sea thermal contrast and the associated atmospheric circulation over East Asia from the past to the future. The interannual variability of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East for 1950-2012 was found to be tightly coupled with a characteristic tripolar pattern of tropospheric circulation over East Asia, which manifests as anticyclonic anomalies over the Okhotsk Sea and around the Philippines, and a cyclonic anomaly over Japan during a positive phase, and vice versa. In response to CO2 increase, the cold northeasterly winds off the east coast of northern Japan and the East Asian rainband were strengthened with the circulation pattern well projected on the observed interannual variability. These results are commonly found in GCMs regardless of future forcing scenarios, indicating the robustness of the East Asian climate response to global warming. The physical mechanisms responsible for the increase of the land-sea contrast are examined in Part II.

Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

2014-11-01

298

Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward US Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) accredited universities in the United States (US) with the greatest populations of international students were surveyed to identify the status of East Asian international students' attitudes toward their schools. Among East Asian international music students at US higher education…

Choi, Jin Ho

2013-01-01

299

EnergyScenariosforEastAsia,20052025 217 Commentary on Chapter 7  

E-print Network

. Internationally, the spillover effects of growth in East Asian energy demand on regional and global energy markets on how the region's governments manage their growth and technological progress. Like the broader Asian economic picture, recent attention to East Asian energy demand has centered on the People's Republic

Kammen, Daniel M.

300

The Impact of External Shocks in East Asia: Lessons from a Structural VAR Model  

E-print Network

examine the relative importance of external shocks in domestic fluctuations of East Asian countries. Introduction The Asian crisis in 1997-98 has highlighted the role of regional contagion in financial crisis. The vulnerability of East Asian countries to these regionalcontagion effectshas been explained by their high

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

301

Anomalous midsummer rainfall in Yangtze River-Huaihe River valleys and its association with the East Asia westerly jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the interannual and interdecadal relationship between midsummer Yangtze River-Huaihe River valley (YHRV) rainfall and the position of the East Asia westerly jet (EAWJ) were investigated. The midsummer YHRV rainfall was found to significantly increase after the 1980s. Moreover, the location of the EAWJ was found abnormally south of the climatic mean during 1980-2008 (ID2) compared to 1951-1979 (ID1). During ID2, associated with the southward movement of the EAWJ, an anomalous upper-level convergence occurred over middle-high latitudes (35°-55°N) and divergence occurred over lower latitudes (˜30°N) of East Asia. Correspondingly, anomalous descending and ascending motion was observed in middle-high and lower latitudes along 90°-130°E, respectively, favoring more precipitation over YHRV. On an interannual time scale, the EAWJ and YHRV rainfall exhibited similar relationships during the two periods. When the EAWJ was centered abnormally southward, rainfall over YHRV tended to increase. However, EAWJrelated circulations were significantly different during the two periods. During ID1, the circulation of the southward-moving EAWJ exhibited alternating positive-negative-positive distributions from low to middle-high latitudes along the East Asian coast; the most significant anomaly appeared west of the Okhotsk Sea. However, during ID2 the EAWJ was more closely correlated with the tropical and subtropical circulations. Significant differences between ID1 and ID2 were also recorded sea surface temperatures (SSTs). During ID1, the EAWJ was influenced by the extratropical SST over the northern Pacific; however, the EAWJ was more significantly affected by the SST of the tropical western Pacific during ID2.

Xuan, Shouli; Zhang, Qingyun; Sun, Shuqing

2011-03-01

302

South East Asia to America: Links in a Chain (Part Two).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the transfer of Indochinese refugees from Southeast Asia to the United States, their stay in interim refugee camps, the voyage by plane, bureaucratic problems, and their first encounter with American life. Provides an anecdotal account of one family's experiences and reactions. (GC)

Rose, Peter I.

1981-01-01

303

Validating IASI Temperature and Moisture Sounding Retrievals over East Asia Using Radiosonde Observations  

E-print Network

Asia. The level-2 products used in this study were provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric for the better retrieval. 1. Introduction With the advent of satellite technology, hyperspectral measurements, with a spectral resolution of 0.25 cm21 (Blumstein et al. 2004). Observed hyperspectral measurements are rou

Li, Jun

304

Higher Education in East Asia and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews Asia-Pacific higher education and university research, focusing principally on the "Confucian" education nations Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong China, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam. Except for Vietnam, these systems exhibit a special developmental dynamism--still playing out everywhere except Japan--and have created a distinctive…

Marginson, Simon

2011-01-01

305

Impact of meteorological anomalies in the 2003 summer on Gross Primary Productivity in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern Eurasia experienced anomalous weather conditions in the 2003 summer. We examined how forest ecosystems responded to the meteorological anomalies during the period using the dataset collected at flux monitoring sites in Asia, including a boreal forest in Mongolia, temperate forests in China and Japan, and a sub-tropical forest in China, as well as the dataset from satellite remote sensing.

N. Saigusa; K. Ichii; H. Murakami; R. Hirata; J. Asanuma; H. den; S.-J. Han; R. Ide; S.-G. Li; T. Ohta; T. Sasai; S.-Q. Wang; G.-R. Yu

2010-01-01

306

18/03/2010 11:46IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437  

E-print Network

://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437 Photo: Madeleine Price Ball/Wikimedia Are careers in our DNA code? Africa Asia Middle East reports: Home Africa Asia Middle East Latin America & Caribbean Weekly reports Global Issues In Item Page 2 of 2http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437 AFRICA: Talking about climate change

West, Stuart

307

ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2012, VOL. 5, NO. 6, 504-508 Monsoon Change in East Asia in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3  

E-print Network

ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2012, VOL. 5, NO. 6, 504-508 Monsoon Change in East Asia investigate monsoon change in East Asia in the 21st century under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, showing that the model can reliably repro- duce the basic climatology of both winter and summer monsoons

308

Technologies and Emergency Management for Disaster Recovery — With Focus on the Great East Japan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter summarizes three talks in the tutorial session of the 13th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium (APNOMS2011), which focused on the disaster recovery and further emergency management regarding the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. We present the damage and restoration of communication networks and points to a future disaster-resilient society.

Kinoshita, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yukio; Kimura, Hideaki; Maeda, Yuji

309

Orbital remote sensing - Space technology applications in south-east Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of remote sensing techniques in the developing countries of southeast Asia is reviewed. The use of the images for monitoring soil, water, and vegetation resources, in order to develop a national policy for conservation of the resources, is described. The remote sensing data are helpful in observing deforestation in southeast Asia; however, excessive cloud coverage does not allow accurate evaluation of the rice crop. The effects of the capabilities of the developing countries to process the data and remote sensing program of industrial countries on the future application of satellite imagery in developing countries are studied. The need for improved data banking and dissemination of the imagery is analyzed. Agreements on proprietary rights due to the improved ground resolution of orbital sensors are required. The designing of remote sensing equipment to meet the requirements of its users is discussed.

Malingreau, J.-P.

1985-01-01

310

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago.  

PubMed

The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

2009-05-01

311

Interdecadal variability of summer climate over East Asia and its association with 500 hPa height and global sea surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdecadal variability of summer climate (rainfall and temperature) in East Asia (China and Japan) and its association with the anomalies of geopotential heights at 500 hPa over the Northern Hemisphere (NH), global sea surface temperature (SSTA), and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) were examined. An abrupt change was found in the middle and by the end of the 1970s in the

Zeng-Zhen Hu

1997-01-01

312

Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…

Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

2005-01-01

313

Winter-to-Spring Transition in East Asia: A Planetary-Scale Perspectiv eo f the South China Spring Rain Onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of observations from 1979 to 2002 shows that the seasonal transition from winter to spring in East Asia is marked with a distinctive event—the onset of the south China spring rain (SCSR). In late February, the reduced thermal contrast between ocean and land leads to weakening of the Asian winter monsoon as well as the Siberian high and the

L. H. LINHO; XIANGLEI HUANG; NGAR-CHEUNG LAU

2008-01-01

314

Sunken WWII shipwrecks of the Pacific and East Asia: The need for regional collaboration to address the potential marine pollution threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil, chemicals and unexploded ordinances onboard sunken World War II (WWII) warships and merchant vessels pose a real and significant marine pollution risk to the nations of the Pacific and East Asia. A recent project of the South Pacific Regional Environment Program (SPREP), through its Pacific Ocean Pollution Prevention Program, has highlighted the extent of the risk posed by vessels

Rean Monfils; Trevor Gilbert; Sefanaia Nawadra

2006-01-01

315

A cadinene biopolymer in fossil and extant dammar resins as a source for cadinanes and bicadinanes in crude oils from South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of a fossil resin from a Miocene outcrop in Brunei, South East Asia, is compared with its extant counterpart dammar, obtained from trees of the family Dipterocarpaceae, to establish the nature of the precursor of bicadinanes. The alcohol soluble fractions of the resins consist of functionalised triterpenoids and a small amount of sesquiterpenoids. None of the compounds

B. G. K. van Aarssen; H. C. Cox; P. Hoogendoorn; J. W. de Leeuw

1990-01-01

316

Origins of domestic dog in Southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA  

PubMed Central

Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in Asia South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog–wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West Asia but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14?437?bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to East Asia. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13–24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog–wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog–wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool. PMID:22108628

Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P

2012-01-01

317

Multi-Institutional Phase II Clinical Study of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in East and Southeast Asia  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia, a multi-institutional Phase II clinical study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Methods and Materials: Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky Stage IIB and 60 with Stage IIIB) with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were enrolled in the present study. Radiotherapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy according to institutional practice. The planned Point A dose was 24-28 Gy in four fractions for high-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy and 40-45 Gy in one to two fractions for low-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered during the radiotherapy course. Results: All patients were eligible for the study. The median follow-up was 27.3 months. Of the 120 patients, 100 (83%) received four or five cycles of chemotherapy. Acute Grade 3 leukopenia was observed in 21% of the patients, and Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 6%. No patient failed to complete the radiotherapy course because of toxicity. The 2-year local control and overall survival rate for all patients was 87.1% and 79.6%, respectively. The 2-year major late rectal and bladder complication rate was 2.5% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The results have suggested that concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin is feasible and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia.

Kato, Shingo, E-mail: s_kato@nirs.go.j [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, Gunma (Japan); Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand)

2010-07-01

318

Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

2013-12-01

319

Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435

2011-01-01

320

The role of atmospheric circulation system playing in coupling relationship between spring NPP and precipitation in East Asia area.  

PubMed

In many East Asia regions, spring (from March to May) precipitation is an important restricting factor to vegetation growth, and atmospheric circulation system may influence spring precipitation patter. It is helpful to under the response of ecosystem to climate change by studying the influence of atmospheric circulation system on the coupling relationship between spring net primary productivity and precipitation. Driving CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) NPP (Net Primary Productivity) model, we estimated spring NPP for East Asia area (70 degrees E-1 70 degrees E, 10 degrees N-70 degrees N) from 1982 to 1999, and by the method of singular value decomposition we further analyzed the coupling features of spring NPP with precipitation. The result showed that the response features of NPP to precipitation were mainly embodied within the leading six NPP-precipitation paired-modes. The interpretation rates of the leading six paired-modes to the covariance of NPP-precipitation were 42.91, 23.29, 9.96, 5.60, 5.04 and 3.95%, respectively, and total to 90.75%. The temporal correlation coefficients of the leading six paired-modes were 0.830, 0.889, 0.841, 0.747, 0.912 and 0.923, respectively, and all the correlations were significant at significant level of 0.001. In some high latitude regions, there was no obviously corresponding relationship between NPP and precipitation in the leading two paired-modes, and the reason of it may be that spring temperature was the main restricting factor to NPP. In middle and low latitude regions, the effect of precipitation on NPP was relatively more notable. Nine atmospheric circulation factors in spring affected the patterns of NPP and precipitation greatly, and the regions with interpretation rate over 50% shared 60.41 and 65.58% of the whole study area, respectively. PMID:18049907

Deyong, Yu; Wenquan, Zhu; Yaozhong, Pan

2008-10-01

321

Observation impact estimation using a forecast sensitivity to observation (FSO) method in the global and east Asia regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the observation impact to the forecast for the summer and winter months (i.e., JJA 2011 and DJF 2011-2012) in the global and east Asia regions, using the forecast sensitivity to observation (FSO) tool in the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) Unified Model (UM). The SONDE, AIRCRAFT, SURFACE, BOGUS, NOAA ATOVS, MetOp2 ATOVS, IASI, AIRS, GPSRO, SSMIS, Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) of KMA, AMV of JMA, ESA, GEOS, MSG, and ASCAT observations were used to estimate the observation impact to the forecast. Overall each observation showed consistent contribution to the forecast error reduction for summer and winter months. In the global region, the observation impact to the forecast error reduction depended on the number of observations assimilated in the numerical model. The contribution of the SONDE to the forecast error reduction is the largest, followed by NOAA / MetOp2 ATOVS and IASI. In satellite sounding observations, the contribution of channel number 5, 6, 7 of NOAA AMSU-A and channel number 56-215, 271-280 of IASI to the forecast error reduction were large. In the east Asia region, the contribution of the SONDE to the forecast error reduction was the largest, similar to that in the global region. However, the contribution of the satellite data to the forecast error reduction was decreased when compared to that in the global region because of exception of millions of satellite observations located the ocean and southern hemisphere. Especially, Atmospheric Motion Vector (AMV) observations of COMS launched in 2009 showed the largest impact among several Imager sensors.

Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Hyun Mee

2013-04-01

322

The Long Winding Road of Opioid Substitution Therapy Implementation in South-East Asia: Challenges to Scale Up  

PubMed Central

The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users. Significance for public health Several countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region can be commended for introducing opioid substitution therapy (OST) to address the ongoing HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). Local evidence shows OST is an effective drug treatment approach in the Asian context given sufficient technical and institutional support. However, despite much progress, the number of OST dispensing sites and recipients remains totally inadequate in terms of impact upon the current HIV epidemic among PWID. Ongoing advocacy is needed if countries are to achieve the WHO’s target of 40% of PWID being dosed with OST. Greater political commitment a strengthened policy environment, capacity building for OST clinics, lessening the criminalisation of drug use and promoting a public health response will give many more PWID access to OST and slow the advance of the HIV epidemic.

Reid, Gary; Sharma, Mukta; Higgs, Peter

2014-01-01

323

Marriages with Foreign Women in East Asia: Bride Trafficking or Voluntary Migration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of East Asian men marry a bride from a foreign country. In the late 2000s, marriages in which the wives were of foreign origin accounted for 15% of new unions in Taiwan, 8% in South Korea and 6% in Japan. The largest group of immigrant spouses in these countries come from the People's Republic of China. Vietnamese

Danièle Bélanger

2010-01-01

324

What Explains the Industrial Revolution in East Asia? Evidence From the Factor Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents dual estimates of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) for East Asian countries. While the dual estimates of TFPG for Korea and Hong Kong are similar to the primal estimates, they exceed the primal estimates by 1 percent a year for Taiwan and by more than 2 percent for Singapore. The reason for the large discrepancy for Singapore

Chang-Tai Hsieh

2002-01-01

325

Proposed strategy for a regional exchange rate arrangement in post-crisis East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After discussing major conceptual, and empirical issues relevant to the exchange rate policies of East Asian countries, the authors propose a regional exchange rate arrangement designed to promote intra-regional exchange rate stability, and regional economic growth. They argue that: 1) For developing countries, exchange rate volatility tends to significantly hurt trade and investment, making it inadvisable to adopt a system

Masahiro Kawai; Shinji Takagi

2000-01-01

326

FDI and Innovation as Drivers of Export Behaviour: Firm-level Evidence from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the links between ownership, innovation and exporting in electronics firms in three late industrializing East Asian countries (China, Thailand and the Philippines) drawing on recent developments in applied international trade and innovation and learning. Technology-based approaches to trade offer a plausible explanation for firm-level exporting behavior. The econometric results (using probit) confirm the importance of foreign ownership

Ganeshan Wignaraja

2008-01-01

327

Factors Influencing the Higher Education of International Students from Confucian East Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education, especially that leading to a degree from a high-prestige university, is strongly related to social status and employment opportunities in East Asian countries. This is a consequence of both traditional Confucian attitudes to education and the social and economic changes accompanying industrialisation. Since the number of places…

Choi, Serene H.-J.; Nieminen, Timo A.

2013-01-01

328

Monitoring Rural Development in East Asia. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 439.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents results of discussions during an 8-day workshop (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 1979) on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of East Asian and Pacific rural development projects. Major workshop themes identified are managerial, technical, and institutional aspects of monitoring. The introduction discusses previous World Bank…

Deboeck, Guido; Ng, Ronald

329

Financial Liberalisation and Breaks in Stock Market Volatility: Evidence from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the short and medium term impact of financial reforms on stock market volatility in five East Asian emerging markets. Several newly proposed tests are employed to identify and verify the number and timing of structural breaks in the variance dynamics. The detected breakdates do not correspond to official liberalisation dates. The magnitude and direction of the change

Panicos Demetriades; Michaeil Karoglou; Siong Hook Law

2007-01-01

330

Factors influencing the higher education of international students from Confucian East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education, especially that leading to a degree from a high-prestige university, is strongly related to social status and employment opportunities in East Asian countries. This is a consequence of both traditional Confucian attitudes to education and the social and economic changes accompanying industrialisation. Since the number of places available at high-prestige universities is limited, competition is intense. Successful entry

Serene H.-J. Choi; Timo A. Nieminen

2012-01-01

331

Frontoethmoidal meningoencephalocele: a common and severe congenital abnormality in South East Asia.  

PubMed Central

The clinical features of 23 cases of fronto-ethmoidal meningoencephalocele are described in two South East Asian populations. The clinical, embryological, and epidemiological evidence may support an early teratogenic insult in the aetiology of this congenital defect. Images p717-a PMID:1626991

Richards, C G

1992-01-01

332

Culture and mental health of women in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the impact of cultural factors on mental health of South Asian women. Marked gender discrimination in South Asia has led to second class status of women in society. Their mobility, work, self-esteem and self-image, in fact their worth and identity, seem to depend upon the male members of a patriarchal society. Women's lack of empowerment and both financial and emotional dependence have restricted their self-expression and choices in life. This, along with family, social and work pressures, has a definite impact on women's mental health. PMID:16946955

NIAZ, UNAIZA; HASSAN, SEHAR

2006-01-01

333

Estimation of the black carbon (BC) emissions from East Asia based on accurate BC measurements in the Asian outflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asia, including China, is the largest source of anthropogenic black carbon (BC). In estimating the BC emissions from this region, it is advantageous to use BC mass concentrations measured at remote locations over the ocean appropriately distant from large sources, because of spatially uniform distributions through mixing during transport. We made continuous measurements of BC with an accuracy of about 10% at Cape Hedo on Okinawa Island over the East China Sea from February 2008 to May 2009, simultaneously with carbon monoxide (CO). The seasonal median BC values at Cape Hedo were highest in winter and spring when plumes from China were often transported to the site. A three dimensional chemistry-transport model (CTM) was used to calculate the mass concentrations of BC using annual mean emission inventory for the base year of 2006 of Zhang et al. [2009]. The model results and the observed BC-CO correlation were used to exclude the BC data substantially influenced by wet deposition. The calculated BC agreed to within 20% on average with the BC values observed in air strongly impacted by emissions in China for winter and spring. The present comparison indicates BC emissions in China, especially north-eastern China, are close to those predicted by the inventory, despite the large uncertainty of the inventory.

Kondo, Y.; Oshima, N.; Kajino, M.; Mikami, R.; Verma, R.; Kajii, Y. J.; Kato, S.; Takami, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kawana, K.

2010-12-01

334

The impact on the present and future East Asia climate of the land cover changes simulated by dynamic vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface properties are important because of their known impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. Historical and future changes in land cover changes give influences on the monsoon rainfall and circulation over the Asian summer monsoon region. The dynamic vegetation model, as one of the key process of the Earth System model, simulates the terrestrial biosphere where the fraction of tree and grass species is a function of the local climate state. The potential effect of the simulated land cover distribution needs to be individually evaluated in present and future climate simulations. Since it is reported that the simulated land surface properties could give influence on the systematic biases in monsoon rainfall and add an impact in the future projection via feedback with the dust loading of the atmosphere [Martin and Levine, 2012]. Motivated by the previous study, we investigate the impact of land cover change generated by the interactive terrestrial carbon cycle in the HadGEM2 Earth System configuration over East Asia under present-day and possible future climate condition. Data in this study is HadGEM2-A runs using HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution in Martin and Levine [2012]. In present-day run, over the northern China region to the west of Korea, bare soil increase distinctly in HadGEM2-ES rather than HadGEM2-AO. ES land cover by interactive vegetation model gives influences on JJA rainfall and temperature. There is interaction with model systematic biases in the present-day climate. JJA dry bias is larger when HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution was used for Korea. Dust aerosol effect contributes to the dry bias. As bare soil fraction increases, more emitted dust aerosol has direct effect of negative net downward SW, cooling the land surface, weakening monsoon inflow, inducing dry bias over Korea. In the other hand, over bare soil expanded area, changes in roughness length and soil evaporation, the subsequent latent heat flux changes contribute to local surface warming in JJA. In global warming, warmer and wetter climate in JJA is expected in East Asia. Relative to global warming, ES land cover and dust direct effects are small and the details are presented. Acknowledgements. This study is supported by the National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration (NIMR-2012-B-2).

Boo, Kyung-On; Cho, Mee-Hyun; Martin, Gill; Lee, Johan

2014-05-01

335

Aerial observations of air masses transported from East Asia to the Western Pacific: Vertical structure of polluted air masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been only limited information about the vertical chemical structure of the atmosphere, so far. We conducted aerial observations on 11, 12, and 14 December 2010 over the northern part of the East China Sea to analyze the spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants from East Asia and to elucidate transformation processes of air pollutants during the long-range transport. On 11 December, a day on which Asian dust created hazy conditions, the average PM10 concentration was 40.69 ?g m-3, and we observed high concentrations of chemical components such as Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, Al, Ca, Fe, and Zn. The height of the boundary layer was about 1200 m, and most species of pollutants (except for dust particles and SO2) had accumulated within the boundary layer. In contrast, concentrations of pollutants were low in the boundary layer (up to 1000 m) on 12 December because clean Pacific air from the southeast had diluted the haze. However, we observed natural chemical components (Na+, Cl-, Al, Ca, and Fe) at 3000 m, the indication being that dust particles, including halite, were present in the lower free troposphere. On 14 December, peak concentrations of SO2 and black carbon were measured within the boundary layer (up to 700 m) and at 2300 m. The concentrations of anthropogenic chemical components such as NO3-, NH4+, and Zn were highest at 500 m, and concentrations of both anthropogenic and natural chemical components (SO42-, Pb, Ca2+, Ca, Al, and Fe) were highest at 2000 m. Thus, it was clearly indicated that the air above the East China Sea had a well-defined, layered structure below 3000 m.

Hatakeyama, Shiro; Ikeda, Keisuke; Hanaoka, Sayuri; Watanabe, Izumi; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Bandow, Hiroshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Zhang, Daizhou; Okuyama, Kikuo; Ogi, Takashi; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Seto, Takafumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takami, Akinori

2014-11-01

336

Food Security - Global Trends and Region Perspective with Reference to East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sharp increase in global food prices during 2007?2008 has triggered the awareness of food insecurity problems and their impacts on the low income, food?deficit countries many of which are located in the East Asian countries. The food?security situation was good in relative terms given that the percentage of carbohydrates consumed is slightly lower than the world average while proteins

Ching-Cheng Chang; Shih-Hsun Hsu

2011-01-01

337

Unsettling Settlement: Perspectives of Refugees from South and South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explored the settlement challenges of South and South East Asian refugees in the City of Hamilton. This study was undertaken to represent the voices of the marginalized and vulnerable communities such as refugees to be included on settlement related research. The purpose of the study was also to identify issues to suggest directions for future policy planning.\\u000aThe

2008-01-01

338

Proposed Strategy for a Regional Exchange Rate Arrangement in Post-Crisis East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 2000A coordinated action by East Asian countries to stabilize their currencies against a common basket of major currencies (broadly representative of their average structure of trade and foreign direct investment) would help stabilize both intra-regional exchange rates and effective exchange rates?in a way consistent with the medium-term objective of promoting trade, investment, and growth in the region.After discussing major

Masahiro Kawai; Shinji Takagi

1999-01-01

339

The political economy of the dollar and the yen in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the early 1980s until 1997 large amounts of Japan's current account dollar surplus were invested in U.S. Treasury securities. This economic relationship developed into an “alliance” sustained by the economic policies of U.S. and Japanese authorities. The U.S.-Japanese alliance indirectly promoted East Asian export-led growth during 1985–95. However, policies associated with the U.S.-Japanese alliance also contributed significantly to the

Kristen Nordhaug

2002-01-01

340

The oriental fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. in East Asia: disentangling the different forces promoting the invasion and shaping the genetic make-up of populations.  

PubMed

The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, is one of the most economically destructive pests of fruits and vegetables especially in East Asia. Based on its phytophagous life style, this species dispersed with the diffusion and implementation of agriculture, while globalization allowed it to establish adventive populations in different tropical and subtropical areas of the world. We used nine SSR loci over twelve samples collected across East Asia, i.e. an area that, in relatively few years, has become a theatre of intensive agriculture and a lively fruit trade. Our aim is to disentangle the different forces that have affected the invasion pattern and shaped the genetic make-up of populations of this fruit fly. Our data suggest that the considered samples probably represent well established populations in terms of genetic variability and population structuring. The human influence on the genetic shape of populations and diffusion is evident, but factors such as breeding/habitat size and life history traits of the species may have determined the post introduction phases and expansion. In East Asia the origin of diffusion can most probably be allocated in the oriental coastal provinces of China, from where this fruit fly spread into Southeast Asia. The spread of this species deserves attention for the development and implementation of risk assessment and control measures. PMID:24816716

Aketarawong, N; Guglielmino, C R; Karam, N; Falchetto, M; Manni, M; Scolari, F; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R

2014-06-01

341

Regional Dispersal of Fukushima-derived Fission Nuclides by East Asia Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Fukushima nuclear accident happened on 12 March 2011, there have been a plethora of publications about the dispersion of radioactive material from the damaged reactors. Most of these works dealt with global transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the northern hemisphere and local transport in the vicinity of Fukushima and around Japan. In contrast, few works investigated into dispersal of radiation plumes from Japan to other areas on regional scales. This is because regional dispersal out of Japan in the springtime is most likely dominated by the northeastern monsoon, whereas there are few monitoring stations downwind in the southeastern Asia region. In this respect, we are only aware of the data in Vietnam published by Long et al (2012) in addition to our own data obtained in and around Taiwan (Huh et al., 2012; Hsu et al., 2012). By integrating the data published in the literature plus those that can be searched from relevant websites, we try to further elucidate the dispersal of Fukushima-derived radiation toward the southeastern Asia region. The WRF/Chem tracer model is employed to simulate the dispersal of radiation plumes from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. From a vis-à-vis comparison between the model simulation and the time-series of Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around the southeastern Asia, we can distinguish between global transport by the Westerlies in the free troposphere and regional transport by the northeast monsoon in the planetary boundary layer. In general, regional (mainly meridional) transport carried more weight than global (mainly zonal) transport in contributing Fukushima-derived radioactivity to the area covered in this review, particularly at the ground-level sites. References 1. Hsu, S.C., Huh, C.A., Chan, C.Y., Lin, S.H., Lin, F.J. and Liu, S.C. (2012). Hemispheric dispersion of radioactive plume laced with fission nuclides from the Fukushima nuclear event. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L00G22, doi:10.1029/2011GL049986. 2. Huh, C.A., Hsu, S. C. and Lin, C. Y. (2012). Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around Taiwan: Free tropospheric versus boundary layer transport. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 319-320: 9-14. 3. Long, N.Q., Truong, Y., Hien, P.D., Binh, N.T., Sieu, L.N., Giap, T.V. and Phan, N.T. (2012). Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam. J. Environ. Radioactiv. 111: 53-58.

Huh, Chih-An; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Hsu, Shih-Chieh

2013-04-01

342

Phylogeography of Quercus variabilis Based on Chloroplast DNA Sequence in East Asia: Multiple Glacial Refugia and Mainland-Migrated Island Populations  

PubMed Central

The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern Asia. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Korea Peninsular as well as Japan, Zhoushan and Taiwan Islands) was collected, and three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments were sequenced using universal primers. A total of 26 haplotypes were detected, and it showed a weak phylogeographical structure in eastern Asia populations at species level, however, in the central-eastern region of Mainland China, the populations had more haplotypes than those in other regions, with a significant phylogeographical structure (NST?=?0.751> GST?=?0.690, P<0.05). Q. variabilis displayed high interpopulation and low intrapopulation genetic diversity across the distribution range. Both unimodal mismatch distribution and significant negative Fu’s FS indicated a demographic expansion of Q. variabilis populations in East Asia. A fossil calibrated phylogenetic tree showed a rapid speciation during Pleistocene, with a population augment occurred in Middle Pleistocene. Both diversity patterns and ecological niche modelling indicated there could be multiple glacial refugia and possible bottleneck or founder effects occurred in the southern Japan. We dated major spatial expansion of Q. variabilis population in eastern Asia to the last glacial cycle(s), a period with sea-level fluctuations and land bridges in East China Sea as possible dispersal corridors. This study showed that geographical heterogeneity combined with climate and sea-level changes have shaped the genetic structure of this wide-ranging tree species in East Asia. PMID:23115642

Kang, Hongzhang; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Shan; Du, Hongmei; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Gapare, Washington; Wu, Harry X.; Liu, Chunjiang

2012-01-01

343

Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic migration is a common geological process of basin formation and evolution. However, little is known about tectonic migration in the western Pacific margins. This paper focuses on the representative Cenozoic basins of East China and its surrounding seas in the western Pacific domain to discuss the phenomenon of tectonic jumping in Cenozoic basins, based on structural data from the Bohai Bay Basin, the South Yellow Sea Basin, the East China Sea Shelf Basin, and the South China Sea Continental Shelf Basin. The western Pacific active continental margin is the eastern margin of a global convergent system involving the Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indian Plate. Under the combined effects of the India-Eurasia collision and retrogressive or roll-back subduction of the Pacific Plate, the western Pacific active continental margin had a wide basin-arc-trench system which migrated or ‘jumped’ eastward and further oceanward. This migration and jumping is characterized by progressive eastward younging of faulting, sedimentation, and subsidence within the basins. Owing to the tectonic migration, the geological conditions associated with hydrocarbon and gashydrate accumulation in the Cenozoic basins of East China and its adjacent seas also become progressively younger from west to east, showing eastward younging in the generation time of reservoirs, seals, traps, accumulations and preservation of hydrocarbon and gashydrate. Such a spatio-temporal distribution of Cenozoic hydrocarbon and gashydrate is significant for the oil, gas and gashydrate exploration in the East Asian Continental Margin. Finally, this study discusses the mechanism of Cenozoic intrabasinal and interbasinal tectonic migration in terms of interplate, intraplate and underplating processes. The migration or jumping regimes of three separate or interrelated events: (1) tectonism-magmatism, (2) basin formation, and (3) hydrocarbon-gashydrate accumulation are the combined effects of the Late Mesozoic extrusion tectonics, the Cenozoic NW-directed crustal extension, and the regional far-field eastward flow of the western asthenosphere due to the India-Eurasia plate collision, accompanied by eastward jumping and roll-back of subduction zones of the Pacific Plate.

Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming

2014-07-01

344

Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western pacific regions, 2009-2013.  

PubMed

Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures. PMID:25275329

Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

2014-10-01

345

Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall. Oppositely, for inactive years, drier-than-normal atmosphere appeared and consequently sluggish snowfall seasons followed. A SVD (singular value decomposition) analysis of the Asian synoptic circulation indicated that the connection between the pressure dipoles and the position of EAT is strong in 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2010, and 2011. It significantly affects both of the snowfall and dust activities. In summary, snowfall active years usually occurred when the East Asian dust storm was inactive. Nevertheless, the snowfall activity increased in Taiwan if there was dust event and the dust aerosol successfully transported to Taiwan. This finding is also demonstrated in the model simulation of this study.

Tsai, L.

2013-12-01

346

Maternal and perinatal guideline development in hospitals in South East Asia: the experience of the SEA-ORCHID project  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are commonly used to support practitioners to improve practice. However many studies have raised concerns about guideline quality. The reasons why guidelines are not developed following the established development methods are not clear. The SEA-ORCHID project aims to increase the generation and use of locally relevant research and improve clinical practice in maternal and perinatal care in four countries in South East Asia. Baseline data highlighted that development of evidence-based CPGs according to recommended processes was very rare in the SEA-ORCHID hospitals. The project investigators suggested that there were aspects of the recommended development process that made it very difficult in the participating hospitals. We therefore aimed to explore the experience of guideline development and particularly the enablers of and barriers to developing evidence-based guidelines in the nine hospitals in South East Asia participating in the SEA-ORCHID project, so as to better understand how evidence-based guideline development could be facilitated in these settings. Methods Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were undertaken with senior and junior healthcare providers (nurses, midwives, doctors) from the maternal and neonatal services at each of the nine participating hospitals. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and a thematic analysis undertaken. Results Seventy-five individual, 25 pair and eleven group interviews were conducted. Participants clearly valued evidence-based guidelines. However they also identified several major barriers to guideline development including time, lack of awareness of process, difficulties searching for evidence and arranging guideline development group meetings, issues with achieving multi-disciplinarity and consumer involvement. They also highlighted the central importance of keeping guidelines up-to-date. Conclusion Healthcare providers in the SEA-ORCHID hospitals face a series of barriers to developing evidence-based guidelines. At present, in many hospitals, several of these barriers are insurmountable, and as a result, rigorous, evidence-based guidelines are not being developed. Given the acknowledged benefits of evidence-based guidelines, perhaps a new approach to supporting their development in these contexts is needed. PMID:19422716

Turner, Tari J; Short, Jacki

2009-01-01

347

ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation.  

PubMed

Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the 'ELSI 2.0' initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

Yoshizawa, Go; Ho, Calvin Wai-Loon; Zhu, Wei; Hu, Chingli; Syukriani, Yoni; Lee, Ilhak; Kim, Hannah; Tsai, Daniel Fu Chang; Minari, Jusaku; Kato, Kazuto

2014-01-01

348

Characteristics of atmospheric carbon monoxide at a high-mountain background station in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric CO were monitored at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) with an elevation of 2862 m AMSL from April 2006 to April 2011 by the in-situ non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectrometer and weekly flask sample collections via collaboration with NOAA/ESRL/GMD. In general very coherent results were observed between the two datasets, despite a slight difference between the two. A distinct seasonal pattern of CO was noticed at the LABS with a springtime maximum and a summertime minimum, which was predominately shaped by the long-range transport of biomass burning air masses from Southeast Asia and oceanic influences from the Pacific, respectively. Diurnal cycles were also observed at the LABS, with a maximum in late afternoon and a minimum in early morning. The daytime CO maximum was most likely caused by the up-slope transport of lower elevation air. After filtering out the possibly polluted data points from the entire dataset with a mathematic procedure, the mean background CO level at the LABS was assessed as 129.3 ± 46.6 ppb, compared to 149.0 ± 72.2 ppb prior to the filtering. The cluster analysis of the backward trajectories revealed six possible source regions, which shows that air masses originating from the Westerly Wind Zone were dominated in spring and winter resulting in higher CO concentrations. As a contrast, the oceanic influences from the Pacific were found mostly in summer, contributing a lower seasonal CO concentration throughout a year.

Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lin, Chia-Ching; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te; Schnell, Russell C.; Lang, Patricia M.; Kawasato, Taro; Wang, Jia-Lin

2014-06-01

349

Satellite-driven estimation of terrestrial carbon flux over Far East Asia with 30-second grid resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial carbon cycle is strongly affected by local natural phenomena and local human-induced activities that alter carbon exchange via vegetation and soil activities. In order to accurately understand terrestrial carbon cycle mechanisms, it is necessary to estimate spatial and temporal variations in carbon flux and storage using process-based models with the highest possible resolution. We estimated terrestrial carbon fluxes using the biosphere model integrating eco-physiological and mechanistic approaches using Satellite data (BEAMS) and satellite observations with 30-second grid resolution. The study area is the central Far East Asia region, which lies between 30 degree and 50 degree north latitude and 125 degree and 150 degree east longitude. Aiming to simulate terrestrial carbon exchanges under realistic land surface conditions, we applied as many satellite-observation means as possible, such as the standard MODIS, TRMM, and SRTM high-level land products. Validated using gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem production (NEP), net radiation and latent heat with ground measurements at six flux sites, the model estimations showed reasonable seasonal and annual patterns. In extensive analysis, total amounts of GPP and NPP were determined to be 2.1 PgC/year and 0.9 PgC/year. The total NEP estimate was +5.6 TgC/year, meaning that the land area played a role as a carbon sink for these six years. In analyses of areas with complicated topography, the 30-second grid estimation could prove to be an effective product to evaluate the effect of landscape on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The method presented here is an appropriate approach to gain a better understanding of terrestrial carbon exchange, both spatially and temporally.

Sasai, T.; Saigusa, N.; Nasahara, K. N.; Ito, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.; Hirata, R.; Ichii, K.; Takagi, K.; Saitoh, T. M.; Ohta, T.; Murakami, K.; Oikawa, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.

2010-12-01

350

Comparison of Gosat CAI and SPOT Vgt Ndvi Data with Different Season and Land Cover in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has become one of the most widely used indices in remote sensing applications in a variety of fields. Many studies have compared the NDVI values for different satellite sensors. Nowadays, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched on January 23, 2009. It is used to monitor greenhouse gases on the Earth's surface and also has a sensor, the Cloud Aerosol Imager (CAI), that senses red and near infrared spectrums. It can also process NDVI data. Therefore, we are first compare GOSAT CAI and SPOT VGT NDVI data in different seasonal and land cover in East Asian, to explore the relationship between the two types of datasets, and to discuss the possibility of extending SPOT VGT data using GOSAT CAI NDVI data for the same area. We used GOSAT CAI Level 3 data to derive 10-day composite NDVI values for the East Asia region for November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 using the maximum value composite (MVC) method. We compared these values with 10-day composite SPOT VGT NDVI data for the same period. The results show that the correlation coefficients of regression analysis generally revealed a strong correlation between NDVI from the two sensors in November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 (0.88, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively). The differences place may be affected by cloud cover. From the combined analysis of seasonal changes and land cover, we found that the correlations between the SPOT VGT and the GOSAT CAI NDVI data are less affected by seasonal change and the SPOT VGT data is more sensitive to high vegetation coverage than the GOSAT CAI data. In the future, through continued monitoring and processing by cloud removal technology, the accuracy of GOSAT CAI NDVI data will be further improved and thus be more widely used.

Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Guo, M.; Tani, H.

2011-08-01

351

PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent advances in thermal and non-equilibrium plasmas as well as on more new and innovative developments in the field of life innovation, green innovation and a technical report session. The editors hope that this volume will be useful and helpful for deepening our understanding of science and technology of plasma materials processing and also for stimulating further development of the plasma technology. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the organizing committee, the advisory committee, the executive committee, the program committee, the publication committee, organizing secretariat and financial support from The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, JSPS. Sponsors and Supporting Organization: The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Organizing Committee Chairperson: Osamu Tsuji, SAMCO Corporation, Japan Advisory Committee Chairperson: Akihisa Matsuda, Osaka University, Japan Executive Committee Chairperson: Masaru Hori, Nagoya University, Japan Program Committee Chairperson: Takamasa Ishigaki, Hosei University, Japan Publication Committee Chairperson: Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University Editors of APCPST-11 and SPMS-25 Professor Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Professor Toshio Kaneko, Tohoku University, Japan Professor Makoto Sekine, Nagoya University, Japan Professor Yasunori Tanaka, Kanazawa University, Japan

Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

2013-06-01

352

Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms  

SciTech Connect

Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-03-01

353

Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

1997-09-01

354

Investigation of NOx Emissions and NOx-related Chemistry in East Asia Using CMAQ- predicted and GOME-derived NO2 Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the estimation accuracy of NOx emissions over East Asia with particular focus on North China and South Korea due to their strong source (North China)-receptor (South Korea) relationship. In order to determine contributions of North China emissions to South Korean air quality accurately, it is important to examine the accuracy of the emission inventories of both regions. In this study, NO2 columns from the Models-3/CMAQ model simulations carried out using the 2001 ACE-ASIA emission inventory over East Asia were compared with the GOME-derived NO2 columns. There were large discrepancies between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns in the fall and winter seasons. In particular, while the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced larger values than the GOME- derived NO2 columns over South Korea for all four seasons, the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced smaller values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over North China for all seasons with the exception of summer. It is believed that there might be some estimation error in the NOx emissions as well as large uncertainty in NOx loss rates over North China and South Korea.Regarding the latter, this study further focused on the biogenic VOC emissions that were strongly coupled with NOx chemistry in East Asia. It was found that the rates of NOx loss determined by CMAQ modeling studies might be significantly low due to the possible overestimation of biogenic isoprene emissions during summer, particularly in China. A comparison between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns indicated that the ACE-ASIA inventory has some uncertainties in NOx emissions over North China and South Korea, which can lead to some error in modeling the formation of ozone and secondary aerosols in South Korea and North China.

Han, K.; Song, C.; Ahn, H.; Lee, C.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.; Kim, J.; Woo, J.; Hong, J.

2008-12-01

355

Indirect prediction of surface ozone concentration by plant growth responses in East Asia using mini-open top chambers.  

PubMed

We developed small and mobile open top chambers (mini-OTC) measuring 0.6 m (W)?×?0.6 m (D)?×?1.2 m (H) with an air duct of 0.6 m (W)?×?0.23 m (D)?×?1.2 m (H). The air duct can be filled with activated charcoal to blow charcoal filtered air (CF) into the chamber, as opposed to non-filtered ambient air (NF). Ozone sensitive radish Raphanus sativus cv. Red Chime and rosette pakchoi Brassica campestris var. rosularis cv. ATU171 were exposed to NF and CF in mini-OTCs at different locations in East Asia. A total of 29 exposure experiments were conducted at nine locations, Shanghai, China, Ha Noi, Vietnam, Lampang, Phitsanulok and Pathumtani, Thailand, and Hiratsuka, Kisai, Abiko and Akagi, Japan. Although no significant relationships between the mean concentrations of ambient O(3) during the experimental period and the growth responses were observed for either species, multiple linear regression analysis suggested a good relationship between the biomass responses in each species and the O(3) concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. The cumulative daily mean O(3) (ppb/day) could be indirectly predicted by NF/CF based on the dry weight ratio of biomass, mean air temperature, and relative air humidity. PMID:22752963

Kohno, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Miwa, Makoto; Yonekura, Tetsushi; Aihara, Keiji; Umponstira, Chanin; Le, Vo Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Viet, Phanm Hung; Wei, Ma

2013-03-01

356

A regional air-sea coupled model and its application over East Asia in the summer of 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional air-sea coupled model, comprising the Regional Integrated Environment Model System (RIEMS) and the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was developed to simulate summer climate features over East Asia in 2000. The sensitivity of the model’s behavior to the coupling time interval (CTI), the causes of the sea surface temperature (SST) biases, and the role of air-sea interaction in the simulation of precipitation over China are investigated. Results show that the coupled model can basically produce the spatial pattern of SST, precipitation, and surface air temperature (SAT) with five different CTIs respectively. Also, using a CTI of 3, 6 or 12 hours tended to produce more successful simulations than if using 1 and 24 hours. Further analysis indicates that both a higher and lower coupling frequency result in larger model biases in air-sea heat flux exchanges, which might be responsible for the sensitivity of the coupled model’s behavior to the CTI. Sensitivity experiments indicate that SST biases between the coupled and uncoupled POM occurring over the China coastal waters were due to the mismatch of the surface heat fluxes produced by the RIEMS with those required by the POM. In the coupled run, the air-sea feedbacks reduced the biases in surface heat fluxes, compared with the uncoupled RIEMS, consequently resulted in changes in thermal contrast over land and sea and led to a precipitation increase over South China and a decrease over North China. These results agree well observations in the summer of 2000.

Fang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yaocun; Tang, Jianping; Ren, Xuejuan

2010-05-01

357

Tidal loading along a profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision measurements of earth tides along a profile stretching from Europe to Polynesia through East Africa, Asia and Australia are used to characterize ocean tides in different basins and thus provide a check on proposed cotidal maps. Ocean tide information was extracted from tidal gravity profiles made with correctly intercalibrated gravimeters at 91 tidal gravity stations by the subtraction of electric earth tide model vectors from the observed tidal vector. Analysis of possible instrumental errors due to calibration, thermal, barometric and power supply interruption effects indicates the data observed at a level of 0.5 microgal cannot be ascribed to computational or instrumental errors. Calculations of the ocean load and attraction signal obtained from the earth tide measurements are observed to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the cotidal maps of Schwiderski (1979, 1980) for satellite altimetry reductions for the diurnal components of the tides, however, less satisfactory agreement is observed in some large areas for the semi-diurnal components. The maps of Hendershott (1973) and Parke (1979) are also found to provide good results in several large areas, but not everywhere. Regions where a more detailed investigation is required are indicated, including Iran-Pakistan, Malaysia, the South China Sea and the South Pacific.

Melchior, P.; Moens, M.; Ducarme, B.; van Ruymbeke, M.

1981-04-01

358

Nutrition leadership training in North-East Asia: an IUNS initiative in conjunction with nutrition societies in the region.  

PubMed

Food for humans is one of the most important of all global issues. It is a critical determinant of planetary and individual health, of economic development, of how sustainable energy and water supplies are, and its security a powerful determinant of peace or conflict. Those who assume leadership for the integrity of food and health systems have great responsibility. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), regional and national nutrition science and food technology organizations have concern about the leadership capacity available and required in what are rapidly changing and increasingly demanding circumstances. These include persistent poverty and hunger, climate change which threatens the sustainability of food production and fragile financial systems which are making food less affordable for many. North East Asia (NEA) is a major region for its population size, its economic wealth and disparities, its food production, its life expectancies among the best and its global reach. In 2008, for those of Chinese ancestry and of wider Asian origin, Nutrition Leadership training has been conducted in Hangzhou, Shanghai, Seoul and Taiwan (Hsinchu and Zhunan). Ninety prospective young leaders participated in all. Several successful early career Asian nutrition scientists and professionals served as role models. Senior colleagues acted as mentors for groups of 2 or 3. With mentors, the concept of leadership has been examined, careers and roles explored, knowledge and skills honed for a different future, and plans made to network in mutual support. Early feedback indicates that new opportunities have been created and seized. PMID:19114408

Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo; Sun, Jiang-Qin; Ge, Keyou; Paik, Hee-Young; Cho, Sung Hee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

2008-01-01

359

Climatological assessment of desert targets over East Asia — Australian region for the solar channel calibration of geostationary satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desert targets for solar channel calibration of geostationary satellites in the East Asia — Australian region were selected and their qualities were assessed with aid of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data (i.e., white-sky surface albedo, aerosol optical thickness, and cloud fraction) from 2002 to 2008. The magnitude, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability of the white-sky surface albedo are examined in order to select bright and stable targets. Subsequently those selected targets over China, India, and Australia are further checked for their qualities in terms of data yielding ratio, aerosol optical thickness, cloud fraction, satellite viewing angle, and solar zenith angle. Results indicate that Chinese targets are found to be not adequate as calibration targets in spite of excellent surface conditions because of high percentage of cloud, possibly heavy aerosol loading, and lower solar elevation angle in particular during winter time. Indian site should be take care about relatively high temporal variation of surface condition and heavy aerosol loading. On the other hand, Australian desert targets are considered to be best when surface brightness, spatial and temporal stability, data yielding ratio, aerosol, and cloud are counted.

Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Sohn, B. J.

2014-02-01

360

Tackling the malaria problem in the South-East Asia Region: Need for a change in policy?  

PubMed Central

Malaria is largely neglected in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR), although it has the highest number of people susceptible to the disease. Malaria in the SEAR exhibits special epidemiological characteristics such as “forest malaria” and malaria due to migration across international borders. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has been a focal-point for the emergence of drug resistant malaria. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, coupled with the limited availability of insecticides, malaria control efforts in the SEAR face a steep challenge. Indirect man-made factors such as climate change, as well as direct man-made factors such as the circulation of counterfeit drugs have added to the problem. Increased monitoring, surveillance, pharmacovigilance as well as cross-border collaboration are required to address these problems. Regional networking and data-sharing will keep all stakeholders updated about the status of various malaria control programmes in the SEAR. Cutting-edge technologies such as GIS/GPS (geographical information system/global positioning system) systems and mobile phones can provide information in “real-time”. A holistic and sustained approach to malaria control by integrated vector management (IVM) is suggested, in which all the stakeholder countries work collaboratively as a consortium. This approach will address the malaria problem in a collective manner so that malaria control can be sustained over time. PMID:23481050

Bharati, Kaushik; Ganguly, N. K.

2013-01-01

361

Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia.  

PubMed

The conversion of natural forest to oil palm plantation is a major current threat to the conservation of biodiversity in South East Asia. Most animal taxa decrease in both species richness and abundance on conversion of forest to oil palm, and there is usually a severe loss of forest species. The extent of loss varies significantly across both different taxa and different microhabitats within the oil palm habitat. The principal driver of this loss in diversity is probably the biological and physical simplification of the habitat, but there is little direct evidence for this. The conservation of forest species requires the preservation of large reserves of intact forest, but we must not lose sight of the importance of conserving biodiversity and ecosystem processes within the oil palm habitat itself. We urgently need to carry out research that will establish whether maintaining diversity supports economically and ecologically important processes. There is some evidence that both landscape and local complexity can have positive impacts on biodiversity in the oil palm habitat. By intelligent manipulation of habitat complexity, it could be possible to enhance not only the number of species that can live in oil palm plantations but also their contribution to the healthy functioning of this exceptionally important and widespread landscape. PMID:22006968

Foster, William A; Snaddon, Jake L; Turner, Edgar C; Fayle, Tom M; Cockerill, Timothy D; Ellwood, M D Farnon; Broad, Gavin R; Chung, Arthur Y C; Eggleton, Paul; Khen, Chey Vun; Yusah, Kalsum M

2011-11-27

362

Constraining NOx emissions over East Asia using satellite NO2 column retrievals with emphasis on the role of NOx transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite observations have provided a continuous view of significant changes in NOx emissions over the past two decades. In this study, tropospheric NO2 columns from the polar orbiting OMI, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments were used to diagnose the annual and seasonal variations and the spatial characteristic of NOx emissions over East Asia. As expected, we found substantial increases in both NO2 columns and bottom-up NOx emissions over China from 2005 to 2011, resulting from rapid economic growth. However, the year-to-year change in NO2 columns over Korea showed increasing trends, in contrast to decreasing inventoried NOx emissions. Both NO2 columns and bottom-up NOx emissions over Japan decreased during this period. Seasonally, maximum and minimum NO2 columns occur in winter and summer above China, Korea, and Japan, as NOx chemical lifetime changes. Above Korea and Japan, however, secondary peaks are found in spring. Numerical simulations using Lagrangian and Eulerian chemical transport models indicate that transport of NOx from China could explain the spring peaks of NO2 columns above Korea and Japan and the discrepancy between annual trends of satellite observations and bottom-up emissions downwind of China . The model results also quantify the contributions of emissions and transport to the local NOx budget over each country and sub-regions of China.

Lee, H.; Kim, S.; Brioude, J. F.; Cooper, O. R.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, C.; Trainer, M.

2013-12-01

363

Satellite-Based Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Water Balance in the Grassland Ecosystems of Dryland East Asia  

PubMed Central

The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr?1 over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr?1 from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

2014-01-01

364

Race\\/ethnicity and depressive symptoms: a cross-cultural\\/ethnic comparison among university students in East Asia, North and South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine manifestations of depressive symptomatology among undergraduate students in East Asia, North and South America, responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were compared across Japanese (n=310), Anglo-American (n=377), Native American (n=353), and Argentinean (n=110) undergraduate students. Japanese reported a significantly higher level of low positive affect, leading to significantly higher total CES-D scores, whereas their

Noboru Iwata; Stephen Buka

2002-01-01

365

Performance of RegCM2.5\\/NCAR-CSM Nested System for the Simulation of Climate Change in East Asia Caused by Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional climate in East Asia under 1CO2 and 2CO2 conditions, was simulated for continuous 10-year periods by the RegCM2.5 developed by NCAR, using the output of a CO2 transient run from NCAR-CSM as lateral and surface boundary conditions in order to evaluate the performance of the nested system for the use of climate change simulation caused by global warming for

Hisashi Kato; Keiichi Nishizawa; Hiromaru Hirakuchi; Shinji Kadokura; Naoko Oshima; Filippo Giorgi

2001-01-01

366

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) CEnTrE nEwS 2  

E-print Network

Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East and Central Asia) ConTEnTS CEnTrE nEwS 2 Conf) ISSn 1322 0462 ThE AfghAnISTAn ConflICT: AuSTrAlIA'S rolE The Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies held of critical concern for the future of the Afghan state and Australia's commitment. The difficulties of both

367

Analysis of genetic variability within Argulus japonicus from representatives of Africa, Middle East, and Asia revealed by sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the genetic variability within fish louse Argulus japonicus (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Africa, Middle East, and Asia by polymerase chain reaction in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)\\u000a regions, namely, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 (nad1 and nad4). Six different sequences from a portion of the cox1 gene (pcox1) and a portion

Hicham Wadeh; Muhamd Alsarakibi; Guoqing Li

2010-01-01

368

A regional climate model simulation of summer monsoon over east asia: a case study of 1991 flood in yangtze-huai river valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of summer monsoon over East Asia is the result of multi-scale interactions, including the large-scale subtropical\\u000a high, upper level jet and regional-scale Meiyu front, vortex, and thermal heating. Regional Climate Models should be a better\\u000a way to simulate the summer monsoon evolution, because not only they can reflect the large-scale forcing through boundary condition,\\u000a theirs high resolution can

Helin Wei; Wei-Chyung Wang

1998-01-01

369

Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constraints on volatile organic compound emissions in east and south Asia and implications for ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a continuous 6-year record (1996–2001) of GOME satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) columns over east and south Asia to improve regional emission estimates of reactive nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), including isoprene, alkenes, HCHO, and xylenes. Mean monthly HCHO observations are compared to simulated HCHO columns from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model using state-of-science, “bottom-up” emission inventories from

Tzung-May Fu; Daniel J. Jacob; Paul I. Palmer; Kelly Chance; Yuxuan X. Wang; Barbara Barletta; Donald R. Blake; Jenny C. Stanton; Michael J. Pilling

2007-01-01

370

Quaternary environments and the evolution of primates in East Asia, with notes on two new specimens of fossil Cercopithecidae from China.  

PubMed

Primate faunas in East Asia since the mid-Tertiary have undergone a series of major changes in response to a complex sequence of environmental changes. As a consequence of the Himalayan orogeny and the rapid, episodic uplift of the Tibetan plateau, the climate of East Asia during the late Tertiary became monsoonal and thus more strongly seasonal. This led to the expansion of seasonal tropical forests and, in some areas, grasslands. During the Pleistocene, the climatic consequences of continued rapid uplift of the Tibetan plateau and other land masses (e.g. the Qinling mountains) were combined with those of glaciations, resulting in dramatic climatic oscillations between warm-humid and cold-dry phases. The contraction of tropical environments that began in the late Tertiary reached its peak at the last glacial maximum (LGM) and was responsible for the decline in the distribution and diversity of hominoids in East Asia. Cercopithecids, which were only minor elements of the late Tertiary primate faunas, colonized tropical, subtropical and temperate environments in the Pleistocene and were able to reradiate into those environments after the LGM. The abilities of monkeys to populate a wide range of terrestrial environments (eurytopy) contrast with those of apes, which are restricted to tropical forest environments (stenotopy). PMID:8335289

Jablonski, N G

1993-01-01

371

Mixing States of East Asian Aerosols During the Spring 2001 ACE-Asia Intensive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols originating in China and Korea and transported to the East during the Spring 2001 dust season have been analyzed using manual and automated scanning electron microscopy to determine compositions, sizes, shapes and states of mixing. Samples discussed were collected from the NCAR C-130 aircraft, the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and two ground sites on Cheju Island. Depending upon distance of transport, altitude and air mass history, the aerosols are varying mixtures of mineral dust, marine particles, and primary and secondary anthropogenic particles. Degree of reaction or aggregation of mineral dust and marine particles with secondary sulfate and nitrate are highly variable. Although these samples all have many different individual particle types present, and are therefore are strongly externally mixed, the range of internal mixing states exhibited between particles of different origins is extreme. Mixtures of mineral dust and anthropogenic combustion products (both from coal and biomass) sampled at low altitude tend to exhibit a high degree of internal mixing. Many higher altitude samples (2500 m and higher) have lower proportions of anthropogenic particles and show less internal mixing between the two categories. A common feature in the lower altitude samples is the internal mixture of mineral particles and elemental carbon in the form of soot, thus significantly altering the optical properties of the mineral dust.

Anderson, J. R.; Xin, H.

2001-12-01

372

Learning cities in East Asia: Japan, the Republic of Korea and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lifelong learning cities emerged in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s; in the Republic of Korea in the 2000s and 2010s; and in China mostly from 2000 onwards. They were a countermeasure to the increasing challenges of global as well as post-industrial uncertainties at the turn of the century, when cities were trying to find governmental instruments to engage in cultural processes, community building and personal development as the new way of urban life. Learning was perceived to be a panacea to solve the social problems occurring in overwhelming processes of modernisation and industrialisation. The authors of this paper assert that the practice of and research on learning cities, especially in the East Asian region, need to go beyond the technical rationalities which are guiding government tools, and explain the realities to which they are meant to be applied. In order to do this, the authors investigated three separate but inter-connected scenes found in Japan, the Republic of Korea and China, revealing that the learning city is a phenomenon which reflects complex social dynamics and the interaction of many minds. While the cases in this region are distinctive, they do share some common characteristics. The authors place these within what they term a "community relations model", which they contrast with the "individual competence model" which is usually found in initiatives of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and schemes implemented in the area of the European Union (EU).

Han, SoongHee; Makino, Atsushi

2013-09-01

373

Association between earthquake and equatorial waves in Outgoing Longwave Radiation over South East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, efforts has been made to correlate the equatorial planetary waves in Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and to seismic activities in South East Asian region. The OLR data has been obtained from NOAA Climate Prediction Centre web site. The earthquake information has been obtained from USGS earthquake information centre. This paper present observations for the two earthquakes, i.e., 26 January 2001, Bhuj, India and 26 December 2004, Sumatra, Indonesia. The normal days OLR has been compared to the OLR recorded during the seismic events. It has been observed that there is significant enhancement in OLR, few days before the earthquake event. The Morlet 6.6 wavelet analysis shows the presence of planetary waves in equatorial OLR for period about 6 days, during and about 80 days before the earthquake. The OLR data were analysed in such a way that the other possible effects are minimized. The anomalous increase and presence of planetary waves before 80 days of seismic event shows great potential in providing early warning of a disastrous earthquake. It should be noted that planetary waves is generated only in the equatorial region irrespective of strong/severe earthquake location.

Yadav, Manohar Lal

374

Shortwave Aerosol Radiative Forcing over East-Asia Determined from Satellite and Ground based observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite of heavy loading and strong absorbing characteristics, the aerosol radiative effect (ARE) over East Asian region is largely unknown. In this study, we attempt to estimate the ARE by using integrated data from ground-based measurement, satellite observation, radiative transfer model (RTM) calculation, and discuss its implications. The uncertainties of the radiative flux calculations used in this study are investigated due to the uncertainties in the RTM input parameters, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent, single scattering albedo (SSA), surface reflectance, ozone, and relative humidity (RH). It is found that the anticipated overall uncertainty in radiative flux calculation is 8.56±3.24W/m2. The calculation results are consistent with AERONET inversion products and fluxes measured by the broadband radiometer and CERES. ARE is estimated as the difference in flux calculations with and without aerosols. The diurnal-mean aerosol radiative forcing efficiency, the slope of the linear fit line through the diurnal-mean ARE versus AOT plot, was found to be -35.1W/m2/?550 (surface), -0.5 W/m2/?550 (TOA), and 34.5 W/m2/?550 (atmosphere). The national and annual mean aerosol radiative forcing values is - 15.7±8.9 W/m2 (surface), 0.3±1.6 W/m2 (TOA), and 16.0±9.2 W/m2 (atmosphere). Atmospheric aerosol forcing is highly responsible for negative forcing at surface. The maximum heating rate for hazy conditions (AOT>0.2) was 5.16°K/day, which is almost double the value in clean days (AOT<0.2) during the spring 2005. Furthermore, absorbing aerosols increased by 3 times larger during hazy conditions with respect to the integrated heating rate estimated during clean periods.

Lee, K.; Li, Z.

2008-12-01

375

Failure of Miltefosine Treatment for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Children and Men in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background High frequency of relapse in miltefosine-treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients in India and Nepal followed up for twelve months. Objective To identify epidemiological and clinical risk factors for relapse of VL in patients recently treated with standard dosing of miltefosine in India and Nepal. Design Prospective observational study in three Primary Health Centers and one reference center in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India; and two zonal hospitals and a university hospital in South-east Nepal; records of all consenting patients diagnosed with VL and treated with miltefosine according to the current treatment guidelines of the Kala azar elimination program between 2009 and 2011. Results We compared the clinical records of 78 cases of relapse with those of 775 patients who had no record of subsequent relapse. Relapse was 2 times more common amongst male patients (IRR 2.14, 95% CI 1.27–3.61), and 2 to 3 times more frequent in the age groups below 15 compared to the over 25 year olds (age 10 to 14: IRR 2.53; 95% CI 1.37–4.65 and Age 2 to 9: IRR 3.19; 95% CI 1.77–5.77). History of earlier VL episodes, or specific clinical features at time of diagnosis such as duration of symptoms or spleen size were no predictors of relapse. Conclusions Young age and male gender were associated with increased risk of VL relapse after miltefosine, suggesting that the mechanism of relapse is mainly host-related i.e. immunological factors and/or drug exposure (pharmacokinetics). The observed decrease in efficacy of miltefosine may be explained by the inclusion of younger patients compared to the earlier clinical trials, rather than by a decreased susceptibility of the parasite to miltefosine. Our findings highlight the importance of proper clinical trials in children, including pharmacokinetics, to determine the safety, efficacy, drug exposure and therapeutic response of new drugs in this age group. PMID:24941345

Ostyn, Bart; Hasker, Epco; Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Boelaert, Marleen

2014-01-01

376

Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to sediments of the Bohai and Yellow Seas in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coasts of Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS) in China support almost one-quarter of its population and provide more than one-third of the national GDP. BS and YS are downwind of the Asian continental outflow in spring and winter as influenced by the East Asian monsoon. This makes the two seas important sinks of land-based pollutants associated with the Asian continental outflow. The sixteen U.S. EPA proposed priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 130 surface sediment samples collected from BS and YS were measured. Combined with our previous PAH data of 90 PM2.5 samples from the upwind areas, the sources of the PAHs in BS and YS were apportioned using positive matrix factorization (PMF) modeling. Four sources were identified: petroleum residue, vehicular emissions, coal combustion and biomass burning. Petroleum residue was the dominant contributor of PAHs in the coast of the Bohai Bay probably due to Haihe River runoff, oil leakage from ships and offshore oil fields. The contribution of vehicular emissions in BS was higher than that in YS, and the reverse was true for coal combustion and biomass burning. This difference in the source patterns in the sediments of the two seas could be attributed to the different PAH emission features of the upwind area related to demographic and economic conditions, as well as the marine geography. The ratios of selected 4-6 ring PAHs in the sediments compared well with those of the PM2.5 of the upwind areas, implicating that the particle phase PAHs in the atmosphere play an important role in the source to sink process of the pyrogenic PAHs in the region.

Lin, Tian; Hu, Limin; Guo, Zhigang; Qin, Yanwen; Yang, Zuosheng; Zhang, Gan; Zheng, Mei

2011-12-01

377

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFC-22 (CHClF2), HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) and three hydrofluorocarbons, HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) and HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) from five East Asian countries for the year 2008 are determined by inverse modeling. The inverse modeling is based on in-situ measurements of these halocarbons at the Japanese stations Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma, the Chinese station Shangdianzi and the South Korean station Gosan. For every station and every 3 hours, 20-day backward calculations were made with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model output, the measurement data, bottom-up emission information and corresponding uncertainties were fed into an inversion algorithm to determine the regional emission fluxes. The model captures the observed variation of halocarbon mixing ratios very well for the two Japanese stations but has difficulties explaining the large observed variability at Shangdianzi, which is partly caused by small-scale transport from Beijing that is not adequately captured by the model. Based on HFC-23 measurements, the inversion algorithm could successfully identify the locations of factories known to produce HCFC-22 and emit HFC-23 as an unintentional byproduct. This lends substantial credibility to the inversion method and is, to our knowledge, the first time greenhouse gas emissions from point sources can be determined by inverse modeling using stations of a global network. The HFC-23 emissions thus determined will also be compared to emissions reported for some factories in the framework of Clean Development Mechanism projects. We report national emissions for China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, as well as for the Taiwan region. Halocarbon emissions in China are much larger than the emissions in the other countries together and contribute a substantial fraction to the global emissions. Our estimates of Chinese emissions for the year 2008 are 64.9±6.5 kt/yr for HCFC-22 (17% of global emissions extrapolated from Montzka et al., 2009), 12.0±1.6 kt/yr for HCFC-141b (22%), 7.3±0.7 kt/yr for HCFC-142b (17%), 6.2±0.6 kt/yr for HFC-23 (>50%), 12.8±1.7 kt/yr for HFC-134a (9% of global emissions estimated from Velders et al., 2009) and 3.4±0.5 kt/yr for HFC-152a (7%).

Stohl, Andreas; Kim, J.; Li, S.; O'Doherty, S.; Zhou, L. X.; Saito, T.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wan, D.; Yao, B.; Yokouchi, Y.

2010-05-01

378

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFC-22 (CHClF2), HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) and three hydrofluorocarbons, HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) and HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) from five East Asian countries for the year 2008 are determined by inverse modeling. The inverse modeling is based on in-situ measurements of these halocarbons at the Japanese stations Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma, the Chinese station Shangdianzi and the South Korean station Gosan. For every station and every 3 h, 20-day backward calculations were made with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model output, the measurement data, bottom-up emission information and corresponding uncertainties were fed into an inversion algorithm to determine the regional emission fluxes. The model captures the observed variation of halocarbon mixing ratios very well for the two Japanese stations but has difficulties explaining the large observed variability at Shangdianzi, which is partly caused by small-scale transport from Beijing that is not adequately captured by the model. Based on HFC-23 measurements, the inversion algorithm could successfully identify the locations of factories known to produce HCFC-22 and emit HFC-23 as an unintentional byproduct. This lends substantial credibility to the inversion method. We report national emissions for China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, as well as emissions for the Taiwan region. Halocarbon emissions in China are much larger than the emissions in the other countries together and contribute a substantial fraction to the global emissions. Our estimates of Chinese emissions for the year 2008 are 65.3±6.6 kt/yr for HCFC-22 (17% of global emissions extrapolated from Montzka et al., 2009), 12.1±1.6 kt/yr for HCFC-141b (22%), 7.3±0.7 kt/yr for HCFC-142b (17%), 6.2±0.7 kt/yr for HFC-23 (>50%), 12.9±1.7 kt/yr for HFC-134a (9% of global emissions estimated from Velders et al., 2009) and 3.4±0.5 kt/yr for HFC-152a (7%).

Stohl, A.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; O'Doherty, S.; Salameh, P. K.; Saito, T.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wan, D.; Yao, B.; Yokouchi, Y.; Zhou, L. X.

2010-02-01

379

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFC-22 (CHClF2), HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) and three hydrofluorocarbons, HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) and HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) from four East Asian countries and the Taiwan region for the year 2008 are determined by inverse modeling. The inverse modeling is based on in-situ measurements of these halocarbons at the Japanese stations Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma, the Chinese station Shangdianzi and the South Korean station Gosan. For every station and every 3 h, 20-day backward calculations were made with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model output, the measurement data, bottom-up emission information and corresponding uncertainties were fed into an inversion algorithm to determine the regional emission fluxes. The model captures the observed variation of halocarbon mixing ratios very well for the two Japanese stations but has difficulties explaining the large observed variability at Shangdianzi, which is partly caused by small-scale transport from Beijing that is not adequately captured by the model. Based on HFC-23 measurements, the inversion algorithm could successfully identify the locations of factories known to produce HCFC-22 and emit HFC-23 as an unintentional byproduct. This lends substantial credibility to the inversion method. We report national emissions for China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, as well as emissions for the Taiwan region. Halocarbon emissions in China are much larger than the emissions in the other countries together and contribute a substantial fraction to the global emissions. Our estimates of Chinese emissions for the year 2008 are 65.3±6.6 kt/yr for HCFC-22 (17% of global emissions extrapolated from Montzka et al., 2009), 12.1±1.6 kt/yr for HCFC-141b (22%), 7.3±0.7 kt/yr for HCFC-142b (17%), 6.2±0.7 kt/yr for HFC-23 (>50%), 12.9±1.7 kt/yr for HFC-134a (9% of global emissions estimated from Velders et al., 2009) and 3.4±0.5 kt/yr for HFC-152a (7%).

Stohl, A.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; O'Doherty, S.; Mühle, J.; Salameh, P. K.; Saito, T.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wan, D.; Weiss, R. F.; Yao, B.; Yokouchi, Y.; Zhou, L. X.

2010-04-01

380

Low-Frequency Climate Trend Changes and Associated Extreme Rain in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed an analysis of climate trends in monthly sea surface temperature from the Hadley Centre's Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 3 (ERSST.v3). Both data cover the period 1880-2009. A centennial global warming trend is first identified by applying the Hilbert-Huang Transform method to global SST data. The warming SST signal at each grid is then removed by linear regression against the global warming trend. The detrended and low-pass filtered SST is further analyzed by EOF method. The analysis in SST are further compared with another two analysis: an EOF analysis of the WOA ocean temperature data and a combined EOF analysis of the six variables (T, qv, h, u, v, w) at eight pressure levels (1000, 925, 850, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300 hPa) from the NCEP and ERA40 reanalysis. The three independent analyses consistently show two dominant oscillations. One is like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation/Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (PDO/IPO), the other is like Atlantic multidecadal Oscillaton (AMO) near 60-year period. The two oscillation can be traced in the ocean from surface down to 400-m. The PDO-like oscillations are characterized by warm temperature anomalies in the tropical lower troposphere in central and eastern Pacific, low-level convergent flows from the high pressure anomaly fields over the maritime continent/neighboring Oceans and Atlantic toward the equatorial Pacific warm SST. Straddling the equatorial Pacific warm SST over the north and south Pacific, cold temperature anomaly, low pressure and cyclonic circulation centers exist near the dateline at 40oS and 40oN. The above atmospheric features resemble the dynamic and thermodynamic fields in response to equatorial Pacific SST forcing. Corresponding to the AMO-like oscillations, the combined EOF modes show hemispheric asymmetric distribution with warm anomalies in northern hemisphere and cold anomalies in southern hemisphere with significant anomalies all occurring in high latitudes. Extenstive warm anomalies exist in the upper troposphere over Eurasia and north Pacific, and cold anomalies cover southern oceans. The warm anomalies over Eurasia is accompanied by anticyclonic circulation while the cold anomalies over southern oceans are with cyclonic circulation. Another important feature is the low pressure center over northern Atlantic in response to the warm SST there which is attributed to as the forcing for North Pacific change (high anomalies and anticyclonic circulation) as proposed by Zhang et al. (2007). The yearly (annual cumulative), warm-season (seasonal cumulative), and extreme rainfall (top 95% cumulative rainfall) in East Asian regions associated with the climate modes are further analyzed. It will be presented in the meeting.

Sui, C.; Kim, J.; Liu, P.

2011-12-01

381

An unrecognized major collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia during the Late Cretaceous, constraints on the plate reorganization of the Northwest Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions at plate boundaries induce stresses that constitute critical controls on the structural evolution of intraplate regions. However, the traditional tectonic model for the East Asian margin during the Mesozoic, invoking successive episodes of paleo-Pacific oceanic subduction, does not provide an adequate context for important Late Cretaceous dynamics across East Asia, including: continental-scale orogenic processes, significant sinistral strike-slip faulting, and several others. The integration of numerous documented field relations requires a new tectonic model, as proposed here. The Okhotomorsk continental block, currently residing below the Okhotsk Sea in Northeast Asia, was located in the interior of the Izanagi Plate before the Late Cretaceous. It moved northwestward with the Izanagi Plate and collided with the South China Block at about 100 Ma. The indentation of the Okhotomorsk Block within East Asia resulted in the formation of a sinistral strike-slip fault system in South China, formation of a dextral strike-slip fault system in North China, and regional northwest-southeast shortening and orogenic uplift in East Asia. Northeast-striking mountain belts over 500 km wide extended from Southeast China to Southwest Japan and South Korea. The peak metamorphism at about 89 Ma of the Sanbagawa high-pressure metamorphic belt in Southwest Japan was probably related to the continental subduction of the Okhotomorsk Block beneath the East Asian margin. Subsequently, the north-northwestward change of motion direction of the Izanagi Plate led to the northward movement of the Okhotomorsk Block along the East Asian margin, forming a significant sinistral continental transform boundary similar to the San Andreas fault system in California. Sanbagawa metamorphic rocks in Southwest Japan were rapidly exhumed through the several-kilometer wide ductile shear zone at the lower crust and upper mantle level. Accretionary complexes successively accumulated along the East Asian margin during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous were subdivided into narrow and subparallel belts by the upper crustal strike-slip fault system. The departure of the Okhotomorsk Block from the northeast-striking Asian margin resulted in the occurrence of an extensional setting and formation of a wide magmatic belt to the west of the margin. In the Campanian, the block collided with the Siberian margin, in Northeast Asia. At about 77 Ma, a new oceanic subduction occurred to the south of the Okhotomorsk Block, ending its long-distance northward motion. Based on the new tectonic model, the abundant Late Archean to Early Proterozoic detrital zircons in the Cretaceous sandstones in Kamchatka, Southwest Japan, and Taiwan are interpreted to have been sourced from the Okhotomorsk Block basement which possibly formed during the Late Archean and Early Proterozoic. The new model suggests a rapidly northward-moving Okhotomorsk Block at an average speed of 22.5 cm/yr during 89-77 Ma. It is hypothesized that the Okhotomorsk-East Asia collision during 100-89 Ma slowed down the northwestward motion of the Izanagi Plate, while slab pull forces produced from the subducting Izanagi Plate beneath the Siberian margin redirected the plate from northwestward to north-northwestward motion at about 90-89 Ma.

Yang, Yong-Tai

2013-11-01

382

Evaluation of MODIS GPP over a complex ecosystem in East Asia: A case study at Gwangneung flux tower in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) gross primary productivity (GPP) has been used widely to study the global carbon cycle associated with terrestrial ecosystems. The retrieval of the current MODIS productivity with a 1 × 1 km2 resolution has limitations when presenting subgrid scale processes in terrestrial ecosystems, specifically when forests are located in mountainous areas, and shows heterogeneity in vegetation type due to intensive land use. Here, we evaluate MODIS GPP (MOD17) at Gwangneung deciduous forest KoFlux tower (deciduous forest; GDK) for 2006-2010 in Korea, where the forests comprise heterogeneous vegetation cover over complex terrain. The monthly MODIS GPP data overestimated the GDK measurements in a range of +15% to +34% and was fairly well correlated (R = 0.88) with the monthly variability at GDK during the growing season. In addition, the MODIS data partly represented the sharp GPP reduction during the Asian summer monsoon (June-September) when intensive precipitation considerably reduces solar radiation and disturbs the forest ecosystem. To examine the influence of subgrid scale heterogeneity on GPP estimates over the MODIS scale, the individual vegetation type and its area within a corresponding MODIS pixel were identified using a national forest type map (?71-m spatial resolution), and the annual GPP in the same area as the MODIS pixel was estimated. This resulted in a slight reduction in the positive MODIS bias by ?10%, with a high degree of uncertainty in the estimation. The MODIS discrepancy for GDK suggests further investigation is necessary to determine the MODIS errors associated with the site-specific aerodynamic and hydrological characteristics that are closely related to the mountainous topography. The accuracy of meteorological variables and the impact of the very cloudy conditions in East Asia also need to be assessed.

Shim, Changsub; Hong, Jiyoun; Hong, Jinkyu; Kim, Youngwook; Kang, Minseok; Malla Thakuri, Bindu; Kim, Yongwon; Chun, Junghwa

2014-12-01

383

Comparison of the diurnal variations of warm-season precipitation for East Asia vs. North America downstream of the Tibetan Plateau vs. the Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wave-number-frequency spectral decomposition technique is used to analyze the high-resolution NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) precipitation data set and to explore the differences and similarities of the diurnal variation of warm-season precipitation in the East Asia and North America downstream of big topography. The predominant phase speed of precipitation at different time scales for North America, averaged over all warm-season months (May-August) for 2003-2010, is ~20 ms-1, which is faster than the speed of ~14 ms-1 calculated for East Asia. Consistent with the recent studies of the precipitation diurnal cycles for these two regions, the difference in the diurnal phase propagation is likely due to the difference in the mean steering level wind speed for these two regions. The wave-number-frequency spectral analysis further reveals the complex, multi-scale, multi-modal nature of the warm-season precipitation variation embedded within the diurnal cycle over both continents, with phase speeds varying from 10 to 30 ms-1 and wave periods varying from diurnal to a few hours. At the diurnal frequency regulated by the thermodynamically driven mountains-plains solenoids (MPSs), increased precipitation for both continents first originates in the afternoon from the eastern edge of big topography and subsequently moves downslope in the evening and reaches the broad plains area at night. More complex diurnal evolutions are observed in East Asia due to the more complex, multistep terrains east of the Tibetan Plateau and the associated localized MPS circulations. Nevertheless, increased variation of precipitation at smaller spatial and temporal scales is evident in the active phase of the dominant diurnal cycle for both continents.

Zhang, Yuanchun; Zhang, Fuqing; Sun, Jianhua

2014-10-01

384

Investigation of NOx emissions and NOx-related chemistry in East Asia using NO2 columns from CMAQ simulation and GOME observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, NO2 columns from the US EPA Models-3/CMAQ model simulations carried out using the 2001 ACE-ASIA (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) emission inventory over East Asia were compared with the GOME-derived NO2 columns. There were large discrepancies between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns in the fall and winter seasons. In particular, while the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced larger values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over South Korea for all four seasons, the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced smaller values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over North China for all seasons with the exception of summer (summer anomaly). It is believed that there might be some error in the NOx emission estimates as well as uncertainty in the NOx chemical loss rates over North China and South Korea. Regarding the latter, this study further focused on the biogenic VOC (BVOC) emissions that were strongly coupled with NOx chemistry during summer in East Asia. This study also investigated whether the CMAQ-modeled NO2/NOx ratios with the possibly overestimated isoprene emissions were higher than those with reduced isoprene emissions. Although changes in both the NOx chemical loss rates and NO2/NOx ratios from CMAQ-modeling with the different isoprene emissions affected the CMAQ-modeled NO2 levels, the effects were found to be limited, mainly due to the low absolute levels of NO2 in summer. Seasonal variations of the NOx emission fluxes over East Asia were further investigated by a set of sensitivity runs of the CMAQ model. Although the results still exhibited the summer anomaly possibly due to the uncertainties in both NOx-related chemistry in the CMAQ model and the GOME measurements, it is believed that consideration of both the seasonal variations in NOx emissions and the correct BVOC emissions in East Asia are critical. Overall, it is estimated that the NOx emissions are underestimated by ~57.3% in North China and overestimated by ~46.1% in South Korea over an entire year. In order to confirm the uncertainty in NOx emissions, the NOx emissions over South Korea and China were further investigated using the ACE-ASIA, REAS (Regional Emission inventory in ASia), and CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) emission inventories. The comparison between the CMAQ-calculated and GOME-derived NO2 columns indicated that both the ACE-ASIA and REAS inventories have some uncertainty in NOx emissions over North China and South Korea, which can also lead to some errors in modeling the formation of ozone and secondary aerosols in South Korea and North China.

Han, K.; Song, C. H.; Ahn, H.; Park, R.; Woo, J.; Lee, C.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.; Kim, J.; Hong, J.

2009-12-01

385

Investigation of NOx emissions and NOx-related chemistry in East Asia using CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, NO2 columns from the US EPA Models-3/CMAQ model simulations carried out using the 2001 ACE-ASIA (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) emission inventory over East Asia were compared with the GOME-derived NO2 columns. There were large discrepancies between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns in the fall and winter seasons. In particular, while the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced larger values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over South Korea for all four seasons, the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced smaller values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over North China for all seasons with the exception of summer (summer anomaly). It is believed that there might be some error in the NOx emission estimates as well as uncertainty in the NOx chemical loss rates over North China and South Korea. Regarding the latter, this study further focused on the biogenic VOC (BVOC) emissions that were strongly coupled with NOx chemistry during summer in East Asia. This study also investigated whether the CMAQ-modeled NO2/NOx ratios with the possibly overestimated isoprene emissions were higher than those with reduced isoprene emissions. Although changes in both the NOx chemical loss rates and NO2/NOx ratios from CMAQ-modeling with the different isoprene emissions affected the CMAQ-modeled NO2 levels, the effects were found to be limited, mainly due to the low absolute levels of NO2 in summer. Seasonal variations of the NOx emission fluxes over East Asia were further investigated by a set of sensitivity runs of the CMAQ model. Although the results still exhibited the summer anomaly possibly due to the uncertainties in both NOx-related chemistry in the CMAQ model and the GOME measurements, it is believed that consideration of both the seasonal variations in NOx emissions and the correct BVOC emissions in East Asia are critical. Overall, it is estimated that the NOx emissions are underestimated by ~57.3% in North China and overestimated by ~46.1% in South Korea over an entire year. In order to confirm the uncertainty in NOx emissions, the NOx emissions over South Korea and China were further investigated using the ACE-ASIA, REAS (Regional Emission inventory in ASia), and CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) emission inventories. The comparison between the CMAQ-calculated and GOME-derived NO2 columns indicated that both the ACE-ASIA and REAS inventories have some uncertainty in NOx emissions over North China and South Korea, which can also lead to some errors in modeling the formation of ozone and secondary aerosols in South Korea and North China.

Han, K. M.; Song, C. H.; Ahn, H. J.; Park, R. S.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, C. K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Hong, J. H.

2009-02-01

386

The East-West Center in Washington and Hokkaido University's Global Center of Excellence Program in cooperation with the Sasakawa Peace Foundation USA invite you to an Asia Pacific Security Seminar  

E-print Network

Doctrine Revisited: Is There a Japanese Vision for Asian Regionalism?" in Aileen Baviera, ed, Regional Security in East Asia: Challenges to Cooperation and Confidence Building (The Asian Center PublicationThe East-West Center in Washington and Hokkaido University's Global Center of Excellence Program

Tachizawa, Kazuya

387

Investigation of NOx emissions and NOx-related chemistry in East Asia using CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the estimation accuracy of NOx emissions over East Asia with particular focus on North China and South Korea due to their strong source (North China)-receptor (South Korea) relationship. In order to determine contributions of North China emissions to South Korean air quality accurately, it is important to examine the accuracy of the emission inventories of both regions. In this study, NO2 columns from the US EPA Models-3/CMAQ model simulations carried out using the 2001 ACE-ASIA (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) emission inventory over East Asia were compared with the GOME-derived NO2 columns. There were large discrepancies between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns in the fall and winter seasons. In particular, while the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced larger values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over South Korea (receptor region) for all four seasons, the CMAQ-predicted NO2 columns produced smaller values than the GOME-derived NO2 columns over North China (source region) for all seasons with the exception of summer. It is believed that there might be some estimation error in the NOx emissions as well as large uncertainty in NOx loss rates over North China and South Korea. Regarding the latter, this study further focused on the biogenic VOC emissions that were strongly coupled with NOx chemistry in East Asia. It was found that the rates of NOx loss determined by CMAQ modeling studies might be significantly low due to the possible overestimation of biogenic isoprene emissions during summer, particularly in China. In addition, due to the possible overestimation of isoprene emissions, the CMAQ-modeled NO2/NOx ratios might show an incorrectly high level, compared with the actual NO2/NOx ratios. In addition to the retarded NOx chemical loss rates and overestimated NO2/NOx ratios, the omission of soil NOx emissions over North China during summer can lead to an underestimation of NOx emissions over North China during summer. Overall, it is estimated that the NOx emissions in North China are underestimated possibly by ~50% over an entire year. In order to confirm the uncertainty in NOx emissions, the NOx emission over South Korea was further investigated using the ACE-ASIA inventory, REAS (Regional Emission inventory in ASia) and CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) by NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research) in Korea. The NOx emissions from ACE-ASIA and the REAS inventories appear to be approximately 2 times larger for mega-cities in Korea than that from the CAPSS inventory. In contrast, the NOx emissions of ACE-ASIA and REAS inventories are only 10% smaller for North China than the recently-estimated "date-back" ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) inventory. A comparison between the CMAQ-predicted and GOME-derived NO2 columns indicated that both the ACE-ASIA and REAS inventories have some uncertainty in NOx emissions over North China (A) and South Korea (C), which can lead to some error in modeling the formation of ozone and secondary aerosols in South Korea and North China.

Han, K. M.; Song, C. H.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, C. K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Woo, J. H.; Hong, J. H.

2008-09-01

388

UCLA Asia Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UCLA Asia Institute "promotes Asian Studies at UCLA and fosters greater understanding of Asia through a wide variety of research support, public programs, and community outreach on East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia." On their homepage, visitors can read their monthly newsletter, read about their project announcements, and upcoming conferences, such as the "Asia in LA: Musical Treasures of Asia", which was held in May 2011. Moving along, the "Podcasts" area includes talks from 2006 to the present. Here visitors will find thoughtful presentations titled "South Asian Entrepreneurs in Uzbekistan: The Silk Road Reborn?" and "Entwinements of Islam Modernity in Central Asia". Scholars in the field won't want to miss the "Joint Research Initiatives" section, which includes synopsis of the Institute's partnerships with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and the East China Normal University in Shanghai.

389

Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces an international regional experiment, East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 (EAREX 2005), carried out in March-April 2005 in the east Asian region, as one of the first phase regional experiments under the UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) project, and discusses some outstanding features of aerosol characteristics and its direct radiative forcing in the east Asian region, with some

Teruyuki Nakajima; Soon-Chang Yoon; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; Guang-Yu Shi; Toshihiko Takemura; Akiko Higurashi; Tamio Takamura; Kazuma Aoki; Byung-Ju Sohn; Sang-Woo Kim; Haruo Tsuruta; Nobuo Sugimoto; Atsushi Shimizu; Hiroshi Tanimoto; Yousuke Sawa; Neng-Huei Lin; Chung-Te Lee; Daisuke Goto; Nick Schutgens

2007-01-01

390

Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces an international regional experiment, East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 (EAREX 2005), carried out in March–April 2005 in the east Asian region, as one of the first phase regional experiments under the UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) project, and discusses some outstanding features of aerosol characteristics and its direct radiative forcing in the east Asian region, with some

Teruyuki Nakajima; Soon-Chang Yoon; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; Guang-Yu Shi; Toshihiko Takemura; Akiko Higurashi; Tamio Takamura; Kazuma Aoki; Byung-Ju Sohn; Sang-Woo Kim; Haruo Tsuruta; Nobuo Sugimoto; Atsushi Shimizu; Hiroshi Tanimoto; Yousuke Sawa; Neng-Huei Lin; Chung-Te Lee; Daisuke Goto; Nick Schutgens

2007-01-01

391

Evaluation of anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide in East Asia derived from the observations of atmospheric radon-222 over the western North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the observed CO/222Rn ratio in the Asian outflows at Minamitorishima (MNM), Yonagunijima (YON), and Ryori (RYO) in the western North Pacific from 2007 to 2011, together with a three-dimensional chemical transport model (STAG), in order to estimate anthropogenic emissions of CO in East Asia. The measurements captured high-frequency synoptic variations of enhanced 222Rn (ERN) events associated with the long-range transport of continental air masses. 222Rn and CO showed high correlation during the ERN events observed at MNM and YON in the winter and spring, but not at RYO. The STAG transport model reproduced well the concentrations of observed 222Rn when forced with a constant and uniform flux density of 1.0 atom cm-2 s-1, but underestimated the associated enhancement of synoptically variable CO caused by the underestimated flux values in the EDGAR ver. 4.1 emission database used in the model for East Asia. Better estimates for the East Asian emission were derived using a radon tracer method based on the difference in the enhancement ratio of CO/222Rn between the observation and the model. The anthropogenic emissions of CO for China, Japan, and Korea were estimated to be 203 Tg CO yr-1, 91% of which originated in China. When compared with other estimated emissions of CO, our estimated result showed consistency with those of the inverse method, whereas the emission database of EDGAR was about 45% smaller than our anthropogenic estimation for China.

Wada, A.; Matsueda, H.; Murayama, S.; Taguchi, S.; Kamada, A.; Nosaka, M.; Tsuboi, K.; Sawa, Y.

2012-12-01

392

Evaluation of anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide in East Asia derived from observations of atmospheric radon-222 over the Western North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the observed CO/222Rn ratio in Asian outflows at Minamitorishima (MNM), Yonagunijima (YON), and Ryori (RYO) over the Western North Pacific from 2007 to 2011, together with a three-dimensional chemical transport model (STAG), in order to estimate anthropogenic emissions of CO in East Asia. The measurements captured high-frequency synoptic variations of enhanced 222Rn (ERN) events associated with long-range transport of continental air masses. 222Rn and CO showed high correlation during the ERN events observed at MNM and YON in the winter and spring, but not at RYO. The STAG transport model reproduced well the concentration of observed 222Rn when forced with constant and uniform flux density of 1.0 atom cm-2 s-1, but underestimated the associated enhancement of synoptically variable CO caused by the underestimated flux values in the EDGAR ver. 4.1 emission database used in the model for East Asia. Better estimates for the East Asian emission were derived using a radon tracer method based on the difference in the enhancement ratio of CO/222Rn between observation and model. The anthropogenic emission of CO for China, Japan, and Korea was estimated to be 203 Tg CO yr-1, 93% of which originated in China. When compared with other estimated emissions of CO, our estimated result showed consistency with those of the inverse method, whereas the emission database of EDGAR was about 45% smaller than our anthropogenic estimation for China.

Wada, A.; Matsueda, H.; Murayama, S.; Taguchi, S.; Kamada, A.; Nosaka, M.; Tsuboi, K.; Sawa, Y.

2012-06-01

393

Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal the Pleistocene history of a semi-aquatic bug (Microvelia douglasi douglasi) in East Asia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the Pleistocene history of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia douglasi douglasi Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Veliidae) in East Asia. We used M. douglasi douglasi as a model species to explore the effects of historical climatic fluctuations on montane semi-aquatic invertebrate species. Two hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENMs). First, we hypothesized that M. douglasi douglasi persisted in suitable habitats in southern Guizhou, southern Yunnan, Hainan, Taiwan and southeast China during the LIG. After that, the populations expanded (Hypothesis 1). As the spatial prediction in the LGM was significantly larger than in the LIG, we then hypothesized that the population expanded during the LIG to LGM transition (Hypothesis 2). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial data (COI+COII) and nuclear data (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2). Young lineages, relatively deep splits, lineage differentiation among mountain ranges in central, south and southwest China and high genetic diversities were observed in these suitable habitats. Evidence of mismatch distributions and neutrality tests indicate that a population expansion occurred in the late Pleistocene. The Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) revealed an unusual population expansion that likely happened during the cooling transition between LIG and LGM. The results of genetic data were mostly consistent with the spatial predictions from ENM, a finding that can profoundly improve phylogeographic research. The ecological requirements of M. douglasi douglasi, together with the geographical heterogeneity and climatic fluctuations of Pleistocene in East Asia, could have shaped this unusual demographic history. Our study contributes to our knowledge of semi-aquatic bug/invertebrate responses to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in East Asia. PMID:24845196

Ye, Zhen; Zhu, Gengping; Chen, Pingping; Zhang, Danli; Bu, Wenjun

2014-06-01

394

Transient receptor potential is essential for high temperature tolerance in invasive Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia minor 1 cryptic species.  

PubMed

Temperature is an important factor in affecting population dynamics and diffusion distribution of organisms. Alien species can successfully invade and colonize to various temperature environments, and one of important reasons is that alien species have a strong resistance to stress temperature. Recently, researchers have focused on the mechanisms of temperature sensing to determine the sensing and regulation mechanisms of temperature adaptation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) is one of the key components of an organism's temperature perception system. TRP plays important roles in perceiving temperature, such as avoiding high temperature, low temperature and choosing the optimum temperature. To assess high temperature sensation and the heat resistance role of the TRP gene, we used 3' and 5' rapid-amplification of cDNA ends to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of the TRP gene from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 (Middle East Asia Minor 1), examined the mRNA expression profile under various temperature conditions, and identified the heat tolerance function. This is the first study to characterize the TRP gene of invasive B. tabaci MEAM1 (MEAM1 BtTRP). The full-length cDNA of MEAM1 BtTRP was 3871 bp, and the open reading frames of BtTRP was 3501 bp, encoding 1166 amino acids. Additionally, the BtTRP mRNA expression level was significantly increased at 35°C. Furthermore, compared with control treatments, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults was significantly decreased under high temperature stress conditions after feeding with dsRNA BtTRP. Collectively, these results showed that MEAM1 BtTRP is a key element in sensing high temperature and plays an essential role in B. tabaci MEAM1 heat tolerance ability. Our data improved our understanding of the mechanism of temperature sensation in B. tabaci MEAM1 at the molecular level and could contribute to the understanding of the thermal biology of B. tabaci MEAM1 within the context of global climate change. PMID:25254364

Lü, Zhi-Chuang; Li, Qian; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao

2014-01-01

395

Transient Receptor Potential Is Essential for High Temperature Tolerance in Invasive Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia Minor 1 Cryptic Species  

PubMed Central

Temperature is an important factor in affecting population dynamics and diffusion distribution of organisms. Alien species can successfully invade and colonize to various temperature environments, and one of important reasons is that alien species have a strong resistance to stress temperature. Recently, researchers have focused on the mechanisms of temperature sensing to determine the sensing and regulation mechanisms of temperature adaptation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) is one of the key components of an organism’s temperature perception system. TRP plays important roles in perceiving temperature, such as avoiding high temperature, low temperature and choosing the optimum temperature. To assess high temperature sensation and the heat resistance role of the TRP gene, we used 3? and 5? rapid-amplification of cDNA ends to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of the TRP gene from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 (Middle East Asia Minor 1), examined the mRNA expression profile under various temperature conditions, and identified the heat tolerance function. This is the first study to characterize the TRP gene of invasive B. tabaci MEAM1 (MEAM1 BtTRP). The full-length cDNA of MEAM1 BtTRP was 3871 bp, and the open reading frames of BtTRP was 3501 bp, encoding 1166 amino acids. Additionally, the BtTRP mRNA expression level was significantly increased at 35°C. Furthermore, compared with control treatments, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults was significantly decreased under high temperature stress conditions after feeding with dsRNA BtTRP. Collectively, these results showed that MEAM1 BtTRP is a key element in sensing high temperature and plays an essential role in B. tabaci MEAM1 heat tolerance ability. Our data improved our understanding of the mechanism of temperature sensation in B. tabaci MEAM1 at the molecular level and could contribute to the understanding of the thermal biology of B. tabaci MEAM1 within the context of global climate change. PMID:25254364

Lu, Zhi-Chuang; Li, Qian; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao

2014-01-01

396

Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*  

PubMed Central

Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases continue to be one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regi