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Sample records for east asian variant

  1. New loci and coding variants confer risk for age-related macular degeneration in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yamashiro, Kenji; Jia Chen, Li; Ahn, Jeeyun; Huang, Lulin; Huang, Lvzhen; Cheung, Chui Ming G.; Miyake, Masahiro; Cackett, Peter D.; Yeo, Ian Y.; Laude, Augustinus; Mathur, Ranjana; Pang, Junxiong; Sim, Kar Seng; Koh, Adrian H.; Chen, Peng; Lee, Shu Yen; Wong, Doric; Chan, Choi Mun; Loh, Boon Kwang; Sun, Yaoyao; Davila, Sonia; Nakata, Isao; Nakanishi, Hideo; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Gotoh, Norimoto; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Mori, Keisuke; Yoneya, Shin; Sakurada, Yoichi; Iijima, Hiroyuki; Iida, Tomohiro; Honda, Shigeru; Lai, Timothy Yuk Yau; Tam, Pancy Oi Sin; Chen, Haoyu; Tang, Shibo; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wen, Feng; Lu, Fang; Zhang, Xiongze; Shi, Yi; Zhao, Peiquan; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Gong, Bo; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; van Dam, Rob M.; Friedlander, Yechiel; Lin, Ying; Hibberd, Martin L.; Foo, Jia Nee; Wang, Ningli; Wong, Chang Hua; Tan, Gavin S.; Park, Sang Jun; Bhargava, Mayuri; Gopal, Lingam; Naing, Thet; Liao, Jiemin; Guan Ong, Peng; Mitchell, Paul; Zhou, Peng; Xie, Xuefeng; Liang, Jinlong; Mei, Junpu; Jin, Xin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Woo, Se Joon; Chung, Hum; Yu, Hyeong-Gon; Shin, Joo Young; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, In Taek; Chang, Woohyok; Sagong, Min; Lee, Sang-Joon; Kim, Hyun Woong; Lee, Ji Eun; Li, Yi; Liu, Jianjun; Teo, Yik Ying; Heng, Chew Kiat; Lim, Tock Han; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Song, Kyuyoung; Vithana, Eranga N.; Aung, Tin; Bei, Jin Xin; Zeng, Yi Xin; Tai, E. Shyong; Li, Xiao Xin; Yang, Zhenglin; Park, Kyu-Hyung; Pang, Chi Pui; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Yin Wong, Tien; Khor, Chiea Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness, but presents differently in Europeans and Asians. Here, we perform a genome-wide and exome-wide association study on 2,119 patients with exudative AMD and 5,691 controls, with independent replication in 4,226 patients and 10,289 controls, all of East Asian descent, as part of The Genetics of AMD in Asians (GAMA) Consortium. We find a strong association between CETP Asp442Gly (rs2303790), an East Asian-specific mutation, and increased risk of AMD (odds ratio (OR)=1.70, P=5.60 10?22). The AMD risk allele (442Gly), known to protect from coronary heart disease, increases HDL cholesterol levels by 0.17?mmol?l?1 (P=5.82 10?21) in East Asians (n=7,102). We also identify three novel AMD loci: C6orf223 Ala231Ala (OR=0.78, P=6.19 10?18), SLC44A4 Asp47Val (OR=1.27, P=1.08 10?11) and FGD6 Gln257Arg (OR=0.87, P=2.85 10?8). Our findings suggest that some of the genetic loci conferring AMD susceptibility in East Asians are shared with Europeans, yet AMD in East Asians may also have a distinct genetic signature. PMID:25629512

  2. Analysis of non-synonymous-coding variants of Parkinson's disease-related pathogenic and susceptibility genes in East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jia Nee; Tan, Louis C; Liany, Herty; Koh, Tat Hung; Irwan, Ishak D; Ng, Yen Yek; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Au, Wing-Lok; Aung, Tin; Chan, Anne Y Y; Chong, Siow-Ann; Chung, Sun Ju; Jung, Yusun; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kim, Juyeon; Lee, Jimmy; Lim, Shen-Yang; Mok, Vincent; Prakash, Kumar-M; Song, Kyuyoung; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga N; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tan, Eng-King; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the contribution of non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-linked genes for Parkinson's disease (PD) to PD risk in the East Asian population, we sequenced all the coding exons of 39 PD-related disease genes and evaluated the accumulation of rare non-synonymous-coding variants in 375 early-onset PD cases and 399 controls. We also genotyped 782 non-synonymous-coding variants of these genes in 710 late-onset PD cases and 9046 population controls. Significant enrichment of LRRK2 variants was observed in both early- and late-onset PD (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.93; P = 8.05 × 10(-6)). Moderate enrichment was also observed in FGF20, MCCC1, GBA and ITGA8. Half of the rare variants anticipated to cause loss of function of these genes were present in healthy controls. Overall, non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and GWAS-linked genes appear to make a limited contribution to PD risk, suggesting that clinical sequencing of these genes will provide limited information for risk prediction and molecular diagnosis. PMID:24565865

  3. Association of CD33 and MS4A cluster variants with Alzheimer's disease in East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yan-Fang; Guo, Zhang-Yu; Pu, Jia-Li; Chen, Yan-Xing; Zhang, Bao-Rong

    2015-11-16

    CD33 and MS4A cluster variants have been identified to modulate the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in several recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Caucasians. In the present study, we first conducted a case-control study to investigate the CD33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3865444 and rs3826656 and the MS4A cluster SNPs rs610932 and rs670139 in a cohort from eastern China that comprised 126 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients and 129 healthy controls. The results revealed that the frequency of rs3826656 major (G) allele carriers was higher among the LOAD patients than among the controls [P=0.005; odds ratio (OR), 1.760; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.185-2.615]. In apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele carriers, the G allele of the SNP rs3865444 was found to be associated with an increased risk of LOAD (P=0.002; OR, 3.391; 95% CI, 1.512-7.605). Next, we re-evaluated the association between these variants and LOAD by conducting a meta-analysis using data from studies of East Asian populations, including the present case-control study, and confirmed that rs3826656 increased the risk of LOAD. In addition, we identified a significant association between rs610932 and LOAD (P=0.035; OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-0.98). Note that heterogeneity should be considered during the interpretation of these results; significant heterogeneity was identified among studies on rs3865444, even in a subgroup analysis based on stratification of studies by the country of origin. In summary, our results suggest that CD33 and MS4A cluster variants are associated with LOAD susceptibility in East Asian populations. PMID:26455864

  4. East Asian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.

    East Asian observations are of established importance in Applied Historical Astronomy. The earliest astronomical records from this part of the world (China, Japan and Korea) originate from China. These observations, mainly of lunar eclipses, are recorded on oracle bones from the period ca. 1300 - 1050 BC. Virtually all later Chinese and other East Asian astronomical records now exist only in printed copies. The earliest surviving series of solar eclipse observations from any part of the world is contained in the Chunqiu (722 - 481 BC), a chronicle of the Chinese state of Lu. However, not until after 200 BC, with the establishment of a stable empire in China, do detailed astronomical records survive. These are mainly contained in specially compiled astrological treatises in the official dynastic histories. Such records, following the traditional style, extend down to the start of the present century. All classes of phenomena visible to the unaided eye are represented: solar and lunar eclipses, lunar and planetary movements among the constellations, comets, novae and supernovae, meteors, sunspots and the aurora borealis. Parallel, but independent series of observations are recorded in Japanese and Korean history, especially after about AD 800. Sources of Japanese records tend to be more diverse than their Chinese and Korean counterparts, but fortunately Kanda Shigeru (1935) and Ohsaki Shyoji (1994) have made extensive compilations of Japanese astronomical observations down to the 1860s. Throughout East Asia, dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Meta-analysis Identifies Novel Variants Associated With Fasting Plasma Glucose in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Sim, Xueling; Wu, Ying; Liang, Jun; Tabara, Yasuharu; Hu, Cheng; Hara, Kazuo; Tam, Claudia H.T.; Cai, Qiuyin; Zhao, Qi; Jee, Sunha; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Go, Min Jin; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kim, Young Jin; Zhang, Rong; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; So, Wing Yee; Long, Jirong; Gu, Dongfeng; Lee, Nanette R.; Kim, Soriul; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Oh, Ji Hee; Liu, Jianjun; Umemura, Satoshi; Kim, Yeon-Jung; Jiang, Feng; Maeda, Shiro; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Lu, Wei; Hixson, James E.; Adair, Linda S.; Jung, Keum Ji; Nabika, Toru; Bae, Jae-Bum; Lee, Mi Hee; Seielstad, Mark; Young, Terri L.; Teo, Yik Ying; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takashima, Naoyuki; Osawa, Haruhiko; Lee, So-Hyun; Shin, Min-Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Bo Youl; Shi, Jiajun; Gao, Yu-Tang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Wei; Kato, Norihiro; Yoon, Miwuk; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao Ou; Ma, Ronald C.W.; Kadowaki, Takashi; Jia, Weiping; Miki, Tetsuro; Qi, Lu; Tai, E Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) has been recognized as an important indicator for the overall glycemic state preceding the onset of metabolic diseases. So far, most indentified genome-wide association loci for FPG were derived from populations with European ancestry, with a few exceptions. To extend a thorough catalog for FPG loci, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 genome-wide association studies in up to 24,740 nondiabetic subjects with East Asian ancestry. Follow-up replication analyses in up to an additional 21,345 participants identified three new FPG loci reaching genome-wide significance in or near PDK1-RAPGEF4, KANK1, and IGF1R. Our results could provide additional insight into the genetic variation implicated in fasting glucose regulation. PMID:25187374

  6. Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies novel variants associated with fasting plasma glucose in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Sim, Xueling; Wu, Ying; Liang, Jun; Tabara, Yasuharu; Hu, Cheng; Hara, Kazuo; Tam, Claudia H T; Cai, Qiuyin; Zhao, Qi; Jee, Sunha; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Go, Min Jin; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kim, Young Jin; Zhang, Rong; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; So, Wing Yee; Long, Jirong; Gu, Dongfeng; Lee, Nanette R; Kim, Soriul; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Oh, Ji Hee; Liu, Jianjun; Umemura, Satoshi; Kim, Yeon-Jung; Jiang, Feng; Maeda, Shiro; Chan, Juliana C N; Lu, Wei; Hixson, James E; Adair, Linda S; Jung, Keum Ji; Nabika, Toru; Bae, Jae-Bum; Lee, Mi Hee; Seielstad, Mark; Young, Terri L; Teo, Yik Ying; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takashima, Naoyuki; Osawa, Haruhiko; Lee, So-Hyun; Shin, Min-Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Bo Youl; Shi, Jiajun; Gao, Yu-Tang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Wei; Kato, Norihiro; Yoon, Miwuk; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao Ou; Ma, Ronald C W; Kadowaki, Takashi; Jia, Weiping; Miki, Tetsuro; Qi, Lu; Tai, E Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L; Han, Bok-Ghee; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Bong-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) has been recognized as an important indicator for the overall glycemic state preceding the onset of metabolic diseases. So far, most indentified genome-wide association loci for FPG were derived from populations with European ancestry, with a few exceptions. To extend a thorough catalog for FPG loci, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 genome-wide association studies in up to 24,740 nondiabetic subjects with East Asian ancestry. Follow-up replication analyses in up to an additional 21,345 participants identified three new FPG loci reaching genome-wide significance in or near PDK1-RAPGEF4, KANK1, and IGF1R. Our results could provide additional insight into the genetic variation implicated in fasting glucose regulation. PMID:25187374

  7. ERAP1 variants are associated with ankylosing spondylitis in East Asian population: a new Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis of published series.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Zhang, X

    2015-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) has been confirmed to be associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Caucasian. However, whether they are associated with AS in East Asian population remains unidentified. We investigated this relationship by a new Chinese case-control study and a meta-analysis of published series. 368 cases and 460 controls were recruited in the Chinese case-control study. Genotyping was completed using the chip-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Allelic associations were analysed using contingency tables. In the meta-analysis, up to 2748 cases and 2774 controls from seven different studies and the new Chinese study were combined using Review Manager software version 5.1.1. Mantel-Haenszel or Inverse Variance test was used to calculate fixed or random-effects pooled ORs. In the new Chinese study, strong association with AS was observed for marker rs10050860, rs27434 and rs1065407 at P value of <0.001. Moderate association was observed for rs30187 at P value of <0.01, while no association was observed for rs27044 (P = 0.37) and rs2287987 (P = 0.23). The meta-analysis showed that rs27037 and rs30187 were strongly associated with AS (P < 0.00001). Significant association was also observed for rs27434 (P = 0.001). No association was shown for rs27044 (P = 0.70). We concluded that ERAP1 variants are associated with AS in East Asian population, indicating a common pathogenic mechanism for AS in East Asians and Caucasians. PMID:25817437

  8. East Asian astronomical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    Chinese, Japanese and Korean celestial observations have made major contributions to Applied Historical Astronomy, especially in the study of supernovae, comets, Earth's rotation (using eclipses) and solar variability (via sunspots and aurorae). Few original texts now survive; almost all extant records exist only in printed versions, often with the loss of much detail. The earliest Chinese astronomical observations extend back to before 1000 BC. However, fairly systematic records are only available since 200 BC - and even these have suffered losses through wars, etc. By around AD 800, many independent observations are available from Japan and Korea and these provide a valuable supplement to the Chinese data. Throughout East Asia dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar and conversion to the Julian or Gregorian calendar can be readily effected.

  9. Asian Black Carbon Influence on East Asian Summer Monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, R.; Li, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since the black carbon (BC) emission in East and South Asia has increased significantly during the last decades of the 20th century, there is an ever growing concern about its impact on Asian monsoon. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the influence by performing several ensemble sensitive experiments with or without historical BC concentrations over East Asia, South Asia, and the combined East and South Asia in an atmospheric general circulation model, GFDL AM2.1. The results show that: (a) The East Asian summer climate is sensitive to the East Asian BC (EABC) concentrations in a sense that EABC contributes significantly to the frequently occurring north-drought and south-flood patterns in Eastern China. In detail, the large scale precipitation anomalies induced by EABC characterize more rainfalls over central/south China, East China Sea and southern Japan and less rainfall over northern China and the west Pacific region between 10N to 20N. These anomalous precipitation patterns are mainly attributed to the EABC induced large scale circulation changes including the weakened Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), anomalous ascent motions over central-southern China (centering over the Yangtze River valley (YRV)) and the subsequent descent motions over northern China and the South China Sea. These modeled results suggest that the EABC experiment reproduces the climate shift event of eastern China during the late 1970s, including intensified rainfall in the YRV and the weakened summer monsoonal circulation. (b) The anomalous results of South Asian BC (SABC) experiment signify a tri-polar precipitation response over East Asia, with a reduction from the YRV to East China Sea and southern Japan sandwiched with increases over a northern domain from northern China/ Korea to northern Japan and over southern China. As for southern China, particularly the YRV, the impact of SABC is to offset a fraction of intensified rainfall induced by local BC of East Asia. Mechanistically, the remote effect of SABC over East Asian climate is realized through a propagating wave train along the Asian upper jet that disperses the South Asian local atmospheric signals downstream and causes an intensified subtropical high over the western Pacific and thus less moisture supply from the Bay of Bengal to reach the Yangtze River basin. (c) The combined East and South Asian BC (ABC) also results in reduced precipitation anomalies over eastern China and the South China Sea extending to Japan while enhanced precipitation over central and northern China. This implies that ABC has a tendency to shift the meiyu rain belt northward consistent with the previous conclusions for absorbing aerosols. (d) Comparing the zonal mean precipitation of the three BC sensitive experiments suggests that the East and South Asian BC responses offset each other at certain locations and may induce nonlinear interaction. Based on above mentioned model results we argue that the East Asian summer climate is highly sensitive to the BC concentrations over the local or over South Asia, and the latter might have contributed to the weakening of East Asian monsoon during the last two decades of the 20th century.

  10. Asian Black Carbon Influence on East Asian Summer Monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, R.; Li, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since the black carbon (BC) emission in East and South Asia has increased significantly during the last decades of the 20th century, there is an ever growing concern about its impact on Asian monsoon. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the influence by performing several ensemble sensitive experiments with or without historical BC concentrations over East Asia, South Asia, and the combined East and South Asia in an atmospheric general circulation model, GFDL AM2.1. The results show that: (a) The East Asian summer climate is sensitive to the East Asian BC (EABC) concentrations in a sense that EABC contributes significantly to the frequently occurring north-drought and south-flood patterns in Eastern China. In detail, the large scale precipitation anomalies induced by EABC characterize more rainfalls over central/south China, East China Sea and southern Japan and less rainfall over northern China and the west Pacific region between 10° to 20°N. These anomalous precipitation patterns are mainly attributed to the EABC induced large scale circulation changes including the weakened Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), anomalous ascent motions over central-southern China (centering over the Yangtze River valley (YRV)) and the subsequent descent motions over northern China and the South China Sea. These modeled results suggest that the EABC experiment reproduces the climate shift event of eastern China during the late 1970s, including intensified rainfall in the YRV and the weakened summer monsoonal circulation. (b) The anomalous results of South Asian BC (SABC) experiment signify a tri-polar precipitation response over East Asia, with a reduction from the YRV to East China Sea and southern Japan sandwiched with increases over a northern domain from northern China/ Korea to northern Japan and over southern China. As for southern China, particularly the YRV, the impact of SABC is to offset a fraction of intensified rainfall induced by local BC of East Asia. Mechanistically, the remote effect of SABC over East Asian climate is realized through a propagating wave train along the Asian upper jet that disperses the South Asian local atmospheric signals downstream and causes an intensified subtropical high over the western Pacific and thus less moisture supply from the Bay of Bengal to reach the Yangtze River basin. (c) The combined East and South Asian BC (ABC) also results in reduced precipitation anomalies over eastern China and the South China Sea extending to Japan while enhanced precipitation over central and northern China. This implies that ABC has a tendency to shift the meiyu rain belt northward consistent with the previous conclusions for absorbing aerosols. Based on above mentioned model results we argue that the East Asian summer climate is highly sensitive to the BC concentrations over the local or over South Asia, and the latter might have contributed to the weakening of East Asian monsoon during the last two decades of the 20th century.

  11. The East Asian Jet Stream and Asian-Pacific Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the NASA GEOS and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses and GPCP rainfall data have been used to study the variability of the East Asian westerly jet stream and its impact on the Asian-Pacific climate, with a focus on interannual time scales. Results indicate that external forcings such as sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface processes also play an important role in the variability of the jet although this variability is strongly governed by internal dynamics. There is a close link between the jet and Asian-Pacific climate including the Asian winter monsoon and tropical convection. The atmospheric teleconnection pattern associated with the jet is different from the ENSO-related pattern. The influence of the jet on eastern Pacific and North American climate is also discussed.

  12. Association of the COQ2 V393A variant with risk of multiple system atrophy in East Asians: a case-control study and meta-analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, QuanZhen; Yang, Xinglong; Tian, SiJia; An, Ran; Zheng, JinHua; Xu, Yanming

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies in Japan have associated multiple system atrophy (MSA), a neurodegenerative disease of uncertain etiology, with polymorphism in the COQ2 gene. This led us to explore whether the same polymorphism is associated with MSA in Han Chinese and more broadly in East Asians. We conducted a case-control study with 82 Han Chinese with probable MSA and 484 gender- and age-matched healthy subjects, genotyping them using the ligase detection reaction. The results were meta-analyzed together with data from four previous studies to gain a broader picture of possible disease associations in East Asian populations. The COQ2 variants M78V and R337X were not detected in our Han Chinese patients or controls; only the heterozygous V393A variant (CT genotype) was detected. The frequency of this genotype was significantly higher in patients (7.3 %) than in controls (1.86 %; OR 4.17, 95 % CI 1.44-12.04, p = 0.004). Subgroup analysis among patients showed a significant association of V393A with MSA involving cerebellar signs (MSA-C; OR 4.59, 95 % CI 1.36-15.48, p = 0.007), but not with MSA involving parkinsonism (MSA-P). Meta-analysis of our results in Han Chinese with data from case-control studies in Japan, Korea, mainland China and Taiwan showed a significant association of V393A with MSA (OR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.29-3.25, p = 0.002), which subgroup analysis showed to be significant for MSA-C (OR 2.75, 95 % CI 1.98-3.84, p < 0.001) but not for MSA-P (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.64-2.46, p = 0.51). These findings provide evidence that the previously reported association of COQ2 V393A polymorphism with increased risk of MSA in Japanese also applies to Han Chinese, as well as more broadly to other East Asian populations. This association may be particularly strong for MSA-C. PMID:26590992

  13. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  14. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education

  15. The East Asian summer monsoon: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yihui, Ding; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2005-06-01

    The present paper provides an overview of major problems of the East Asian summer monsoon. The summer monsoon system over East Asia (including the South China Sea (SCS)) cannot be just thought of as the eastward and northward extension of the Indian monsoon. Numerous studies have well documented that the huge Asian summer monsoon system can be divided into two subsystems: the Indian and the East Asian monsoon system which are to a greater extent independent of each other and, at the same time, interact with each other. In this context, the major findings made in recent two decades are summarized below: (1) The earliest onset of the Asian summer monsoon occurs in most of cases in the central and southern Indochina Peninsula. The onset is preceded by development of a BOB (Bay of Bengal) cyclone, the rapid acceleration of low-level westerlies and significant increase of convective activity in both areal extent and intensity in the tropical East Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. (2) The seasonal march of the East Asian summer monsoon displays a distinct stepwise northward and northeastward advance, with two abrupt northward jumps and three stationary periods. The monsoon rain commences over the region from the Indochina Peninsula-the SCS-Philippines during the period from early May to mid-May, then it extends abruptly to the Yangtze River Basin, and western and southern Japan, and the southwestern Philippine Sea in early to mid-June and finally penetrates to North China, Korea and part of Japan, and the topical western West Pacific. (3) After the onset of the Asian summer monsoon, the moisture transport coming from Indochina Peninsula and the South China Sea plays a crucial “switch” role in moisture supply for precipitation in East Asia, thus leading to a dramatic change in climate regime in East Asia and even more remote areas through teleconnection. (4) The East Asian summer monsoon and related seasonal rain belts assumes significant variability at intraseasonal, interannual and interdecadal time scales. Their interaction, i.e., phase locking and in-phase or out-phase superimposing, can to a greater extent control the behaviors of the East Asian summer monsoon and produce unique rythem and singularities. (5) Two external forcing i.e., Pacific and Indian Ocean SSTs and the snow cover in the Eurasia and the Tibetan Plateau, are believed to be primary contributing factors to the activity of the East Asian summer monsoon. However, the internal variability of the atmospheric circulation is also very important. In particular, the blocking highs in mid-and high latitudes of Eurasian continents and the subtropical high over the western North Pacific play a more important role which is quite different from the condition for the South Asian monsoon. The later is of tropical monsoon nature while the former is of hybrid nature of tropical and subtropical monsoon with intense impact from mid-and high latitudes.

  16. Northern East Asian low and its impact on the interannual variation of East Asian summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhongda; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The strength of the East Asian summer monsoon and associated rainfall has been linked to the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) and the lower-tropospheric low pressure system over continental East Asia (EA). In contrast to the large number of studies devoted to the WNPSH, little is known about the variability of the East Asian continental low. The present study delineates the East Asian continental low using 850-hPa geopotential height. Since the low is centered over northern EA (NEA), we refer to it as the NEA low (NEAL). We show that the intensity of the NEAL has large interannual variation, with a dominant period of 2-4 years. An enhanced NEAL exhibits a barotropic structure throughout the whole troposphere, which accelerates the summer-mean upper-tropospheric westerly jet and lower-tropospheric monsoon westerly to its south. We carefully identify the anomalous NEAL-induced rainfall anomalies by removal of the tropical heating effects. An enhanced NEAL not only increases rainfall locally in northern Northeast China, but also shifts the East Asian subtropical front northward, causing above-normal rainfall extending eastward from the Huai River valley across central-northern Japan and below-normal rainfall in South China. The northward shift of the East Asian subtropical front is attributed to the following processes without change in the WNPSH: an enhanced NEAL increases meridional pressure gradients and the monsoon westerly along the East Asian subtropical front, which in turn induces a cyclonic shear vorticity anomaly to its northern side. The associated Ekman pumping induces moisture flux convergence that shifts the East Asian subtropical front northward. In addition, the frequent occurrence of synoptic cut-off lows is found to be associated with an enhanced NEAL. Wave activity analysis indicates that the interannual intensity change of the NEAL is significantly associated with the extratropical Polar Eurasian teleconnection, in addition to the forcing of the tropical WNP heating.

  17. Adaptive Evolution Favoring KLK4 Downregulation in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Marques, Patrícia Isabel; Fonseca, Filipa; Sousa, Tânia; Santos, Paulo; Camilo, Vânia; Ferreira, Zélia; Quesada, Victor; Seixas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    The human kallikrein (KLK) cluster, located at chromosome 19q13.3-13.4, encodes 15 serine proteases, including neighboring genes (KLK3, KLK2, KLK4, and KLK5) with key roles in the cascades of semen liquefaction, tooth enamel maturation, and skin desquamation. KLK2 and KLK3 were previously identified as targets of adaptive evolution in primates through different mechanisms linked to reproductive biology and, in humans, genome-wide scans of positive selection captured, a yet unexplored, evidence for KLK neutrality departure in East Asians. We perform a detailed evaluation of KLK3-KLK5 variability in the 1000 Genomes samples from East Asia, Europe, and Africa, which was sustained by our own sequencing. In East Asians, we singled out a 70-kb region surrounding KLK4 that combined unusual low levels of diversity, high frequency variants with significant levels of population differentiation (FST > 0.5) and fairly homogenous haplotypes given the large local recombination rates. Among these variants, rs1654556_G, rs198968_T, and rs17800874_A stand out for their location on putative regulatory regions and predicted functional effects, namely the introduction of several microRNA binding sites and a repressor motif. Our functional assays carried out in different cellular models showed that rs198968_T and rs17800874_A operate synergistically to reduce KLK4 expression and could be further assisted by rs1654556_G. Considering the previous findings that KLK4 inactivation causes enamel malformations in humans and mice, and that this gene is coexpressed in epidermal layers along with several substrates involved in either cell adhesion or keratinocyte differentiation, we propose KLK4 as another target of selection in East Asians correlated to tooth and epidermal morphological traits. PMID:26420451

  18. A Personalized Medicine Approach for Asian Americans with the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2*2 Variant

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Eric R.; Zambelli, Vanessa O.; Small, Bryce A.; Ferreira, Julio C.B.; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. A relatively large subset of this population carries a unique loss-of-function point mutation in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*2. Found in approximately 560 million people of East Asian descent, ALDH2*2 reduces enzymatic activity by approximately 60% to 80% in heterozygotes. Furthermore, this variant is associated with a higher risk for several diseases affecting many organ systems, including a particularly high incidence relative to the general population of esophageal cancer, myocardial infarction, and osteoporosis. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology associated with the ALDH2*2 variant, describe why this variant needs to be considered when selecting drug treatments, and suggest a personalized medicine approach for Asian American carriers of this variant. We also discuss future clinical and translational perspectives regarding ALDH2*2 research. PMID:25292432

  19. HIV-1 genetic variants in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Kazennova, Elena; Laga, Vita; Lapovok, Ilya; Glushchenko, Nataliya; Neshumaev, Dmitry; Vasilyev, Alexander; Bobkova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    A molecular analysis of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants circulating in cities in the Russian Far East was performed. The study included samples from 201 outpatients from Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, and Blagoveshchensk. In most parts of Russia, patients are infected with HIV-1 subtype A, known as the IDU-A variant. Subtype B, including the IDU-B variant, is rare in Russia but widespread in the Ukraine, and the CRF02_AG is prevalent in Central Asian countries and Siberia, Russia. One of the challenges of this study in the Far East was to determine whether the molecular landscape of HIV infection in this region is influenced by the bordering countries, including China and Japan, where a distinct set of HIV subtypes is circulating, such as B', C, and CRF01_AE. The distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants in the cities studied was as follows: subtype A (IDU-A), 55.7%; subtype B, 25.3% (IDU-B variant-24.3%); subtype C, 10.0%; CRF02_AG, 1.5%; and CRF63_02A1, 7.5%. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed the relationship of subtype A viruses with the IDU-A variant predominating in Ukraine, Russia and other former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, of subtype B viruses with IDU-B in the Ukraine and of CRF02_AG variants with variants in Uzbekistan, Russia, and other former USSR countries. Subtype C sequences were not uniform, and most clustered between each other and HIV-1 sequences originating from Africa; there was only one sample possibly related to Chinese variants. Thus, despite close cultural and commercial relationships among Russia, China, and Japan, the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in the Russian Far East is still primarily influenced by contacts with the countries of the former USSR. PMID:24773167

  20. The East-Asian VLBI Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajima, K.; Hagiwara, Y.; An, T.; Baan, W. A.; Fujisawa, K.; Hao, L.; Jiang, W.; Jung, T.; Kawaguchi, N.; Kim, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Oh, S.-J.; Roh, D.-G.; Wang, M. Wu, Y.; Xia, B.; Zhang, M.

    2016-02-01

    The East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN) is the international VLBI facility in East Asia and is conducted in collaboration with China, Japan, and Korea. The EAVN consists of VLBI arrays operated in each East Asian country, containing 21 radio telescopes and three correlators. The EAVN will be mainly operated at 6.7 (C-band), 8 (X-band), 22 (K-band), and 43 GHz (Q-band), although the EAVN has an ability to conduct observations at 1.6 - 129 GHz. We have conducted fringe test observations eight times to date at 8 and 22 GHz and fringes have been successfully detected at both frequencies. We have also conducted science commissioning observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in massive star-forming regions. The EAVN will be operational from the second half of 2017, providing complementary results with the FAST on AGNs, massive star-forming regions, and evolved stars with high angular resolution at cm- to mm-wavelengths.

  1. HIV-1 Genetic Variants in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Kazennova, Elena; Laga, Vita; Lapovok, Ilya; Glushchenko, Nataliya; Neshumaev, Dmitry; Vasilyev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A molecular analysis of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants circulating in cities in the Russian Far East was performed. The study included samples from 201 outpatients from Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, and Blagoveshchensk. In most parts of Russia, patients are infected with HIV-1 subtype A, known as the IDU-A variant. Subtype B, including the IDU-B variant, is rare in Russia but widespread in the Ukraine, and the CRF02_AG is prevalent in Central Asian countries and Siberia, Russia. One of the challenges of this study in the Far East was to determine whether the molecular landscape of HIV infection in this region is influenced by the bordering countries, including China and Japan, where a distinct set of HIV subtypes is circulating, such as B′, C, and CRF01_AE. The distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants in the cities studied was as follows: subtype A (IDU-A), 55.7%; subtype B, 25.3% (IDU-B variant—24.3%); subtype C, 10.0%; CRF02_AG, 1.5%; and CRF63_02A1, 7.5%. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed the relationship of subtype A viruses with the IDU-A variant predominating in Ukraine, Russia and other former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, of subtype B viruses with IDU-B in the Ukraine and of CRF02_AG variants with variants in Uzbekistan, Russia, and other former USSR countries. Subtype C sequences were not uniform, and most clustered between each other and HIV-1 sequences originating from Africa; there was only one sample possibly related to Chinese variants. Thus, despite close cultural and commercial relationships among Russia, China, and Japan, the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in the Russian Far East is still primarily influenced by contacts with the countries of the former USSR. PMID:24773167

  2. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    PubMed Central

    Novozhilova, Elena; Rybin, Viacheslav; Gorovoy, Petr; Gavrilenko, Irina; Doudkin, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1), 20-hydroxyecdysone (2), ecdysone (3), 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4) has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan) system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandriumsachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae). Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis. PMID:26109770

  3. Large-scale East-Asian eQTL mapping reveals novel candidate genes for LD mapping and the genomic landscape of transcriptional effects of sequence variants.

    PubMed

    Narahara, Maiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Ishii, Miho; Matsubara, Kenichi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Profiles of sequence variants that influence gene transcription are very important for understanding mechanisms that affect phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. Using genotypes at 1.4 million SNPs and a comprehensive transcriptional profile of 15,454 coding genes and 6,113 lincRNA genes obtained from peripheral blood cells of 298 Japanese individuals, we mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identified 3,804 cis-eQTLs (within 500 kb from target genes) and 165 trans-eQTLs (>500 kb away or on different chromosomes). Cis-eQTLs were often located in transcribed or adjacent regions of genes; among these regions, 5' untranslated regions and 5' flanking regions had the largest effects. Epigenetic evidence for regulatory potential accumulated in public databases explained the magnitude of the effects of our eQTLs. Cis-eQTLs were often located near the respective target genes, if not within genes. Large effect sizes were observed with eQTLs near target genes, and effect sizes were obviously attenuated as the eQTL distance from the gene increased. Using a very stringent significance threshold, we identified 165 large-effect trans-eQTLs. We used our eQTL map to assess 8,069 disease-associated SNPs identified in 1,436 genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified genes that might be truly causative, but GWAS might have failed to identify for 148 out of the GWAS-identified SNPs; for example, TUFM (P = 3.3E-48) was identified for inflammatory bowel disease (early onset); ZFP90 (P = 4.4E-34) for ulcerative colitis; and IDUA (P = 2.2E-11) for Parkinson's disease. We identified four genes (P<2.0E-14) that might be related to three diseases and two hematological traits; each expression is regulated by trans-eQTLs on a different chromosome than the gene. PMID:24956270

  4. Multiple Nonglycemic Genomic Loci Are Newly Associated With Blood Level of Glycated Hemoglobin in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Lee, Jong-Young; Li, Huaixing; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Liang, Jun; Long, Jirong; Tabara, Yasuharu; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Pereira, Mark A.; Kim, Young Jin; Go, Min Jin; Stram, Daniel O.; Vithana, Eranga; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Liu, Jianjun; Liao, Jiemin; Ye, Xingwang; Wang, Yiqin; Lu, Ling; Young, Terri L.; Lee, Jeannette; Thai, Ah Chuan; Cheng, Ching-Yu; van Dam, Rob M.; Friedlander, Yechiel; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Koh, Woon-Puay; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chang, Li-Ching; Pan, Wen-Harn; Qi, Qibin; Isono, Masato; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Gao, Yutang; Yamamoto, Ken; Ohnaka, Keizo; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Hsiung, Chao A.; Cui, Jinrui; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Hsu, Chris; Okada, Yukinori; Kubo, Michiaki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Huang, Jinyan; Huang, Tao; Yuan, Jianmin; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Gross, Myron D.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Miki, Tetsuro; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Qi, Lu; Chen, Yuan-Tson; Lin, Xu; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kato, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used as a measure of glycemic control and also as a diagnostic criterion for diabetes. To discover novel loci harboring common variants associated with HbA1c in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS; N = 21,026). We replicated our findings in three additional studies comprising 11,576 individuals of East Asian ancestry. Ten variants showed associations that reached genome-wide significance in the discovery data set, of which nine (four novel variants at TMEM79 [P value = 1.3 × 10−23], HBS1L/MYB [8.5 × 10−15], MYO9B [9.0 × 10−12], and CYBA [1.1 × 10−8] as well as five variants at loci that had been previously identified [CDKAL1, G6PC2/ABCB11, GCK, ANK1, and FN3KI]) showed consistent evidence of association in replication data sets. These variants explained 1.76% of the variance in HbA1c. Several of these variants (TMEM79, HBS1L/MYB, CYBA, MYO9B, ANK1, and FN3K) showed no association with either blood glucose or type 2 diabetes. Among individuals with nondiabetic levels of fasting glucose (<7.0 mmol/L) but elevated HbA1c (≥6.5%), 36.1% had HbA1c <6.5% after adjustment for these six variants. Our East Asian GWAS meta-analysis has identified novel variants associated with HbA1c as well as demonstrated that the effects of known variants are largely transferable across ethnic groups. Variants affecting erythrocyte parameters rather than glucose metabolism may be relevant to the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in these populations. PMID:24647736

  5. Counselling Expectations of a Sample of East Asian and Caucasian Canadian Undergraduates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Darren M.; Glenwright, Brittni J.; Bhatia, Maneet; Drapeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether East Asians differ from Caucasian Canadians in their expectations about counselling. Participants in this study included 31 East Asian and 53 Caucasian Canadian university students. The East Asian participants were all first-generation East Asians living in Canada, originally from China, Korea, Japan, or Vietnam.…

  6. South Asian and East Asian International Students' Perceived Prejudice, Acculturation, and Frequency of Help Resource Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Lisa L.; Roysircar, Gargi

    2006-01-01

    Relationships of perceived prejudice and acculturation with frequency of help resource utilization were examined for South Asian and East Asian international students (N = 110). All predictors, including interactions, were significant but showed different relationships for the 2 groups. The mean frequency of help resource utilization was…

  7. East Asian Attitudes toward Death- A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions.This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  8. East Asian Attitudes toward Death— A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions. This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  9. East Asian Cinema (College Course File).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Linda; Ma, Ning

    1990-01-01

    Provides guidelines for instructors who teach entire courses on (or who include) films from Japan and China. Considers issues of concern in contemporary Asian cinema such as conflicts between tradition and modernity, indigenous definitions of cultural identity and artistic form, and internationalization. (KEH)

  10. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal that the interannual variability of the indices will be maintained with an intensity similar to that of the present. The correlation between monsoon indices and Arctic Oscillation increases over time. On the other hand, the correlation between monsoon indices and North Atlantic Oscillation decreases.

  11. Attracting East Asian Students to Canadian Graduate Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan

    2006-01-01

    This study seeks to identify factors influencing East Asian international students' choices of Canadian graduate schools, to assess the strengths and dynamics of the factors influencing enrolment decisions, and to describe possible implications both for the Canadian government and for Canadian universities offering graduate education. The research…

  12. Issues in the Assessment of East Asian Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupi, Marsha H.; Woo, Joseph Yam Ting

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses cultural and linguistic biases and distortions present in standardized tests and offers explanations and suggestions on modifying or eliminating them. Key cultural concepts and linguistic differences are described to assist evaluators in assessing East Asian students appropriately and fairly. Several commonly used tests are

  13. East Asian Collections and Organizational Transformation in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses special aspects of East Asian collections and explores how organizational changes in academic libraries affect them, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Considers total quality management; continuous quality improvement; teamwork; staffing changes; specialization versus generalization; budgetary restraints and cost…

  14. Wintertime East Asian Jet Stream and Its Association with the Asian-Pacific Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    2000-01-01

    Interannual variability of the wintertime East Asian westerly jet stream and the linkage between this variability and the Asian-Pacific climate are investigated. The study emphasizes on the variability of the jet core and its association with the Asian winter monsoon, tropical convection, upper tropospheric wave patterns, and the teleconnection of the jet with other climate systems. The relationship between the jet and North Pacific sea surface temperature pattern (SST) is also explored. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, NASA GISS surface temperature, NASA GEOS reanalysis, NOAA reconstructed SST, GPCP precipitation, and NOAA snow cover data sets are analyzed in this study. An index of the East Asian jet has been defined by the December-February means of the 200 mb zonal winds that are averaged within a box enclosing the jet maximum, which shifts only moderately from one year to another especially in the south-north direction. The jet links to a teleconnection pattern whose major climate anomalies appear over the Asian continent and western Pacific (west of the dateline). This pattern differs distinctly from the teleconnection pattern associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which causes the Pacific/North American pattern to the east of the dateline. A strong jet is accompanied clearly by an increase in the intensity of the atmospheric circulation over Asia and the Pacific. In particular, the winter monsoon strengthens over East Asia, leading to cold climate in the region, and convection intensifies over the tropical Asia-Australia sector. Changes in the jet are associated with broad-scale modification in the upper tropospheric wave patterns that leads to downstream climate anomalies over the eastern Pacific. Through this downstream influence, the East Asian jet causes climate signals in North America as well. A strong jet gives rise to warming and less snow cover in the western United States but reverse climate anomalies in the eastern part of the country, although these signals are relatively weaker than the jet-related anomalies in East Asia. There is a strong association between the East Asian jet and the North Pacific SST (NPSST). A strong jet is accompanied by a cooling in the extratropical Pacific and a warming in the tropical-subtropical Pacific. Evidence also indicates that the extratropical NPSST pattern plays a role in modulating the intensity of the jet stream. ENSO, the jet, and the NPSST are mutually interactive on certain time scales and such an interaction links closely to the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American regions.

  15. A South-East Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Koh, D; Chia, S E; Jeyaratnam, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the subject of occupational medicine in the next century, changes in the present demographic profile and work activity must be considered first. Only then can the challenges be identified, and appropriate strategies be formulated to respond to them. In the diverse countries of South-East Asia, improved health and work conditions, the advent of new technology, a redistribution of work activity, and an ageing workforce can be expected. Two other factors that have specific impact in the region are the recent financial crisis and the occurrence of an international environmental haze from forest fires. The various countries in South-East Asia, which are in different stages of development, and have different problems and priorities, will respond differently to the demands for occupational health. It is likely that there will be a shift in the focus of current health care activities towards specific work sectors, the recognition of new hazards at work, the identification of newly emerging work related diseases, and an increase in health promotion in the workplace. Hopefully, there will be improved training of health professionals to ensure that there are adequate numbers and that they are well prepared to face these changes. Responsive, appropriate and well enforced labour legislation to protect the health of all workers, and international cooperation in occupational and environmental health are also required. As global and regional economic conditions continue to remain unstable and the impact of the crisis further takes its course, the final effect on occupational health in South-East Asia remains to be seen. PMID:10795397

  16. Asian flushing: genetic and sociocultural factors of alcoholism among East asians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeok; Kim, Sun S; You, Kwang Soo; Park, Wanju; Yang, Jin Hyang; Kim, Minjin; Hayman, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use can lead to a cascade of problems such as increased chances of risky behavior and negative health consequences, including alcoholic liver disease and upper gastric and liver cancer. Ethanol is metabolized mainly by 2 major enzymes: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Genetic variations of genes encoding the 2 enzymes are very common among East Asians but relatively rare for most other populations. Facial flushing and other physical discomforts after alcohol drinking triggered by accumulation of acetaldehyde through defective genes for ADH and ALDH have been reported. Approximately 40% of East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) show facial flushing after drinking alcohol, known as "Asian flush," which is characterized by adverse reactions on alcohol drinking in individuals possessing the fasting metabolizing alleles for ADH, ADH1B*2, and ADH1C*1, and the null allele for ALDH and ALDH2*2. Alcoholism is determined not only by the genetic deficiency but also by behaviors that involve complex interactions between genetic and sociocultural factors. The purpose of this article was to provide nurses with the most current information about genetic and sociocultural influences on alcoholism and alcohol-related health problems specifically for East Asians and implications of this knowledge to nursing practice. The physiological phenomenon of genes and genetics in relation to alcohol metabolism in this special population is emphasized. PMID:25271825

  17. The East Asian Jet Stream and its Climate Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    In this talk, I will present results from an analysis of the winter westerly jet stream over East Asia. The variability of the jet and its teleconnection to other climate subsystems such as the Asian winter monsoon, ENSO, and tropical convection will be focused. The role of external forcing and the predictability of the jet will be assessed using models. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, NASA GPCP data, and results from experiments with the NASA GOES-2 general circulation model will be studied.

  18. Adult Moyamoya Disease: A Burden of Intracranial Stenosis in East Asians?

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Oh Young; Ryoo, Sookyung; Kim, Suk Jae; Yoon, Chang Hyo; Cha, Jihoon; Yeon, Je Young; Kim, Keon Ha; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Shin, Hyung Jin; Ki, Chang-Seok; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hong, Seung Chyul

    2015-01-01

    Background Both Moyamoya disease (MMD) and intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) are more prevalent in Asians than in Westerners. We hypothesized that a substantial proportion of patients with adult-onset MMD were misclassified as having ICAS, which may in part explain the high prevalence of intracranial atherosclerotic stroke in Asians. Method We analyzed 352 consecutive patients with ischemic events within the MCA distribution and relevant intracranial arterial stenosis, but no demonstrable carotid or cardiac embolism sources. Conventional angiography was performed in 249 (70.7%) patients, and the remains underwent MRA. The occurrence of the c.14429G>A (p.Arg4810Lys) variant in ring finger protein 213 (RNF213) was analyzed. This gene was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for MMD in East Asians. Results The p.Arg4810Lys variant was observed in half of patients with intracranial stenosis (176 of 352, 50.0%), in no healthy control subjects (n = 51), and in 3.2% of stroke control subjects (4 of 124 patients with other etiologies). The presence of basal collaterals, bilateral involvement on angiography, and absence of diabetes were independently associated with the presence of the RNF213 variant. Among 131 patients who met all three diagnostic criteria and were diagnosed with MMD, three-fourths (75.6%) had this variant. However, a significant proportion of patients who met two criteria (57.7%), one criterion (28.6%), or no criteria (20.0%) also had this variant. Some of them developed typical angiographic findings of MMD on follow-up angiography. Conclusions Careful consideration of MMD is needed when diagnosing ICAS because differential therapeutic strategies are required for these diseases and due to the limitations of the current diagnostic criteria for MMD. PMID:26125557

  19. Why Do East Asian Children Perform so well in PISA? An Investigation of Western-Born Children of East Asian Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John

    2015-01-01

    A small group of high-performing East Asian economies dominate the top of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings. This has caught the attention of Western policymakers, who want to know why East Asian children obtain such high PISA scores, and what can be done to replicate their success. In this paper I investigate

  20. Why Do East Asian Children Perform so well in PISA? An Investigation of Western-Born Children of East Asian Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John

    2015-01-01

    A small group of high-performing East Asian economies dominate the top of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings. This has caught the attention of Western policymakers, who want to know why East Asian children obtain such high PISA scores, and what can be done to replicate their success. In this paper I investigate…

  1. The East Asian Jet Stream and Asian-Pacific-American Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    2000-01-01

    The upper-tropospheric westerly jet stream over subtropical East Asia and western Pacific, often referred to as East Asian Jet (EAJ), is an important atmospheric circulation system in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) region during winter. It is characterized by variabilities on a wide range of time scales and exerts a strong impact on the weather and climate of the region. On the synoptic scale, the jet stream is closely linked to many phenomena such as cyclogenesis, frontogenesis, blocking, storm track activity, and the development of other atmospheric disturbances. On the seasonal time scale, the variation of the EAJ determines many characteristics of the seasonal transition of the atmospheric circulation especially over East Asia. The variabilities of the EAJ on these time scales have been relatively well documented. It has also been understood since decades ago that the interannual. variability of the EAJ is associated with many climate signals in the APA region. These signals include the persistent anomalies of the East Asian winter monsoon and the changes in diabatic heating and in the Hadley circulation. However, many questions remain for the year-to-year variabilities of the EAJ and their relation to the APA climate. For example, what is the relationship between the EAJ and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? Will the EAJ and ENSO play different roles in modulating the APA climate? How is the jet stream linked to the non-ENSO-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and to the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern?

  2. Genes Regulated by Vitamin D in Bone Cells Are Positively Selected in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yali; Luiselli, Donata; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Pagani, Luca; Ayub, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D and folate are activated and degraded by sunlight, respectively, and the physiological processes they control are likely to have been targets of selection as humans expanded from Africa into Eurasia. We investigated signals of positive selection in gene sets involved in the metabolism, regulation and action of these two vitamins in worldwide populations sequenced by Phase I of the 1000 Genomes Project. Comparing allele frequency-spectrum-based summary statistics between these gene sets and matched control genes, we observed a selection signal specific to East Asians for a gene set associated with vitamin D action in bones. The selection signal was mainly driven by three genes CXXC finger protein 1 (CXXC1), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Examination of population differentiation and haplotypes allowed us to identify several candidate causal regulatory variants in each gene. Four of these candidate variants (one each in CXXC1 and RUNX2 and two in LRP5) had a >70% derived allele frequency in East Asians, but were present at lower (20–60%) frequency in Europeans as well, suggesting that the adaptation might have been part of a common response to climatic and dietary changes as humans expanded out of Africa, with implications for their role in vitamin D-dependent bone mineralization and osteoporosis insurgence. We also observed haplotype sharing between East Asians, Finns and an extinct archaic human (Denisovan) sample at the CXXC1 locus, which is best explained by incomplete lineage sorting. PMID:26719974

  3. Fifteen-Years-Old Students of Seven East Asian Cities in PISA 2009: A Secondary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background: In PISA 2009, seven East Asian countries rank high among the 65 participating countries, but some of the differences among the seven countries are small to be of substantive meaning. Aims: This paper is an attempt to fine tune the comparisons for better understanding of the situation in East Asian. Sample: Data of the seven East Asian…

  4. Impact of East Asian Summer Monsoon on the Interannual Variation of South Asian High

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Liu, Y.; Lu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Occupying the upper troposphere over the Eurasia during boreal summer, the South Asian High (SAH) is thought to be a critical regulator of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), a system of particular important for regional climate and regional water cycle over the East Asia. In this study, the mechanisms responsible for the interannual variation of SAH intensity are investigated. When the SAH is strong, the 200 hPa geopotential height in the high center increases and the high system expands. Significant anomalies of the geopotential height were found over the Middle East, and to the east of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The upper tropospheric temperature increases, while the precipitation increases over the Yangtze River Valley but decreases over the Middle East. The diagnosis of atmospheric dynamics and the numerical experiments consistently shown that the interannual variation of the SAH intensity is strongly influenced by summer precipitation over the Yangtze River Valley associated with EASM.The mechanisms are three-fold. First, the excessive EASM precipitation excites a local anticyclone in the upper troposphere according to Sverdrup Vorticity Balance, which leads to the eastward extension of the eastern edge of the SAH. In addition, condensational heating related to EASM warms the upper troposphere (200-400 hPa), reinforcing the geopotential height anomalies over East TP and East China. Furthermore, the monsoonal heating excites a westward propagating Rossby wave train, increasing geopotential height over the Middle East and inhibits the local precipitation. In conclusion, our study results in a new mechanistic paradigm in which the EASM is driving the SAH variation rather than passive response as traditionally thought.

  5. Divergence of East Asians and Europeans Estimated Using Male- and Female-Specific Genetic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Yoshio; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Katoh, Toru; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Oka, Akira; Haida, Yuko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tamiya, Gen; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    To study the male and female lineages of East Asian and European humans, we have sequenced 25 short tandem repeat markers on 453 Y-chromosomes and collected sequences of 72 complete mitochondrial genomes to construct independent phylogenetic trees for male and female lineages. The results indicate that East Asian individuals fall into two clades, one that includes East Asian individuals only and a second that contains East Asian and European individuals. Surprisingly, the European individuals did not form an independent clade, but branched within in the East Asians. We then estimated the divergence time of the root of the European clade as ∼41,000 years ago. These data indicate that, contrary to traditional views, Europeans diverged from East Asians around that time. We also address the origin of the Ainu lineage in northern Japan. PMID:24589501

  6. Divergence of East Asians and Europeans estimated using male- and female-specific genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Yoshio; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Katoh, Toru; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Oka, Akira; Haida, Yuko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tamiya, Gen; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2014-03-01

    To study the male and female lineages of East Asian and European humans, we have sequenced 25 short tandem repeat markers on 453 Y-chromosomes and collected sequences of 72 complete mitochondrial genomes to construct independent phylogenetic trees for male and female lineages. The results indicate that East Asian individuals fall into two clades, one that includes East Asian individuals only and a second that contains East Asian and European individuals. Surprisingly, the European individuals did not form an independent clade, but branched within in the East Asians. We then estimated the divergence time of the root of the European clade as ∼ 41,000 years ago. These data indicate that, contrary to traditional views, Europeans diverged from East Asians around that time. We also address the origin of the Ainu lineage in northern Japan. PMID:24589501

  7. CLU rs9331888 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility in Caucasian But Not East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xuling; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Jiafeng; Wang, Guangyu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Qinghua; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms rs11136000, rs2279590, and rs9331888 in CLU gene to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry. Both rs11136000 and rs2279590 variants were successfully replicated in Asian population. However, previous studies reported either a weak association or no association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in Asian population. Here, we searched the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar databases. We selected 12 independent studies that evaluated the association between the rs9331888 polymorphism and AD using a case-control design. Using an additive model, we did not identify significant heterogeneity among these 12 studies. We observed significant association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in pooled populations (P = 2.26E - 07, odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.14). In subgroup analysis, we did not identify significant heterogeneity in both Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified significant association in Caucasian population (P = 1.67E - 08, OR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.08-1.18) but not in East Asian population (P = 0.49, OR = 1.02, 95 % CI 0.96-1.10). PMID:25633098

  8. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  9. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST -AIRC): An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhangqing, Li; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-01-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  10. East Asian seas: A hot spot of pelagic microplastics.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Atsuhiko; Uchida, Keiichi; Tokai, Tadashi; Iwasaki, Shinsuke

    2015-12-30

    To investigate concentrations of pelagic micro- (<5mm in size) and mesoplastics (>5mm) in the East Asian seas around Japan, field surveys using two vessels were conducted concurrently in summer 2014. The total particle count (pieces km(-2)) was computed based on observed concentrations (pieces m(-3)) of small plastic fragments (both micro- and mesoplastics) collected using neuston nets. The total particle count of microplastics within the study area was 1,720,000 pieces km(-2), 16 times greater than in the North Pacific and 27 times greater than in the world oceans. The proportion of mesoplastics increased upstream of the northeastward ocean currents, such that the small plastic fragments collected in the present surveys were considered to have originated in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea southwest of the study area. PMID:26522164

  11. Depression and emotional reactivity: variation among Asian Americans of East Asian descent and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Chu, Joyce P; Tsai, Jeanne L; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Gross, James J; Gotlib, Ian H

    2007-11-01

    Studies of Western samples (e.g., European Americans [EAs]) suggest that depressed individuals tend to show diminished emotional reactivity (J. G. Gehricke & A. J. Fridlund, 2002; G. E. Schwartz, P. L. Fair, P. Salt, M. R. Mandel, & G. L. Klerman, 1976a, 1976b). Do these findings generalize to individuals oriented to other cultures (e.g., East Asian cultures)? The authors compared the emotional reactions (i.e., reports of emotional experience, facial behavior, and physiological reactivity) of depressed and nondepressed EAs and Asian Americans of East Asian descent (AAs) to sad and amusing films. Their results were consistent with previous findings: Depressed EAs showed a pattern of diminished reactivity to the sad film (less crying, less intense reports of sadness) compared with nondepressed participants. In contrast, depressed AAs showed a pattern of heightened emotional reactivity (greater crying) compared with nondepressed participants. Across cultural groups, depressed and nondepressed participants did not differ in their reports of amusement or facial behavior during the amusing film. Physiological reactivity to the film clips did not differ between depressed and control participants for either cultural group. Thus, although depression may influence particular aspects of emotional reactivity across cultures (e.g., crying), the specific direction of this influence may depend on prevailing cultural norms regarding emotional expression. PMID:18020723

  12. [The trend and prospect of studies of East Asian medical history in Korea].

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyuhwan

    2010-06-30

    Studies of East Asian medical history in Korea have progressively accumulated in the last twenty years. First, Korean scholars broadened the focus of research from China-centered research to East Asian research. Studies of Toyo medical history in Korea mainly concentrated on Chinese medical history. Toyo medical history originated from Japanese orientalism and imperialism. Today the studies of East Asian medical history in Korea include Korea, China and Japan, and attempt to deal with East Asia as a single conceptual category. Second, researchers in East Asian medical history are steadily increasing. They study Chinese medical history or Japanese medical history from universities. As they continue their research in academic positions, successive researchers emerge. Third, the number of Korean scholars remains relatively small, but they pursue original research. Their interests are in the discourse of East Asian medical history, colonial modernity, environmental history, oral history, and history of disease. PMID:20671399

  13. Distribution of two OCA2 polymorphisms associated with pigmentation in East-Asian populations

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nicole; Norton, Heather L; Parra, Esteban J

    2015-01-01

    Two OCA2 polymorphisms (rs1800414 and rs74653330) have been associated with pigmentation in East Asians. We explored the distribution of these markers in a panel of samples from populations around the world. The derived allele of rs1800414 has high frequencies in a broad East-Asian region, whereas the derived allele of rs74653330 is primarily restricted to northern East Asia. Our data suggest that these polymorphisms may have been selected independently in different regions of East Asia. PMID:27081560

  14. Other aspects of BSE issues in East Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Sekizawa, Jun

    2013-11-01

    Scientific risk estimates of BSE can be the same internationally; however, socioeconomic backgrounds, such as food supply (e.g., beef import status) and dietary life, are different between East Asian countries (i.e., in this article, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan) and Western countries, which may account for differences in risk perception of people. Since political and social backgrounds also differ among these East Asian countries, they will also influence people's attitudes toward food safety. Psychological factors such as "dread" and the "unknown" are considered to be important in risk perception, but socioeconomic, and in some cases political, situations (e.g., attitudes of politicians and political pressures in trade) may strongly influence the perception and acceptance of various risks by citizens. With regard to the BSE issues, latter aspects may contribute a lot to risk perception, but have not been examined in depth until now. Although protection of health is the key element to food safety, sometimes business factors can overwhelm safety issues in international trade. Appropriate risk governance in food safety issues, such as BSE, can be attained not only through application of outputs of scientific assessment, but also through deliberation of various aspects, that may have strong influence on people's risk perception, and improved communication among stakeholders and also among countries. PMID:23617705

  15. Prescriptive stereotypes and workplace consequences for East Asians in North America.

    PubMed

    Berdahl, Jennifer L; Min, Ji-A

    2012-04-01

    We pursue the idea that racial stereotypes are not only descriptive, reflecting beliefs about how racial groups actually differ, but are prescriptive as well, reflecting beliefs about how racial groups should differ. Drawing on an analysis of the historic and current status of East Asians in North America, we study descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes of East Asians along the dimensions of competence, warmth, and dominance and examine workplace consequences of violating these stereotypes. Study 1 shows that East Asians are descriptively stereotyped as more competent, less warm, and less dominant than Whites. Study 2 shows that only the descriptive stereotype of East Asians as less dominant than Whites is also a prescriptive stereotype. Study 3 reveals that people dislike a dominant East Asian coworker compared to a nondominant East Asian or a dominant or a nondominant White coworker. Study 4 shows that East Asians who are dominant or warm are racially harassed at work more than nondominant East Asians and than dominant and nondominant employees of other racial identities. Implications for research and theory are discussed. PMID:22506817

  16. Summer Institute at Indiana U. Uses Immersion to Teach Hard-to-Learn East Asian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Susan

    1989-01-01

    As East Asian countries continue to develop into major powers in the economic world, students come to Indiana University's East Asian Summer Language Institute to improve their chances for careers in those countries in international law, teaching, and business. Advice on proper etiquette is also included. (MLW)

  17. The ongoing westernization of East Asian biomedical ethics in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Tsai, Shih-Li; Yang, Chih-Wei; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2013-02-01

    Family autonomy/family-determination (FA/FD) is deeply rooted in Confucianism, and is an important core value in East Asian biomedical ethics. Individual autonomy/self-determination (IA/SD) did not originate in East Asia, and is the most important core value of Western biomedical ethics. IA/SD and FA/FD are different from each other not only because of where they originated but also in their general sense and moral foundations. We investigated the influence of Western biomedical ethics on the Eastern hemisphere. We examined the secular trends of IA/SD use in ethics and biomedical ethics articles published in Taiwan from 1991 to 2010. The published articles were collected from a popular online library called the Chinese Electronic Periodical Services. A total of 1737 articles were associated with ethics, and 300 of them were associated with biomedical ethics. The total number of times IA/SD was used in each ethics and biomedical ethics article was calculated. The secular trends were plotted graphically and analyzed by time series linear regression analysis. The results showed that the secular trend of the proportion of the yearly total of biomedical ethics articles to the yearly total of ethics articles was significantly increasing (p = 0.007). The secular trends of the average of times IA/SD showed that one unit of yearly increase was associated with an increment of 0.056 IA/SD use per ethics article (p < 0.001), and 0.331 IA/SD use per biomedical ethics article (p = 0.027), respectively. These findings suggest that Western biomedical ethics have become increasingly influential in Taiwan over the past two decades. Thus, assuming that FA/FD takes priority over IA/SD in an East Asian medical encounter is too simplistic. Whether FA/FD or IA/SD takes priority in a medical encounter should be carefully evaluated. PMID:23273761

  18. Climacteric and menopause in seven south-east Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Boulet, M J; Oddens, B J; Lehert, P; Vemer, H M; Visser, A

    2008-01-01

    The menopause is universal, but what about the climacteric? In an attempt to answer this question, a study was conducted in seven south-east Asian countries, namely, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Samples of approximately 400 women in each country were questioned about a number of climacteric complaints, incontinence and dyspareunia, consultation of a physician, menopausal status and several background characteristics. Special care was taken to overcome linguistic and cultural problems, and the data collected were kept as objective as possible. From the results obtained we were able to show that the climacteric was indeed experienced in south-east Asian countries, although in a mild form. The prevalence of hot flushes and of sweating was lower than in western countries, but was nevertheless not negligible. The percentages of women who reported the more psychological types of complaint were similar to those in western countries. The occurrence of climacteric complaints affected perceived health status. A physician was consulted for climacteric complaints by 20% of the respondents, although this was most frequently associated with the occurrence of psychological complaints and less so with that of hot flushes and sweating. The median age at menopause (51.09) appeared to be within the ranges observed in western countries. Ethnic background and age at menarche were found to have a significant influence on age at menopause. The study clearly demonstrated that climacteric complaints occur in south-east Asia. The findings suggest, however, that vasomotor-complaint-related distress might be 'translated' into psychological complaints, which are more frequently considered to warrant consulting a physician. PMID:19434878

  19. Climacteric and menopause in seven South-east Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Boulet, M J; Oddens, B J; Lehert, P; Vemer, H M; Visser, A

    1994-10-01

    The menopause is universal, but what about the climacteric? In an attempt to answer this question, a study was conducted in seven south-east Asian countries, namely, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Samples of approximately 400 women in each country were questioned about a number of climacteric complaints, incontinence and dyspareunia, consultation of a physician, menopausal status and several background characteristics. Special care was taken to overcome linguistic and cultural problems, and the data collected were kept as objective as possible. From the results obtained we were able to show that the climacteric was indeed experienced in south-east Asian countries, although in a mild form. The prevalence of hot flushes and of sweating was lower than in western countries, but was nevertheless not negligible. The percentages of women who reported the more psychological types of complaint were similar to those in western countries. The occurrence of climacteric complaints affected perceived health status. A physician was consulted for climacteric complaints by 20% of the respondents, although this was most frequently associated with the occurrence of psychological complaints and less so with that of hot flushes and sweating. The median age at menopause (51.09) appeared to be within the ranges observed in western countries. Ethnic background and age at menarche were found to have a significant influence on age at menopause. The study clearly demonstrated that climacteric complaints occur in south-east Asia. The findings suggest, however, that vasomotor-complaint-related distress might be 'translated' into psychological complaints, which are more frequently considered to warrant consulting a physician. PMID:7799822

  20. Prevalence of common disease-associated variants in Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, Trevor J; Mehta, Niyati U; Witonsky, David; Di Rienzo, Anna; Allayee, Hooman; Conti, David V; Patel, Pragna I

    2008-01-01

    Background Asian Indians display a high prevalence of diseases linked to changes in diet and environment that have arisen as their lifestyle has become more westernized. Using 1200 genome-wide polymorphisms in 432 individuals from 15 Indian language groups, we have recently shown that: (i) Indians constitute a distinct population-genetic cluster, and (ii) despite the geographic and linguistic diversity of the groups they exhibit a relatively low level of genetic heterogeneity. Results We investigated the prevalence of common polymorphisms that have been associated with diseases, such as atherosclerosis (ALOX5), hypertension (CYP3A5, AGT, GNB3), diabetes (CAPN10, TCF7L2, PTPN22), prostate cancer (DG8S737, rs1447295), Hirschsprung disease (RET), and age-related macular degeneration (CFH, LOC387715). In addition, we examined polymorphisms associated with skin pigmentation (SLC24A5) and with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (TAS2R38). All polymorphisms were studied in a cohort of 576 India-born Asian Indians sampled in the United States. This sample consisted of individuals whose mother tongue is one of 14 of the 22 "official" languages recognized in India as well as individuals whose mother tongue is Parsi, a cultural group that has resided in India for over 1000 years. Analysis of the data revealed that allele frequency differences between the different Indian language groups were small, and interestingly the variant alleles of ALOX5 g.8322G>A and g.50778G>A, and PTPN22 g.36677C>T were present only in a subset of the Indian language groups. Furthermore, a latitudinal cline was identified both for the allele frequencies of the SNPs associated with hypertension (CYP3A5, AGT, GNB3), as well as for those associated with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (TAS2R38). Conclusion Although caution is warranted due to the fact that this US-sampled Indian cohort may not represent a random sample from India, our results will hopefully assist in the design of future studies that investigate the genetic causes of these diseases in India. Our results also support the inclusion of the Indian population in disease-related genetic studies, as it exhibits unique genotype as well as phenotype characteristics that may yield new insights into the underlying causes of common diseases that are not available in other populations. PMID:18248681

  1. Rapid transport of East Asian pollution to the deep tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashfold, M. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Robinson, A. D.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Phang, S. M.; Samah, A. A.; Ong, S.; Ung, H. E.; Peng, L. K.; Yong, S. E.; Harris, N. R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions from East Asia have increased over recent decades, and under the prevailing westerly winds, these increases have led to changes in atmospheric composition as far afield as North America. Here we show that, during Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter, pollution originating in East Asia also directly affects atmospheric composition in the deep tropics. We present observations of marked intra-seasonal variability in the anthropogenic tracer perchloroethene (C2Cl4) collected at two locations in Borneo during the NH winter of 2008/09. We use the NAME trajectory model to show that the observed enhancements in C2Cl4 mixing ratio are caused by rapid meridional transport, in the form of "cold surges", from the relatively polluted East Asian land mass. In these events air masses can move across > 30 of latitude in 4 days. We then present data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate reanalysis which suggests that air masses high in C2Cl4 may also contain levels of the pollutants carbon monoxide and ozone that are approximately double the typical "background" levels in Borneo. Convection in Southeast Asia can be enhanced by cold surges, and further trajectory calculations indicate that the polluted air masses can subsequently be lifted to the tropical upper troposphere. This suggests a potentially important connection between mid-latitude pollution sources and the very low stratosphere.

  2. The East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping

    2015-08-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. At this next General Assembly, we aim at updating the community of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  3. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence in East Asian women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) may cause Tullio phenomenon (sound-induced vertigo) or Hennebert sign (valsalva-induced vertigo) due to the absence of bone overlying the SSC. We document a case series of elderly East Asian women with atypical SSCD symptoms, radiologically confirmed dehiscence and concurrent osteoporosis. Methods A retrospective record review was performed on patients with dizziness, vertigo, and/or imbalance from a neurology clinic in a community health center serving the East Asian population in Boston. SSCD was confirmed by multi-detector, high-resolution CT of the temporal bone (with Pöschl and Stenvers reformations) and osteoporosis was documented by bone mineral density (BMD) scans. Results Of the 496 patients seen in the neurology clinic of a community health center from 2008 to 2010, 76 (17.3%) had symptoms of dizziness, vertigo, and/or imbalance. Five (6.6%) had confirmed SSCD by multi-detector, high-resolution CT of the temporal bone with longitudinal areas of dehiscence along the long axis of SSC, ranging from 0.4 to 3.0 mm, as seen on the Pöschl view. Two of the 5 patients experienced motion-induced vertigo, two fell due to disequilibrium, and one had chronic dizziness. None had a history of head trauma, otologic surgery, or active intracerebral disease. On neurological examination, two patients had inducible vertigo on Dix-Hallpike maneuver and none experienced cerebellar deficit, Tullio phenomenon, or Hennebert sign. All had documented osteoporosis or osteopenia by BMD scans. Three of them had definite osteoporosis, with T-scores < −2.5 in the axial spine, while another had osteopenia with a T-score of −2.3 in the left femur. Conclusions We describe an unusual presentation of SSCD without Tullio phenomenon or Hennebert sign in a population of elderly, East Asian women. There may be an association of SSCD and osteoporosis in this population. Further research is needed to determine the incidence and prevalence of this disorder, as well as the relationship of age, race, osteoporosis risk, and the development of SSCD. PMID:22831544

  4. A possible impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the east Asian summer monsoon precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Won-Tae; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Lim, Gyu-Ho; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2006-11-01

    This letter reports on a possible delayed impact of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the following east Asian summer monsoon precipitation. An analysis of weather station data shows significant correlations between the December NAO index and precipitation over Korea and China in the subsequent summer. It appears that the correlation may be related to a wave train pattern which originates from the North Atlantic. The east Asian branch of this wave train can affect large-scale circulation and the precipitation over east Asia in early summer. We also found a significant interdecadal change of this relationship, which is possibly linked to a climatological change of the east Asian jet stream.

  5. Wintertime East Asian Jet Stream and its Association with the Asian-Pacific-American Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    The wintertime upper-tropospheric westerly jet stream over subtropical East Asia and western Pacific, often referred to as East Asian Jet (EAJ), is an important atmospheric circulation system in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) region. It is characterized by variabilities on a wide range of time scales and exerts a strong impact on the weather and climate of the region. On the synoptic scale, the jet is closely linked to many phenomena such as cyclogenesis, frontogenesis, blocking, storm track activity, and the development of other atmospheric disturbances. On the seasonal time scale, the variation of the EAJ determines many characteristics of the seasonal transition of the atmospheric circulation over Asia. The variabilities of the jet on these time scales have been relatively well documented (e.g., Yeh et al. 1959, Palmen and Newton 1969; Zeng 1979). It has also been understood that the inter-annual variability of the EAJ is associated with many climate signals in the APA region. These signals include the persistent anomalies of the East Asian winter monsoon and the changes in diabatic heating and in the Hadley circulation (Bjerknes 1966; Chang and Lau 1980; Huang and Gambo 1982; Kang and Held 1986; Tao and Chen 1987; Lau et al. 1988; Yang and Webster 1990; Ding 1992; Webster and Yang 1992; Dong et al. 1999). However, many questions remain for the year-to-year variabilities of the jet and their relation to the APA climate. For example, what is the relationship between the EAJ and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? Will the jet and ENSO play different roles in modulating the APA climate? How is the jet linked to North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern? In this study, we address several issues related to the wintertime EAJ with a focus on interannual time scales. We will examine the association between the jet core and ENSO, which has always been overshadowed by the relationship between ENSO and the upper-tropospheric winds over northern extratropics of the central Pacific. We will investigate the linkage of the jet to variabilities of the Asian winter monsoon, tropical convection, and upper tropospheric wave patterns. We will also explore the relationship between the jet core and extratropical S ST with an aim at providing helpful information for improving our understanding of the connection of the EAJ to surface boundary conditions. The analysis is expected to provide information that is helpful for improving regional climate predictions.

  6. EvoSNP-DB: A database of genetic diversity in East Asian populations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Uk; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong-Young; Park, Kiejung

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become popular as an approach for the identification of large numbers of phenotype-associated variants. However, differences in genetic architecture and environmental factors mean that the effect of variants can vary across populations. Understanding population genetic diversity is valuable for the investigation of possible population specific and independent effects of variants. EvoSNP-DB aims to provide information regarding genetic diversity among East Asian populations, including Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Non-redundant SNPs (1.6 million) were genotyped in 54 Korean trios (162 samples) and were compared with 4 million SNPs from HapMap phase II populations. EvoSNP-DB provides two user interfaces for data query and visualization, and integrates scores of genetic diversity (Fst and VarLD) at the level of SNPs, genes, and chromosome regions. EvoSNP-DB is a web-based application that allows users to navigate and visualize measurements of population genetic differences in an interactive manner, and is available online at [http://biomi.cdc.go.kr/EvoSNP/]. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(8): 416-421] PMID:23977990

  7. Determining the trigger of East Asian dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In the past 2 decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the occurrence of dust storms over East Asia. The trigger for this increase has been elusive because the ability of gusting wind to whip up a dust storm depends on a large number of factors, ranging from the level of snow and vegetation cover to differences in soil moisture and salt levels. Scientists note that these factors fall into two broad categories: Either the wind has increased its ability to wear away at the earth (increased erosivity), or the soil is more susceptible to the wind's assault (increased erodibility). Using a database of wind speed, weather, and dust storm observations stretching back to 1970, Kurosaki et al. sought to determine whether the East Asian increase was caused by changing erosivity or erodibility. The authors found that the rise in dust storms in desert regions could be attributed largely to an increase in the frequency of strong winds. For crops and grasslands, however, the researchers tied the increase in storms to a change in erodibility, indicating that the soil had somehow changed. They propose that changes in the ground cover provided by dead leaves in the spring could be the driving factor. If so, then observations of plant growth and precipitation during the summer could provide a platform on which to base forecasts of the frequency of dust storms the following year. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047494, 2011)

  8. East Asian winter monsoon: results from eight AMIP models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Sperber, K. R.; Boyle, J. S.; Dix, M.; Ferranti, L.; Kitoh, A.; Lau, K. M.; Miyakoda, K.; Randall, D.; Takacs, L.; Wetherald, R.

    This study evaluates simulations of the East Asian winter monsoon in eight GCMs that participated in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). In addition to validating the mean state of the winter monsoon, the cold surge and its transient properties, which includes the frequency, intensity, preferred propagation tracks, and the evolution patterns of the surges, are examined. GCM simulated temporal distribution of the Siberian high and cold surges is also discussed. Finally, the forcing of the cold surges on the tropical surface wind and convection, along with their interannual variation is analyzed. The mean state of the winter monsoon is generally portrayed well in most of the models. These include the climatological position of the Siberian high, the 200 hPa divergent center, and the large-scale wind patterns at the surface and the 200 hPa. Models display a wide range of skill in simulating the cold surge and its transient properties. In some of the models, the simulated cold surge trajectory, intensity, frequency, propagation patterns and source regions are in general agreement with those from the observed. While in others, the models cannot adequately capture these observed characteristics. The temporal distribution of the Siberian high and cold surges were realistically reproduced in most GCMs. Most models were able to simulate the effect of the cold surges on the tropical surface wind, although a few models unrealistically generated subtropical southerly wind in the mid-winter. The relationship between cold surges and the tropical convection was not satisfactorily simulated in most models. The common discrepancies in the winter monsoon simulation can be attributed to many factors. In some models, the reason is directly related to the improper location of the large-scale convective center near the western Pacific. The satisfactory simulations of the monsoon circulation and the cold surges are partly due to the topographical characteristics of the East Asian continent, i.e., the Tibetan Plateau to the west and the oceans to the east. The correct simulation of the interannual variation of the surface wind near the South China Sea (SCS) and the maritime continent is a demanding task for most of the models. This will require adequate simulations of many aspects, including tropical convection, the Siberian cold dome, the extratropical-tropical linkage, and the air-sea interaction. The discrepancies noted here furnish a guide for the continuing improvement of the winter monsoon simulations. Improved simulations will lead to an adequate delineation of the surface wind and convection near the maritime continent, which is essential for portraying the winter monsoon forcing in a coupled model.

  9. Rapid transport of East Asian pollution to the deep tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashfold, M. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Robinson, A. D.; Meneguz, E.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Phang, S. M.; Samah, A. A.; Ong, S.; Ung, H. E.; Peng, L. K.; Yong, S. E.; Harris, N. R. P.

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions from East Asia have increased over recent decades. These increases have led to changes in atmospheric composition as far afield as North America under the prevailing westerly winds. Here we show that, during Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter, pollution originating in East Asia also directly affects atmospheric composition in the deep tropics. We present observations of marked intra-seasonal variability in the anthropogenic tracer perchloroethene (C2Cl4) collected at two locations in Borneo (117.84° E, 4.98° N and 118.00° E, 4.22° N) during the NH winter of 2008/2009. We use trajectories calculated with the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment to show that the observed enhancements in C2Cl4 mixing ratio are caused by rapid meridional transport, in the form of "cold surges", from the relatively polluted East Asian land mass. In these events air masses can move from ~35° N to Borneo in 4 days. We then present data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate reanalysis which suggest that air masses high in C2Cl4 may also contain levels of the pollutants carbon monoxide and ozone that are approximately double the typical "background" levels in Borneo. In addition to strengthening the meridional transport from the north, cold surges can enhance convection in Southeast Asia, and further trajectory calculations indicate that the polluted air masses can subsequently be lifted to the tropical upper troposphere. This suggests a potentially important connection between midlatitude pollution sources and the very low stratosphere.

  10. Reactive nitrogen deposition to South East Asian rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Marco, Chiara F.; Phillips, Gavin J.; Thomas, Rick; Tang, Sim; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark A.; Fowler, David; Lim, Sei F.

    2010-05-01

    The supply of reactive nitrogen (N) to global terrestrial ecosystems has doubled since the 1960s as a consequence of human activities, such as fertilizer application and production of nitrogen oxides by fossil-fuel burning. The deposition of atmospheric N species constitutes a major nutrient input to the biosphere. Tropical forests have been undergoing a radical land use change by increasing cultivation of sugar cane and oil palms and the remaining forests are increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. Yet, quantifications of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to tropical forests, and nitrogen cycling under near-pristine and polluted conditions are rare. The OP3 project ("Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest") was conceived to study how emissions of reactive trace gases from a tropical rain forest mediate the regional scale production and processing of oxidants and particles, and to better understand the impact of these processes on local, regional and global scale atmospheric composition, chemistry and climate. As part of this study we have measured reactive, nitrogen containing trace gas (ammonia, nitric acid) and the associated aerosol components (ammonium, nitrate) at monthly time resolution using a simple filter / denuder for 16 months. These measurements were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch tower near Danum Valley in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo. In addition, the same compounds were measured at hourly time-resolution during an intensive measurement period, with a combination of a wet-chemistry system based on denuders and steam jet aerosol collectors and an aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), providing additional information on the temporal controls. During this period, concentrations and fluxes of NO, NO2 and N2O were also measured. The measurements are used for inferential dry deposition modelling and combined with wet deposition data from the South East Asian Acid Deposition Network to estimate the total annual atmospheric reactive nitrogen deposition to this tropical forest ecosystem and to quantify the relative contribution of the different chemical compounds.

  11. Holocene biome shifts in the East Asian monsoon margin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmeyer, Anne; Claussen, Martin; Ni, Jian; Wang, Yongbo; Cao, Xianyong; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    East Asia is affected by three major atmospheric circulation systems determining the regional climate and vegetation distribution: The moisture advected by the Indian and East Asian monsoon support the growing of forest in large parts of Eastern China. The influence of the monsoon gets weaker further on the continent yielding a transition of forest to steppe and of steppe to desert in Central East Asia (e.g. Inner Mongolia) where the dry westerly winds prevail. Particularly in these transition zones, vegetation is supposed to be very sensitive to climate change and strong feedbacks are expected in case of climate and vegetation shifts due to large environmental changes (Feng et al., 2006). During mid-Holocene, cyclic variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun led to an enhancement of the Asian monsoon system probably causing strong shifts in the biome distribution. According to reconstructions, the steppe-forest margin moved to the northwest by about 500km (Yu et al., 2000) and the desert area in China and Inner Mongolia was substantially reduced compared to today (Feng et al., 2006). However, in the complex environment of Asia, the locally limited reconstructions may not portray the general vegetation change. To get a systematic overview on the spatial pattern of biome shifts in the Asian monsoon - westerly wind transition zone since mid-Holocene, we use the diagnostic vegetation model BIOME4 and force this model with climate anomalies from different transient Holocene climate simulations performed in coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation models. The main aims of this study are to a) get a consistent ensemble of possible changes in biome distribution since the mid-Holocene b) test the robustness of the simulated vegetation changes and quantify the differences between the models, and c) allow for a better comparison of simulated and reconstructed vegetation changes. Preliminary results confirm the general trend seen in the reconstructions. The simulations reveal an expansion of forest for most models and a substantially reduced desert fraction in the transition zone during mid-Holocene. However, the amplitude of the signal and the trend varies for the different climate models. At mid-Holocene, the desert-steppe margin is located further west by approx. 6° in the ensemble mean ranging from 1° to 10° in the different simulations. The forest biomes extend further north-westward by approx. 2° in the ensemble mean ranging from 0° to 4°. In some simulations, the biome distribution shows a strong variability during the last 6000 years and a strong increase of desert starting 500 years before present. In other simulations the biome distribution stays relatively constant until 4500 years before present, afterwards the desert border gradually moves eastward to its present-day position. References: Feng, Z.-D., An, C.B., and Wang, H.B.: Holocene climatic and environmental changes in the arid and semi-arid areas of China: a review. The Holocene 16(1), 119-130, 2006. Yu, G., Chen, X., Ni, J., Cheddadi, R., Guiot, J., Han, H., Harrison, S.P., Huang, C., Ke, M., Kong, Z., Li, S., Li, W., Liew, P., Liu, G., Liu, J., Liu, Q., Liu, K.-B., Prentice, I.C., Qui, W., Ren, G., Song, C., Sugita, S., Sun, X., Tang, L., Van Campo, E., Xia, Y., Xu, Q., Yan, S., Yang, X., Zhao, J., and Zheng, Z.: Palaeovegetation of China: a pollen date-based synthesis for the mid-Holocene and last glacial maximum. J. Biogeogr., 27, 635-664, 2000.

  12. Deep History of East Asian Populations Revealed Through Genetic Analysis of the Ainu.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Choongwon; Nakagome, Shigeki; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in population genomics, much remains to be elucidated with regard to East Asian population history. The Ainu, a hunter-gatherer population of northern Japan and Sakhalin island of Russia, are thought to be key to elucidating the prehistory of Japan and the peopling of East Asia. Here, we study the genetic relationship of the Ainu with other East Asian and Siberian populations outside the Japanese archipelago using genome-wide genotyping data. We find that the Ainu represent a deep branch of East Asian diversity more basal than all present-day East Asian farmers. However, we did not find a genetic connection between the Ainu and populations of the Tibetan plateau, rejecting their long-held hypothetical connection based on Y chromosome data. Unlike all other East Asian populations investigated, the Ainu have a closer genetic relationship with northeast Siberians than with central Siberians, suggesting ancient connections among populations around the Sea of Okhotsk. We also detect a recent genetic contribution of the Ainu to nearby populations, but no evidence for reciprocal recent gene flow is observed. Whole genome sequencing of contemporary and ancient Ainu individuals will be helpful to understand the details of the deep history of East Asians. PMID:26500257

  13. How much information? East Asian and North American cultural products and information search performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaitang; Masuda, Takahiko; Ito, Kenichi; Rashid, Marghalara

    2012-12-01

    Literature in cultural psychology suggests that compared with North Americans, East Asians prefer context-rich cultural products (e.g., paintings and photographs). The present article further examines the preferred amount of information in cultural products produced by East Asians and North Americans (Study 1: Society for Personality and Social Psychology conference posters; Study 2: government and university portal pages). The authors found that East Asians produced more information-rich products than did North Americans. Study 3 further examined people's information search speed when identifying target objects on mock webpages containing large amounts of information. The results indicated that East Asians were faster than North Americans in dealing with information on mock webpages with large amounts of information. Finally, the authors found that there were cultural differences as well as similarities in functional and aesthetic preferences regarding styles of information presentation. The interplay between cultural products and skills for accommodating to the cultural products is discussed. PMID:22878462

  14. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomomi

    2012-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are discussed. PMID:22085526

  15. Child Marriage or Forced Marriage? South Asian Communities in North East England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…

  16. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…

  17. Characteristics of the East Asian Winter Climate Associated with the Westerly Jet Stream and ENSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the influences of the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the interannual variability of the East Asian winter climate are examined with a focus on the relative climate impacts of the two phenomena. Although the variations of the East Asian winter monsoon and the temperature and precipitation of China, Japan, and Korea are emphasized, the associated changes in the broad-scale atmospheric circulation patterns over Asia and the Pacific and in the extratropical North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are also investigated. It is demonstrated that there is no apparent relationship between ENSO and the interannual variability of EAJS core. The EAJS and ENSO are associated with distinctly different patterns of atmospheric circulation and SST in the Asian-Pacific regions. While ENSO causes major climate signals in the Tropics and over the North Pacific east of the dateline, the EAJS produces significant changes in the atmospheric circulation over East Asia and western Pacific. In particular, the EAJS explains larger variance of the interannual signals of the East Asian trough, the Asian continental high, the Aleutian low, and the East Asian winter monsoon. When the EAJS is strong, all these atmospheric systems intensify significantly. The response of surface temperature and precipitation to EAJS variability and ENSO is more complex. In general, the East Asian winter climate is cold (warm) and dry (wet) when the EAJS is strong (weak) and it is warm during El Nino years. However, different climate signals are found during different La Nina years. In terms of linear correlation, both the temperature and precipitation of northern China, Korea, and central Japan are more significantly associated with the EAJS than with ENSO.

  18. Quantitating and dating recent gene flow between European and East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pengfei; Zhou, Ying; Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Yuchen; Jin, Li; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Historical records indicate that extensive cultural, commercial and technological interaction occurred between European and Asian populations. What have been the biological consequences of these contacts in terms of gene flow? We systematically estimated gene flow between Eurasian groups using genome-wide polymorphisms from 34 populations representing Europeans, East Asians, and Central/South Asians. We identified recent gene flow between Europeans and Asians in most populations we studied, including East Asians and Northwestern Europeans, which are normally considered to be non-admixed populations. In addition we quantitatively estimated the extent of this gene flow using two statistical approaches, and dated admixture events based on admixture linkage disequilibrium. Our results indicate that most genetic admixtures occurred between 2,400 and 310 years ago and show the admixture proportions to be highly correlated with geographic locations, with the highest admixture proportions observed in Central Asia and the lowest in East Asia and Northwestern Europe. Interestingly, we observed a North-to-South decline of European gene flow in East Asians, suggesting a northern path of European gene flow diffusing into East Asian populations. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the history of human migration and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the genetic structure of populations in Eurasia. PMID:25833680

  19. Quantitating and Dating Recent Gene Flow between European and East Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Pengfei; Zhou, Ying; Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Yuchen; Jin, Li; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Historical records indicate that extensive cultural, commercial and technological interaction occurred between European and Asian populations. What have been the biological consequences of these contacts in terms of gene flow? We systematically estimated gene flow between Eurasian groups using genome-wide polymorphisms from 34 populations representing Europeans, East Asians, and Central/South Asians. We identified recent gene flow between Europeans and Asians in most populations we studied, including East Asians and Northwestern Europeans, which are normally considered to be non-admixed populations. In addition we quantitatively estimated the extent of this gene flow using two statistical approaches, and dated admixture events based on admixture linkage disequilibrium. Our results indicate that most genetic admixtures occurred between 2,400 and 310 years ago and show the admixture proportions to be highly correlated with geographic locations, with the highest admixture proportions observed in Central Asia and the lowest in East Asia and Northwestern Europe. Interestingly, we observed a North-to-South decline of European gene flow in East Asians, suggesting a northern path of European gene flow diffusing into East Asian populations. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the history of human migration and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the genetic structure of populations in Eurasia. PMID:25833680

  20. East Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability since the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fahu; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Jianhui; Birks, H. John B.; Liu, Jianbao; Zhang, Shengrui; Jin, Liya; An, Chengbang; Telford, Richard J.; Cao, Xianyong; Wang, Zongli; Zhang, Xiaojian; Selvaraj, Kandasamy; Lu, Houyuan; Li, Yuecong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Haipeng; Zhou, Aifeng; Dong, Guanghui; Zhang, Jiawu; Huang, Xiaozhong; Bloemendal, Jan; Rao, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a precisely-dated, unequivocal climate proxy from northern China, where precipitation variability is traditionally considered as an East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) indicator, impedes our understanding of the behaviour and dynamics of the EASM. Here we present a well-dated, pollen-based, ~20-yr-resolution quantitative precipitation reconstruction (derived using a transfer function) from an alpine lake in North China, which provides for the first time a direct record of EASM evolution since 14.7 ka (ka = thousands of years before present, where the “present” is defined as the year AD 1950). Our record reveals a gradually intensifying monsoon from 14.7-7.0 ka, a maximum monsoon (30% higher precipitation than present) from ~7.8-5.3 ka, and a rapid decline since ~3.3 ka. These insolation-driven EASM trends were punctuated by two millennial-scale weakening events which occurred synchronously to the cold Younger Dryas and at ~9.5-8.5 ka, and by two centennial-scale intervals of enhanced (weakened) monsoon during the Medieval Warm Period (Little Ice Age). Our precipitation reconstruction, consistent with temperature changes but quite different from the prevailing view of EASM evolution, points to strong internal feedback processes driving the EASM, and may aid our understanding of future monsoon behaviour under ongoing anthropogenic climate change.

  1. Eating habits of east Asian people and transmission of taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Soh, C T; Kosman, M L

    1992-04-01

    In order to understand the role of raw meat and viscera eating habits in the transmission of taeniasis in Asian countries, 1502 infected aborigines in ten mountainous districts/towns of six counties in Taiwan, 58 infected persons in two villages on Cheju Island, Korea, and 97 cases in Ambarita District on Samosir Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia were studied during the field surveys. All infected Taiwan aborigines had the habit of eating raw meat and viscera of wild and/or domestic animals. Among these aborigines, 73% ate wild boar, 66% flying squirrel, 65% wild goat, 56% muntjac, 49% wild rats, 46% monkey, 38% hare, 20% civet-cats, 18% weasel, 17% pheasant, 14% squirrel, 4% grouse, 1% deer, 1% snake, less than 1% bamboo partridge, less than 1% frog, less than 1% bear, less than 1% dog, and less than 1% fox. Of the 58 infected persons with Taenia on Cheju Island, Korea, 72% ate raw meat and/or viscera of pig and cattle, 19% raw pork only, and 9% raw beef only. Among 12 infected persons infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms, 7 had eaten raw pork, 2 raw beef and pork and 3 raw pork. Almost all of the 97 cases of taeniasis on Samosir Island of North Sumatra, Indonesia, had eaten only undercooked pork. Eleven of 15 cases were found to be infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms. Eating habits observed suggest an unusual way of transmission of Taenia in East Asia. PMID:1356301

  2. An east Asian perspective of mind-body.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, S; Leisman, G

    1996-08-01

    This paper addresses a need to re-examine the mind-body dualism established since Descartes. Descartes' dualism has been regarded by modern philosophers as an extremely insufficient solution to the problem of mind and body, from which is derived a long opposition in modern epistomology between idealism and empiricism. This dualism, bifurcating the region of spirit and matter, and the dichotomous models of thinking based on this dualism, have long dominated the world of modern philosophy and science. The paper examines states of conscious experience from an East Asian perspective allowing analysis on achieved supernormal consciousness rather than a focus on "normal" or "subnormal." The nature of the "transformation" of human consciousness will be studied both philosophically, as a transformation from "provisional" dualism to non-dualism, and neurophysiologically. The theoretical structure of the transformation will, in part, be examined through the model provided by a Japanese medieval Zen master, Takuan Sôhô. Then, to verify Takuan's theoretical explanation, toposcopic analysis of electroencephalographs will be presented of the performance of individuals practicing the martial arts technique of tôate. PMID:8899541

  3. Interannual variation of East Asian Winter Monsoon and ENSO

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Sperber, Kenneth R.; Boyle, James S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the interannual variation of the East Asian winter monsoon and its relationship with EJSO based on the 1979-1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Two stratifications of cold surges are used. The first one, described as the conventional cold surges, indicates that the surge frequency reaches a urn one year after El Nino events. The second one, originated from the same region as the first, is defined as the maximum wind events near the South China Sea. The variation of this stratification of surges is found to be in good agreement with the South Oscillation Index (SOI). Low SOI (high SOI) events coincide with years of low (high) surge frequency. The interannual variation of averaged meridional wind near the South China Sea and western Pacific is dominated by the South China Sea cold surges, and is also well correlated (R--O.82) with the SOI. Strong wind seasons are associated with La Nina and high SOI events; likewise, weak wind years are linked with El Nino and low SOI cases. This pattern is restricted north of the equator within the region of (OON-20 N, 11OOE-1300E), and is confined to the near surface layer. The surface Siberian high, 500 hPa trough and 200 hPa jetstream, all representing the large-scale monsoon flow, are found to be weaker than normal during El Nino years. In particular, the interannual variation of the Siberian high is in general agreement with the SOL.

  4. East Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability since the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fahu; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Jianhui; Birks, H John B; Liu, Jianbao; Zhang, Shengrui; Jin, Liya; An, Chengbang; Telford, Richard J; Cao, Xianyong; Wang, Zongli; Zhang, Xiaojian; Selvaraj, Kandasamy; Lu, Houyuan; Li, Yuecong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Haipeng; Zhou, Aifeng; Dong, Guanghui; Zhang, Jiawu; Huang, Xiaozhong; Bloemendal, Jan; Rao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a precisely-dated, unequivocal climate proxy from northern China, where precipitation variability is traditionally considered as an East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) indicator, impedes our understanding of the behaviour and dynamics of the EASM. Here we present a well-dated, pollen-based, ~20-yr-resolution quantitative precipitation reconstruction (derived using a transfer function) from an alpine lake in North China, which provides for the first time a direct record of EASM evolution since 14.7 ka (ka = thousands of years before present, where the "present" is defined as the year AD 1950). Our record reveals a gradually intensifying monsoon from 14.7-7.0 ka, a maximum monsoon (30% higher precipitation than present) from ~7.8-5.3 ka, and a rapid decline since ~3.3 ka. These insolation-driven EASM trends were punctuated by two millennial-scale weakening events which occurred synchronously to the cold Younger Dryas and at ~9.5-8.5 ka, and by two centennial-scale intervals of enhanced (weakened) monsoon during the Medieval Warm Period (Little Ice Age). Our precipitation reconstruction, consistent with temperature changes but quite different from the prevailing view of EASM evolution, points to strong internal feedback processes driving the EASM, and may aid our understanding of future monsoon behaviour under ongoing anthropogenic climate change. PMID:26084560

  5. Bibliography of information sources on East Asian energy

    SciTech Connect

    Salosis, J.

    1982-11-01

    The first section of this bibliography is a subject index by title to sources of information on East Asian energy. The countries considered were: Brunei, the PRC, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, the Koreas, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. If the geographic coverage by any source is restricted to a particular country and was not indicated by the title, a country abbreviation in parentheses was added. Titles that include the term data base are computerized. The second section contains the Title Index which lists each printed publication alphabetically with frequency of publication and the US$ price for a yearly air mail subscription. The publisher or distribution office is listed below the title. The Data Base Index lists computerized sources with the author and the vendor providing either online access or tapes. No prices have been quoted in this section because of the wide range of methods in use and the impossibility of running benchmarks for this study. The Address Index lists the publishers, data base authors and vendors alphabetically.

  6. East Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability since the last deglaciation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fahu; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Jianhui; Birks, H. John B.; Liu, Jianbao; Zhang, Shengrui; Jin, Liya; An, Chengbang; Telford, Richard J.; Cao, Xianyong; Wang, Zongli; Zhang, Xiaojian; Selvaraj, Kandasamy; Lu, Houyuan; Li, Yuecong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Haipeng; Zhou, Aifeng; Dong, Guanghui; Zhang, Jiawu; Huang, Xiaozhong; Bloemendal, Jan; Rao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a precisely-dated, unequivocal climate proxy from northern China, where precipitation variability is traditionally considered as an East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) indicator, impedes our understanding of the behaviour and dynamics of the EASM. Here we present a well-dated, pollen-based, ~20-yr-resolution quantitative precipitation reconstruction (derived using a transfer function) from an alpine lake in North China, which provides for the first time a direct record of EASM evolution since 14.7 ka (ka = thousands of years before present, where the “present” is defined as the year AD 1950). Our record reveals a gradually intensifying monsoon from 14.7–7.0 ka, a maximum monsoon (30% higher precipitation than present) from ~7.8–5.3 ka, and a rapid decline since ~3.3 ka. These insolation-driven EASM trends were punctuated by two millennial-scale weakening events which occurred synchronously to the cold Younger Dryas and at ~9.5–8.5 ka, and by two centennial-scale intervals of enhanced (weakened) monsoon during the Medieval Warm Period (Little Ice Age). Our precipitation reconstruction, consistent with temperature changes but quite different from the prevailing view of EASM evolution, points to strong internal feedback processes driving the EASM, and may aid our understanding of future monsoon behaviour under ongoing anthropogenic climate change. PMID:26084560

  7. Vertical structure, physical properties, and energy exchange of the East Asian trough in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Zhou, Wen

    2015-09-01

    The relation between the intensity of the East Asian trough and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon is documented. A prominent dipole of the available potential energy of the zonal mean flow can be observed over the midlatitudes and polar regions and is related to temperature anomalies. Variation in the intensity of the East Asian trough is caused by variation in the energy conversion from the available potential energy of the zonal mean flow to the East Asian trough. The in-phase relation between the intensities of the East Asian jet and East Asian trough is illustrated by the relation between the potential energy and kinetic energy of stationary eddies. The dipole of height anomalies over the midlatitude and polar regions develops in late autumn and decays in early spring. We investigate the effect of both stationary and transient eddy forcing on the evolution of the dipole. The combined forcing of the two types of eddy makes an important contribution to the development, maintenance, and decay of the dipole.

  8. Influence of soil moisture in eastern China on the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhiyan; Zhang, Renhe

    2016-02-01

    The sensitivity of the East Asian summer monsoon to soil moisture anomalies over China was investigated based on ensembles of seasonal simulations (March-September) using the NCEP GCM coupled with the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (NCEP GCM/SSiB). After a control experiment with free-running soil moisture, two ensembles were performed in which the soil moisture over the vast region from the lower and middle reaches of the Yangtze River valley to North China (YRNC) was double and half that in the control, with the maximum less than the field capacity. The simulation results showed significant sensitivity of the East Asian summer monsoon to wet soil in YRNC. The wetter soil was associated with increased surface latent heat flux and reduced surface sensible heat flux. In turn, these changes resulted in a wetter and colder local land surface and reduced land-sea temperature gradients, corresponding to a weakened East Asian monsoon circulation in an anomalous anticyclone over southeastern China, and a strengthened East Asian trough southward over Northeast China. Consequently, less precipitation appeared over southeastern China and North China and more rainfall over Northeast China. The weakened monsoon circulation and strengthened East Asian trough was accompanied by the convergence of abnormal northerly and southerly flow over the Yangtze River valley, resulting in more rainfall in this region. In the drier soil experiments, less precipitation appeared over YRNC. The East Asian monsoon circulation seems to show little sensitivity to dry soil anomalies in NCEP GCM/SSiB.

  9. The Contribution of East Asian Countries to Internationally Published Asian Higher Education Research: The Role of System Development and Internationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes…

  10. The Contribution of East Asian Countries to Internationally Published Asian Higher Education Research: The Role of System Development and Internationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes

  11. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not

  12. The Science Education of the East Asian Regions--What We Can Learn from PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-01-01

    The study has integrated the data from PISA 2006 to 2012 to give an overall picture of the cognitive and affective performances and pedagogy of East Asian regions on PISA scientific literacy. Attempts are made to account for their performances based on the PISA data and cultural characteristics. The cognitive science performance of East Asian…

  13. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…

  14. English Learning Styles of Students from East Asian Countries: A Focus on Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been done to investigate the influence of cultural differences on students' second/foreign language learning styles, with a focus on comparing between East and West classroom cultures. This study investigates the differences that East Asian students may encounter when studying in the English-medium academic environment. By…

  15. Transport of dusts from East Asian and non-East Asian sources to Hong Kong during dust storm related events 1996-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Yang, Xun; Wenig, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Over a twelve year period from 1996 to 2007, 76 dust storm related events (as days) in Hong Kong were selected for study, based on Aluminium and Calcium concentrations in PM 10. Four of the 76 events reach episodic levels with exceedances of the Hong Kong air quality standards. The purpose of the study is to identify and characterize dust sources impacting Hong Kong. Global distribution of aerosols in NASA's daily aerosol index images from TOMS and OMI, are compared to plots generated by NRL(US)'s Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System. Possible source areas are assigned by computing air parcel backward trajectories to Hong Kong using the NOAA HYSPLIT model. PM 10 and elemental data are analyzed for crustal mass concentrations and element mass ratios. Our analysis reveals that 73 out of the 76 dust events (96%) involve non-East Asian sources-the Thar, Central/West Asian, Arabian and Sahara deserts (Saharan influence is found in 63 events), which are previously not known to affect Hong Kong. The Gobi desert is the most frequent origin of dust, affecting 68 dust events while the Taklamakan desert impacts only 30 of the dust events. The impact of the Gobi desert in March and December is apparently associated with the northeast monsoon in East Asia. Our results also show a seasonal pattern in dust impact from both East Asian and more remote sources, with a maximum in March. Dust event occurrences are conspicuously absent from summer. Dust transport to Hong Kong is commonly associated with the passage of frontal low-pressure systems. The coarse size fraction of PM 10 concentrations were, as indicated by Al, Ca and Fe concentrations, about 4-8 times higher during dust events. The mean Ca/Al ratios of sources involving the Taklamakan desert are notably higher than those for non-East Asian sources owing to a higher Ca content of most of the East Asian deserts. The Fe/Al ratios follow a similar trend. Contributions from the desert sources are grossly estimated where possible, by using the average Al abundance of 8% in the upper continental crust to convert the Al mass in the PM 10 to dust concentrations. This is done for the six events identified with air mass purely of non-East Asian origin and the two events related only to the Thar/Arabian/Sahara deserts. Results reveal that the average contribution from the non-East Asian sources (including C/W Asia) is approximately 10% and, that from the Thar/Arabian/Sahara deserts is about 8%.

  16. The Academic Success of East Asian American Youth: The Role of Shadow Education

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Park, Hyunjoon

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms – commercial test preparation service and private one-to-one tutoring – of SAT coaching, defined as the American style of shadow education. East Asian American students were most likely to take a commercial SAT test preparation course for the enrichment purpose, and benefited most from taking this particular form of SAT coaching. However, this was not the case for private SAT one-to-one tutoring. While black students were most likely to utilize private tutoring for the remedial purpose, the impact of private tutoring was trivial for all racial/ethnic groups including East Asian American students. The authors discussed broader implications of the findings on racial/ethnic inequalities in educational achievement beyond the relevance of shadow education for the academic success of East Asian American students. PMID:24163483

  17. Seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall using a multi-model ensemble system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Lee, Doo-Young; Yoo, Jin‑Ho

    2015-04-01

    Using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers, the prediction skills of climate models in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP Indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index or each MPI. Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by hybrid dynamical-statistical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using a hybrid dynamical-statistical approach compared to the dynamical forecast alone. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  18. Current food and nutrition situation in south Asian and south-east Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, C

    1996-09-01

    Food production in the countries of South and South-East Asia has shown a general upward trend during the last decade. Despite the considerable increase in population in many of these countries, food production per capita in 1988-90 was significantly higher as compared to 1979-81 figures, the increase being specially marked in such countries as Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Available daily calorie supply was adequate to meet the requirement. The overall pattern of food production however has shown little change, with cereal production continuing to account for a predominant part of food production. There is no evidence of a significant uptrend with respect to production of pulses, milk, horticultural products, poultry or meat production in most countries. A unique and unfortunate feature of the nutrition situation in South-Asian countries is that the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is as high as 34% (1990), ranging from 25% in Sri Lanka to 50% in Bangladesh (as against less than 7% in the countries of Europe and North America). Even in countries of Africa where the overall food and nutrition situation is worse than in South Asia, the incidence is well below 20%. This is a reflection of the poor state of maternal nutrition in pregnancy. Florid nutritional deficiency diseases have shown a steep decline over the last two decades, but goitre and iron deficiency anaemia continue to be major public health problems, though some headway has been made with regard to the control of the former. Severe forms of growth retardation in children have declined but the majority suffer from mild and moderate forms of growth retardation. Countries of the Region are in varying stages of developmental transition. Among the burgeoning middle classes in some of these countries there are evidences of escalation of degenerative diseases such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. With increasing life expectancy, geriatric nutritional problems will demand increasing attention. PMID:8886320

  19. Across Seven Seas: Asians in the North East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Rukhsana

    1990-01-01

    This account of two residencies in Northeastern England by a writer who conducted creative writing workshops for Asian immigrants touches upon conflicting ideologies, the richness of immigrant experience, and the problems of funding and publication of student writing. (SK)

  20. Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Purvish M; Raja, T; Mula-Hussain, L; Baral, R P; Ingle, P; Narayanan, P; Tsikai, N; Baki, M O; Satyapal, N; Adusei, K O; Popoola, A; Musibi, A; Nyaim, E; Tsomo, U; Opio, C; Jamshed, A; Reddy, P

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps. PMID:24818109

  1. Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Jilong; Wang, Lin; Lin, Zhongda

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in the study of the characteristics, processes, and causes of spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) system are reviewed in this paper. The understanding of the EAM system has improved in many aspects: the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures, the annual cycle of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) system, the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the EASM system and the EAWM system, and especially the multiple modes of the EAM system and their spatio-temporal variabilities. Some new results have also been achieved in understanding the atmosphere-ocean interaction and atmosphere-land interaction processes that affect the variability of the EAM system. Based on recent studies, the EAM system can be seen as more than a circulation system, it can be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, namely, the EAM climate system. In addition, further progress has been made in diagnosing the internal physical mechanisms of EAM climate system variability, especially regarding the characteristics and properties of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection over East Asia and the North Pacific, the "Silk Road" teleconnection along the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere over the Asian continent, and the dynamical effects of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity on EAM system variability. At the end of the paper, some scientific problems regarding understanding the EAM system variability are proposed for further study.

  2. Relationships of Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Mathematics Achievement in Four High-Performing East Asian Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…

  3. Brain Structure in Young and Old East Asians and Westerners: Comparisons of Structural Volume and Cortical Thickness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Michael Wei Liang; Zheng, Hui; Goh, Joshua Oon Soo; Park, Denise; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2011-01-01

    There is an emergent literature suggesting that East Asians and Westerners differ in cognitive processes because of cultural biases to process information holistically (East Asians) or analytically (Westerners). To evaluate the possibility that such differences are accompanied by differences in brain structure, we conducted a large comparative…

  4. The Influence of Culture on Parenting Practices of East Asian Families and Emotional Intelligence of Older Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Helen Y.

    2010-01-01

    Academic success among East Asian students is well known and almost stereotypical. Yet the attention to emotional well-being continues to be minimal. The discrepancy between academic success and social/emotional difficulties appears to be a problem among East Asian adolescents. This qualitative grounded theory study examines how the cultural…

  5. East Asian Heritage Language Education for a Plurilingual Reality in the United States: Practices, Potholes, and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guofang; Wen, Keying

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research about East Asian (mainly Chinese, Korean, and Japanese) heritage language (HL) teaching and learning in three contexts--the home, community heritage language schools, and programs in U.S. K-12 schools--this article discusses the challenges that East Asian subethnic groups face in improving HL education in each context.…

  6. Signature of positive selection of PTK6 gene in East Asian populations: a cross talk for Helicobacter pylori invasion and gastric cancer endemicity.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pankaj; Lu, Dongsheng; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of natural selection events is an attractive strategy for identification of functional variants shaped by gene-environmental interactions and human adaptation. Here, we identified PTK6, a Src-related tyrosine kinase gene, underlying positive selection in East Asian populations. Interestingly, PTK6 variant showed significant correlation with gastric cancer incidences which was the highest in East Asian populations. The high prevalence of gastric cancer in East Asians was also believed to be strongly affected by Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary habit. Therefore, we speculated a competitive interaction of cancer-associated molecules for activation/reduction, where PTK6 likely plays a role through CagA-driven signaling pathway after H. pylori infection. This hypothesis was also supported by our gene expression analysis and the dating of the selective event which was estimated to be ~16,500 years ago, much later than H. pylori invasion in human 50,000 years ago. Establishment of cross talk between PTK6 and CagA by functional studies may further elucidate the underlying biology of H. pylori-mediated gastric cancer. PMID:25838168

  7. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of adult height in East Asians identifies 17 novel loci

    PubMed Central

    He, Meian; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ben; Liang, Jun; Chen, Peng; Lee, Jong-Young; Johnson, Todd A.; Li, Huaixing; Yang, Xiaobo; Dai, Juncheng; Liang, Liming; Gui, Lixuan; Qi, Qibin; Huang, Jinyan; Li, Yanping; Adair, Linda S.; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Cho, Yoon Shin; Chu, Minjie; Cui, Bin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Go, Min Jin; Gu, Dongfeng; Gu, Weiqiong; Guo, Huan; Hao, Yongchen; Hong, Jie; Hu, Zhibin; Hu, Yanling; Huang, Jianfeng; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Jin, Guangfu; Kang, Dae-Hee; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Hung Tae; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Juyoung; Lee, Nanette R.; Li, Ruoying; Li, Jun; Liu, JianJun; Longe, Jirong; Lu, Wei; Lu, Xiangfeng; Miao, Xiaoping; Okada, Yukinori; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Qiu, Gaokun; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Song, Huaidong; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Taylor, Phil R.; Wang, Laiyuan; Wang, Weiqing; Wang, Yiqin; Wu, Chen; Wu, Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Yang, Handong; Liao, Ming; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Young, Terri; Zhang, Xiaomin; Kato, Norihiro; Wang, Qing K.; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Frank B.; Lin, Dongxin; Shen, Hongbing; Teo, Yik Ying; Mo, Zengnan; Wong, Tien Yin; Lin, Xu; Mohlke, Karen L.; Ning, Guang; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Tai, E. Shyong; Wu, Tangchun; Qi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Human height is associated with risk of multiple diseases and is profoundly determined by an individual's genetic makeup and shows a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity. Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of adult height in Europeans have identified nearly 180 genetic loci. A recent study showed high replicability of results from Europeans-based GWA studies in Asians; however, population-specific loci may exist due to distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns. We carried out a GWA meta-analysis in 93 926 individuals from East Asia. We identified 98 loci, including 17 novel and 81 previously reported loci, associated with height at P < 5 × 10−8, together explaining 8.89% of phenotypic variance. Among the newly identified variants, 10 are commonly distributed (minor allele frequency, MAF > 5%) in Europeans, with comparable frequencies with in Asians, and 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms are with low frequency (MAF < 5%) in Europeans. In addition, our data suggest that novel biological pathway such as the protein tyrosine phosphatase family is involved in regulation of height. The findings from this study considerably expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of human height in Asians. PMID:25429064

  8. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of adult height in East Asians identifies 17 novel loci.

    PubMed

    He, Meian; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ben; Liang, Jun; Chen, Peng; Lee, Jong-Young; Johnson, Todd A; Li, Huaixing; Yang, Xiaobo; Dai, Juncheng; Liang, Liming; Gui, Lixuan; Qi, Qibin; Huang, Jinyan; Li, Yanping; Adair, Linda S; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Cho, Yoon Shin; Chu, Minjie; Cui, Bin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Go, Min Jin; Gu, Dongfeng; Gu, Weiqiong; Guo, Huan; Hao, Yongchen; Hong, Jie; Hu, Zhibin; Hu, Yanling; Huang, Jianfeng; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Jin, Guangfu; Kang, Dae-Hee; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Hung Tae; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Juyoung; Lee, Nanette R; Li, Ruoying; Li, Jun; Liu, JianJun; Longe, Jirong; Lu, Wei; Lu, Xiangfeng; Miao, Xiaoping; Okada, Yukinori; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Qiu, Gaokun; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Song, Huaidong; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Taylor, Phil R; Wang, Laiyuan; Wang, Weiqing; Wang, Yiqin; Wu, Chen; Wu, Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Yang, Handong; Liao, Ming; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Young, Terri; Zhang, Xiaomin; Kato, Norihiro; Wang, Qing K; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Lin, Dongxin; Shen, Hongbing; Teo, Yik Ying; Mo, Zengnan; Wong, Tien Yin; Lin, Xu; Mohlke, Karen L; Ning, Guang; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Tai, E Shyong; Wu, Tangchun; Qi, Lu

    2015-03-15

    Human height is associated with risk of multiple diseases and is profoundly determined by an individual's genetic makeup and shows a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity. Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of adult height in Europeans have identified nearly 180 genetic loci. A recent study showed high replicability of results from Europeans-based GWA studies in Asians; however, population-specific loci may exist due to distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns. We carried out a GWA meta-analysis in 93 926 individuals from East Asia. We identified 98 loci, including 17 novel and 81 previously reported loci, associated with height at P < 5 × 10(-8), together explaining 8.89% of phenotypic variance. Among the newly identified variants, 10 are commonly distributed (minor allele frequency, MAF > 5%) in Europeans, with comparable frequencies with in Asians, and 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms are with low frequency (MAF < 5%) in Europeans. In addition, our data suggest that novel biological pathway such as the protein tyrosine phosphatase family is involved in regulation of height. The findings from this study considerably expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of human height in Asians. PMID:25429064

  9. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC): An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhanqing; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S. C.; Holben, B. N.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Yun; Shi, Guangyu; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-02-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas. Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC). The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF10 China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE). The former two are US-China collaborative projects and the latter is a part of the China’s National Basic Research program (or often referred to as “973 project”). Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies. The wealth of general and specialized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system. Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc. In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  10. Catastrophic drought in East Asian monsoon region during Heinrich event 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Sun, Liguang; Chu, Yangxi; Xia, Zehui; Zhou, Xinying; Li, Xiangzhong; Chu, Zhuding; Liu, Xiangjun; Shao, Da; Wang, Yuhong

    2016-06-01

    Heinrich event 1 (H1) is an important millennial climate event during the last deglaciation. The substantial decreasing of monsoon strength in the East Asian monsoon region during the H1, as shown by stalagmite δ18O records, has been attributed to the southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which is caused by the slowdown/collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, records from different Asian monsoon regions show various trends in precipitation changes during the H1, and these trends cannot be solely interpreted by the southward shift of the ITCZ. In the present study, we reconstructed time-series of East Asian monsoon precipitation between 25,000 and 10,000 a BP from floodplain sediments in the Huai River Basin. A white sediment layer, distinct from other layers in the profile, contains significantly low TOC, tree pollen and fern spore contents, and more positive δ13Corg, and it is deposited during the H1 event. The determined TOC, pollen and δ13Corg time-series, together with previously reported stalagmite δ18O, indicate a catastrophic (severe) drought in Jianghuai Region, one of the East Asian monsoon regions, during the H1. The La Niña condition in tropical Pacific likely also contributes to the catastrophic drought in Jianghuai Region and the precipitation variations in the Asian monsoon region during the H1.

  11. High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Celi; Molineros, Julio E; Looger, Loren L; Zhou, Xu-Jie; Kim, Kwangwoo; Okada, Yukinori; Ma, Jianyang; Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Kim-Howard, Xana; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Bhattarai, Krishna; Adler, Adam; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Chung, Won Tae; Park, Yong-Beom; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shim, Seung Cheol; Kochi, Yuta; Suzuki, Akari; Kubo, Michiaki; Sumida, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Young Jin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Wren, Jonathan D; Harley, John B; Shen, Nan; Chua, Kek Heng; Zhang, Hong; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Nath, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,478 SLE cases and 12,656 controls from six East Asian cohorts to identify new SLE susceptibility loci and better localize known loci. We identified ten new loci and confirmed 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the new loci, the most significant locus was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta = 3.75 × 10(-117), odds ratio (OR) = 2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We identified the most likely functional variants at each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene expression data. Ten candidate variants are known to alter gene expression in cis or in trans. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B cell and T cell biology. The new loci, together with previously known loci, increase the explained heritability of SLE to 24%. The new loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics. PMID:26808113

  12. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students

  13. Five Decades of Educational Assortative Mating in 10 East Asian Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Jeroen; Park, Hyunjoon

    2009-01-01

    We study trends in educational homogamy at six boundaries in the educational structure of 10 East-Asian societies and explain its variation using explanatory variables at the country, cohort and boundary level. Educational homogamy was higher at the higher boundaries in the educational structure. Since the 1950s it decreased at all but the lowest…

  14. The Contents of Physics in the National Curricula of East Asian Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Young-Joon; Song, Jinwoong

    2001-01-01

    Describes the different social and cultural structures in East Asian countries compared to western countries. Discusses the ineffectiveness of imported educational theories in local practice. Compares the content of physics at the secondary school level in Korea, China, Japan, and Taiwan. (Author/YDS)

  15. Job Search Self-Efficacy of East Asian International Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 86 East Asian international graduate students, this study examined Bandura's perceived self-efficacy model (1986) in the domain of job search self-efficacy and tested the mediating effects of job search self-efficacy in the relationship between efficacy source variables and job search behaviors. Results show that both performance…

  16. Academic Difficulties Encountered by East Asian International University Students in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boram; Farruggia, Susan P.; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on learning difficulties experienced by East Asian International (EAI) students. Participants were 117 EAI students undertaking tertiary study at a major university, all were surveyed and 21 students were interviewed. The findings suggest that language limitations, academic content and learning styles were associated with…

  17. East Asian International Students and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Xiao, Feiya

    2014-01-01

    The present article reports a systematic review of the studies related to psychological well-being among East Asian international students. A total of 18 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2011 were reviewed. Our review revealed three major results: (1) a majority of researchers (n = 13, 72.2%) tend to choose…

  18. East Asian Higher Education: Traditions and Transformations. Issues in Higher Education Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Albert H., Ed.

    This volume contains 15 papers on higher education in 13 East Asian societies as well as the region as a whole, including analysis of leading issues such as tyranny versus democracy and state-funded versus proprietary higher education. Following an editorial by A. H. Yee, the papers include: "The University of Tokyo: The Graduate School…

  19. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  20. Challenges of University Adjustment in the UK: A Study of East Asian Master's Degree Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wenli; Hammond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the adjustment of East Asian Master's level students who came to study at a campus-based university in the UK during 2004-05. International students face challenges in respect to language proficiency, academic expectations and social participation. In this longitudinal study the experiences of a group of students from East…

  1. Asiatic Values in East Asian Higher Education: From a Standpoint of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine Asiatic values in East Asian higher education from a viewpoint of globalization. The author addresses the following research questions: First, what are Asiatic values? Second, when and where were Asiatic values discussed? Third, what are the differences between Eastern and Western viewpoints about Asiatic

  2. Beyond Language Barriers: Teaching Self-Efficacy among East Asian International Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunha

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined roles that perceived English fluency and sociocultural adaptation difficulty play in predicting self-efficacy beliefs for teaching in a sample of 119 international teaching assistants (ITAs) from East Asian countries of China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Results showed that a positive relationship between perceived English…

  3. Comprehension of Indirect Requests in English by East Asian Non-Native Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, S. Kathleen

    A study of the relationship of request comprehension with context and experience with the language is reported. Sixty-two East Asian non-native English speaking students from China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan were presented with seemingly spontaneous indirect requests during a taped interview. Their ability to respond appropriately to the…

  4. An Emergent Leadership Model Based on Confucian Virtues and East Asian Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, LingLing; Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    For more than 2000 years, Confucian teaching has had tremendous influence on the history, politics, economy, and culture of East Asian countries and regions. Despite the rapid growth in gross domestic product (GDP), people's standard of living, and economic advancements, Confucian Asia continues to adhere to the Confucian cultural values that they…

  5. What We Should and Should Not Learn from the Japanese and Other East Asian Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William

    2008-01-01

    The author argues that there is an ongoing debate among educators concerning the extent to which American educators can learn from East Asian school systems. Some social scientists argue that cultural differences make this impossible. Others argue that there are many ways that Americans can benefit. The author believes that both sides of this

  6. The Evolving Teacher Identities of 12 South/East Asian Teachers in US Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Nugrahenny Tourisia

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the evolving teacher identities of 12 South/East Asian teachers during their study in the United States. Grounded in poststructuralist views of identities, the study employed narrative analysis to capture the complexities of teacher identity construction. Narrative data were collected through in-depth individual interviews,

  7. Motivational Orientations and Second Learner Variables of East Asian Language Learners in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jean Sook Ryu

    2003-01-01

    College Students enrolled in East Asian language classes were surveyed about their language learning motivational orientations (MOs). MOs were classified and measured on seven subscales; integrative, instrumental, heritage-related, travel, interest, school-related, and language use. Learners were highly influenced by interest, language use, and…

  8. Addressing Indigenous (ICT) Approaches in South-East Asian Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with…

  9. Interannual and interdecadal variability of East Asian monsoon and its relation to oceanic processes: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Che; Zhan, Haigang

    2012-11-01

    A key component of the East Asian climate system is seasonally varying monsoon wind. Its interannual and interdecadal variability, as well as underlying oceanic processes, is the subject of a recent project completed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. A series of research progress in the areas of monsoon winds, ocean responses, upwelling and productivity has been made and reviewed by this paper.

  10. Addressing Indigenous (ICT) Approaches in South-East Asian Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with

  11. Silent Participation: East Asian International Graduate Students' Views on Active Classroom Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soonhyang

    2008-01-01

    The author reports on perceptions of East Asian international graduate students (EAGS) regarding active classroom participation, as revealed through two focus group interviews with 15 EAGS at a large Midwestern research university in the U.S. The findings indicate that most EAGS shared similar views with their university instructors and American…

  12. Job Search Self-Efficacy of East Asian International Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 86 East Asian international graduate students, this study examined Bandura's perceived self-efficacy model (1986) in the domain of job search self-efficacy and tested the mediating effects of job search self-efficacy in the relationship between efficacy source variables and job search behaviors. Results show that both performance

  13. Academic Achievement Trajectories of Adolescents from Mexican and East Asian Immigrant Families in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Acock, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the National Educational Longitudinal Survey 1988 (NELS:88), this study identified (1) the growth pattern of academic achievement of adolescent children from Mexican and East Asian immigrant families; (2) investigated to what extent ethnicity and family capital influenced the trajectories in the academic achievement of children from

  14. Putting Higher Education in Its Place in (East Asian) Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessop, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This article relates changes in higher education (HE) and research in East Asian societies to recent trends in political economy and, in particular, the reorientation of developmental states (DSs) in the region. The DS is oriented to catch-up competitiveness and, as the horizon of development shifts, so do its appropriate institutional forms and…

  15. An effective analytical psychotherapy in crosscultural context. An East Asian student in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C

    1998-01-01

    An effective analytical psychotherapy of a severe anxiety disorder with panic, in a crosscultural context of East Asia and the United States, specifically a Japanese student studying English, is presented. What was crucial in facilitating the therapeutic process was an introduction of analytical way of looking at life born of Western culture into an integrative orientation of Asian culture and mentality. PMID:9656058

  16. The Evolving Teacher Identities of 12 South/East Asian Teachers in US Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Nugrahenny Tourisia

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the evolving teacher identities of 12 South/East Asian teachers during their study in the United States. Grounded in poststructuralist views of identities, the study employed narrative analysis to capture the complexities of teacher identity construction. Narrative data were collected through in-depth individual interviews,…

  17. The Dialectical Self-Concept: Contradiction, Change, and Holism in East Asian Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Boucher, Helen C.; Mori, Sumi C.; Wang, Lei; Peng, Kaiping

    2009-01-01

    Naïve dialecticism refers to a set of East Asian lay beliefs characterized by tolerance for contradiction, the expectation of change, and cognitive holism. In five studies, the authors examined the cognitive mechanisms that give rise to global self-concept inconsistency among dialectical cultures. Contradictory self-knowledge was more readily available (Study 1) and simultaneously accessible (Study 2) among East Asians (Japanese and Chinese) than among Euro-Americans. East Asians also exhibited greater change and holism in the spontaneous self-concept (Study 1) and inconsistency in their implicit self-beliefs (Study 3). Cultural differences in self-concept inconsistency were obtained when controlling for alternative explanatory variables, including self-criticism (Study 4) and self-concept certainty (Studies 2 and 3) and were fully mediated by a direct measure of dialecticism (Study 5). Naïve dialecticism provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding these cultural differences and the contradictory, changeable, and holistic nature of the East Asian self-concept. PMID:19106076

  18. A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hien, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

  19. mtDNA polymorphism in East Asian Populations, with special reference to the peopling of Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Horai, S.; Murayama, K.; Hayasaka, K.; Matsubayashi, S.; Hattori, Y.; Fucharoen, G.; Harihara, S.; Park, K. S.; Omoto, K.; Pan, I. H.

    1996-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the major noncoding (D-loop) region of human mtDNA from five East Asian populations including mainland Japanese, Ainu, Ryukyuans, Koreans, and Chinese were analyzed. On the basis of a comparison of 482-bp sequences in 293 East Asians, 207 different sequence types were observed. Of these, 189 were unique to their respective populations, whereas 18 were shared between two or three populations. Among the shared types, eight were found in common between the mainland Japanese and Koreans, which is the largest number in the comparison. The intergenic COII/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp deletion was observed in every East Asian population with varying frequencies. The D-loop sequence variation suggests that the deletion event occurred only once in the ancestry of East Asians. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that East Asian lineages were classified into at least 18 monophyletic clusters, though lineages from the five populations were completely intermingled in the phylogenetic tree. However, we assigned 14 of the 18 clusters for their specificity on the basis of the population from which the maximum number of individuals in each cluster was derived. Of note is the finding that 50% of the mainland Japanese had continental specificity in which Chinese or Koreans were dominant, while < 20% of either Ryukyuans or Ainu possessed continental specificity. Phylogenetic analysis of the entire human population revealed the closest genetic affinity between the mainland Japanese and Koreans. Thus, the results of this study are compatible with the hybridization model on the origin of modern Japanese. It is suggested that approximately 65% of the gene pool in mainland Japanese was derived from the continental gene flow after the Yayoi Age. PMID:8751859

  20. mtDNA polymorphism in East Asian Populations, with special reference to the peopling of Japan.

    PubMed

    Horai, S; Murayama, K; Hayasaka, K; Matsubayashi, S; Hattori, Y; Fucharoen, G; Harihara, S; Park, K S; Omoto, K; Pan, I H

    1996-09-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the major noncoding (D-loop) region of human mtDNA from five East Asian populations including mainland Japanese, Ainu, Ryukyuans, Koreans, and Chinese were analyzed. On the basis of a comparison of 482-bp sequences in 293 East Asians, 207 different sequence types were observed. Of these, 189 were unique to their respective populations, whereas 18 were shared between two or three populations. Among the shared types, eight were found in common between the mainland Japanese and Koreans, which is the largest number in the comparison. The intergenic COII/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp deletion was observed in every East Asian population with varying frequencies. The D-loop sequence variation suggests that the deletion event occurred only once in the ancestry of East Asians. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that East Asian lineages were classified into at least 18 monophyletic clusters, though lineages from the five populations were completely intermingled in the phylogenetic tree. However, we assigned 14 of the 18 clusters for their specificity on the basis of the population from which the maximum number of individuals in each cluster was derived. Of note is the finding that 50% of the mainland Japanese had continental specificity in which Chinese or Koreans were dominant, while < 20% of either Ryukyuans or Ainu possessed continental specificity. Phylogenetic analysis of the entire human population revealed the closest genetic affinity between the mainland Japanese and Koreans. Thus, the results of this study are compatible with the hybridization model on the origin of modern Japanese. It is suggested that approximately 65% of the gene pool in mainland Japanese was derived from the continental gene flow after the Yayoi Age. PMID:8751859

  1. Mid-Pliocene East Asian Monsoon Climate Simulated in the Pliomip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, R.; Yan, Q.; Zhang, Z. S.; Jiang, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Haywood, A. M.; Hill, D. J.; Dolan, A. M.; Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.; Contoux, C.; Bragg, F.; Chan, W.-L.; Chandler, Mark A.; Jost, A.; Kamae, Y.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Ramstein, G.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Sohl, Linda; Ueda, H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on simulations with 15 climate models in the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP), the regional climate of East Asia (focusing on China) during the mid-Pliocene is investigated in this study. Compared to the pre-industrial, the multi-model ensemble mean (MMM) of all models shows the East Asian summer winds (EASWs) largely strengthen in monsoon China, and the East Asian winter winds (EAWWs) strengthen in south monsoon China but slightly weaken in north monsoon China in the mid-Pliocene. The MMM of all models also illustrates a warmer and wetter mid-Pliocene climate in China. The simulated weakened mid-Pliocene EAWWs in north monsoon China and intensified EASWs in monsoon China agree well with geological reconstructions. However, there is a large model-model discrepancy in simulating mid-Pliocene EAWW, which should be further addressed in the future work of PlioMIP.

  2. Enhancement of seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall related to the western tropical Pacific convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Yoo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index (EASMI) or each MP index (MPI). Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by statistical-empirical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using the statistical-empirical method compared to the dynamical models. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953, Republic of Korea.

  3. East-Asian Students' Choice of Canadian Graduate Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    This study seeks to explain why and how international graduate students from East Asia choose to come to Canada to pursue advanced education, to assess the strengths and dynamics of the factors influencing the enrollment decision, and to describe possible implications both for education-exporting countries and universities offering graduate

  4. East-Asian Students' Choice of Canadian Graduate Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    This study seeks to explain why and how international graduate students from East Asia choose to come to Canada to pursue advanced education, to assess the strengths and dynamics of the factors influencing the enrollment decision, and to describe possible implications both for education-exporting countries and universities offering graduate…

  5. Choosing Canadian Graduate Schools from Afar: East Asian Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    This study seeks to explain why and how international graduate students from East Asia choose to come to Canada to pursue advanced education. A synthesis model is developed to explain their decision-making "process," while a push-pull model is used to understand the strengths of and relationships among various "factors" that influence the choice…

  6. High carbon dioxide uptake by subtropical forest ecosystems in the East Asian monsoon region

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhi; Piao, Shilong; Peng, Changhui; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Qiufeng; Li, Xuanran; Zhu, Xianjin

    2014-01-01

    Temperate- and high-latitude forests have been shown to contribute a carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere, but fewer studies have addressed the carbon balance of the subtropical forests. In the present study, we integrated eddy covariance observations established in the 1990s and 2000s to show that East Asian monsoon subtropical forests between 20°N and 40°N represent an average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of 362 ± 39 g C m−2 yr−1 (mean ± 1 SE). This average forest NEP value is higher than that of Asian tropical and temperate forests and is also higher than that of forests at the same latitudes in Europe–Africa and North America. East Asian monsoon subtropical forests have comparable NEP to that of subtropical forests of the southeastern United States and intensively managed Western European forests. The total NEP of East Asian monsoon subtropical forests was estimated to be 0.72 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−1, which accounts for 8% of the global forest NEP. This result indicates that the role of subtropical forests in the current global carbon cycle cannot be ignored and that the regional distributions of the Northern Hemisphere's terrestrial carbon sinks are needed to be reevaluated. The young stand ages and high nitrogen deposition, coupled with sufficient and synchronous water and heat availability, may be the primary reasons for the high NEP of this region, and further studies are needed to quantify the contribution of each underlying factor. PMID:24639529

  7. Selection and reduced population size cannot explain higher amounts of Neandertal ancestry in East Asian than in European human populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bernard Y; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2015-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data. PMID:25683122

  8. Selection and Reduced Population Size Cannot Explain Higher Amounts of Neandertal Ancestry in East Asian than in European Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bernard Y.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data. PMID:25683122

  9. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation Among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East and Southeast Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly heterosexual adolescents were more likely to use alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs. Particularly, sexual minority girls were at increased risk for substance use. The findings suggest the need for substance use prevention interventions that are sensitive to gender, sexual orientation, and culture. PMID:22485070

  10. The IAU's East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard

    2014-09-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world.

  11. Health impact assessment needs in south-east Asian countries.

    PubMed Central

    Caussy, Deoraj; Kumar, Priti; Than Sein, U.

    2003-01-01

    A situation analysis was undertaken to assess impediments to health impact assessment (HIA) in the South-East Asia Region of WHO (SEARO). The countries of the region were assessed on the policy framework and procedures for HIA, existing infrastructure required to support HIA, the capacity for undertaking HIA, and the potential for intersectoral collaboration. The findings show that environmental impact assessment (EIA) is being used implicitly as a substitute for HIA, which is not explicitly or routinely conducted in virtually all countries of the Region. Therefore, policy, infrastructure, capacity, and intersectoral collaboration need strengthening for the routine implementation of HIA. PMID:12894329

  12. Phylogeography of Semiterrestrial Isopod, Tylos granuliferus, on East Asian Coasts.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Miyuki; Honda, Masanao; Yahata, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    We conducted phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial COI gene sequences of Tylos granuliferus, a semiterrestrial coastal isopod in East Asia, to clarify possible phylogeographic patterns and to assess relationships between present and past marine environments and genetic population structures. Our results strongly suggest the presence of four clades of T. granuliferus, one of which consists of three subclades. The distribution pattern of clades and subclades seems to have been affected by ocean current activities. Our results also suggest that historical changes in oceanic environments and the subsequence bifurcation of current streamlines affected the first and second divergences of T. granuliferus during the late Miocene and near the beginning of the Pliocene, respectively. PMID:25660703

  13. The Association Between Built Environment Attributes and Physical Activity in East Asian Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Yi-Liang; Chan, Edwin Shih-Yen

    2016-04-01

    Asian adolescents living in Australia and England were found to be less active than their Western peers. We aimed to systematically examine evidence of the associations between attributes of the built environment and physical activity in adolescents dwelling in East Asian countries. A total of 10 electronic databases for relevant observational studies without time limit were searched. Five studies met the eligibility criteria, which involved a total of 43 817 schoolchildren aged 11 to 17 years. The majority of the built environment attributes measured was significantly associated with reported physical activity. Difficult access to public facilities was associated with physical inactivity. Inconsistent finding of the association between residential density and physical activity was found. Further studies comparing participants from different Asian countries using a longitudinal design with an appropriate period of follow-up and both objective and reported measures of built environment attributes and physical activity are needed. PMID:26969634

  14. Direct impact of El Niño on East Asian summer precipitation in the observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Na; Liu, Zhengyu; Liu, Yinghui

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the direct impact of El Niño in the tropical Pacific on the East Asian summer precipitation . Generalized equilibrium feedback assessment is used to isolate this direct impact from interrelated ocean forcings in the observations. Results indicate that the El Niño can directly influence the summer precipitation in East China significantly. The precipitation response presents a tri-pole pattern, with anomalous wet in the Southeast and the Northeast China and anomalous dry in the northern China. Amplitude of the precipitation response is around 20 % of the total precipitation for 1 °C El Niño forcing in most area of the East China, with maximal response up to 30 %/°C. The tri-pole precipitation response is attributed to an El Niño-induced cyclonic anomaly in the Northeast Asia and an anticyclonic anomaly in the western North Pacific (WNP). The anomalous cyclone deepens the East Asian trough southwestward, favoring an air ascending in front of the trough in the Southeast and the Northeast China, and an air descending at the rear of the trough in the northern China. The anomalous anticyclone in the WNP strengthens the WNP Subtropical High northeastward, providing adequate water vapor to the Southeast China. The anomalous cyclone and anomalous anticyclone work together to generate the tri-pole precipitation response pattern in the East China. Further investigation suggests that these two key anomalous circulations are part of a northwestward propagating Rossby wave, which is excited by the El Niño warming-induced convection over the subtropical west-central Pacific. This study can serve as a reference for the prediction of the East Asian precipitation in both the developing and decaying summer of El Niño.

  15. The Soviet Far East military buildup: Nuclear dilemmas and Asian security

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, R.H.; Kosaka, M.

    1986-01-01

    The growing nuclearization of the Soviet military presence in the Far East has been of increasing concern to the United States and its Asian-Pacific allies. This volume brings together the diverse perspectives of multinational groups of defense and foreign policy experts associated with the Security Conference on Asia and the Pacific. Topics considered include the problems of coalition defense; strategic issues for the Soviet Union; motives and prospects; thinking about the nuclear balance; Soviet military deployments: Implications for China's security; the Soviet military buildup in Japan; theater nuclear weapons and Japan's defense policy; the Soviet military buildup in the Far East and South Korea; ANZAC perspectives on Soviet power in the Pacific; prospects for a new Korean War; Indochina, 1982-1985; links between Asian and European security; The European theater nuclear force; and European and Japanese Experiences.

  16. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country’s most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu’s maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species. PMID:26488600

  17. Validating the dynamic downscaling ability of WRF for East Asian summer climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiangbo; Hou, Wenjuan; Xue, Yongkang; Wu, Shaohong

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the regional climate model (RCM) performance for East Asian summer climate and the influencing factors, this study evaluated the dynamic downscaling ability of the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) RCM. According to the comprehensive comparison studies on different physical processes and experimental settings, the optimal combination of WRF model setups can be obtained for East Asian precipitation and temperature simulations. Furthermore, based on the optimal combination, when compared with climate observations, WRF shows high ability to downscale NCEP DOE Reanalysis-2, which provided initial and lateral boundary conditions for the WRF, especially for the precipitation simulation due to the better simulated low-level water vapor flux. However, the strengthened Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) from WRF simulation results in the positive anomaly for summer rainfall.

  18. Markers of East Asian dust storms in March 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chi-Fu; Lee, Chon-Lin; Brimblecombe, Peter; Lai, I.-Chien

    2015-10-01

    The variations in particulate matter (PM) and in eighteen metallic elements in four different particle sizes in the air of southern Taiwan were investigated from February to March 2010. The variation in mean mass concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10, and TSP between Asian dust storm (ADS) and non-dust storm (NDS) periods suggested that the dominant fractions were PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, respectively. The obvious differences in metallic element concentrations between ADS and NDS periods suggested that crustal elements (Fe, Mg, Sr, Co, Ba and Mn) can be used as dust storm indicators, in addition to Ca and Al. Both mass fractions and metallic concentration ratios indicated that the PM2.5-10 fraction can distinguish between ADS and NDS periods. An enrichment factor (EFc) demonstrated that most anthropogenic elements were significantly lower in ADS periods than in NDS periods. The EFc values for anthropogenic elements in coarse particles may be used as indicators of dust storm invasion as well. An association was found between the extent of dust storm effects on receptors and the residence time (duration) of the event, in addition to the transport pathway.

  19. How much of the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is forced by SST?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Wu, Bo; Li, Chunhui; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Tianjun

    2015-10-01

    It is widely accepted that the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is forced by sea surface temperature (SST), and SST anomalies are widely used as predictors of East Asian summer rainfall. But it is still not very clear what percentage of the interannual rainfall variability is contributed by SST anomalies. In this study, Atmospheric general circulation model simulations forced by observed interannual varying SST are compared with those forced by the fixed annual cycle of SST climatology, and their ratios of interannual variance (IAV) are analyzed. The output of 12 models from the 5th Phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are adopted, and idealized experiments are done by Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). Both the multi-model median of CMIP5 models and CAM4 experiments show that only about 18 % of the IAV of rainfall over East Asian land (EAL) is explained by SST, which is significantly lower than the tropical western Pacific, but comparable to the mid-latitude western Pacific. There is no significant difference between the southern part and the northern part of EAL in the percentages of SST contribution. The remote SST anomalies regulates rainfall over EAL probably by modulating the horizontal water vapor transport rather than the vertical motion, since the horizontal water vapor transport into EAL is strongly modulated by SST but the vertical motion over EAL is not. Previous studies argued about the relative importance of tropical Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean to East Asian summer rainfall anomalies. Our idealized experiments performed by CAM4 suggest that the contributions from these two ocean basins are comparable to each other, both of which account for approximately 6 % of the total IAV of rainfall over EAL.

  20. Biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins: a case study of Hynobius biogeography.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Fu, Cuizhang; Lei, Guangchun

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping patterns and processes of extant animal distributions within East Asian margins. We select Hynobius salamanders (Amphibia: Hynobiidae) as a model to examine biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins. First, we use GenBank molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships of Hynobius by bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. Second, we estimate the divergence time using the bayesian relaxed clock approach and infer dispersal/vicariance histories under the 'dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis' model. Finally, we test whether evolutionary history and biogeographical processes of Hynobius should coincide with the predictions of two major hypotheses (the 'vicariance'/'out of southwestern Japan' hypothesis). The resulting phylogeny confirmed Hynobius as a monophyletic group, which could be divided into nine major clades associated with six geographical areas. Our results show that: (1) the most recent common ancestor of Hynobius was distributed in southwestern Japan and Hokkaido Island, (2) a sister taxon relationship between Hynobius retardatus and all remaining species was the results of a vicariance event between Hokkaido Island and southwestern Japan in the Middle Eocene, (3) ancestral Hynobius in southwestern Japan dispersed into the Taiwan Island, central China, 'Korean Peninsula and northeastern China' as well as northeastern Honshu during the Late Eocene-Late Miocene. Our findings suggest that Cenozoic tectonic evolution plays an important role in shaping disjunctive distributions of extant Hynobius within East Asian margins. PMID:21738684

  1. Performance of different SNP panels for parentage testing in two East Asian cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Strucken, E M; Gudex, B; Ferdosi, M H; Lee, H K; Song, K D; Gibson, J P; Kelly, M; Piper, E K; Porto-Neto, L R; Lee, S H; Gondro, C

    2014-08-01

    The International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) proposed a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for parentage testing in cattle (a core panel of 100 SNPs and an additional list of 100 SNPs). However, markers specific to East Asian taurine cattle breeds were not included, and no information is available as to whether the ISAG panel performs adequately for these breeds. We tested ISAG's core (100 SNP) and full (200 SNP) panels on two East Asian taurine breeds: the Korean Hanwoo and the Japanese Wagyu, the latter from the Australian herd. Even though the power of exclusion was high at 0.99 for both ISAG panels, the core panel performed poorly with 3.01% false-positive assignments in the Hanwoo population and 3.57% in the Wagyu. The full ISAG panel identified all sire-offspring relations correctly in both populations with 0.02% of relations wrongly excluded in the Hanwoo population. Based on these results, we created and tested two population-specific marker panels: one for the Wagyu population, which showed no false-positive assignments with either 100 or 200 SNPs, and a second panel for the Hanwoo, which still had some false-positive assignments with 100 SNPs but no false positives using 200 SNPs. In conclusion, for parentage assignment in East Asian cattle breeds, only the full ISAG panel is adequate for parentage testing. If fewer markers should be used, it is advisable to use population-specific markers rather than the ISAG panel. PMID:24730981

  2. Sexual Health and Risk Behaviour among East Asian Adolescents in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4,311). Less than 10% of East Asian adolescents have ever had sexual intercourse. However, most of these sexually active adolescents have engaged in risky sexual behaviours, including multiple sexual partners and non-condom use at last intercourse. In particular, nearly half of sexually active girls reported not using a condom at last intercourse. Compared to immigrant students whose primary language at home was not English, immigrant and Canadian-born students speaking English at home were more likely to experience sexual intercourse. Among students who have never had sexual intercourse, two most common reasons for sexual abstinence were not feeling ready and waiting to meet the right person. Findings suggest the need for sexual health interventions tailored to gender and sociocultural contexts in which adolescents live.

  3. Distinct modes of East Asian Winter Monsoon documented by a southern Red Sea coral record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, Monica; Felis, Thomas; Lohmann, Gerrit; Rimbu, Norel; Ptzold, Jrgen

    2014-03-01

    The large-scale boreal winter climatic patterns associated with interannual variability in a coral oxygen isotope (?18O) record from the southern Red Sea covering most of the last century are investigated. From the early 1930s to the early 1960s, the winter coral ?18O record, reflecting temperature and salinity variations in southern Red Sea surface waters, is associated with global (or large scale) sea surface temperature (SST) and 850 mb geopotential height (Z850) anomalies which project on the corresponding patterns associated with the El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In contrast, since the early 1960s the winter coral ?18O record is related to a Z850 pattern that reflects the ENSO-independent part of the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), which includes the Siberian High, the East Asian through, and the East Asian upper-tropospheric Jet. Our results indicate a weakening of the ENSO control on interannual temperature/salinity variations in southern Red Sea surface waters in the early 1960s, due to the warming of the Indian Ocean, and suggest that information about the nonstationarity in the relationship between ENSO and two distinct modes of EAWM can be documented in southern Red Sea coral ?18O records.

  4. C-Reactive Protein and Cardiovascular Disease in East Asians: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Isao; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Eguchi, Eri

    2014-01-01

    Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Caucasians; however, evidence is lacking for East Asians, who have low CRP levels. PubMed and Google Scholar searches were conducted (1966 through September 2014), and eight prospective studies in East Asian countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Macao, Mongolia, and Taiwan) that documented risk ratios of elevated CRP for CVD were included for meta-analysis with random-effects models. The overall association between CRP levels and stroke was significant in six studies (risk ratio = 1.40 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.10–1.77], P = 0.008). The association with ischemic stroke was more evident in subgroup analyses. For coronary heart disease (CHD) and CVD, the risk ratio was 1.75 (95% CI, 0.96–3.19, P = 0.07) and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.29–2.40, P < 0.001), respectively. Although East Asians have low CRP levels, this meta-analysis shows that elevated CRP levels were significantly associated with an increased risk of stroke, primarily ischemic stroke. PMID:25698882

  5. Funding for East Asian energy development: the role of multilateral lending agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.K.

    1982-06-01

    International financial institutions involved in East Asia energy development include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), the Asian Development Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, and the OPEC Fund for International Development. This report is a preliminary examination of the role of these institutions in energy-related investments, project finance, exploration, and technical assistance in East Asia. Some attention is given to the size and direction of current investment flows, the lending policies of the different multilateral agencies, and the future role of these agencies in Asian energy development. The World Bank, despite the possible postponement of an energy affiliate, will continue, albeit slowly, to expand its lending activities for energy projects in developing countries. The Asian Development Bank will also expand its energy programs in East Asia if member contributions are adequate. The role of the UN Development Programme in preinvestment surveys and technical support is focused on the poorest developing countries. The OPEC Fund, in part for political reasons, will most likely continue its energy lending programs.

  6. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea isolated from the East Asian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xianghai; Yu, Rencheng; Zhang, Qingchun; Wang, Yunfeng; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2010-03-01

    Previous studies found intraspecific diversity in Scrippsiella trochoidea A. R. Loeblich III, a widely distributed calcareous cyst-producing dinoflagellate. In this study, three strains (ST-1, ST-D6 and ST-K) of S. trochoidea isolated from the East Asian waters were studied, together with other geographical strains, to resolve their phylogenetic relationships. For the three East Asian isolates, two highly diverse regions of nuclear-encoded ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the 5.8S rDNA and its flanking internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, and the 5' portion of the large-subunit rDNA (encompassing the “D1“ and “D2” domains) were sequenced. Homologous sequences from other geographical isolates were selected from the GenBank database and the phylogenetic relationships were inferred from the molecular data of these strains. Strains of S. trochoidea were found to cluster into three major clades (STR1, STR2 and STR3), as reported in previous studies. Two of the three strains ST-1 and ST-K, were grouped in clade STR2, the other strain, ST-D6, belonged to clade STR3. The intraspecific diversity of S. trochoidea in East Asian waters makes it necessary to carry out phylogenetic investigations in combination with data of biogeography, population dynamics, and life cycle on the ecophysiology of a region.

  7. Iris pigmentation as a quantitative trait: variation in populations of European, East Asian and South Asian ancestry and association with candidate gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample. PMID:26547379

  8. World heart federation expert consensus statement on antiplatelet therapy in east asian patients with ACS or undergoing PCI.

    PubMed

    Levine, Glenn N; Jeong, Young-Hoon; Goto, Shinya; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Huo, Yong; Mega, Jessica L; Taubert, Kathryn; Smith, Sidney C

    2014-12-01

    Guideline recommendations on the use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes and in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been formulated by both the ACC/AHA and the ESC. These recommendations are based primarily on large, phase III, randomized, controlled trials of the P2Y12 inhibitors clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor. However, few East Asian patients have been included in the trials to assess the use of these agents, particularly the newer agents prasugrel and ticagrelor. Additionally, an increasing body of data suggests that East Asian patients have differing risk profiles for both thrombophilia and bleeding compared with white patients, and that a different 'therapeutic window' of on-treatment platelet reactivity might be appropriate in East Asian patients. Furthermore, a phenomenon referred to as the 'East Asian paradox' has been described, in which East Asian patients have a similar or even a lower rate of ischaemic events after PCI compared with white patients, despite a higher level of platelet reactivity during DAPT. Recognizing these concerns, the World Heart Federation has undertaken this evidence-based review and produced this expert consensus statement to determine the antiplatelet treatment strategies that are most appropriate for East Asian patients. PMID:25592800

  9. Welfare state regimes and population health: integrating the East Asian welfare states.

    PubMed

    Abdul Karim, Syahirah; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that population health varies significantly by welfare state regime. However, these studies have focused exclusively on the welfare states of Europe, North America and Australasia. This focus ignores the existence of welfare states in other parts of the world, specifically in East Asia. This study therefore investigates whether the association between population health (Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth) and welfare state regimes is still valid when the welfare states of East Asia are added into the analysis. It also examines whether population health is worse in the East Asian welfare states. Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth as well as GDP per capita and social and health expenditures as a percentage of GDP were examined in 30 welfare states, categorised into six different regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Eastern European and East Asian). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences by welfare state regime in the magnitude of IMR, LE, SE, HE and GDP per capita. However, when controlling for GDP per capita in the ANCOVA analyses, only Life Expectancy (R(2)=0.58, adjusted R(2)=0.47, p<0.05) and Social Expenditure (R(2)=0.70, adjusted R(2)=0.61, p<0.05) differed significantly by welfare state regime. 47% of the variation in Life Expectancy was explained by welfare state regime type. Further, the East Asian welfare states did not have the worst health outcomes. The study concludes by highlighting the need to expand comparative health analysis both in terms of the range of countries examined and also in terms of incorporating other societal and public health factors-towards a 'public health regime' analysis. PMID:19748149

  10. Precipitation particle charge distribution and evolution of East Asian rainbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2012-11-01

    Numerous videosondes, balloon-borne surveyors of precipitation particle morphology and charge, have been launched into cloud systems in many, disparate locations in East Asia. Reported here are videosonde-based observations of early summer, Baiu rainbands at Tanegashima in southern Japan and of summer rainbands at Chiang Rai in northern Thailand. Precipitation particles are mapped by type and charge over the course of cloud development, allowing particle and charge evolution to be derived. The basic charge distribution as observed in Hokuriku winter thunderclouds at different cloud life stages was seen at different locations characterized by vertical velocity profiles in the cloud. The charge structure of the rainbands in both locations was a basic tripole. The major charge carriers were graupel and ice crystals. As graupel and ice crystal concentrations increased, not only did space charge increase, but per-particle charge also increased. Increased lightning activity was associated with higher particle space charge and lower cloud-top temperature. The particle charge evolution of these systems includes several fundamental features: a. active negative charging of graupel in an intense updraft, b. descent of negative graupel along the edge of an updraft column, c. merging of negative graupel with positively charged raindrops falling in the central cloud, and d. extended distribution of positive ice crystals in the stratiform cloud. The observations suggest that riming electrification was the main charge separation mechanism.

  11. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons.

    PubMed

    Hien, P D; Loc, P D; Dao, N V

    2011-11-01

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM(10) exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. PMID:21925714

  12. Comparison of the Impact of the Arctic Oscillation and East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection on Interannual Variation in East Asian Winter Temperatures and Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale impacts of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR) teleconnection on the East Asian winter climate anomalies are compared for the past 34 winters focusing on 1) interannual monthly to seasonal temperature variability, 2) East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and 3) the Siberian high (SH) and cold surge. Regression analysis reveals warming by AO and EA/WR over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. The EA/WR impact is found to be comparable to the AO impact in affecting the East Asian temperature and monsoon. For example, warm (cold) months over mid-latitude East Asia during the positive (negative) AO are clearly seen when the AO and EA/WR are in the same phase. Near zero correlation is found between temperature and the AO phase when both teleconnections are in an opposite phase. The well-known negative relationship between SH and the AO phase is observed significantly more often when the AO is in the same phase with the EA/WR. Also, the indices of EAWM, cold surge, and SH are found to be more highly negative-correlated with the EA/WR rather than with the AO. The advective temperature change and associated circulation demonstrate that the anomalous large-scale field including the SH over the mid-latitude Asian inland is better represented by the EA/WR, influencing the East Asian winter climates. These results suggest that the impact of EA/WR should be considered more important than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  13. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-01-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market. PMID:26949947

  14. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-04-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market. PMID:26949947

  15. Possible relationship between East Asian summer monsoon and western North Pacific tropical cyclone genesis frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the fact that strong positive correlations have existed between East Asian summer monsoons (EASMs) and western North Pacific tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency over the last 37 years was found. To figure out the cause of these correlations, 7 years (positive East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI) phase) that have the highest values and 7 years (negative EASMI phase) that have the lowest values in the normalized EASM index were selected and the differences in averages between the two phases were analyzed. In the positive EASMI phase, TCs mainly occurred in the northwestern waters of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific and showed a tendency to move from the far eastern waters of the Philippines, pass the East China Sea, and move northward toward Korea and Japan. On the 500 hPa streamline, whereas anomalous anticyclones developed in the East Asia middle-latitude region, anomalous cyclones developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific. Therefore, in this phase, whereas EASMs were weakened, western North Pacific summer monsoons (WNPSMs) were strengthened so that some more TCs could occur. In addition, in the case of the East China Sea and the southern waters of Japan located between the two anomalous pressure systems, TCs could move some more toward the East Asia middle-latitude region in this phase. According to an analysis of the 850 hPa relative vorticity, negative anomalies were strengthened in the East Asia middle-latitude region while positive anomalies were strengthened in the region south to 25 N. Therefore, in the positive EASMI phase, whereas EASMs were weakened, WNPSMs were strengthened so that some more TCs could occur. According to an analysis of the 850 and 200 hPa horizontal divergence, whereas anomalous downward flows were strengthened in the East Asia middle-latitude region, anomalous upward flows were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific. According to an analysis of 200-850 hPa vertical wind shear and 600 hPa relative humidity, negative anomalies and positive anomalies were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, respectively, to provide good atmospheric environments in which some more TCs could occur in the positive EASMI phase. According to an analysis of sea surface temperatures (SST) too, whereas cold SST anomalies were strengthened in the East Asia middle-latitude region, warm SST anomalies were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific to provide good marine environments in which some more TCs could occur in the positive EASMI phase.

  16. Possible relationship between East Asian summer monsoon and western North Pacific tropical cyclone genesis frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the fact that strong positive correlations have existed between East Asian summer monsoons (EASMs) and western North Pacific tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency over the last 37 years was found. To figure out the cause of these correlations, 7 years (positive East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI) phase) that have the highest values and 7 years (negative EASMI phase) that have the lowest values in the normalized EASM index were selected and the differences in averages between the two phases were analyzed. In the positive EASMI phase, TCs mainly occurred in the northwestern waters of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific and showed a tendency to move from the far eastern waters of the Philippines, pass the East China Sea, and move northward toward Korea and Japan. On the 500 hPa streamline, whereas anomalous anticyclones developed in the East Asia middle-latitude region, anomalous cyclones developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific. Therefore, in this phase, whereas EASMs were weakened, western North Pacific summer monsoons (WNPSMs) were strengthened so that some more TCs could occur. In addition, in the case of the East China Sea and the southern waters of Japan located between the two anomalous pressure systems, TCs could move some more toward the East Asia middle-latitude region in this phase. According to an analysis of the 850 hPa relative vorticity, negative anomalies were strengthened in the East Asia middle-latitude region while positive anomalies were strengthened in the region south to 25 N. Therefore, in the positive EASMI phase, whereas EASMs were weakened, WNPSMs were strengthened so that some more TCs could occur. According to an analysis of the 850 and 200 hPa horizontal divergence, whereas anomalous downward flows were strengthened in the East Asia middle-latitude region, anomalous upward flows were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific. According to an analysis of 200-850 hPa vertical wind shear and 600 hPa relative humidity, negative anomalies and positive anomalies were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, respectively, to provide good atmospheric environments in which some more TCs could occur in the positive EASMI phase. According to an analysis of sea surface temperatures (SST) too, whereas cold SST anomalies were strengthened in the East Asia middle-latitude region, warm SST anomalies were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific to provide good marine environments in which some more TCs could occur in the positive EASMI phase.

  17. Relationship between Bering Sea ice cover and East Asian winter monsoon year-to-year variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Wang, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between year-to-year variations in the Bering Sea ice cover (BSIC) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the period 1969-2001 was documented. The time series of total ice cover in the eastern Bering Sea correlated with the EAWM index at -0.49, indicating that they are two tightly related components. Our results show that the BSIC was closely associated with the simultaneous local and large-scale atmosphere over the Asian-northern Pacific region. Heavy BSIC corresponded to weaker EAWM circulations and light BSIC corresponded to stronger EAWM circulations. Thus, the BSIC should be considered as one of the possible factors affecting the EAWM variation.

  18. Investigation of East Asian clouds with polarization light detection and ranging.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Sergei N; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V; Cheong, Hai Du; Kim, Dukhyeon

    2015-04-10

    In this paper we present results of investigation of the main optical properties of East Asian clouds with a ground-based polarization lidar placed in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Asian dust is located in elevated layers of the atmosphere in spring, travels long distances, and causes significant damage to ecology. We present backscattering matrices of clouds obtained from polarimetric remote measurements which comprise information on the scattering and absorption properties of cloud particles, their morphology, and spatial orientation. Theory of our applied lidar polarization experiment is presented in terms of the instrumental vectors of a transmitter and a receiver. Methods of solving linear and nonlinear systems of equations comprising echo signals are considered. Some numerical and measurement results are presented to illustrate the efficiency and versatility of the method of estimating the cloud parameters. PMID:25967292

  19. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols over the East China Sea: The impact of the East Asian continental outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengwen; Guo, Zhigang; Lin, Tian; Hu, Limin; Chen, Yingjun; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-five paired PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and TSP (total suspended particle) samples collected from a pristine island in the East China Sea (ECS) between October 2011 and August 2012 were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and n-alkanes. The island lies in the pathway of continental outflow from Mainland China to the northwest Pacific Ocean driven by the East Asian Monsoon. The concentrations of OC, EC (in μg/m3), and n-alkanes (in ng/m3) were highest in winter (means: 4.7, 1.3, 140.1, respectively) and lowest in summer (means: 1.1, 0.3, 17.0, respectively). PM2.5 contained approximately 88% of the OC, 80% of the EC, and 61% of the n-alkanes in TSP. Petroleum residue was the dominant contributor to the n-alkanes. C12-C22n-alkanes with strong even-to-odd predominance observed in winter were attributed to the microbial contribution from sea spray aerosol (SSA) driven by the higher wind speed. There was a higher secondary organic carbon (SOC)/OC ratio in warm seasons (summer and fall) than that in cold seasons (spring and winter). The dominance of primary organic carbon (POC) and EC in cold seasons was possibly mainly due to the influence of the East Asian continental outflow. Three episodes of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols were observed, and we focused on the impact of these pollutants from East Asia on the air quality over the ECS. Carbonaceous pollutants were more concentrated in PM2.5 during the fall episode triggered by biomass burning in East China. The winter haze associated with intensive indoor heating in North China brought substantial carbonaceous pollutants, with a minor influence on their size distribution. The dust episode in spring was related to coarse particles (i.e., TSP-PM2.5), yielding a distinctly different size distribution.

  20. Human development and South East Asian countries: Special emphasis on India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kalpa

    2013-01-01

    'Development' is to improve the quality of people's lives by creating an environment for them to engage in a wide range of activities, to be healthy and well nourished, to be knowledgeable and to be able to participate in the community life. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a multi-dimensional index of development as it is the combination of three development indices- health index, education index and income index. This article attempts to compare the HDI and its components between various South East Asian countries. Secondary data is used. India's position on the HDI scale is equivalent to the South East Asian average and rank 134 out of more than 190 countries. In South East Asia, India stood fifth in HDI, behind Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives and Indonesia. Country has launched several schemes and programs to improve the health indicators, to provide elementary education to every child and to alleviate poverty. India's HDI value has improved with time but still country has a long way to go in achieving an acceptable HDI. Need is to strengthen the existing schemes and programs. PMID:24251281

  1. Projected change in East Asian summer monsoon by dynamic downscaling: Moisture budget analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Chun-Yong; Shin, Ho-Jeong; Jang, Chan Joo; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2015-02-01

    The summer monsoon considerably affects water resource and natural hazards including flood and drought in East Asia, one of the world's most densely populated area. In this study, we investigate future changes in summer precipitation over East Asia induced by global warming through dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecast model. We have selected a global model from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 based on an objective evaluation for East Asian summer monsoon and applied its climate change under Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario to a pseudo global warming method. Unlike the previous studies that focused on a qualitative description of projected precipitation changes over East Asia, this study tried to identify the physical causes of the precipitation changes by analyzing a local moisture budget. Projected changes in precipitation over the eastern foothills area of Tibetan Plateau including Sichuan Basin and Yangtze River displayed a contrasting pattern: a decrease in its northern area and an increase in its southern area. A local moisture budget analysis indicated the precipitation increase over the southern area can be mainly attributed to an increase in horizontal wind convergence and surface evaporation. On the other hand, the precipitation decrease over the northern area can be largely explained by horizontal advection of dry air from the northern continent and by divergent wind flow. Regional changes in future precipitation in East Asia are likely to be attributed to different mechanisms which can be better resolved by regional dynamical downscaling.

  2. Seasonality in anthropogenic aerosol effects on East Asian climate simulated with CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yiquan; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Liu, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the seasonality in anthropogenic aerosol optical depth (AOD) distributions and their effects on clouds and precipitation in East Asia with the Community Atmospheric Model version 5. The differences between the model experiments with and without anthropogenic emissions exhibit a northward shift of the maximal AOD change in East Asia from March to July and then a southward withdrawal from September to November, which are induced by East Asian monsoon circulation. Associated with the shift, the direct and semidirect effects of the anthropogenic aerosols are the most pronounced in spring and summer, with a maximum center in North China during summer and a secondary center in South China during spring. The cloud liquid water path and shortwave cloud forcing changes, however, are the weakest in North China during summer. The indirect effect is the strongest in South China during spring, which is related to the large amount of middle-low level clouds in cold seasons in East China. A positive feedback between aerosol induced surface cooling and low-level cloud increase is identified in East China, which acts to enforce the aerosol indirect effect in spring. Accordingly, the climate response to the anthropogenic aerosols is also characterized by a northward shift of reduced precipitation from spring to summer, leading to a spring drought in South China and a summer drought in North China. The spring drought is attributed to both direct and indirect effects of the anthropogenic aerosols, while the summer drought is primarily determined by the aerosols' direct effect.

  3. Ethics and animal welfare evaluations in South East Asian zoos: a case study of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Harrison, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Concern for zoo animals is palpable throughout society in many countries in South East Asia. It is important to understand problems of animal welfare in order for zoos to make significant improvement in maintaining high standards. With a case study of 3 zoos in Thailand, this article presents results for the first time on how ethics and welfare evaluations are conducted in South East Asian zoos. The study identified several major and minor welfare problems and provided constructive suggestions to zoo authorities, which in turn significantly improved the standards of animal welfare. Thus, the data presented in this article could serve as a model for other zoos to follow animal welfare evaluations locally, regionally, and globally. PMID:12738585

  4. Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic) stretching, rifting and postrift subsidence were widely shown with the formation of oil and gas sedimentary basins with a thick sedimentary cover (West Siberian, Turan, Caspian, Middle Amur, Songliao), large igneous provinces (South Urals, West and East Siberian, Central Kazakhstan, Trans-Baikal, etc.) and rift systems (Mongol-Transbaikal, Baikal, etc.). The aim of further research under the existing joint projects should be identifying and tracing the boundaries of the Arctic-Asian mobile belt, study and correlation of geological complexes-indicators of major tectonic events, reconstruction of the history of the accretionary belt with superimposed oil and gas bearing sedimentary basins as a tectonic structure of the global level.

  5. Higher levels of neanderthal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Yang, Melinda A; Jay, Flora; Kim, Sung K; Durand, Eric Y; Stevison, Laurie S; Gignoux, Christopher; Woerner, August; Hammer, Michael F; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-05-01

    Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ∼30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome with genomes of several modern humans concluded that Neanderthals made a small (1-4%) contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of all non-Africans when the two groups coexisted in the Middle East 50-80 KYA. We examined the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans in greater detail by applying two complementary methods to the published draft Neanderthal genome and an expanded set of high-coverage modern human genome sequences. We find that, consistent with the recent finding of Meyer et al. (2012), Neanderthals contributed more DNA to modern East Asians than to modern Europeans. Furthermore we find that the Maasai of East Africa have a small but significant fraction of Neanderthal DNA. Because our analysis is of several genomic samples from each modern human population considered, we are able to document the extent of variation in Neanderthal ancestry within and among populations. Our results combined with those previously published show that a more complex model of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans is necessary to account for the different levels of Neanderthal ancestry among human populations. In particular, at least some Neanderthal-modern human admixture must postdate the separation of the ancestors of modern European and modern East Asian populations. PMID:23410836

  6. Intercomparison of the impacts of four summer teleconnections over Eurasia on East Asian rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhongda

    2014-11-01

    East Asian summer climate is strongly affected by extratropical circulation disturbances. In this study, impacts of four atmospheric teleconnections over Eurasia on East Asian summer rainfall are investigated using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data and Climatic Research Unit (CRU) land precipitation data during 1979-2009. The four teleconnections include the Scandinavian (SCA), the Polar/ Eurasian (PEU), the East Atlantic/Western Russian (EAWR), and the circumglobal teleconnection (CGT). Moreover, the related changes of lower-tropospheric circulation are explored, specifically, the low pressure over northern East Asia (NEAL) and the subtropical high over the western North Pacific (WNPSH). The results presented are in the positive phase. The PEU and SCA induce significant negative anomalies in North China rainfall (NCR), while the CGT induces significant positive anomalies. In the past three decades, the PEU and SCA explain more than 20% of the variance in NCR, twice that explained by the CGT, suggesting a more important role of the former two teleconnections in NCR variation than the latter one. Mean-while, the PEU and SCA reduce rainfall in Northeast China and South Korea, respectively, and the CGT enhances rainfall in Japan. The rainfall responses are attributed to the SCA-induced northward shift of the NEAL, and PEU-induced northward shift and weakening of the NEAL, respectively. For the CGT, the dipole pattern of rainfall anomalies between North China and Japan is affected by both westward extension of the NEAL and northwestward expansion of the WNPSH. In addition, the EAWR leads to an increase of sporadic rainfall in South China as a result of the eastward retreat of the WNPSH.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of myocilin variants in east Indian POAG patients

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Deblina; Ponda, Archisman; Sen, Abhijit; Ray, Kunal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the myocilin gene (MYOC) account for 2%–4% of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) cases. To date, a limited number of Indian POAG patients have been analyzed for the contribution of the gene towards the disease pathogenesis. In this study we provided a comprehensive analysis of a total of 765 eastern Indian POAG patients. Methods In the present study 450 POAG patients and 208 ethnically matched controls were screened for the coding region of MYOC by using the polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing approach; 315 POAG patients were analyzed in a previous study. Thus, our total patient cohort considering both the studies was 765. In addition, 1 kb upstream region of the gene was also examined for variants in a subset of 250 patients and 100 control samples. Results Analysis of MYOC coding regions in 450 POAG patients revealed 10 novel variations including 2 frame-shift (R125SfsX158 and D273DfsX344) and 3 nonsynonymous changes (Arg33Lys, Ser331Leu, and Asp395Glu), 3 reported mutations and 4 reported polymorphisms. Gln48His, which has to date been reported only from Indian subcontinent, was identified in 4 individuals among 450 patients, taking the count to 7 individuals among 765 patients harboring the same mutation in eastern Indian cohort. Screening of 1 kb upstream region of MYOC in limited number of individuals yielded 5 variants but none are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Conclusions MYOC mutations were found to account for 3% of POAG cases in our entire cohort (n=765) and Gln48His is the most common defect. This study, for the first time, reports the presence of deletion mutations in Indian patients, and represents the largest study performed in a single cohort in the Indian population. PMID:22736945

  8. A decadal prediction of the quantity of plastic marine debris littered on beaches of the East Asian marginal seas.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2014-04-15

    Large quantities of plastic litter are expected to wash ashore along the beaches of the East Asian marginal seas in the coming decade. Litter quantities were predicted using three techniques: a particle tracking model (PTM) used in conjunction with two-way PTM experiments designed to reveal litter sources, an inverse method used to compute litter outflows at each source, and a sequential monitoring system designed to monitor existing beach litter using webcams. Modeled year-to-year variation in litter quantities indicated that the amount of litter would continue to increase in the East Asian marginal seas if the level of outflow remains constant in the coming decade. The study confirms that about 3% of all East Asian beaches may potentially experience a 250-fold increase in the amount of plastic beach litter washed ashore in the next 10 years. PMID:24559735

  9. Regional differences in pathogen prevalence and defensive reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak among East Asians and Westerners.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Takeshi; Park, Justin H

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas); rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence. PMID:22947816

  10. The troika of business cycle, efficiency and volatility. An East Asian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Shaista; Rizvi, Syed Aun R.

    2015-02-01

    The EMH has been the subject of much debate over the past few decades, with a recent surge in interest in Asian markets. Asian markets which traditionally comprise of many emerging markets are more volatile and speculative in nature. The heart of our study focuses on the East Asian economies, which have experienced massive capital inflows. This begs the question of whether or not the stock markets are efficient enough for further investment and development. Our paper differs from existing literature as it focuses on deriving weak form efficiency rankings during different business cycle phases. We endeavour further to assess the volatility and business cycle phases. Taking Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and South Korea owing to their economic and financial development, we use MF-DFA to derive efficiency rankings and find firstly, the overall efficiency has improved over the past two decades and secondly, markets are more efficient in growth phases in comparison to its preceding decline. Similarly, employing wavelet decomposition in conjunction with EGARCH, we obtain volatility of stock markets in two distinct time horizons, i.e. short term and long term. We find the markets to be more stable during economic boom than its preceding bust. Our results confer with mainstream literature.

  11. Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Xingbo; Yuan, Jing; Fuller, Dorian; Barton, Loukas; Dobney, Keith; Fan, Qipeng; Gu, Zhiliang; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Yunbing; Lv, Peng; Andersson, Leif; Li, Ning

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of agricultural economies based upon domestic animals began independently in many parts of the world and led to both increases in human population size and the migration of people carrying domestic plants and animals. The precise circumstances of the earliest phases of these events remain mysterious given their antiquity and the fact that subsequent waves of migrants have often replaced the first. Through the use of more than 1,500 modern (including 151 previously uncharacterized specimens) and 18 ancient (representing six East Asian archeological sites) pig (Sus scrofa) DNA sequences sampled across East Asia, we provide evidence for the long-term genetic continuity between modern and ancient Chinese domestic pigs. Although the Chinese case for independent pig domestication is supported by both genetic and archaeological evidence, we discuss five additional (and possibly) independent domestications of indigenous wild boar populations: one in India, three in peninsular Southeast Asia, and one off the coast of Taiwan. Collectively, we refer to these instances as cryptic domestication, given the current lack of corroborating archaeological evidence. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of numerous populations of genetically distinct and widespread wild boar populations that have not contributed maternal genetic material to modern domestic stocks. The overall findings provide the most complete picture yet of pig evolution and domestication in East Asia, and generate testable hypotheses regarding the development and spread of early farmers in the Far East. PMID:20404179

  12. Relationship between early autumn Arctic sea ice and East Asian wintertime transient eddy activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sen; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Qigang

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic sea ice is suggested with wide impacts on the winter climate over East Asia. In this study, the relationship between the early autumn Arctic sea ice and the wintertime transient eddy activity over East Asia is investigated. Our singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis between the Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) and transient eddy kinetic energy (EKE) shows that with the decrease in SIC over the Siberia coast, Kara sea and Barents sea, the EKE around the Tibetan Plateau and the downstream regions increase significantly. This leading mode indicates that more than 60% variance of the wintertime East Asian transient eddy activity can be predicted from the SIC three month earlier. Possible dynamical processes responsible for the linkage between SIC and EKE are investigated. In the upstream of Tibetan Plateau, a branch of anomalous wave train is detected propagating southward from Ural Mountains to the North China and Tibet. In the downstream region of Tibetan Plateau, with the decrease in SIC, anomalous increase in synoptic eddy generation is found with the enhanced baroclinicity over the north slope of the Tibetan Plateau, which can result in the increase in EKE as well. Those two dynamical processes both act to enhance the transient eddy activity over East Asia.

  13. An index for the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Hu, Jinming; Tao, Yun

    2012-09-01

    IIE, the interface between the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), is defined using the equivalent potential temperature and summer long-term mean reanalysis data provided by NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD. The June-July-August reanalysis data for the period 1951-2008 and empirical orthogonal function analysis are further applied to obtain the IIE index at the near-surface isobaric level. The index has a prominent interannual variation that is strongly correlated with the seesaw variation between the ISM and EASM. When a strong EASM and weak ISM occur, this interface index is higher than the normal, with the interface between the two summer monsoons shifting farther eastward than normal. When a weak EASM and strong ISM appear, the index is lower than normal, with the interface moving farther westward than normal. The western North Pacific subtropical high, a major factor in the EASM system, plays an important role in the year-to-year variation of the IIE. Compared with approaches taken in previous studies, this index objectively and quantitatively describes the IIE variation and better represents the two teleconnection patterns associated with the Asian summer monsoon, thus enhancing interpretations of the interaction between the ISM and EASM and its effects on regional droughts and floods in East Asia.

  14. Meridional displacement of the East Asian trough and its response to the ENSO forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Y.-T.; Cheung, Hoffman H. N.; Zhou, Wen

    2016-03-01

    This paper examined the underlying dynamic mechanisms associated with the meridional displacement of the East Asian trough (EAT), which is closely related to the temperature variability in the southern part of East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). During the southward displacement of the EAT, the Siberian high is stronger and the Aleutian low is displaced southward. This is due mainly to the anomalous cyclonic flow associated with seasonal eddies over the midlatitude central Pacific, which enhances the horizontal advection of cold (warm) air to the southern (northern) part of the EAT in the lower troposphere. The cold (warm) advection narrows (thickens) the height thickness and results in negative (positive) temperature anomalies in the southern (northern) part of the EAT. These anomalous circulation features can be reasonably explained by the phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results are also verified by the numerical experiments with prescribing ENSO-like heat source anomalies over the tropical eastern and western Pacific in an anomaly atmospheric general circulation model. All of these results advance our understanding for the linkage between the ENSO and the EAWM via its modulation of the EAT.

  15. Phylogeographic breaks within Asian butternuts indicate the existence of a phytogeographic divide in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei-Ning; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2016-03-01

    East Asia has been hypothesized to be subdivided into two distinct northern and southern areas, separated by a band of dry climate that was far more severe in the early Tertiary but still exists today. However, this biogeographic hypothesis has rarely been tested using a molecular phylogeographic approach. We genotyped 70 populations throughout the distributional range of Asian butternuts (Juglans section Cardiocaryon) using eight chloroplast DNA regions, one single-copy nuclear gene, and 17 nuclear microsatellite loci, supplemented with paleodistribution modeling of the major genetic clades. The genetic data consistently identified two clades, one northern, comprising Juglans mandshurica and Juglans ailantifolia, and one southern, comprising Juglans cathayensis. The two clades diverged through climate-induced vicariance of an ancestral northern range during the mid-Miocene and remained mostly separate thereafter, with geographical isolation of the Japanese Islands and refugial isolation or secondary contacts in the late Pleistocene producing further subdivision within the northern clade. But beyond all that, we also discovered a role of environmental adaptation in maintaining and/or reinforcing the north-south divergence. Asian butternuts offer a strong case for the existence of a biogeographic divide between the northern and southern parts of East Asia during the Neogene and into the Pleistocene. PMID:26499508

  16. An empirical seasonal prediction model of the east Asian summer monsoon using ENSO and NAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Wang, Bin; Li, Jianping; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2009-09-01

    How to predict the year-to-year variation of the east Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is one of the most challenging and important tasks in climate prediction. It has been recognized that the EASM variations are intimately but not exclusively linked to the development and decay of El Niño or La Niña. Here we present observed evidence and numerical experiment results to show that anomalous North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in spring (April-May) can induce a tripole sea surface temperature pattern in the North Atlantic that persists into ensuing summer and excite downstream development of subpolar teleconnections across the northern Eurasia, which raises (or lowers) the pressure over the Ural Mountain and the Okhotsk Sea. The latter strengthens (or weakens) the east Asian subtropical front (Meiyu-Baiu-Changma), leading to a strong (or weak) EASM. An empirical model is established to predict the EASM strength by combination of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and spring NAO. Hindcast is performed for the 1979-2006 period, which shows a hindcast prediction skill that is comparable to the 14 state-of-the-art multimodel ensemble hindcast. Since all these predictors can be readily monitored in real time, this empirical model provides a real time forecast tool.

  17. An Empirical Seasonal Prediction Model of the East Asian Summer Monsoon Using ENSO and NAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Wang, B.; Li, J.; Jin, F.

    2010-05-01

    How to predict the year-to-year variation of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is one of the most challenging and important tasks in climate prediction. It has been recognized that the EASM variations are intimately but not exclusively linked to the development and decay of El Niño or La Niña. Here, we present observed evidence and numerical experiment results to show that anomalous North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in spring (April-May) can induce a tripole sea surface temperature (SST) pattern in the North Atlantic that persists into ensuing summer and excite downstream development of sub-polar teleconnections across the northern Eurasia, which raises (or lowers) the pressure over the Ural Mountain and the Okhotsk Sea. The latter strengthens (or weakens) the East Asian subtropical front (Meiyu/Baiu), leading to a strong (or weak) EASM. An empirical model is established to predict the EASM strength by combination of ENSO and spring NAO. Hindcast is performed for the 1979-2006 period, which shows a hindcast prediction skill that is comparable to the 14 state-of-the-art multi-model ensemble hindcast. Since all these predictors can be readily monitored in real time, this empirical model provides a real time forecast tool.

  18. Air-sea coupling enhances the East Asian winter climate response to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaomin; Li, Shuanglin; Luo, Feifei; Gao, Yongqi; Furevik, Tore

    2015-12-01

    A simple air-sea coupled model, the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction coupled to a mixed-layer slab ocean model, is employed to investigate the impact of air-sea coupling on the signals of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A regional coupling strategy is applied, in which coupling is switched off in the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean but switched on in the open oceans elsewhere. The coupled model is forced with warm-phase AMO SST anomalies, and the modeled responses are compared with those from parallel uncoupled AGCM experiments with the same SST forcing. The results suggest that the regionally coupled responses not only resemble the AGCM simulation, but also have a stronger intensity. In comparison, the coupled responses bear greater similarity to the observational composite anomaly. Thus, air-sea coupling enhances the responses of the East Asian winter climate to the AMO. To determine the mechanism responsible for the coupling amplification, an additional set of AGCM experiments, forced with the AMO-induced tropical SST anomalies, is conducted. The SST anomalies are extracted from the simulated AMO-induced SST response in the regionally coupled model. The results suggest that the SST anomalies contribute to the coupling amplification. Thus, tropical air-sea coupling feedback tends to enhance the responses of the East Asian winter climate to the AMO.

  19. Modeling the East Asian Climate During the Late Cretaceous (80 Ma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junming; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Chengshan; Huang, Yongjian

    In this study, the East Asian climate during the Late Cretaceous ( ca 80 Ma) is examined by using the Community Climate System Model Version 2 (CCSM2) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the reconstructed palaeogeographic data. The simulation results indicate that the large-scale prevailing wind directions and pressure systems over East Asia showed a remarkable seasonal variation during 80 Ma, so that it can be inferred that there existed a monsoon circulation over East Asia at that time. Compared to the present climate, the atmospheric circulation systems over the Eurasian continent in the Late Cretaceous showed a stronger meridional feature, which was possibly correspondent to a smaller lateral extension of the Eurasian continent at that time. Moreover, under a warmer background in the Late Cretaceous, the winter and summer monsoons over East Asia showed a synchronous variation, with a stronger winter monsoon as well as a stronger summer monsoon. The pattern of annual mean precipitation was similar to that of the present climate, with the maximum precipitation appearing in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) between 10°S and 10°N. There was also more precipitation over the eastern coasts of the continent adjacent to the western Pacific, with the central value exceeding 1200 mm, and there was less precipitation in the midlatitudes of the inland areas. Although a more precipitation belt also appeared near 30°N over the western Pacific, which was similar to the present climate, there was no high precipitation belt over the land of East Asia. This feature implies that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau plays an important role in the formation of the present baiu (plum rains). Moreover, the simulated climate over East Asia during 80 Ma was warmer relative to the present and the surface air temperature was 2 °C higher at the same latitudes compared to the present climate. This simulation result is closer to the estimation from the geological evidences.

  20. The East Asian Sea: A vanished Cenozoic ocean between the Pacific and Indian oceans revealed by subducted slab constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jonny; Lu, Renqi; Suppe, John; Kanda, Ravi V. S.

    2014-05-01

    We have mapped an extensive 2500 km by 7500 km swath of sub-horizontal slabs at 600 to 1200 km depths that we call the 'East Asian Sea'. The northern margin of the East Asian Sea slabs begin at Taiwan and Japan, and extend south to SE Australia near New Zealand, underlying the Philippine Sea, the Caroline Sea, New Guinea, and northern to eastern Australia. When restored with other mapped slabs under Asia-Oceania, the mapped slabs reveal a vanished ocean that existed between the Pacific and Indian oceans in the Cenozoic. The subduction of the Asian Sea fills a crucial gap in plate tectonic reconstructions of East Asia by accounting for a significant proportion of fast Pacific and Indo-Australian convergence towards Eurasia since 43 Ma, during which time the Pacific moved ~3000 km WNW and Australia moved ~2500 km northward in a near-orthogonal direction relative to a mantle reference. In addition, the Australian plate expanded up to 2000 km at its northern and eastern margins. Slabs were primarily mapped from the MITP08 global P-wave mantle tomographic model (Li et al., 2008) and compared to other global P- and S-wave global tomography. Reconstructed slab lengths were assessed by quantitative flexural slip unfolding of mid-slab surfaces to a spherical Earth surface model. Seismic tomographic volumes were also calculated for selected serial cross-sections. We present a plate tectonic reconstruction with the slab constraints, with the implication that the East Asian Sea was progressively overrun and subducted beneath the Philippine Sea, the Caroline Sea and the expanding Melanesian arcs. Reconstructions to earlier periods indicate the East Asian Sea was originally Pacific or proto-Pacific mantle lithosphere, and was fragmented from the Pacific plate during the major ~45 Ma Eocene motion change. This implies that the East Asian Sea was initially the upper plate of the Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec Western Pacific subduction zones.

  1. Interannual meridional displacement of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhongda; Lu, Riyu

    2005-03-01

    On the interannual timescale, the meridional displacement of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream (EAJS) is significantly associated with the rainfall anomalies in East Asia in summer. In this study, using the data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP/DOE) reanalysis-2 from 1979 to 2002, the authors investigate the interannual variations of the EAJS’s meridional displacement in summer and their associations with the variations of the South Asian high (SAH) and the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which are dominant circulation features in the upper and lower troposhere, respectively. The result from an EOF analysis shows that the meridional displacement is the most remarkable feature of the interannual variations of the EAJS in each month of summer and in summer as a whole. A composite analysis indicates that the summer (June July August, JJA) EAJS index, which is intended to depict the interannual meridional displacement of the EAJS, is not appropriate because the anomalies of the zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200) in July and August only, rather than in June, significantly contribute to the summer EAJS index. Thus, the index for each month in summer is defined according to the location of the EAJS core in each month. Composite analyses based on the monthly indexes show that corresponding to the monthly equatorward displacement of the EAJS, the South Asian high (SAH) extends southeastward clearly in July and August, and the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) withdraws southward in June and August.

  2. Investigating the response of East Asian ozone to Chinese emission changes using a linear approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, Kazuyo; Uno, Itsushi; Irie, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    To illuminate the issue of trans-boundary O3 pollution and regional O3 reduction policies in East Asia, we have investigated the East Asian ozone (O3) response to perturbations caused by Chinese anthropogenic emissions using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, a regional chemical transport model. The O3 responses have been examined for the range between -100 and +100% changes from the Chinese emissions level in 2004 in 10% intervals. We have found that springtime and summertime O3 responses both at the source and at the downwind areas can be regarded as linear over the range between -30 and +100% changes from the current emissions level. We therefore suggest that the perturbation between -30 and +100% is sufficiently small to avoid nonlinear chemical influence on O3 formation in a model experiment to investigate East Asian scale O3 source-receptor relationships. On the other hand, the O3 response is strongly nonlinear in April at Hong Kong, where the current NMVOCs/NOx ratio is low and the O3 production regime is easily moved to the NMVOCs sensitive region. The O3 responses to the NOx emission changes have been investigated using surface O3 concentrations at remote Japanese sites and tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (NO2 VCD) over central east China both with observations and with model simulations in springtime during 2003-2009. Analysis of satellite data shows that the observed range of NO2 VCD over central east China in 2003-2009 is the range between -25 and +34% from the 2004 level, which corresponds approximately to an emission variation between -21 and +29%. The O3 concentration in the downwind region during 2003-2009 responds linearly to a change of the NO2 VCD over central east China both in the model and in the observation. The corresponding O3 responses derived from surface observations at remote Japanese sites show linear features consistent with this expectation. The doubling of emissions, i.e., approximately 1.9-fold increase in the NO2 VCD from 2004, leads to O3 increments of 5 ppbv and 8 ppbv in the model and in the observation, respectively. The modeled O3 increase due to changes in NOx emission explains approximately 60% of the observed O3 trend at remote Japanese sites. Thus, approximately 40% of the observed O3 increase is unaccounted for by the NOx emissions growth.

  3. The Role of Self-Compassion and Emotional Approach Coping in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Psychological Distress among East Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Heweon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public

  4. The Role of Self-Compassion and Emotional Approach Coping in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Psychological Distress among East Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Heweon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…

  5. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":

  6. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  7. A review of East Asian reports of aurorae and comets circa AD 775

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, J.; Neuhäuser, D. L.; Neuhäuser, R.; Csikszentmihalyi, M.

    2015-08-01

    Given that a strong 14C variation in AD 775 has recently been suggested to be due to the largest solar flare ever recorded in history, it is relevant to investigate whether celestial events observed around that time may have been aurorae, possibly even very strong aurorae, or otherwise related to the 14C variation (e.g. a suggested comet impact with Earth's atmosphere). We critically review several celestial observations from AD 757 to the end of the 770s, most of which were previously considered to be true, and in some cases, strong aurorae; we discuss in detail the East Asian records and their wording. We conclude that probably none among the events after AD 770 was actually an aurora, including the event in AD 776 Jan, which was misdated for AD 774 or 775; the observed white qi phenomenon that happened above the moon in the south-east was most probably a halo effect near the full Moon - too late in any case to be related to the 14C variation in AD 774/5. There is another report of a similar (or identical) white qi phenomenon above the moon, reported just before a comet observation and dated to AD 776 Jan; the reported comet observed by the Chinese was misdated to AD 776, but actually sighted in AD 767. Our critical review of East Asian reports of aurorae circa AD 775 shows some very likely true Chinese auroral displays observed and reported for AD 762; there were also several events prior to AD 771 that may have been aurorae but are questionable.

  8. Genetic variation in metabolizing enzyme and transporter genes: comprehensive assessment in 3 major East Asian subpopulations with comparison to Caucasians and Africans.

    PubMed

    Man, Michael; Farmen, Mark; Dumaual, Carmen; Teng, Choo Hua; Moser, Brian; Irie, Shin; Noh, Gyu Jeong; Njau, Reuben; Close, Sandra; Wise, Stephen; Hockett, Richard

    2010-08-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies has proven valuable in the assessment of genetic differences and their effects on drug activation, metabolism, disposition, and transport. However, most studies to date have focused on a small number of genes or few alleles, some of which are rare and therefore observed infrequently or lacked rigorous ethnic characterization, thus reducing the ability to extrapolate within and among populations. In this study, the authors comprehensively assessed the allele frequencies of 165 variants comprising 27 drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) genes from 2188 participants across 3 major ethnic populations: Caucasians, Africans, and East Asians. This sample size was sufficiently large to demonstrate genetic differences among these major ethnic groups while concomitantly confirming similarities among East Asian subpopulations (Korean, Han Chinese, and Japanese). A comprehensive presentation of allele and genotype frequencies is included in the online supplement, and 3 of the most widely studied cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9; 2 non-CYP enzymes, NAT1 and TMPT; and 2 transporter genes, SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1, are presented herein according to ethnic classification. PMID:20173083

  9. East Asian child-rearing attitudes: an exploration of cultural, demographic and self-disclosure factors among US immigrants.

    PubMed

    Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Child-rearing attitudes among East Asian groups have been emphasized in the developmental psychology literature in the context of their association with academic achievement. Although child-rearing attitudes play an important role in the transmission of cultural values, much of the research on East Asian child-rearing attitudes has ignored cultural variables and has instead focused on authoritarian parenting style. The current study examined the association between three classes of variables-culture (i.e., ethnic identity, self-construal, acculturation), demographics (sex, years in the US, English fluency), and self-disclosure-and traditional child-rearing attitudes (TCRA) among East Asian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that higher levels of TCRA would be associated with higher levels of ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, and guarded self-disclosure, and fewer years spent in the United States. The participants included 170 East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) immigrants (88 men, 82 women) who were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Our hypotheses were largely supported. We found that, while there was no significant sex by ethnicity effect for TCRA, men were significantly more likely than women to endorse TCRA and the Korean group had significantly higher TCRA than the Japanese group. Ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, years in the US, and guarded self-disclosure were significant independent predictors of TCRA. The findings suggest the need for broadening the content of assessment tools of child-rearing attitudes and measuring associated cultural and noncultural variables among East Asian ethnic groups. Future research on child-rearing attitudes among Asian ethnic groups may benefit from (1) measuring multiple dimensions of TCRA, (2) assessing associated cultural variables directly rather than inferring them in an ad hoc fashion based on observed ethnicity differences, (3) measurement of demography (including sex and years spent in the host country) and (4) examining the potential influence of guarded self-disclosure. PMID:22029612

  10. Quantitative Estimation of the Impact of European Teleconnections on Interannual Variation of East Asian Winter Temperature and Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The impact of European teleconnections including the East AtlanticWest Russia (EA-WR), the Scandinavia (SCA), and the East Atlantic (EA) on East Asian winter temperature variability was quantified and compared with the combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Western Pacific (WP), and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are originated in the Northern Hemispheric high-latitudes or the Pacific. Three European teleconnections explained 22-25 percent of the total monthly upper-tropospheric height variance over Eurasia. Regression analysis revealed warming by EA-WR and EA and cooling by SCA over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. Temperature anomalies were largely explained by the advective temperature change process at the lower troposphere. The average spatial correlation over East Asia (90-180E, 10-80N) for the last 34 winters between observed and reconstructed temperature comprised of AO, WP and ENSO effect (AWE) was approximately 0.55, and adding the European teleconnection components (ESE) to the reconstructed temperature improved the correlation up to approximately 0.64. Lower level atmospheric structure demonstrated that approximately five of the last 34 winters were significantly better explained by ESE than AWE to determine East Asian seasonal winter temperatures. We also compared the impact between EA-WR and AO on the 1) East Asian winter monsoon, 2) cold surge, and 3) the Siberian high. These three were strongly coupled, and their spatial features and interannual variation were somewhat better explained by EA-WR than AO. Results suggest that the EA-WR impact must be treated more importantly than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  11. Abrupt variations of Indian and East Asian summer monsoons during the last deglacial stadial and interstadial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bing; Hong, Yetang; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Cai, Cheng; Peng, Haijun; Zhu, Yongxuan; Wang, Yu; Yuan, Linggui

    2014-08-01

    The phase relationship between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) during the last deglaciation remains controversial. Here, we reconstruct a 15,000-year plant cellulose ?13C proxy record for the ISM from the Yuexi peat bog in southwestern China. The record shows that the ISM abruptly decreases during the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial and abruptly increases during the Blling-Allerd (BA) interstadial. A comparison of the Yuexi record with other related proxy climate records reveals two types of phenomena. First, the strengths of the two Asian monsoons are inversely related during the YD stadial, i.e., the ISM strength decreases and the EASM increases. During this period, the southern Chinese mainland consisted of a wide arid zone while the northern Chinese mainland was much wetter. The arid zone in southern China resulted from two different types of monsoon processes: the abnormal northward extension of the EASM rain belt, leading to less rainfall in southeast China, or an illusion that the EASM weakened. The other process is a real weakening of the ISM. Second, during the BA interstadial, the strengths of both the ISM and EASM clearly increased. However, the maximum strengths appear to have occurred in the Allerd period. During this period, the entire Chinese mainland, both northern and southern, experienced wet conditions. The abnormal climate pattern of wet in the north and dry in the south during the YD stadial occurs because of the combined effects of the strengthened EASM, intensified westerlies, and weakened ISM, which could be attributed to the response to the abrupt cooling in the high northern latitudes and to the El Nio-like activity in the equatorial Pacific. The widespread wet climate during the BA interstadial may be related to an abrupt increase in the greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentrations in the atmosphere and to the La Nia-like activity in the equatorial Pacific. These results contribute to a better understanding of the response of the Asian monsoon to global changes and present a geo-historical scenario for understanding the East Asian hydrological variations in the current global warming phase.

  12. Westerly jet-East Asian summer monsoon connection during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Kana; Tada, Ryuji; Toyoda, Shin

    2013-12-01

    The causes of spatial and temporal changes in East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation on millennial to multimillennial time scales during the Holocene have not yet been resolved. Here, we examine the relationship between spatial variations in EASM precipitation and the westerly jet (WJ) path over East Asia during the Holocene using the provenance of eolian dust in Japan Sea sediments, which we interpret to reflect changes of the WJ path over East Asia and/or surface conditions of desert areas. The contribution of dust from the Mongolian Gobi Desert relative to that from the Taklimakan Desert shows millennial-scale to multimillennial-scale minima at 11.5-10, 7-5, and 3.5-1.5 kyr B.P., which we attribute to earlier seasonal northward progression of the WJ. These dates correlate with precipitation maxima along the present northwestern EASM margin and minima in eastern Northeast China and the Yangtze River Basin, suggesting that the WJ shifted northward earlier in the year, allowing earlier northward migration of the EASM rainband and generating abundant precipitation in the northwestern EASM margin. Therefore, during the Holocene, changes of the WJ path probably contributed to the millennial-scale to multimillennial-scale EASM precipitation changes and its northwest-southeast contrast within China. Our findings suggest that WJ path changes are critical to understand the dynamics of EASM in the past, present, and future.

  13. Spring Indian Ocean-western Pacific SST contrast and the East Asian summer rainfall anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Lu, Riyu; Hu, Jinming; Wang, Hai

    2013-11-01

    After studying the relationship between SST in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO), tropical western Pacific (TWP), and tropical eastern Pacific (TEP) and East Asian summer rainfall (EASR), using data provided by NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD and the National Climate Center of China for the period 1979-2008, an index, SSTDI, was defined to describe the SST difference between the TIO and TWP. In comparison with the winter ENSO, the spring SST contrast between the TIO and TWP was found to be more significantly associated with summer rainfall in East Asia, especially along the EASR band and in Northeast China. This spring SST contrast can persist into summer, resulting in a more significant meridional teleconnection pattern of lower-tropospheric circulation anomalies over the western North Pacific and East Asia. These circulation anomalies are dynamically consistent with the summer rainfall anomaly along the EASR band. When the SSTDI is higher (lower) than normal, the EASR over the Yangtze River valley, Korea, and central and southern Japan is heavier (less) than normal. The present results suggest that this spring SST contrast can be used as a new and better predictor of EASR anomalies.

  14. North-East Asian Super Grid: Renewable energy mix and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breyer, Christian; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Komoto, Keiichi; Ehara, Tomoki; Song, Jinsoo; Enebish, Namjil

    2015-08-01

    Further development of the North-East Asian energy system is at a crossroads due to severe limitations of the current conventional energy based system. For North-East Asia it is proposed that the excellent solar and wind resources of the Gobi desert could enable the transformation towards a 100% renewable energy system. An hourly resolved model describes an energy system for North-East Asia, subdivided into 14 regions interconnected by high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grids. Simulations are made for highly centralized, decentralized and country-wide grids scenarios. The results for total system levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are 0.065 and 0.081 €/(kW·h) for the centralized and decentralized approaches for 2030 assumptions. The presented results for 100% renewable resources-based energy systems are lower in LCOE by about 30-40% than recent findings in Europe for conventional alternatives. This research clearly indicates that a 100% renewable resources-based energy system is THE real policy option.

  15. Effects of sulfate aerosol forcing on East Asian summer monsoon for 1985-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjoong J.; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J.

    2016-02-01

    We examine the effect of anthropogenic aerosol forcing on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1.1. One control and two sensitivity model experiments were conducted in order to diagnose the separate roles played by sea surface temperature (SST) variations and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol forcing changes in East Asia. We find that the SST variation has been a major driver for the observed weakening of the EASM, whereas the effect of the anthropogenic aerosol forcing has been opposite and has slightly intensified the EASM over the recent decades. The reinforcement of the EASM results from radiative cooling by the sulfate aerosol forcing, which decelerates the jet stream around the jet's exit region. Subsequently, the secondary circulation induced by such a change in the jet stream leads to the increase in precipitation around 18-23°N. This result indicates that the increase in anthropogenic emissions over East Asia may play a role in compensating for the weakening of the EASM caused by the SST forcing.

  16. Suicide and Ambient Temperature in East Asian Countries: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoonhee; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Chen, Bing-Yu; Woo, Jong-Min; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A limited number of studies suggest that ambient temperature contributes to suicide; these studies typically focus on a single nation and use temporally and spatially aggregated data. Objective We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and suicide in multiple cities in three East Asian countries. Methods A time-stratified case-crossover method was used to explore the relationship between temperature and suicide, adjusting for potential time-varying confounders and time-invariant individual characteristics. Sex- and age-specific associations of temperature with suicide were estimated, as were interactions between temperature and these variables. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate country-specific pooled associations of temperature with suicide. Results An increase in temperature corresponding to half of the city-specific standard deviation was positively associated with suicide in most cities, although average suicide rates varied substantially. Pooled country-level effect estimates were 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 10.8%) for a 2.3°C increase in ambient temperature in Taiwan, 6.8% (95% CI: 5.4, 8.2%) for a 4.7°C increase in Korea, and 4.5% (95% CI: 3.3, 5.7%) for a 4.2°C increase in Japan. The association between temperature and suicide was significant even after adjusting for sunshine duration; the association between sunshine and suicide was not significant. The associations were greater among men than women in 12 of the 15 cities although not significantly so. There was little evidence of a consistent pattern of associations with age. In general, associations were strongest with temperature on the same day or the previous day, with little evidence of associations with temperature over longer lags (up to 5 days). Conclusions We estimated consistent positive associations between suicide and elevated ambient temperature in three East Asian countries, regardless of country, sex, and age. Citation Kim Y, Kim H, Honda Y, Guo YL, Chen BY, Woo JM, Ebi KL. 2016. Suicide and ambient temperature in East Asian countries: a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. Environ Health Perspect 124:75–80; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409392 PMID:26069051

  17. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    PubMed

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by institutional change in ideas about families and schooling and material welfare, changes in the structure of governance, and changes in state ideology. Thailand's decline began in the 1960s and is attributed to social change, change in cultural setting, demand, and FP efforts. Modest declines characterize Malaysia and the Philippines, which have been surpassed by Myanmar and Viet Nam. The policy implications are that there are shortages in labor supply which can be remedied with labor migration, pronatalist policy, more capital intensive industries, and preparation for a changing economy. PMID:12285439

  18. The Effect of Perfectionism and Acculturative Stress on Levels of Depression Experienced by East Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamamura, Toshitaka; Laird, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships among acculturative stress, grade point average satisfaction, maladaptive perfectionism, and depression in 52 East Asian international students and 126 North American students. Results indicated that a combined effect of perfectionism and acculturative stress accounted for more than 30% of the variance related to…

  19. Annual Report of the Japan Documentation Center, East Asian Institute, Columbia University, April 1, 1971 - March 31, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. East Asian Inst.

    The Japan Documentation Center was formally established in 1970 by the East Asian Institute of Columbia University with the support of the Yoshida International Education Foundation. The Center is designed to perform a radically new and unique service in the United States: to make available in one convenient location the latest information on…

  20. High IQ Is Sufficient to Explain the High Achievements in Math and Science of the East Asian Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that it is unnecessary to propose that Confucian values explain the high achievements in math and science of the North East Asian peoples, and that these can be satisfactorily and more parsimoniously be explained by their high IQs.

  1. Education, Politics and Sino-Japanese Relations: Reflections on a Three-Year Project on "East Asian Images of Japan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a recent collaborative and interdisciplinary study of East Asian Images of Japan, this article discusses contemporary Chinese portrayals of Japan, their political context, and their significance for Sino-Japanese relations. It questions some widely-held assumptions concerning the extent of "thought control" in an authoritarian…

  2. Genetic analysis of human rotavirus C: The appearance of Indian-Bangladeshi strain in Far East Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Doan, Yen Hai; Haga, Kei; Fujimoto, Akira; Fujii, Yoshiki; Takai-Todaka, Reiko; Oka, Tomoichiro; Kimura, Hirokazu; Yoshizumi, Shima; Shigemoto, Naoki; Okamoto-Nakagawa, Reiko; Shirabe, Komei; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Sakon, Naomi; Katayama, Kazuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Rotaviruses C (RVCs) circulate worldwide as an enteric pathogen in both humans and animals. Most studies of their genetic diversity focus on the VP7 and VP4 genes, but the complete genomes of 18 human RVCs have been described in independent studies. The genetic background of the Far East Asian RVCs is different than other human RVCs that were found in India and Bangladesh. Recently, a RVC detected in 2010 in South Korea had genetic background similar to the Indian-Bangladeshi RVCs. This study was undertaken to determine the whole genome of eight Japanese RVCs detected in 2005-2012, and to compare them with other human and animal global RVCs to better understand the genetic background of contemporary Far East Asian RVC. By phylogenetic analysis, the human RVCs appeared to be distinct from animal RVCs. Among human RVCs, three lineage constellations had prolonged circulation. The genetic background of the Far East Asian RVC was distinguished from Indian-Bangladeshi RVC as reported earlier. However, we found one Japanese RVC in 2012 that carried the genetic background of Indian-Bangladeshi RVC, whereas the remaining seven Japanese RVCs carried the typical genetic background of Far East Asian RVC. This is the first report of the Indian-Bangladeshi RVC in Japan. With that observation and the reassortment event of human RVCs in Hungary, our study indicates that the RVCs are spreading from one region to another. PMID:27071530

  3. High Prevalence of the BIM Deletion Polymorphism in Young Female Breast Cancer in an East Asian Country

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Shen, Chen-Yang; Lee, Jih-Hsiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Hsin; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, Dwan-Ying; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wu; Chen, I-Chun; Wu, Pei-Fang; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Background A rapid surge of female breast cancer has been observed in young women in several East Asian countries. The BIM deletion polymorphism, which confers cell resistance to apoptosis, was recently found exclusively in East Asian people with prevalence rate of 12%. We aimed to evaluate the possible role of this genetic alteration in carcinogenesis of breast cancer in East Asians. Method Female healthy volunteers (n = 307), patients in one consecutive stage I-III breast cancer cohort (n = 692) and one metastatic breast cancer cohort (n = 189) were evaluated. BIM wild-type and deletion alleles were separately genotyped in genomic DNAs. Results Both cancer cohorts consistently showed inverse associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and patient age (≤35 y vs. 36-50 y vs. >50 y: 29% vs. 22% vs. 15%, P = 0.006 in the consecutive cohort, and 40% vs. 23% vs. 13%, P = 0.023 in the metastatic cohort). In healthy volunteers, the frequencies of the BIM deletion polymorphism were similar (13%-14%) in all age groups. Further analyses indicated that the BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with specific clinicopathologic features, but it was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71) in the consecutive cohort. Conclusions BIM deletion polymorphism may be involved in the tumorigenesis of the early-onset breast cancer among East Asians. PMID:25909194

  4. Situating the Discourses of Privilege and Marginalization in the Lives of Two East Asian Women Teachers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Using a narrative approach (i.e., Clandinin and Connelly 2000; Dewey 1938 [1963]), this article explores the identity constructions and negotiations of two East Asian women teachers of English in MATESOL programs. The focus of this article explores the ways in which the two women's privileged experiences coexisted with issues of

  5. Different Instructional Preferences between Western and Far East Asian Adult Learners: A Case Study of Graduate Students in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Szu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    As the workplace becomes more international, it is necessary to periodically examine the learning preferences of adults from different cultures in order to enhance their transfer of learning. This study explored whether there was any different instructional preference between Western and nonresident Far East Asian (NFEA, also Confucian-influenced)…

  6. The Adaptation of East Asian Masters Students to Western Norms of Critical Thinking and Argumentation in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the adaptation experiences of East Asian masters students in the UK in dealing with western academic norms of critical thinking and debate. Through in-depth interviewing, students' perceptions of their learning experiences were explored, and stages in this adaptation process were identified, with various entry and exit routes.…

  7. Situating the Discourses of Privilege and Marginalization in the Lives of Two East Asian Women Teachers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Using a narrative approach (i.e., Clandinin and Connelly 2000; Dewey 1938 [1963]), this article explores the identity constructions and negotiations of two East Asian women teachers of English in MATESOL programs. The focus of this article explores the ways in which the two women's privileged experiences coexisted with issues of…

  8. Fine Motor Skills and Mathematics Achievement in East Asian American and European American Kindergartners and First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Zupei; Jose, Paul E.; Huntsinger, Carol S.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether fine motor skills were related to the initial scores and growth rate of mathematics achievement in American kindergartners and first graders. Participants were 244 East Asian American and 9,816 European American children from the US-based Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K). To control sampling bias, two…

  9. The Effect of Perfectionism and Acculturative Stress on Levels of Depression Experienced by East Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamamura, Toshitaka; Laird, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships among acculturative stress, grade point average satisfaction, maladaptive perfectionism, and depression in 52 East Asian international students and 126 North American students. Results indicated that a combined effect of perfectionism and acculturative stress accounted for more than 30% of the variance related to

  10. Assessing the Intended Participation of Young Adolescents as Future Citizens: Comparing Results from Five East Asian Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John; Fraillon, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Based on student survey data from five East Asian countries, the paper contains an analysis of attitudes towards the use of personal connections in politics and towards personal morality among politicians. The first part of the analysis describes the extent and variations of these attitudes, which are viewed as of particular relevance within the…

  11. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2015-10-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve. Limitations and future work are also discussed.

  12. Cirrus cloud thinning climate engineering and the response of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muri, Helene

    2015-04-01

    Results will be presented from Earth System Model simulations of the climate engineering method of cirrus cloud thinning. This climate engineering method aims to cool temperatures as a response to seeding of high altitude ice clouds in order to deplete them. Hence more longwave radiation is allowed to escape to space. The ice crystal fall speed is perturbed as a simplified representation of the otherwise complex and computationally expensive micro-physics of the method. An octupling of the ice crystal fall speed at temperatures colder than 235K is found to be of the order of magnitude needed to offset the radiative forcing of a doubling of pre-industrial CO2 concentrations. The resulting climatic effects are presented, including the response of temperatures, hydrological cycle, with a particular emphasis on the East Asian Summer Monsoon.

  13. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.

  14. Nighttime VHF and GHz scintillations in the East-Asian sector of the equatorial anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernik, A. W.; Franke, S.; Liu, C. H.; Fang, D. J.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements made during solar maximum years in the East Asian sector of the equatorial anomaly show different seasonal patterns of night-time scintillation occurrence at 137 MHz at Lunping and 4 GHz at Hong Kong. These seasonal variations are very similar to that observed at the equatorial station in Guam, indicating strong coupling between equatorial and anomaly irregularities. Model computations indicate that the GHz scintillation observed at Hong Kong is much stronger than one would expect based on VHF scintillation measured at Lunping. It is suggested that this might be an indication of strong latitudinal dependence of scintillation in the anomaly region. Attention is also given to the possible difference in local ionospheric conditions that were responsible for generating GHz scintillation causing irregularities in the anomaly region and at the equator.

  15. Impact of the east Asian economic crisis on health and health care: Malaysia's response.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, A B; Lye, M S; Yon, R; Teoh, S C; Alias, M

    1998-01-01

    In the wake of the east Asian economic crisis, the health budget for the public sector in Malaysia was cut by 12%. The Ministry of Health responded swiftly with a series of broad-based and specific strategies. There was a careful examination of the operating expenditure and where possible measures were taken to minimise the effects of the budget constraints at the service interface. The MOH reprioritised the development of health projects. Important projects such as rural health projects and training facilities, and committed projects, were continued. In public health, population-based preventive and promotive activities were expected to experience some form of curtailment. There is a need to refocus priorities, maximise the utilisation of resources, and increase productivity at all levels and in all sectors, both public and private, in order to minimise the impact of the economic downturn on health. PMID:10050200

  16. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. themore » different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.« less

  17. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-01

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are addressed by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of clouds, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in normal conditions. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which consequently enhances updraft. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.

  18. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough. PMID:25901012

  19. The interactions between anthropogenic aerosols and the East Asian summer monsoon using RegCCMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. J.; Zhuang, B. L.; Li, S.; Liu, J.; Xie, M.; Yin, C. Q.; Zhang, Y.; Yuan, C.; Zhu, J. L.; Ji, L. Q.; Han, Y.

    2015-06-01

    An online coupled regional climate-chemistry model called RegCCMS is used to investigate the interactions between anthropogenic aerosols and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) over East Asia. The simulation results show that the mean aerosol loading and optical depth over the region are 17.87 mg/m2 and 0.25, respectively. Sulfate and black carbon (BC) account for approximately 61.2% and 7.8% of the total aerosols, respectively. The regional mean radiative forcing (RF) is approximately -3.64, -0.55, and +0.88 W/m2 at the top of the atmosphere for the total aerosol effect, the total aerosol direct effect, and the BC direct effect, respectively. The surface direct RF of BC accounts for approximately 31% of the total RF of all aerosols. Because of the total aerosol effect, both the energy budgets and air temperature are considerably reduced in the region with high aerosol loadings, leading to decreases in the land-ocean air temperature gradient in summer. The total column-absorbed solar radiation and surface air temperature decrease by 8.4 W/m2 and 0.31 K, respectively. This cooling effect weakens horizontal and vertical atmospheric circulations over East Asia. The wind speed at 850 hPa decreases by 0.18 m/s, and the precipitation decreases by 0.29 mm/d. The small responses of solar radiation, air temperature, and atmospheric circulations to the BC warming effect are opposite to those of the total aerosol effect. The BC-induced enhancement of atmospheric circulation can increase local floods in south China, while droughts in north China may worsen in response to the BC semidirect effect. The total aerosol effect is much more significant than the BC direct effect. The East Asian summer monsoon becomes weaker due to the total aerosol effect. However, this weakness could be partially offset by the BC warming effect. Sensitivity analyses further indicate that the influence of aerosols on the EASM might be more substantial in years when the southerlies or southwesterlies at 850 hPa are weak compared with years when the winds are strong. Changes in the EASM can induce variations in the distribution and magnitude of aerosols. Aerosols in the lower troposphere over the region can increase by 3.07 and 1.04 µg/m3 due to the total aerosol effect and the BC warming effect, respectively.

  20. Rapid East Asian Monsoon change during the Last Interglacial in the Bohai Sea Coastal Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S.; Li, B.; Chen, M.; Zhang, D.; Xiang, R.; Niu, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Bohai Sea coastal zone of China faces the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Eurasian continent to the west, hence, this region is influenced by both the ocean and continental landmasses. The Bohai Sea coastal zone has significant monsoon climate characteristics and a strong sensitivity to climate change. The Miaodao stratigraphical section (MDS) contains historical information about climate features in the region, especially the high-frequency variations during the last interglacial, sea level changes, and the evolution of the East Asian monsoon. By analyzing the ages of different sedimentary facies in combination with proxy paleoclimatic indices (i.e., grain <63 μm fraction, average grain size (Mz), clay + silt/sand content (SC/D), magnetic susceptibility, and the ratios of Na2O/Al2O3 and (Al2O3+TOFe)/SiO2, in the fifth segments of the MDS from the last-interglacial (MDS5), we conclude that subsections 5a, 5c, and 5e were controlled by summer monsoons, whereas subsections 5b and 5d were formed when winter monsoons prevailed. These results were similar to oxygen isotope analyses from previous studies including the Spectral Mapping Project (SPECMAP) and the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). Five and a half comparable oscillations in proxy indices that were dated to ca. 116.1, 118.3, 121.2, 122.7, 125.9, and 128.7 ka occurred within the MDS 5e subsection when winter monsoon winds strengthened. This millennial-scale climate variability during the Eemian period may have reached up to ten and a half oscillations with a quasi-periodicity of approximately a 1,470 year cycle during the late glacial period. This rapid period of climate change has been recorded in northern and central Europe, central Asia, as well as in East Asia. The climate forming mechanism was probably initiated by changes in solar activity, and driven by the East Asian monsoon and sea level oscillations. Comparison of Miaodao section records with other paleoclimatic records during the Eemian period. A) Insolation at 65°N for July ; B) NorthGRIP δ18O records ; C) grain <63 μm fraction (%) of the MDS5 segment; D) Magnetic susceptibility (10-8 m3 kg-1) of the MDS5 segment; E) Potou section >40 μm quartz size fraction content ; F) GRIP δ18O records ; G) mean grain size (Φ) of the MGS5 segment ; and H) main sea level highstands.

  1. A regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model developed for CORDEX East Asia: assessment of Asian summer monsoon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a developed regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model FROALS was applied to the CORDEX East Asia domain. The performance of FROALS in the simulation of Asian summer monsoon during 1989-2010 was assessed using the metrics developed by the CLIVAR Asian-Australian Monsoon Panel Diagnostics Task Team. The results indicated that FROALS exhibited good performance in simulating Asian summer monsoon climatology. The simulated JJA mean SST biases were weaker than those of the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM). The skill of FROALS approached that of CMIP5 MMEM in terms of the annual cycle of Asian summer monsoon. The simulated monsoon duration matched the observed counterpart well (with a spatial pattern correlation coefficient of 0.59). Some biases of CMIP5 MMEM were also found in FROALS, highlighting the importance of local forcing and model physics within the Asian monsoon domain. Corresponding to a strong East Asian summer monsoon, an anomalous anticyclone was found over western North Pacific in both observation and simulation. However, the simulated strength was weaker than the observed due to the responses to incorrect sea surface anomalies over the key regions. The model also accurately captured the spatial pattern of the intraseasonal variability variance and the extreme climate indices of Asian summer monsoons, although with larger amplitude. The results suggest that FROALS could be used as a dynamical downscaling tool nested within the global climate model with coarse resolution to develop high-resolution regional climate change projections over the CORDEX East Asia domain.

  2. Impact of East Asian Summer Monsoon on the Air Quality over China: View from space

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Wang, Yuhang; Yang, Qing; Fu, Rong; Cunnold, Derek; Choi, Yunsoo

    2010-05-04

    Tropospheric O3 columns retrieved from OMI and MLS measurements, CO columns from MOPITT, and tropospheric O3 and CO concentrations from TES from May to August in 2006 are analyzed using the Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model (REAM) to investigate the impact of the East Asian summer monsoon on the air quality over China. The observed and simulated migrations of O3 and CO are in good agreement, demonstrating that the summer monsoon significantly affects the air quality over southeastern China and this influence extends to central East China from June to July. Enhancements of CO and O3 over southeastern China disappear after the onset of the summer monsoon and re-emerge in August after the monsoon wanes. The pre-monsoon high O3 concentrations over southern China are due to photochemical production from pollutant emissions and the O3 transport from the stratosphere. In the summer monsoon season, the O3 concentrations are relatively low over monsoon-affected regions because of the transport of marine air masses and weak photochemical activity. We find that the monsoon system strongly modulates the pollution problem over a large portion of East China in summer, depending on its strength and tempo-spatial extension. Model results also suggest that transport from the stratosphere and long-range transport from East China and South/Central Asia all make significant contributions to O3 enhancements over West China. Satellite observations provide valuable information for investigating the monsoon impact on air quality, particularly for the regions with limited in situ measurements.

  3. Anisotropic Shear-wave Velocity Structure of East Asian Upper Mantle from Waveform Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Yuan, H.; French, S. W.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Ni, S.

    2012-12-01

    East Asia is a seismically active region featuring active tectonic belts, such as the Himalaya collision zone, western Pacific subduction zones and the Tianshan- Baikal tectonic belt. In this study, we applied full waveform time domain tomography to image 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic upper mantle shear velocity structure of East Asia. High quality teleseismic waveforms were collected for both permanent and temporary stations in the target and its adjacent regions, providing good ray path coverage of the study region. Fundamental and overtone wave packets, filtered down to 60 sec, were inverted for isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave structure using normal mode asymptotic coupling theory (NACT: Li and Romanowicz, 1995). Joint inversion of SKS measurements and seismic waveforms was then carried out following the methodology described in (Marone and Romanowicz, 2007). The 3D velocity model shows strong lateral heterogeneities in the target region, which correlate well with the surface geology in East Asia. Our model shows that Indian lithosphere has subducted beneath Tibet with a different northern reach from western to eastern Tibet,. We also find variations of the slab geometry in Western Pacific subduction zones. Old and stable regions, such as, Indian shield, Siberia platform, Tarim and Yangtze blocks are found to have higher shear wave velocity in the upper mantle. Lower velocity anomalies are found in regions like Baikal rift, Tienshan, Indochina block, and the regions along Japan island-Ryukyu Trench and Izu-bonin Trench. The dominant fast and slow velocity boundaries in the study region are well correlated with tectonic belts, such as the central Asian orogenic belt and Alty/Qilian-Qinling/Dabie orogenic belt. Our radially anisotropic model shows Vsh> Vsv in oceanic regions and at larger depths(>300km), and Vsv > Vsh in some orogenic zones.. We'll show preliminary results of azimuthally anisotropic joint inversion of SKS measurements and seismic waveforms, which will help us understand the on-going geodynamic processes in East Asia.

  4. Influence of the intertropical convergence zone on the East Asian monsoon.

    PubMed

    Yancheva, Gergana; Nowaczyk, Norbert R; Mingram, Jens; Dulski, Peter; Schettler, Georg; Negendank, Jrg F W; Liu, Jiaqi; Sigman, Daniel M; Peterson, Larry C; Haug, Gerald H

    2007-01-01

    The Asian-Australian monsoon is an important component of the Earth's climate system that influences the societal and economic activity of roughly half the world's population. The past strength of the rain-bearing East Asian summer monsoon can be reconstructed with archives such as cave deposits, but the winter monsoon has no such signature in the hydrological cycle and has thus proved difficult to reconstruct. Here we present high-resolution records of the magnetic properties and the titanium content of the sediments of Lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China over the past 16,000 years, which we use as proxies for the strength of the winter monsoon winds. We find evidence for stronger winter monsoon winds before the Blling-Allerd warming, during the Younger Dryas episode and during the middle and late Holocene, when cave stalagmites suggest weaker summer monsoons. We conclude that this anticorrelation is best explained by migrations in the intertropical convergence zone. Similar migrations of the intertropical convergence zone have been observed in Central America for the period ad 700 to 900 (refs 4-6), suggesting global climatic changes at that time. From the coincidence in timing, we suggest that these migrations in the tropical rain belt could have contributed to the declines of both the Tang dynasty in China and the Classic Maya in Central America. PMID:17203059

  5. Interdecadal variability of the relationship between the East Asian winter monsoon and ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Wang, X.; Zhou, T. J.; Li, C.; Chan, J. C. L.

    2007-12-01

    The authors examine relationships between the East Asian winter monsoon and the ENSO, particularly on the interdecadal timescales. Based on the analyses of SLP data from 1899 to 1997, the East-Asian winter monsoon index (WMI) is defined as the zonal difference of SLP between ˜120° E and ˜160° E. It is found that 18 out of 28 strong winter monsoon years are either before the development of an El Niño or during the decaying La Niña event, 12 out of 28 weak winter monsoon are before the development of a La Niña or during the decaying El Niño event. There is a significant positive correlation coefficient value of about 0.49 between the normalized 11-yr running mean of WMI and ENSO index, however, the WMI-ENSO relationship is not consistently highly correlated. The temporal evolution of correlation between WMI and ENSO indices in both 11-yr and 21-yr moving window shows that the WMI-ENSO relationship clearly undergo low-frequency oscillation. Obviously, both observational and IPSL air-sea coupled modeling WMI index has a near-decadal peak with PDO timescales and internal peaks with ENSO timescales by applying the Multitaper method. Moreover, the cross wavelet and wavelet coherence analysis of WMI/ENSO indicate that there is a larger significant sections with an in phase behavior between WMI and ENSO at period of 20-30 yrs, suggesting that the interdecadal variation of the WMI-ENSO relationship might exist.

  6. Speleothem Evidence for Temporal-Spatial Variation in East Asian Summer Monsoon since Medieval Warm Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.-C.; Chu, P. C.; Fan, C. W.

    2012-04-01

    Published annual-to-decadal resolution stalagmite δ18O records since AD 900 from six caves (Dongge, Furong, Heshang, Buddha, Shihua and Wanxiang) in China were analyzed to detect temporal and spatial variability of the East Asian Summer Monsoon strength which strongly affects wet/dry conditions in eastern China. The empirical mode decomposition method (Huang et al., 1998) was used to obtain trends of the six cave records. After the base trend was determined, δ18O anomalies of each record were computed by subtracting the base trend. Mean δ18O anomaly values of the detrended time series for each cave record were calculated for four periods: (1) medieval warm period (MWD, AD 900 - 1250), (2) little ice age phase-1 (LIA-1, AD 1250 -1550), (3) little ice age phase-2 (LIA-2, AD 1550 - 1850), and (4) modern period (MD-1, AD 1850 - 2000). From these anomalies, the temporal and spatial variability of wet/dry conditions has been identified. Positive values of the mean δ18O anomalies indicating drier conditions appeared in lower Yangtze River Drainage Area and Southeast Coast Area during MD-1, LIA-1 and MWD, whereas negative values existed in North, South and Yangtze areas of the eastern China. The results agree with Dryness/Wetness index reconstructed by Chinese historic records in general. These results illustrate that wet and dry conditions in different regions of the eastern China could be opposite under the monsoon influence, so that no single speleothem δ18O record could represent monsoonal climate in this vast region. The climatic patterns in the monsoonal region can either warm/wet (cold/dry) or cold/wet (warm/dry) on annual-to-centennial scales. A 128-yr periodic cycle exists in all six cave records, whereas 64-yr and 42-yr periodicities appear in the Shihua, Heshang and Dongge records. These cycles may reflect the influence of the solar activity on the East Asian Summer Monsoon.

  7. Urban heat mitigation by roof surface materials during the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Ryu, Youngryel; Jiang, Chongya

    2015-12-01

    Roof surface materials, such as green and white roofs, have attracted attention in their role in urban heat mitigation, and various studies have assessed the cooling performance of roof surface materials during hot and sunny summer seasons. However, summers in the East Asian monsoon climate region are characterized by significant fluctuations in weather events, such as dry periods, heatwaves, and rainy and cloudy days. This study investigated the efficacy of different roof surface materials for heat mitigation, considering the temperatures both at and beneath the surface of the roof covering materials during a summer monsoon in Seoul, Korea. We performed continuous observations of temperature at and beneath the surface of the roof covering materials, and manual observation of albedo and the normalized difference vegetation index for a white roof, two green roofs (grass (Poa pratensis) and sedum (Sedum sarmentosum)), and a reference surface. Overall, the surface temperature of the white roof was significantly lower than that of the grass and sedum roofs (1.1 °C and 1.3 °C), whereas the temperature beneath the surface of the white roof did not differ significantly from that of the grass and sedum roofs during the summer. The degree of cloudiness significantly modified the surface temperature of the white roof compared with that of the grass and sedum roofs, which depended on plant metabolisms. It was difficult for the grass to maintain its cooling ability without adequate watering management. After considering the cooling performance and maintenance efforts for different environmental conditions, we concluded that white roof performed better in urban heat mitigation than grass and sedum during the East Asian summer monsoon. Our findings will be useful in urban heat mitigation in the region.

  8. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use. PMID:26211507

  9. Responses of East Asian Summer Monsoon to Natural and Anthropogenic Forcings in the 17 Latest CMIP5 Models

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Fengfei; Zhou, Tianjun; Qian, Yun

    2014-01-31

    In this study, we examined the responses of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) to natural (solar variability and volcanic aerosols) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gasses and aerosols) forcings simulated in the 17 latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Program phase 5 (CMIP5) models with 105 realizations. The observed weakening trend of low-level EASM circulation during 1958-2001 is partly reproduced under all-forcing runs. A comparison of separate forcing experiments reveals that the aerosol-forcing plays a primary role in driving the weakened low-level monsoon circulation. The preferential cooling over continental East Asia caused by aerosol affects the monsoon circulation through reducing the land-sea thermal contrast and results in higher sea level pressure over northern China. In the upper-level, both natural-forcing and aerosol-forcing contribute to the observed southward shift of East Asian subtropical jet through changing the meridional temperature gradient.

  10. Latitudinal Expansion of the Holocene Optimum in the East Asian Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Sun, L.; Zhan, T.; Huang, W.; Zhou, X.; Hao, Q.; He, X.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, J.; Qiao, Y.; Ge, J.; Yan, P.; Shao, D.; Chu, Z.; Yang, W.

    2014-12-01

    With increasingly abundant high resolution and high precision records of East Asian monsoon, its spatial and temporal dynamics during the Holocene have been extensively studied. However, partly due to the lack of records in high latitude areas and the age uncertainties, these studies characterized a wide range of spatial-temporal patterns of Holocene Optimum (HO). We reconstructed a 14,000-year record of vegetation using sediments from a crater lake in Northeast China. Analyses of the vegetation time series show that HO began around 6,000 a BP in Northeast China, significantly later than generally recognized. By comparison with Holocene records of vegetation in other regions of the East Asia, we found a marked northward shift of initial time of HO from 10,600 a BP in South China to 6,000 a BP in Northeast China, which appeared to be forced by the shrinkage of the northern hemisphere ice-sheet (NHIS) during early to mid Holocene. Finally, we fitted a regression model of initial HO time on latitude, which allows us to make prediction of initial HO time based on their geographical locations. This study reveals a strong relationship between latitude and initial HO times and provides a window towards understanding the joint forcing of high and low latitude factors on regional climate.

  11. Tropospheric temperature gradient and its relation to the South and East Asian precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaid, B. H.; San Liang, X.

    2015-10-01

    Using the NCEP-DOE AMIP-2 daily reanalysis data sets, the tropospheric temperature (TT) changes over East Asia for the period 1988-2010 are analyzed. It is found that on the layer-averaged TT between 1000 and 400 mb, there exist two centers, one sitting over Mongolia, another over Tibet. An index, called TT index, is defined as the difference between the TT over these centers. The TT index is observed to reflect the circulation anomaly through thermal wind relation. A significant increase in magnitude is identified after 1999; the trend, however, reveals a much milder slope in comparison to that prior to 1999. It is found that the TT index is highly correlated to the South and East Asian precipitation variability. It is related to other monsoon indices in that it takes a lead of approximately 15 days; computation with a newly developed rigorous causality analysis reveals unambiguously a one-way causality from the TT index to the latter. That is to say, we could have identified something that may help better predict the precipitation variability.

  12. Refined phylogenetic structure of an abundant East Asian Y-chromosomal haplogroup O*-M134.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chao; Yan, Shi; Hu, Kang; Cui, Yin-Qiu; Jin, Li

    2016-02-01

    The human Y-chromosome haplogroup O-M134 is one of the most abundant paternal lineages in East Asian populations, comprising ~13% of Han Chinese males, and also common in Kazakh, Korean, Japanese, Thai and so on. Despite its considerable prevalence, its current substructure is poorly resolved with only one downstream marker (M117) previously investigated. Here we address this deficiency by investigating some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported being potentially associated with O-M134 based on high-throughput DNA-sequencing data. Using a panel of 1301 Chinese males we first identified 154 haplogroup O-M134 subjects. We then investigated the phylogenetic structure within this haplogroup using 10 SNPs (F444, F629, F3451, F46, F48, F209, F2887, F3386, F1739 and F152). Two major branches were identified, O-M117 and O-F444 and the latter was further divided into two main subclades, O-F629 and O-F3451, accounting for 10.84 and 0.92% of the Han Chinese, respectively. This update of O-M134 diversification permits better resolution of male lineages in population studies of East Asia. PMID:26306641

  13. Type 2 diabetes in East Asians: similarities and differences with populations in Europe and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ronald CW; Chan, Juliana CN

    2013-01-01

    There is an epidemic of diabetes in Asia. Type 2 diabetes develops in East Asian patients at a lower mean body mass index (BMI) compared with those of European descent. At any given BMI, East Asians have a greater amount of body fat and a tendency to visceral adiposity. In Asian patients, diabetes develops at a younger age and is characterized by early β cell dysfunction in the setting of insulin resistance, with many requiring early insulin treatment. The increasing proportion of young-onset and childhood type 2 diabetes is posing a particular threat, with these patients being at increased risk of developing diabetic complications. East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of developing renal complications than Europeans and, with regard to cardiovascular complications, a predisposition for developing strokes. In addition to cardiovascular–renal disease, cancer is emerging as the other main cause of mortality. While more research is needed to explain these interethnic differences, urgent and concerted actions are needed to raise awareness, facilitate early diagnosis, and encourage preventive strategies to combat these growing disease burdens. PMID:23551121

  14. A 1750-1999 AD Atmospheric Record of East Asian Black Carbon Emissions from the Prospector-Russell Col Ice Core, Mt. Logan, Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menking, J. A.; Kaspari, S.; Osterberg, E. C.; Fisher, D.

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), an aerosol created from the incomplete combustion of fossil and biofuels, absorbs sunlight causing warming in the atmosphere and cooling at the surface. BC deposited on snow and ice reduces the surface albedo, accelerating seasonal snowmelt and glacier retreat and influencing the regional water cycle and climate. Estimates place East Asia as the top BC producer worldwide. Recent studies suggest that increases in East Asian BC related to industrialization have influenced Asian climate by altering temperatures and the timing and magnitude of precipitation. East Asian BC emissions have been estimated using fossil fuel inventories, but observational data is needed to constrain the timing and magnitude of recent BC emissions changes in order to better assess the role of BC in recent climate change. Here we present a time series of East Asian atmospheric BC that spans 1750-1999 AD that was developed using an ice core collected at the Prospector-Russell (PR) Col on Mt. Logan, Yukon Territory, Canada. The PR Col ice core is ideal for developing a record of East Asian BC emissions because the Mt. Logan summit has been shown to capture Asian emissions transported across the Pacific Ocean. The Mt. Logan record shows increases in BC concentration occurring in the early 1980's related to the recent industrialization of East Asian nations. We utilize the BC record from Mt. Logan (1) for comparison with estimated East Asian emissions inventories, and (2) to assess the role of BC in recent climate change with respect to the timing and magnitude of changes in East Asian BC emissions.

  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Intra-Host Populations Are Characterized by Numerous High Frequency Variants

    PubMed Central

    Borucki, Monica K.; Lao, Victoria; Hwang, Mona; Gardner, Shea; Adney, Danielle; Munster, Vincent; Bowen, Richard; Allen, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging human pathogen related to SARS virus. In vitro studies indicate this virus may have a broad host range suggesting an increased pandemic potential. Genetic and epidemiological evidence indicate camels serve as a reservoir for MERS virus but the mechanism of cross species transmission is unclear and many questions remain regarding the susceptibility of humans to infection. Deep sequencing data was obtained from the nasal samples of three camels that had been experimentally infected with a human MERS-CoV isolate. A majority of the genome was covered and average coverage was greater than 12,000x depth. Although only 5 mutations were detected in the consensus sequences, 473 intrahost single nucleotide variants were identified. Many of these variants were present at high frequencies and could potentially influence viral phenotype and the sensitivity of detection assays that target these regions for primer or probe binding. PMID:26790002

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study on Behaviors When Death Is Approaching in East Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shao-Yi; Suh, Sang-Yeon; Morita, Tatsuya; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Koh, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Yoshie, Taeko; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to explore common beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East-Asian countries. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Measurement outcomes were physician-perceived frequencies of the following when patient death was approaching: (1) reluctance to take part in end-of-life discussions, (2) role of family members, (3) home death, and (4) circumstances surrounding death. A total of 505, 211, and 207 responses were obtained from Japanese, Korea, and Taiwan physicians, respectively. While 50% of the Japanese physicians reported that they often or very often experienced families as being reluctant to discuss end-of-life issues, the corresponding figures were 59% in Korea and 70% in Taiwan. Two specific reasons to avoid end-of-life discussion, “bad things happen after you say them out loud” and “a bad life is better than a good death” were significantly more frequently observed in Taiwan. Prioritizing the oldest of the family in breaking bad news and having all family members present at the time of death were significantly more frequently observed in Korea and Taiwan. Half of Taiwanese physicians reported they often or very often experienced the patients/family wanted to go back home to die because the soul would not be able to return from the hospital. In all countries, more than 70% of the physicians reported certain family members were expected to care for the patient at home. At the time of death, while no Japanese physicians stated that they often experienced patients wanted a religious person to visit, the corresponding figure in Korean and Taiwan was about 40%. Uncovered expression of emotion was significantly frequently observed in Korean and Taiwan, and 42% of the Japanese physicians reported family members cleaned the dead body of the patient themselves. There seem to be significant intercountry differences in beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East Asian countries. Future studies on direct observations of patients and families are needed. PMID:26426631

  17. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:24303580

  18. A numerical study of the effect of different aerosol types on East Asian summer clouds and precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yiquan; Liu, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiuqun; Wang, Minghuai

    2013-05-01

    The impact of anthropogenic aerosol on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is investigated with NCAR CAM5, a state-of-the-art climate model with aerosol’s direct and indirect effects. Results indicate that anthropogenic aerosol tends to cause a weakened EASM with a southward shift of precipitation in East Asia mostly by its radiative effect. Anthropogenic aerosol induced surface cooling stabilizes the boundary layer, suppresses the convection and latent heat release in northern China, and reduces the tropospheric temperature over land and land-sea thermal contrast, thus leading to a weakened EASM. Meanwhile, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), anthropogenic aerosol can significantly increase the cloud droplet number concentration but decrease the cloud droplet effective radius over Indochina and Indian Peninsulas as well as over southwestern and northern China, inhibiting the precipitation in these regions. Thus, anthropogenic aerosol tends to reduce Southeast and South Asian summer monsoon precipitation by its indirect effect.

  19. An optimal index for measuring the effect of East Asian winter monsoon on China winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundi; Yang, Song; Wu, Qigang

    2015-11-01

    Extreme cold events occur frequently in China. The authors define a representative yet simple index to reveal the monthly changes in China winter temperature associated with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), which is represented by both the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode and the country-mean temperature index of Chinese 160 gauge stations. A combined technique of correlation and multivariate EOF (Corr-MVEOF) analyses is applied to capture the dominant coupled patterns of EAWM circulation system. Based on the atmospheric circulation features captured by the leading Corr-MVEOF mode, a new EAWM index referred to as CNWMI is derived by using a stepwise regression analysis. The CNWMI highlights the importance of (1) the Mongolia-Siberian High (MSH) and its southward expansion and (2) the Asia-wide meridional dipole anomaly of 500 hPa geopotential height. Compared with the 27 existing EAWM indices, the CNWMI not only best represents the leading modes of both EAWM circulation system and China winter temperature, but also reasonably tracks the intraseasonal-to-interdecadal variations of EAWM so that the monthly intensity of EAWM can be monitored conveniently. In particular, the Aleutian low (AL) is not strongly related to the MSH and may not be responsible for the variability of EAWM/MSH. Moreover, the indices that are highly correlated with the temperature over southern East Asia do not show significant relationships with the AL, which is different from the conventional concept that a strong EAWM/MSH is linked to a deepened AL. In contrast, the anomalous Australia-Maritime Continent low is in good agreement with the variation of EAWM/MSH.

  20. Assessment of the Impact of The East Asian Summer Monsoon on the Air Quality Over China from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, N.; Ding, A.; Valks, P.; Safieddine, S.; Clerbaux, C.; Trautmann, T.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in developing Asian countries like China. Due to huge consumption of fossil fuels and rapid increase of traffic emissions in the past decades, many regions in China have been experiencing heavy air pollution. In China, studies showed that the East Asian monsoon plays a significant role in characterizing the temporal variation and spatial patterns of air pollution, since monsoon is a major atmospheric system affecting air mass transport, convection, and precipitation. Publicly available in situ observations cannot provide sufficient spatial coverage and high consistence in data quality for a long-term period. Therefore, knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of Asian monsoon impact on the air quality in China under the background of global climate change. Satellite retrievals with high spatial coverage and high consistence for a long period can well document the change of air pollution with monsoon. We apply multi-platform satellite observations by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, IASI, GOMOS, MIPAS and MOPITT instruments to analyze tropospheric ozone and CO, precursors of ozone (NOx, HCHO and CH4) and other related trace gases over China. The potential of using the current generation of satellite instruments to monitor air quality changes caused by the East Asian monsoon circulation will be presented. Preliminary comparison results between satellite measurement and limited but valuable ground-based and aircraft measurements will also be showed.

  1. A pharmacodynamic study of the optimal P2Y12 inhibitor regimen for East Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Sung Gyun; Park, Bonil; Park, Sang Wook; Kang, Yong Seok; Lee, Jun-Won; Youn, Young Jin; Ahn, Min-Soo; Kim, Jang-Young; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Junghan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Newer P2Y12 inhibitors, such as prasugrel and ticagrelor, have greater antiplatelet efficacy but may increase the risk of bleeding. In this study, we compared the pharmacodynamic efficacy of prasugrel and ticagrelor in East Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: We selected 83 ACS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention who were discharged with 90 mg ticagrelor twice daily (n = 24), 10 mg prasugrel daily (n = 39) or 5 mg prasugrel daily (n = 20). After 2 to 4 weeks, on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR) was assessed in terms of P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs) using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (Accumetrics). We compared East Asian (85 < PRU ≤ 275) and Caucasian (85 < PRU ≤ 208) criteria for assessing the therapeutic window of OPR. Results: OPR was lowest in the ticagrelor group, followed by the 10 mg prasugrel and 5 mg prasugrel groups (49.1 ± 29.9 vs. 83.7 ± 57.1 vs. 168.5 ± 60.8, respectively; p < 0.001). The 5 mg prasugrel group had the highest proportion of patients with OPR values within the therapeutic window, followed by the 10 mg prasugrel and ticagrelor groups (90.0% vs. 46.2% vs. 12.5%, respectively; p < 0.001 for East Asian criteria; 60.0% vs. 43.6% vs. 12.5%, respectively; p < 0.001 for Caucasian criteria). Conclusions: Short-term administration of 5 mg prasugrel facilitated maintenance within the therapeutic window of OPR compared with the 10 mg prasugrel and ticagrelor groups. Thus, 5 mg prasugrel daily may be the optimal antiplatelet regimen for stabilized East Asian ACS patients. PMID:26354056

  2. Observed Inter-decadal weakening of the Asian summer monsoon and different response of South and East Asian monsoons during a warming climate scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Based on the observed analysis by using 123-yr observed data, we have shown the inter-decadal weakening of summer monsoon precipitation in East Asia and China, with two major features identified: (1)the rainfall pattern has undergone an obvious southward shift from North China to South China in the mid -and late 1970s. This shift of the precipitation pattern is in good coincidence with a significant abrupt climate change for other variables; and (2) occurrence of prolonged droughts in North China and , at the same time, marked flooding in the Yangtze River Valley and South China in the period from the end 1970s to the beginning of the 21st century. On the other hand , it has been found that after the end of the 1970s the Indian summer monsoon has also underwent a weakening processes which is in good agreement with that in East Asia. So, the Asian summer monsoon has holistically become weaker during past 30 years. One key issue is how long this unusual change in the Asian summer monsoon and associated precipitation patterns will continue to occur. By using outputs from climate models of IPCC AR4 we have projected the responses of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulations and precipitation to different warming over land and ocean under a medium warming scenario, SRES A1B. Our results suggest that, at inter-decadal and longer time scales, the change in the SASM circulation is consistent with the change in the TP(Tibetan Plateau) -TIO (tropical Indian Ocean) upper-troposphere thermal contrast (i.e. meridional temperature gradient) that is believed to be the main driver for SASM. Conversely, the change in the EASM circulation is consistent with the change in the TP-TPO (tropical Pacific Ocean) lower-troposphere thermal contrast, which will be enhanced due to the decreasing winter snow over TP and SSTA over the tropical Pacific. Further analyses suggest that increases in moisture and change in cloud cover induced by global warming may cause different upper-troposphere warming over the TP and the tropical oceans , respectively. Because the warming over the TIO is stronger than that over the TP, the TP-TIO meridional thermal contrasts will decrease in the future, thus leading to continuous weakening of tropical easterly jet and the monsoon intensity measured with W-Y monsoon index. However, in the lower layer of EA, a larger heating effect in the region of the TP than that over tropical Pacific due to decrease in winter snow can increase the zonal land and sea thermal contrast as well as the EASM intensity. In conclusions, since mid-or late 1970s, the Asian summer monsoon has experienced the inter-decadal weakening. However, in this century the South Asian summer monsoon will continue to weaken (mainly for the monsoon circulation) whereas the East Asian summer monsoon will gradually strengthen, especially after 2040's. It should be pointed out that the projection of the summer monsoon change are subject to a large uncertainty which are also discussed in this report, especially for development of convection over tropical oceans.

  3. Comparative sequence analyses of genome and transcriptome reveal novel transcripts and variants in the Asian elephant Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Sinha, Ishani; Kelkar, Ashwin; Habib, Farhat; Pradhan, Saurabh J; Sukumar, Raman; Galande, Sanjeev

    2015-12-01

    The Asian elephant Elephas maximus and the African elephant Loxodonta africana that diverged 5-7 million years ago exhibit differences in their physiology, behaviour and morphology. A comparative genomics approach would be useful and necessary for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of elephants. We performed sequencing of E. maximus and map to L. africana at ~15X coverage. Through comparative sequence analyses, we have identified Asian elephant specific homozygous, non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that map to 1514 protein coding genes, many of which are involved in olfaction. We also present the first report of a high-coverage transcriptome sequence in E. maximus from peripheral blood lymphocytes. We have identified 103 novel protein coding transcripts and 66-long non-coding (lnc)RNAs. We also report the presence of 181 protein domains unique to elephants when compared to other Afrotheria species. Each of these findings can be further investigated to gain a better understanding of functional differences unique to elephant species, as well as those unique to elephantids in comparison with other mammals. This work therefore provides a valuable resource to explore the immense research potential of comparative analyses of transcriptome and genome sequences in the Asian elephant. PMID:26648035

  4. Future Projection and Associated Uncertainty of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Bordoni, S.

    2014-12-01

    The regional climate change of the East Asian summer monsoon is investigated in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project - Phase 5 (CMIP5) archive in the context of the moist static energy budget. In the greenhouse gas forcing scenario, the reduction of radiative cooling and the increase of continental surface temperature occur much more rapidly than changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Without changes in SSTs, the rainfall in the oceanic monsoon region decreases, despite an increase in the land-sea thermal contrast traditionally considered as a fundamental driver of monsoons. The reduction in precipitation is robust amongst all CMIP5 models and is primarily attributable to a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet. The weakening of the jet, in turn, can be explained by changes in upper-level eddy momentum flux convergence and thermal wind balance. On longer time scales, SSTs increase, as does monsoon rainfall. This delayed precipitation increase is primarily driven by the thermodynamic contribution to precipitation changes, by which wet regions get wetter and dry regions get drier. Dynamical changes due to changes in circulation play a secondary effect. These results clearly highlight deficits of commonly proposed geo-engineering schemes as climate mitigation strategies, which, by reducing the surface warming without sequestration of CO2, might still result in dramatic changes in rainfall, especially in heavily populated monsoonal regions. Similar analyses will be applied to other subtropical convergence zones in the Earth's atmosphere.

  5. An assessment of the predictability of the East Asian Subtropical Westerly Jet based on TIGGE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Baiquan; Niu, Ruoyun; Zhai, Panmao

    2015-03-01

    The predictability of the position, spatial coverage and intensity of the East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) in the summers of 2010 to 2012 was examined for ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) from four representative TIGGE centers, including the ECMWF, the NCEP, the CMA, and the JMA. Results showed that each EPS predicted all EASWJ properties well, while the levels of skill of all EPSs declined as the lead time extended. Overall, improvements from the control to the ensemble mean forecasts for predicting the EASWJ were apparent. For the deterministic forecasts of all EPSs, the prediction of the average axis was better than the prediction of the spatial coverage and intensity of the EASWJ. ECMWF performed best, with a lead of approximately 0.5-1 day in predictability over the second-best EPS for all EASWJ properties throughout the forecast range. For probabilistic forecasts, differences in skills among the different EPSs were more evident in the earlier part of the forecast for the EASWJ axis and spatial coverage, while they departed obviously throughout the forecast range for the intensity. ECMWF led JMA by about 0.5-1 day for the EASWJ axis, and by about 1-2 days for the spatial coverage and intensity at almost all lead times. The largest lead of ECMWF over the relatively worse EPSs, such as NCEP and CMA, was approximately 3-4 days for all EASWJ properties. In summary, ECMWF showed the highest level of skill for predicting the EASWJ, followed by JMA.

  6. The East Asian Summer Monsoon in pacemaker experiments driven by ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hui; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Lu, Jian; Cash, Ben

    2015-03-01

    The variability of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is studied using a pacemaker technique driven by ENSO in an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) coupled to a slab mixed layer model. In the pacemaker experiments, sea surface temperature (SST) is constrained to observations in the eastern equatorial Pacific through a q- flux that measures the contribution of ocean dynamics to SST variability, while the AGCM is coupled to the slab model. An ensemble of pacemaker experiments is analyzed using a multivariate EOF analysis to identify the two major modes of variability of the EASM. The results show that the pacemaker experiments simulate a substantial amount (around 45 %) of the variability of the first mode (the Pacific-Japan pattern) in ERA40 from 1979 to 1999. Different from previous work, the pacemaker experiments also simulate a large part (25 %) of the variability of the second mode, related to rainfall variability over northern China. Furthermore, we find that the lower (850 hPa) and the upper (200 hPa) tropospheric circulation of the first mode display the same degree of reproducibility whereas only the lower part of the second mode is reproducible. The basis for the success of the pacemaker experiments is the ability of the experiments to reproduce the observed relationship between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the EASM.

  7. The East Asian Summer Monsoon in pacemaker experiments driven by ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hui; Greatbatch, Richard; Lu, Jian

    2014-05-01

    The variability of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is studied using a pacemaker technique in a atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) coupled to a slab mixed layer model. In the pacemaker experiment, sea surface temperature (sst) is constrained to observations in the eastern equatorial Pacific throughout a q-flux that measures the contribution of ocean dynamics to SST variability, while the AGCM is still coupled to the slab model. An ensemble of pacemaker experiments is analysed using a multivariate EOF analysis to identify the two major modes of variability of the EASM. Results show that the pacemaker experiments simulate part of the variability of the first mode seen in the ERA40 reanalysis (correlation up to 0.67 for the model ensemble mean), as expected. Different from previous study, the pacemaker experiments also simulate part of the variabilty (correlation up to 0.51 for the model ensemble mean) of the second mode, a mode of variability that is related to that of the Indian Summer Monsoon. A possible reason is the success of the pacemaker experiments at reproducing the relationship between El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the second mode of EASM.

  8. The Dependence on Smokeless Tobacco in the South Asian Communities in East London

    PubMed Central

    Khaja, Amjad Hussain; Zwiad, Abdulsalam Ali; Tarakji, Bassel; Gazal, Giath; Albaba, Feras; KalajI, Nader; Petro, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: The purpose of the study was to understand the dependency on smokeless tobacco. Methods: The major aspect of the interview was to study the type of chewing tobacco used, frequency of purchase of chewing tobacco, change in attitude and behavior after the use of chewing tobacco. This study was done in 2005 in London. Of the 110 respondents interviewed 88 were used for the data analysis. Study Design: An exploratory study was conducted in East London, United Kingdom. The selected sample was interviewed through a questionnaire, based on the Severson Smokeless Tobacco Dependence Scale. Results: Cross tabulations report that in a sample of 88 South Asian UK resident men 46.6% used leaf (paan), 43.2% used processed form of chewing tobacco and 10.2% used gutka. Older age (67%) respondents were more likely than the younger age (30%) respondents to chew tobacco. The frequency of purchase of chewing tobacco is reported high (67.2%) in the older age group than the younger age group (50%). Conclusion: This current study used an amended form of the Severson Smokeless Tobacco Scale questionnaire to study the dependency on smokeless tobacco. The study could be developed in the selection of the sample, which would include both males and females to study the dependency on smokeless tobacco. PMID:26234985

  9. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Hopkins, J. R.; Lewis, A. C.

    2011-07-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and geographic distribution of wood-feeding cockroaches in East Asian Islands.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, K; Lo, N; Kitade, O; Miura, T; Matsumoto, T

    1999-11-01

    Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the wood-feeding cockroach genera Salganea and Panesthia (Blaberidae; Panesthiinae) in East Asian Islands (Ryukyu archipelago and Taiwan Island) were analyzed based on the DNA sequence of the complete mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene. Unweighted parsimony analysis resulted in high bootstrap support for relationships within Panesthia taxa; however, some nodes were unresolved between members of Salganea. Comparison of the number of transitions and transversions with genetic distance at each codon position suggested that saturation of third-codon substitutions has occurred between certain pairs of taxa. Consequently, differential weighting of substitutions at these sites was performed, which resulted in a substantial increase in resolution of Salganea relationships. The inferred phylogenies for both genera displayed good correspondence to the geographical locations of populations but however did not agree with previous subspecies designations based on morphological characters. It appears that both cockroach genera invaded the Ryukyu archipelago from the Taiwan region via a land-bridge present in the Miocene period. Invasion of the main islands of Japan by these cockroaches most likely occurred before the formation of the Tokara Tectonic Strait. Our study suggests that several barriers to gene flow have arisen and persisted over the past approximately 10 million years, which have caused segregation and vicariant speciation of the cockroach taxa of this region. PMID:10603264

  11. Impacts of the East Asian monsoon on lower tropospheric ozone over coastal South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Derong; Ding, Aijun; Mao, Huiting; Fu, Congbin; Wang, Tao; Chan, L. Y.; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jane; Lu, An; Hao, Nan

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) on climatology and interannual variability of tropospheric ozone (O3) over the coastal South China was investigated by analyzing 11 years of ozonesonde data over Hong Kong with the aid of Lagrangian dispersion modeling of carbon monoxide and calculation of an EAM index. It was found that the seasonal cycle of O3 in the lower troposphere is highly related to the EAM over the study region. Ozone enhancements in the free troposphere are associated with the monsoon-induced transport of pollutants of continental anthropogenic and biomass burning origins. Lower tropospheric O3 levels showed high interannual variability, with an annual averaged amplitude up to 61% of averaged concentrations in the boundary layer (0-1 km altitudes) and 49% below 3 km altitude. In spring and autumn, the interannual variability in boundary layer O3 levels was predominately influenced by the EAM intensity, with high O3 mixing ratios associated with northeasterly circulation anomalies.

  12. Impact of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature tripole on the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Jinqing; Li, Weijing; Sun, Chenghu; Xu, Li; Ren, Hong-Li

    2013-07-01

    A strong (weak) East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is usually concurrent with the tripole pattern of North Atlantic SST anomalies on the interannual timescale during summer, which has positive (negative) SST anomalies in the northwestern North Atlantic and negative (positive) SST anomalies in the subpolar and tropical ocean. The mechanisms responsible for this linkage are diagnosed in the present study. It is shown that a barotropic wave-train pattern occurring over the Atlantic-Eurasia region likely acts as a link between the EASM and the SST tripole during summer. This wave-train pattern is concurrent with geopotential height anomalies over the Ural Mountains, which has a substantial effect on the EASM. Diagnosis based on observations and linear dynamical model results reveals that the mechanism for maintaining the wave-train pattern involves both the anomalous diabatic heating and synoptic eddy-vorticity forcing. Since the North Atlantic SST tripole is closely coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the relationships between these two factors and the EASM are also examined. It is found that the connection of the EASM with the summer SST tripole is sensitive to the meridional location of the tripole, which is characterized by large seasonal variations due to the north-south movement of the activity centers of the NAO. The SST tripole that has a strong relationship with the EASM appears to be closely coupled with the NAO in the previous spring rather than in the simultaneous summer.

  13. Cloud-Aerosol Interaction and Its Impact on the Onset of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K.-M.; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    Effect of aerosols from biomass burning on the early development of East Asian monsoon is investigated using various satellites and in situ observations including TOMS Aerosol Index (AI). GPCP precipitation, ISCCP cloud cover, and GISS surface air temperature. Based on TRMM fire produce and mean winds fields at 85Omb. we identified the source and interaction regions of aerosols and investigated aerosol-cloud-precipitation characteristics in those regions. During March-April, northern Thailand, Myanmar. and Laos are major source of smoke from the combustion of agricultural waste. Excessive smoke. represented by high AI, is observed especially during dry and cloud-free year. On the other hand. there is no ground source of smoke in the interaction region. The most of aerosols in this area are believed to be transported from the source region. AI is appeared to be correlated with more clouds and less precipitation in interaction region. It suggests that the aerosol-cloud interaction can alter the distribution of cloud and the characteristics of regional hydrology. Aerosol-induced changes in atmospheric stability and associated circulation turns out to be very important to pre-monsoon rainfall pattern in southern China. Prolonged biomass burning is especially effective in changing rainfall pattern during April and May. Results suggest that excessive aerosol transported from source region may intensify pre-monsoon rain band over central China in May and lead to early monsoon onset.

  14. The effect of transient eddy on interannual meridional displacement of summer East Asian subtropical jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yang; Yang, Xiuqun

    2012-05-01

    Using ERA-40 reanalysis daily data for the period 1958-2002, this study investigated the effect of transient eddy (TE) on the interannual meridional displacement of summer East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) by conducting a detailed dynamical diagnosis. The summer EASJ axis features a significant interannual coherent meridional displacement. Associated with such a meridional displacement, the TE vorticity forcing anomalies are characterized by a meridional dipole pattern asymmetric about the climatological EASJ axis. The TE vorticity forcing anomalies yield barotropic zonal wind tendencies with a phase meridionally leading the zonal wind anomalies, suggesting that they act to reinforce further meridional displacement of the EASJ and favor a positive feedback in the TE and time-mean flow interaction. However, The TE thermal forcing anomalies induce baroclinic zonal wind tendencies that reduce the vertical shear of zonal wind and atmospheric baroclinicity and eventually suppress the TE activity, favoring a negative feedback in the TE and time-mean flow interaction. Although the two types of TE forcing tend to have opposite feedback roles, the TE vorticity forcing appears to be dominant in the TE effect on the time-mean flow.

  15. Evidence for a Far East Asian origin of lager beer yeast.

    PubMed

    Bing, Jian; Han, Pei-Jie; Liu, Wan-Qiu; Wang, Qi-Ming; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2014-05-19

    Lager-brewing arose in 15th century Bavaria [1] and is nowadays the most popular technique for alcoholic beverage production in the world. The technique is characterized by low temperature fermentation using the domesticated yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus (synonym S. carlsbergensis). It has been clear that the lager yeast is a hybrid with one portion of its genome having originated from S. cerevisiae ale yeast [2]. However, the source of the non-ale subgenome, which endows lager yeast with cold tolerance, had been a matter of debate [3]. Recently, a Patagonian origin hypothesis of lager yeast has been proposed based on the discovery of a new cryotolerant Saccharomyces species from Patagonian native forests of Argentina [4]. This yeast, named S. eubayanus, exhibited the closest known match (99.56%) to the non-ale portion of lager yeast and, thus, was believed to be its progenitor. However, we now show that this yeast species is likely native to the Tibetan Plateau. One of the Tibetan populations of the species exhibits closer affinity with lager yeast than the Patagonian population as inferred from population genetics and genome sequence analyses. We thus provide strong evidence for a Far East Asian origin hypothesis of lager yeast, which apparently corresponds better with geography and world trade history. PMID:24845661

  16. Predictability of the East Asian winter monsoon interannual variability as indicated by the DEMETER CGCMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Wang, Huijun

    2012-05-01

    The interannual variability of East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) circulation from the Development of a European Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) System for Seasonal to Inter-Annual Prediction (DEMETER) hindcasts was evaluated against observation reanalysis data. We evaluated the DEMETER coupled general circulation models (CGCMs)' retrospective prediction of the typical EAWM and its associated atmospheric circulation. Results show that the EAWM can be reasonably predicted with statistically significant accuracy, yet the major bias of the hindcast models is the underestimation of the related anomalies. The temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) of the MME-produced EAWM index, defined as the first EOF mode of 850-hPa air temperature within the EAWM domain (20°-60°N, 90°-150°E), was 0.595. This coefficient was higher than those of the corresponding individual models (range: 0.39-0.51) for the period 1969-2001; this result indicates the advantage of the super-ensemble approach. This study also showed that the ensemble models can reasonably reproduce the major modes and their interannual variabilities for sea level pressure, geopotential height, surface air temperature, and wind fields in Eurasia. Therefore, the prediction of EAWM interannual variability is feasible using multimodel ensemble systems and that they may also reveal the associated mechanisms of the EAWM interannual variability.

  17. Prediction of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyoeun; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2015-12-01

    Intraseasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): pre-Meiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. Here, we use stepwise regression to determine the predictors for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the sea surface temperature (SST)/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the pre-Meiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the western North Pacific (WNP), which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor that results in strong baroclinic instability. A major precursor for the Changma&Meiyu mode is related to the WNP subtropical high, induced by the persistent SST difference between the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. The WNPSM mode is mostly affected by the Pacific-Japan pattern, and monsoon gyre mode is primarily associated with a persistent SST cooling over the tropical Indian Ocean by the preceding ENSO signal. This study carries important implications for prediction by establishing valuable precursors of the four modes including nonlinear characteristics.

  18. The climatology of East Asian winter monsoon and cold surges from 1979--1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Zhang; Sperber, K.; Boyle, J.

    1996-04-01

    The East Asian winter monsoon, which is associated with the Siberian high and active cold surges, is one of the most energetic monsoon circulation systems. The dramatic shift of northeasterlies and the outbreak of cold surges dominate the winter weather and local climate in the East Asian region, and may exert a strong impact on the extratropical and tropical planetary-scale circulations and influence the SSTs in the tropical western Pacific. General characteristics of the winter monsoon and cold surges and their possible link with tropical disturbances are revealed in many observational studies. Little attention has been given to the climatological aspects of the winter monsoon and cold surges. The purpose of this study is to compile and document the East Asian mean winter circulation, and present the climatology of cold surges and the Siberian high based on the 1979--1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Of particular interest is the interannual variation of winter monsoon circulation and cold surge events. Given that the cold surge activity and the Indonesian convection are much reduced during the 1982--83 period, one of the goals is to determine whether there exists a statistically significant relationship between ENSO and the interannual variation of winter monsoon and cold surges.

  19. Phylogenomic Analysis Resolves the Formerly Intractable Adaptive Diversification of the Endemic Clade of East Asian Cyprinidae (Cypriniformes)

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wenjing; Zou, Ming; Wang, Xuzhen; Gan, Xiaoni; Mayden, Richard L.; He, Shunping

    2010-01-01

    Despite their great diversity and biological importance, evolutionary relationships among the endemic clade of East Asian Cyprinidae remain ambiguous. Understanding the phylogenetic history of this group involves many challenges. For instance, ecomorphological convergence may confound morphology-based phylogenetic inferences, and previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on single genes have often yielded contradictory and poorly supported trees. We assembled a comprehensive data matrix of 100 nuclear gene segments (∼ 71132 base pairs) for representative species of the endemic East Asian cyprinid fauna and recovered a robust phylogeny from this genome-wide signal supported by multiple analytical methods, including maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated species radiations of this clade concentrated at approximately 1.9–7.6 MYA. We provide evidence that the bursts of diversification in this fauna are directly linked to major paleoenvironmental events associated with monsoon evolution occurring from late Miocene to Pliocene. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals convergent morphological characters are hypothesized to be independent products of similar selective pressures in ecosystems. Our study is the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the enigmatic East-Asian cyprinids. The explicit molecular phylogeny provides a valuable framework for future research in genome evolution, adaptation and speciation of cyprinids. PMID:20976012

  20. Simulation of Monsoonal Characteristics of the East Asian Climate during the Mid-Cretaceous in a Coupled Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, C.; Yang, J.; Guo, Y.

    2014-12-01

    To increase understanding of the future changes of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) under the current global warming background, we turn to investigate the EAM during the mid-Cretaceous (~90Ma), which is one of the warmest greenhouse climate episodes of the Phanerozoic. Utilizing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.03 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), we simulate the global climate in the mid-Cretaceous, and some results can well match with some geological evidences. New indices of monsoon based on the seasonal/annual precipitation ratios are defined, and they can represent modern EAM well. Upon these indices, the simulation results demonstrate that the East Asia has been a typical monsoon region during the mid-Cretaceous, and then the mid-Cretaceous EAM were analyzed and compared with the modern EAM. According to the spatial pattern of the EAM index, the EAM region was divided into two subregions: East Asian low-latitude monsoon (EALM) and East Asian mid-latitude monsoon (EAMM). The mid-Cretaceous EALM was comparable to the modern one, as well as the summer and winter monsoon intensities. However, the monsoon index was reduced obviously in the mid-latitudes of East Asia, which indicates that the mid-Cretaceous EAMM was not as significant as modern. Thorough the analysis on the climatology in the EAMM region, the mid-Cretaceous summer/annual precipitation ratio was smaller than modern, while the winter/annual precipitation ratio was greater. This difference between the mid-Cretaceous and modern EAMM shows that the summer and winter monsoon intensities both weaken and that the uneven distribution of precipitation in different seasons is alleviated in the mid-Cretaceous world, therefore the mid-Cretaceous EAMM is a weaker system.

  1. Caesarean section in four South East Asian countries: reasons for, rates, associated care practices and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Festin, Mario R; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Pattanittum, Porjai; Ewens, Melissa R; Henderson-Smart, David J; Crowther, Caroline A

    2009-01-01

    Background Caesarean section is a commonly performed operation on women that is globally increasing in prevalence each year. There is a large variation in the rates of caesarean, both in high and low income countries, as well as between different institutions within these countries. This audit aimed to report rates and reasons for caesarean and associated clinical care practices amongst nine hospitals in the four South East Asian countries participating in the South East Asia-Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID) project. Methods Data on caesarean rates, care practices and health outcomes were collected from the medical records of the 9550 women and their 9665 infants admitted to the nine participating hospitals across South East Asia between January and December 2005. Results Overall 27% of women had a caesarean section, with rates varying from 19% to 35% between countries and 12% to 39% between hospitals within countries. The most common indications for caesarean were previous caesarean (7.0%), cephalopelvic disproportion (6.3%), malpresentation (4.7%) and fetal distress (3.3%). Neonatal resuscitation rates ranged from 7% to 60% between countries. Prophylactic antibiotics were almost universally given but variations in timing occurred between countries and between hospitals within countries. Conclusion Rates and reasons for caesarean section and associated clinical care practices and health outcomes varied widely between the four South East Asian countries. PMID:19426513

  2. Predictability of the summer East Asian upper-tropospheric westerly jet in ENSEMBLES multi-model forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaofan; Lin, Zhongda

    2015-12-01

    The interannual variation of the East Asian upper-tropospheric westerly jet (EAJ) significantly affects East Asian climate in summer. Identifying its performance in model prediction may provide us another viewpoint, from the perspective of upper-tropospheric circulation, to understand the predictability of summer climate anomalies in East Asia. This study presents a comprehensive assessment of year-to-year variability of the EAJ based on retrospective seasonal forecasts, initiated from 1 May, in the five state-of-the-art coupled models from ENSEMBLES during 1960-2005. It is found that the coupled models show certain capability in describing the interannual meridional displacement of the EAJ, which reflects the models' performance in the first leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode. This capability is mainly shown over the region south of the EAJ axis. Additionally, the models generally capture well the main features of atmospheric circulation and SST anomalies related to the interannual meridional displacement of the EAJ. Further analysis suggests that the predicted warm SST anomalies in the concurrent summer over the tropical eastern Pacific and northern Indian Ocean are the two main sources of the potential prediction skill of the southward shift of the EAJ. In contrast, the models are powerless in describing the variation over the region north of the EAJ axis, associated with the meridional displacement, and interannual intensity change of the EAJ, the second leading EOF mode, meaning it still remains a challenge to better predict the EAJ and, subsequently, summer climate in East Asia, using current coupled models.

  3. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. PMID:26842398

  4. Seasonal prediction of the East Asian summer monsoon with a partial-least square model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Yu, Lulu

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal prediction of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) strength is probably one of the most challenging and crucial issues for climate prediction over East Asia. In this paper, a statistical method called partial-least square (PLS) regression is utilized to uncover principal sea surface temperature (SST) modes in the winter preceding the EASM. Results show that the SST pattern of the first PLS mode is associated with the turnabout of warming (or cooling) phase of a mega-El Niño/Southern Oscillation (mega-ENSO) (a leading mode of interannual-to-interdecadal variations of global SST), whereas that of the second PLS mode leads the warming/cooling mega-ENSO by about 1 year, signaling precursory conditions for mega-ENSO. These indicate that mega-ENSO may provide a critical predictability source for the EASM strength. Based on a 40-year training period (1958-1997), a PLS prediction model is constructed using the two leading PLS modes and 3-month-lead hindcasts are performed for the validation period of 1998-2013. A promising skill is obtained, which is comparable to the ensemble mean of versions 3 and 4 of the Canadian Community Atmosphere Model (CanCM3/4) hindcasts from the newly developed North American Multi-model Ensemble Prediction System regarding the interannual variations of the EASM strength. How to improve dynamical model simulation of the EASM is also examined through comparing the CanCM3/4 hindcast (1982-2010) with the 106-year historical run (1900-2005) by the Second Generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). CanCM3/4 exhibits a high skill in the EASM hindcast period 1982-2010 during which it also has a better performance in capturing the relationship between the EASM and mega-ENSO. By contrast, the simulation skill of CanESM2 is quite low and it is unable to reproduce the linkage between the EASM and mega-ENSO. All these results emphasize importance of mega-ENSO in seasonal prediction and dynamical model simulation of the EASM.

  5. Seasonal prediction of the East Asian summer monsoon with a partial-least square model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Yu, Lulu

    2015-07-01

    Seasonal prediction of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) strength is probably one of the most challenging and crucial issues for climate prediction over East Asia. In this paper, a statistical method called partial-least square (PLS) regression is utilized to uncover principal sea surface temperature (SST) modes in the winter preceding the EASM. Results show that the SST pattern of the first PLS mode is associated with the turnabout of warming (or cooling) phase of a mega-El Niño/Southern Oscillation (mega-ENSO) (a leading mode of interannual-to-interdecadal variations of global SST), whereas that of the second PLS mode leads the warming/cooling mega-ENSO by about 1 year, signaling precursory conditions for mega-ENSO. These indicate that mega-ENSO may provide a critical predictability source for the EASM strength. Based on a 40-year training period (1958-1997), a PLS prediction model is constructed using the two leading PLS modes and 3-month-lead hindcasts are performed for the validation period of 1998-2013. A promising skill is obtained, which is comparable to the ensemble mean of versions 3 and 4 of the Canadian Community Atmosphere Model (CanCM3/4) hindcasts from the newly developed North American Multi-model Ensemble Prediction System regarding the interannual variations of the EASM strength. How to improve dynamical model simulation of the EASM is also examined through comparing the CanCM3/4 hindcast (1982-2010) with the 106-year historical run (1900-2005) by the Second Generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). CanCM3/4 exhibits a high skill in the EASM hindcast period 1982-2010 during which it also has a better performance in capturing the relationship between the EASM and mega-ENSO. By contrast, the simulation skill of CanESM2 is quite low and it is unable to reproduce the linkage between the EASM and mega-ENSO. All these results emphasize importance of mega-ENSO in seasonal prediction and dynamical model simulation of the EASM.

  6. Simulation of the Indian and East-Asian summer monsoon in the ECMWF model: Sensitivity to horizontal resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K.R.; Potter, G.L.; Boyle, J.S.; Hameed, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ability of the ECMWF model (Cycle 33) to simulate the Indian and East Asian summer monsoon is evaluated at four different horizontal resolutions: T21, T42, T63, and T106. Generally, with respect to the large scale features of the circulation, the largest differences among the simulations occur at T42 relative to T21. However, on regional scales, important differences among the high frequency temporal variabilitY serve as a further critical test of the model`s ability to simulate the monsoon. More generally, the results indicate the importance of evaluating high frequency time scales as a component of the climate system. T106 best captures both the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Indian and East Asian Monsoon, while T42 fails to correctly simulate the sequence and development of synoptic scale milestones that characterize the monsoon flow. In particular, T106 is superior at simulating the development and migration of the monsoon trough over the Bay of Bengal. In the T42 simulation, the development of the monsoon occurs one month earlier than typically observed. At this time the trough is incorrectly located adjacent to the east coast of India which results in an underestimate of precipitation over the Burma/Thailand region. This early establishment of the monsoon trough affects the evolution of the East-Asian monsoon and yields excessive preseason rainfall over the Mei-yu region. EOF analysis of precipitation over China indicates that T106 best simulates the Mei-yu mode of variability associated with an oscillation of the rainband that gives rise to periods of enhanced rainfall over the Yangize River Valley. The coarse resolution of T21 precludes simulation of the aforementioned regional scale monsoon flows.

  7. Benzotriazole, benzothiazole, and benzophenone compounds in indoor dust from the United States and East Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-05-01

    Organic corrosion inhibitors (OCIs), including ultraviolet light filters, are widely used in plastics, rubbers, colorants, and coatings to increase the performance of products. Derivatives of benzotriazole (BTR), benzothiazole (BTH), and benzophenone (BP) are high-production volume OCIs that have been detected in the environment and human tissues. However, knowledge of their occurrence in indoor environments, as well as human exposure to them, is still lacking. In this study, BTR, BTH, BP and their 12 derivatives were determined in indoor dust for the first time. All three groups of OCIs were found in all 158 indoor dust samples from the U.S. and three East Asian countries (China, Japan, and Korea). The geometric mean (GM) concentration of the sum of six BTRs (GM CΣBTRs) ranged from 20 to 90 ng/g among the four countries studied, with a maximum CΣBTRs of ∼2000 ng/g found in a dust sample from China. Tolyltriazole was the major derivative of BTR measured in dust. GM CΣBTHs in indoor dust from the four countries ranged from 600 to 2000 ng/g. 2-OH-BTH was the predominant BTH in dust from the U.S., Japan, and Korea. GM CΣBPs in dust ranged from 80 to 600 ng/g, with 2-OH-4-MeO-BP and 2,4-2OH-BP, contributing to the majority of ∑BP concentrations. Based on the concentrations of three types of OCIs in indoor dust, human exposure through dust ingestion was calculated. Daily intake of OCIs through dust ingestion was higher for people in the U.S., Japan, and Korea than in China; the residents in urban China are exposed to higher levels of OCIs via dust ingestion than are those in rural China. PMID:23544437

  8. Characteristics of aerosols in east Asian outflow at Cheju in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, L. K.; Kondo, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Koike, M.; Takegawa, N.; Tanimoto, H.; Matsueda, H.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosols and traces gases were conducted at Gosan site (33o17'N, 126o10'E) on Cheju Island, South Korea from 17 March to 6 April 2005. In the spring season, outflows of pollutants from east Asian continents are associated with high pressure system centered over northern region of China and Mongolia. Measurements were continuous for carbonaceous aerosols (BC, OC and WSOC), PM2.5 inorganic aerosols, and trace gases. To investigate dominate source region and transport pathway of air parcels 5-day isentropic back trajectories at 950 hPa were calculated. Based on these trajectories air masses were classified in five contrastingly different categories as (1) Maritime (11%), (2) Free tropospheric (34%), (3) Yellow Sea (16%), (4) Korean (8%), and (5) Chinese (31%). Temporal variations of aerosols and trace gases track each other, in particular for species primarily emitted by anthropogenic activities. All species were observed to show large variability due to alteration in the episodes of air masses from different categories. Mean (× SD) mass concentrations of BC, OC, WSOC and SO42- were 1.18×0.83, 4.2×1.6, 1.26×1.01 and 4.0×3.4' m-3, respectively. Concentrations of carbonaceous and PM2.5 aerosols, which are emitted by anthropogenic activities, show lowest in maritime and highest in Chinese plume. The mean concentrations of BC, OC, WSOC and SO42- in Chinese plume were 1.9×0.92, 5.5×1.3, 2.0×1.1 and 6.7×4.1' m-3, respectively. The observed slope E×BC/E×CO =9.2 (n' m-3/ppbv) will be compared with emission inventory data over China. K+ shows good correlations with SO42- and NO3- signifying role of combustion related process like biomass burning.

  9. Eddy contributions at multiple timescales to the evolution of persistent anomalous East Asian trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Zhou, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Persistent strong and weak East Asian trough (EAT) cases during boreal winter are captured by projecting 12 UTC geostrophic vorticity onto that of a seasonal strong EAT. The persistent cases are investigated in terms of seasonal, intraseasonal, and synoptic temporal scales. The evolution of persistent strong and weak EAT cases displays characteristics of intraseasonal temporal variation. The onset and decay of strong (weak) cases is associated with the passage of an intraseasonal negative (positive) 500 hPa height anomaly from Northeast Asia to the midlatitude central Pacific, through the region of the EAT. The onset and decay stages of persistent strong (weak) EAT cases occur in conjunction with a seasonal stronger-than-normal (weaker-than-normal) EAT. In addition, it is noted that the difference between the number of strong and weak cases exhibits significant covariability with the strength of the seasonal EAT. Meanwhile the seasonal EAT also plays a role in the development and decay of persistent cases. The contributions of dynamic and thermodynamic processes during the evolution of persistent strong and weak EAT cases are investigated. Since the forcing of horizontal temperature advection and that of adiabatic and diabatic processes are likely to offset each other, dynamic processes make a more important contribution to the evolution of the EAT than do thermodynamic processes. Furthermore, horizontal absolute vorticity advection is dominant in the dynamic processes and is caused mainly by the advection of synoptic and intraseasonal vorticity by seasonal wind. The seasonal wind transports positive vorticity to (away from) the EAT, which results in a remarkable strengthening (weakening) of the EAT during the onset (decay) stage for persistent strong EAT cases.

  10. Health systems in East Asia: what can developing countries learn from Japan and the Asian Tigers?

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2007-05-01

    The health systems of Japan and the Asian Tigers (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan), and the recent reforms to them, provide many potentially valuable lessons to East Asia's developing countries. All five systems have managed to keep a check on health spending despite their different approaches to financing and delivery. These differences are reflected in the progressivity of health finance, but the precise degree of progressivity of individual sources and the extent to which households are vulnerable to catastrophic health payments depend on the design features of the system - the height of any ceilings on social insurance contributions, the fraction of health spending covered by the benefit package, the extent to which the poor face reduced copayments, whether there are caps on copayments, and so on. On the delivery side, too, Japan and the Tigers offer some interesting lessons. Singapore's experience with corporatizing public hospitals - rapid cost and price inflation, a race for the best technology, and so on - illustrates the difficulties of corporatization. Korea's experience with a narrow benefit package illustrates the danger of providers shifting demand from insured services with regulated prices to uninsured services with unregulated prices. Japan, in its approach to rate setting for insured services, has managed to combine careful cost control with fine-tuning of profit margins on different types of care. Experiences with DRGs in Korea and Taiwan point to cost-savings but also to possible knock-on effects on service volume and total health spending. Korea and Taiwan both offer important lessons for the separation of prescribing and dispensing, including the risks of compensation costs outweighing the cost savings caused by more 'rational' prescribing, and cost-savings never being realized because of other concessions to providers, such as allowing them to have onsite pharmacists. PMID:17066428

  11. DOAS measurements of formaldehyde and glyoxal above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, S. M.; Oetjen, H.; Mahajan, A. S.; Whalley, L. K.; Edwards, P. M.; Heard, D. E.; Jones, C. E.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2012-07-01

    Tropical rainforests act as a huge contributor to the global emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Measurements of their oxidation products, such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO), provide useful indicators of fast photochemistry occurring in the lower troposphere. However, measurements of these species in tropical forest locations are extremely limited. To redress this, HCHO and CHOCHO were measured using the long-path (LP) and multi-axis (MAX) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques above the rainforest canopy in Borneo during two campaigns in spring and summer 2008, as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. The results were compared with concurrent measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH), isoprene (C5H8) (which was the dominant organic species emitted in this forest environment), and various meteorological parameters. Formaldehyde was observed at a maximum concentration of 4.5 ppb and glyoxal at a maximum of 1.6 ppb, significantly higher than previous measurements in rural locations. A 1-D chemistry model was then used to assess the diurnal evolution of formaldehyde and glyoxal throughout the boundary layer. The results, which compare well with the LP-DOAS and MAX-DOAS observations, suggest that the majority of the glyoxal and formaldehyde is confined to the first 500 m of the boundary layer, and that the measured ratio of these species is reproduced using currently accepted product yields for the oxidation of isoprene by OH. An important conclusion is that the measured levels of glyoxal are consistent with the surprisingly high concentrations of OH measured in this environment.

  12. Measurements of reactive nitrogen above the canopy of a South East Asian tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, Sarah; Lee, James; Pike, Rachel; Reeves, Claire; Stewart, David

    2010-05-01

    The potential for NOx species to influence local chemistry is significant in remote tropical areas due to the high concentrations of both OH and volatile organic compounds and the low background NOx concentrations. It has been suggested that emissions from soil could be a major biogenic source of nitrogen oxides but fluxes from tropical areas are poorly quantified. To understand the potential influence of soil emissions we must understand the sources and sinks of NOx in the boundary layer above a forest canopy. Measurements of NO, NO2 and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) were made in an opening above a rainforest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station in Sabah, Borneo as part of the Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of total reactive nitrogen using a gold catalytic converter followed by chemiluminesence detection of the resulting NO are compared to individual measurements of different NOy species (NO, NO2, PAN, Alkyl nitrates, HNO3) in an attempt to understand the nitrogen chemistry occurring and to assess any outstanding contributions to the nitrogen budget. The ground measurements above the rainforest canopy are compared to measurements taken from an aircraft platform within the boundary layer and free troposphere above the rainforest. The aircraft measurements from within the boundary layer agree well with the ground-based measurements suggesting that these are representative of the boundary layer above a rainforest canopy. A box model containing a simple chemical mechanism was used to explore the ability of a simplified global model chemical mechanism to capture the chemistry occurring at this rainforest site with a view towards improving the ability of global models to predict important trace gas levels over tropical rainforest.

  13. DOAS measurements of formaldehyde and glyoxal above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, S. M.; Oetjen, H.; Mahajan, A. S.; Whalley, L. K.; Edwards, P. M.; Heard, D. E.; Jones, C. E.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2012-02-01

    Tropical rainforests act as a huge contributor to the global emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Measurements of their oxidation products, such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO), provide useful indicators of fast photochemistry occurring in the lower troposphere. However, measurements of these species in tropical forest locations are extremely limited. To redress this, HCHO and CHOCHO were measured using the long-path (LP) and multi-axis (MAX) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques above the rainforest canopy in Borneo during two campaigns in spring and summer 2008, as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. The results were compared with concurrent measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH), isoprene (C5H8) (which was the dominant organic species emitted in this forest environment), and various meteorological parameters. Formaldehyde was observed at a maximum concentration of 4.5 ppb and glyoxal at a maximum of 1.6 ppb, significantly higher than previous measurements in rural locations. A 1-D chemistry model was then used to assess the diurnal evolution of formaldehyde and glyoxal throughout the boundary layer. The results, which compare well with the LP-DOAS and MAX-DOAS observations, suggest that the majority of the glyoxal and formaldehyde is confined to the first 500 m of the boundary layer, and that the measured ratio of these species is reproduced using currently accepted product yields for the oxidation of isoprene by OH. An important conclusion is that the measured levels of glyoxal are consistent with the surprisingly high concentrations of OH measured in this environment.

  14. Estimating the segregation intensity of isoprene and OH over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Langford, B.; Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2010-05-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) such as isoprene constitute a large proportion of the global oxidant sink, whilst their oxidation products contribute to processes such as ozone production and secondary organic aerosol formation. However, over the tropical rainforest, where 50% of the global emissions of BVOCs are believed to occur, atmospheric chemistry models have been unable to accurately simulate simultaneously the measured daytime concentration of isoprene and that of its principle oxidant, OH. It has previously been shown that inefficient mixing of isoprene within the convective boundary layer leads to a segregation of isoprene and OH. A reduction in the effective rate of reaction between these compounds is one way to capture this effect in models which cannot resolve such fine-scale segregation. Recent studies comparing atmospheric chemistry global/box models with field measurements have suggested that this effective rate reduction may be as large as 50%; which is at the upper limit of that calculated using large eddy simulation models. To date only one field campaign worldwide has co-located measurements of isoprene and OH at the necessary temporal resolution to calculate the segregation of these compounds. However many campaigns have recorded sufficiently high resolution isoprene measurements to capture the small-scale fluctuations in its concentration. Using a box model of atmospheric chemistry and an approach which discretises the boundary layer according to the spectrum of isoprene concentrations measured, we attempt to develop a method to estimate segregation intensity from high-frequency isoprene timeseries and hence calculate the segregation of isoprene and OH over a South-East Asian rainforest.

  15. A NAO-ENSO-based seasonal prediction model for East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianping; Wu, Zhiwei; Feng, Juan; Zheng, Fei; Xu, Hanlie; Wang, Bin; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2013-04-01

    The observational analysis shows that the relationship between the preceding winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the following East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in the past 60 years is strengthened. Both the observational and numerical evidences demonstrate that spring North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) may exert significant influences on the enhancement of the EASM-ENSO relationship. Anomalous spring NAO may cause a tripole SSTA pattern in North Atlantic which can persist into ensuring summer from spring. In summer, the tripole SSTA impacts EASM through two pathways. One is the tripole SSTA pattern excites the Atlantic-Eurasian (AEA) teleconnection which is a distinct Rossby wave train prevailing over the Atlantic and northern Eurasia. As a result, the blocking highs over the Ural Mountain and the Okhotsk Sea can be modulated. Another is it can force a simple Gill-Matsuno-type quadrupole response over western Pacific, consequently, the linkage between the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and ENSO is enhanced. The co-effects of the two teleconnection patterns help to strengthen (or weaken) the subtropical Meiyu-Baiu-Changma front, the primary rain-bearing system of the EASM. As such, spring NAO is tied to the strengthened connection between ENSO and the EASM. Then we may establish a NAO-ENSO-based seasonal prediction model for EASM. The hindcast experiments show a good performances of this prediction model for EASM. The NAO-ENSO-based model is employed to make seasonal prediction for EASM strength and summer rainfall over middle reach of Yangtze river in 2012, and the results show a good performance of the approach, implying the model could be a useful tool for seasonal prediction of EASM.

  16. Simulation of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) in SP-CCSM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Stan, C.

    2014-12-01

    The East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) simulated by the Super-Parameterized Community Climate System Model version 4 (SP-CCSM4) is evaluated against observations, and the mechanisms explaining the onset of the Mei-yu season are revisited. The May-June-July-August (MJJA) seasonal mean state of EASM is generally reproduced well in the model, including the precipitation, monsoon trough in the South China Sea (SCS), cross-equatorial airflow and the large-scale monsoon airflow. The northward propagation of the monsoonal precipitation is also well simulated in the model. The development of the 30-60-day oscillation related to EASM is investigated using lagged regression and composite analysis. The model captures the mechanisms associated with the Northward Propagation of the Intraseasonal Oscillation (NPISO). A warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly, cyclonic vorticity and the moisture convergence lead the convection, favoring the northward propagation of the convection. Additionally the easterly windshear contributes to the NPISO. Compared to the observation, in the model the onset of the Mei-yu season takes place 5 days earlier and the duration of the Mei-yu's rainy episode is shorter. The onset of the Mei-yu sea son is influenced by the phase relationship of convective activity between the tropical West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and SCS. The results indicate that dry conditions over the tropical WPWP concurrent with maximum convection over SCS favor a faster northward propagation of the ISO, which yields to the early onset of the Mei-yu season. The onset of the Mei-yu season is also influenced by the seasonal mean conditions. During events with an earlier onset, the MJJA mean precipitation is enhanced. The increased precipitation is caused by a stronger moisture transport and the westward extension of the western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH).

  17. Analysis of Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols Above a South East Asian Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Hamilton, J. F.; Chen, Q.; Martin, S. T.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth's atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are not well understood or quantified. Insight into the origins and properties of these particles can be gained by analysis of their composition. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects in the rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Other tools such as positive matrix factorisation (PMF) have been used to help assess the relative source contributions to the organic aerosol. The aerosol's chemical origins have been further investigated by comparing these spectra to chamber experiments, mass spectral libraries and data from comparable locations in other locations. These data are also being analysed in conjunction with high complexity offline techniques applied to samples collected using filters and a Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS). Methods used include liquid chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry. These techniques provide a more detailed chemical characterisation of the SOA and water soluble organic carbon, allowing direct links back to gas phase precursors.

  18. Genome-wide Association Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Shimada, Takafumi; Otowa, Takeshi; Wu, Yu-Yu; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Tochigi, Mamoru; Iwata, Yasuhide; Umekage, Tadashi; Toyota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Motoko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kakiuchi, Chihiro; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kano, Yukiko; Nishida, Hisami; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Mori, Norio; Yamada, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Kasai, Kiyoto; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic basis. To identify common genetic variations conferring the risk of ASD, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study using ASD family and healthy control samples obtained from East Asian populations. A total of 166 ASD families (n = 500) and 642 healthy controls from the Japanese population were used as the discovery cohort. Approximately 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 chips. In the replication stage, 205 Japanese ASD cases and 184 healthy controls, as well as 418 Chinese Han trios (n = 1,254), were genotyped by TaqMan platform. Case-control analysis, family based association test, and transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) were then conducted to test the association. In the discovery stage, significant associations were suggested for 14 loci, including 5 known ASD candidate genes: GPC6, JARID2, YTHDC2, CNTN4, and CSMD1. In addition, significant associations were identified for several novel genes with intriguing functions, such as JPH3, PTPRD, CUX1, and RIT2. After a meta-analysis combining the Japanese replication samples, the strongest signal was found at rs16976358 (P = 6.04 × 10(-7) ), which is located near the RIT2 gene. In summary, our results provide independent support to known ASD candidate genes and highlight a number of novel genes warranted to be further investigated in a larger sample set in an effort to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 340-349. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26314684

  19. Water flow paths in a forested catchment of the East Asian monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payeur-Poirier, Jean-Lionel; Hopp, Luisa; Peiffer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The climate of South Korea is strongly influenced by the East Asian summer monsoon. It is hypothesized that the high precipitation regime of the summer monsoon causes significant changes in the hydrological behaviour of forested catchments, namely in water quantity, quality and flow paths. We conducted high frequency hydrometric, isotopic, hydrochemical and meteorological measurements in a forested catchment before, during and after the 2013 summer monsoon season. The catchment is located within the Lake Soyang watershed, where recent trends of increasing eutrophication, sediment load and organic carbon load have been observed. We studied the temporal variability of catchment runoff and the spatial and temporal variability of water flow paths in relation with the hydrological conditions of the hillslope, toeslope and riparian elements of the catchment. For the summer monsoon season, the runoff coefficient approximated 68%. During this period, for the 16 monitored individual storm events ranging between 13 mm and 126 mm in precipitation, the runoff coefficient greatly varied and a threshold relationship with soil moisture was observed. Analyses of hysteresis loops of catchment runoff also revealed threshold relationships with precipitation and soil moisture, as water flow paths were activated or not in different parts of the catchment. The variation of the electrical conductivity of catchment runoff through the summer monsoon also revealed the occurrence of threshold relationships. A principal component analysis (PCA) and an end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) were performed in order to quantify the contribution of the different landscape elements to catchment runoff. The combination of the hydrometric, isotopic and hydrochemical approaches allowed us to test our hypothesis and to shed light on the threshold relationships observed at the catchment. The findings of this study could be useful for the estimation of the water balance of the Lake Soyang watershed as well as for the management of Lake Soyang.

  20. Past hybridization between two East Asian long-tailed tits (Aegithalos bonvaloti and A. fuliginosus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization are two major nonexclusive causes of haplotype sharing between species. Distinguishing between these two processes is notoriously difficult as they can generate similar genetic signatures. Previous studies revealed that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) differentiation between two East Asian long-tailed tits (Aegithalos bonvaloti and A. fuliginosus) was extremely low, even lower than intraspecific differentiation in some other long-tailed tits. Using a combination of multilocus and coalescent analyses, we explored the causes of the anomalous lack of mtDNA differentiation between the two species. Results The mtDNA divergence between the two species was shallow, while the nuclear DNA (nuDNA) divergence was considerably deeper. The IMa analyses based on the mtDNA dataset suggested relatively high gene flow from A. fuliginosus to A. bonvaloti, while negligible gene flow in the opposite direction. In contrast to mtDNA, the migration rates at autosomal and Z-linked nuDNA loci were negligible or much lower. The NEWHYBRIDS analysis assigned all individuals except one to pure parental species with high posterior probability. The Bayesian skyline plot showed that both species underwent population expansions during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and the ecological niche modelling suggested that their ranges overlapped more during the LGM than at present. Conclusions We suggest that historical hybridization, in combination with selective sweep and/or genetic drift might be the main causes of the extremely low mtDNA differentiation between the two species. The hybridization probably occurred mainly between A. fuliginosus females and A. bonvaloti males. The LGM distribution expansion might have facilitated hybridization, while the post-LGM distribution contraction could have facilitated some mtDNA sorting. Ongoing hybridization between the two species might be very limited, but further studies with more samples from the contact zone are needed to test this conclusion. PMID:24883074

  1. Eddy contributions at multiple timescales to the evolution of persistent anomalous East Asian trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Zhou, Wen

    2015-06-01

    Persistent strong and weak East Asian trough (EAT) cases during boreal winter are captured by projecting 12 UTC geostrophic vorticity onto that of a seasonal strong EAT. The persistent cases are investigated in terms of seasonal, intraseasonal, and synoptic temporal scales. The evolution of persistent strong and weak EAT cases displays characteristics of intraseasonal temporal variation. The onset and decay of strong (weak) cases is associated with the passage of an intraseasonal negative (positive) 500 hPa height anomaly from Northeast Asia to the midlatitude central Pacific, through the region of the EAT. The onset and decay stages of persistent strong (weak) EAT cases occur in conjunction with a seasonal stronger-than-normal (weaker-than-normal) EAT. In addition, it is noted that the difference between the number of strong and weak cases exhibits significant covariability with the strength of the seasonal EAT. Meanwhile the seasonal EAT also plays a role in the development and decay of persistent cases. The contributions of dynamic and thermodynamic processes during the evolution of persistent strong and weak EAT cases are investigated. Since the forcing of horizontal temperature advection and that of adiabatic and diabatic processes are likely to offset each other, dynamic processes make a more important contribution to the evolution of the EAT than do thermodynamic processes. Furthermore, horizontal absolute vorticity advection is dominant in the dynamic processes and is caused mainly by the advection of synoptic and intraseasonal vorticity by seasonal wind. The seasonal wind transports positive vorticity to (away from) the EAT, which results in a remarkable strengthening (weakening) of the EAT during the onset (decay) stage for persistent strong EAT cases.

  2. Asynchronous variation in the East Asian winter monsoon during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Jin, Liya; Li, Na

    2015-06-01

    The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is one of the most active components of the global climate system. Climate anomalies associated with the EAWM differ between extratropical and tropical regions due to the EAWM's meridional extent. Spatial differences in the EAWM variability on centennial and millennial time scales during the Holocene have not been well understood. This study describes Holocene spatiotemporal features of the EAWM based on comparisons of proxy records and climate simulations. The analysis specifically compared four proxy records located throughout China to assess the EAWM's spatial variability during the Holocene. These records indicate a stronger EAWM during the early Holocene than that during the late Holocene. The EAWM also shows a rapid, asynchronous decline from northwestern to southeastern China. The EAWM declined in northwestern China from 10 to 7.5 ka B.P., whereas the decline did not occur in southern China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau until 6-4.5 ka B.P. Coupled equilibrium and transient simulations of climate evolution during the Holocene indicate that the decline of the EAWM from 10 to 7.5 ka B.P. was probably caused by melting of Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice sheets and enhanced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The decline of the EAWM from 6 to 4.5 ka B.P. over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and southern China is related to an abrupt increase in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the tropical western Indian Ocean. We therefore argue that the regional shift in EAWM intensity was probably related to a distinguishing response to high-latitude (NH ice sheets and AMOC) and low-latitude (tropical SSTs) forcings.

  3. Where West Meets East: The Complex mtDNA Landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian Corridor

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Chaix, Raphaëlle; Wells, R. Spencer; Behar, Doron M.; Sayar, Hamid; Scozzari, Rosaria; Rengo, Chiara; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Semino, Ornella; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana; Coppa, Alfredo; Ayub, Qasim; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Qasim Mehdi, S.; Torroni, Antonio; McElreavey, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The southwestern and Central Asian corridor has played a pivotal role in the history of humankind, witnessing numerous waves of migration of different peoples at different times. To evaluate the effects of these population movements on the current genetic landscape of the Iranian plateau, the Indus Valley, and Central Asia, we have analyzed 910 mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 23 populations of the region. This study has allowed a refinement of the phylogenetic relationships of some lineages and the identification of new haplogroups in the southwestern and Central Asian mtDNA tree. Both lineage geographical distribution and spatial analysis of molecular variance showed that populations located west of the Indus Valley mainly harbor mtDNAs of western Eurasian origin, whereas those inhabiting the Indo-Gangetic region and Central Asia present substantial proportions of lineages that can be allocated to three different genetic components of western Eurasian, eastern Eurasian, and south Asian origin. In addition to the overall composite picture of lineage clusters of different origin, we observed a number of deep-rooting lineages, whose relative clustering and coalescent ages suggest an autochthonous origin in the southwestern Asian corridor during the Pleistocene. The comparison with Y-chromosome data revealed a highly complex genetic and demographic history of the region, which includes sexually asymmetrical mating patterns, founder effects, and female-specific traces of the East African slave trade. PMID:15077202

  4. Where west meets east: the complex mtDNA landscape of the southwest and Central Asian corridor.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Chaix, Raphaelle; Wells, R Spencer; Behar, Doron M; Sayar, Hamid; Scozzari, Rosaria; Rengo, Chiara; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Semino, Ornella; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A Silvana; Coppa, Alfredo; Ayub, Qasim; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Qasim Mehdi, S; Torroni, Antonio; McElreavey, Ken

    2004-05-01

    The southwestern and Central Asian corridor has played a pivotal role in the history of humankind, witnessing numerous waves of migration of different peoples at different times. To evaluate the effects of these population movements on the current genetic landscape of the Iranian plateau, the Indus Valley, and Central Asia, we have analyzed 910 mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 23 populations of the region. This study has allowed a refinement of the phylogenetic relationships of some lineages and the identification of new haplogroups in the southwestern and Central Asian mtDNA tree. Both lineage geographical distribution and spatial analysis of molecular variance showed that populations located west of the Indus Valley mainly harbor mtDNAs of western Eurasian origin, whereas those inhabiting the Indo-Gangetic region and Central Asia present substantial proportions of lineages that can be allocated to three different genetic components of western Eurasian, eastern Eurasian, and south Asian origin. In addition to the overall composite picture of lineage clusters of different origin, we observed a number of deep-rooting lineages, whose relative clustering and coalescent ages suggest an autochthonous origin in the southwestern Asian corridor during the Pleistocene. The comparison with Y-chromosome data revealed a highly complex genetic and demographic history of the region, which includes sexually asymmetrical mating patterns, founder effects, and female-specific traces of the East African slave trade. PMID:15077202

  5. LRRK2 A419V variant is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease in Asian population.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Tang, Bei-sha; Liu, Zhen-hua; Kang, Ji-feng; Zhang, Yuan; Shen, Lu; Li, Nan; Yan, Xin-xiang; Xia, Kun; Guo, Ji-feng

    2015-10-01

    Recently, LRRK2 A419V (rs34594498) was reported associating with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Asian population; yet the conclusion is still unobvious. We conducted a case-control study to determine the potential associations between A419V and PD in Chinese population. Five hundred PD patients and 574 health controls were genotyped. Our results showed, A419V has a significantly higher frequency among PD patients than the controls (p = 0.025, odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.13-5.86]), especially in early-onset PD (p = 0.027, OR = 10.40, 95% CI [1.31-82.89]). And PD patients who carried A419V have a lower Minimum-Mental State Examination scores than PD patients who did not (p = 0.04). We also conducted a meta-analysis on A419V. In Asian population, A419V was detected at a significantly higher frequency among PD patients in contrast to controls: Z = 2.47, p = 0.01, OR = 2.11, 95% CI [1.17-3.82]. When only considering the Chinese population, the difference was more obvious with Z = 3.41, p = 0.0007, OR = 2.07, 95% CI [1.36-3.14]. The results suggest LRRK2 A419V appears to be a risk factor for PD in Asian, especially in early-onset patients. Finally, larger sample with centering on young or cognitive impairment PD patients in Asian would be preferable for further confirmation. PMID:26234753

  6. Social Exclusion and Its Causes in East Asian Societies: Evidences from SQSQ Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ka; Xu, Yun; Huang, Tianhai; Zhang, Jiahua

    2013-01-01

    Using data from surveys on "social quality survey questionnaires", carried out by the Asian Consortium for Social Quality between 2009 and 2011, this study investigates the causes of social exclusion in six Asian societies. About 6,460 questionnaires were completed and the analysis of the data reveals the features and the causes of social…

  7. A Social Cognitive Examination of East Asian American Career Development: Contextual Factors Influencing Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…

  8. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    PubMed

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants. PMID:26760713

  9. Characteristics and variations of the East Asian monsoon system and its impacts on climate disasters in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Jilong; Huang, Gang

    2007-11-01

    Recent advances in studies of the structural characteristics and temporal-spatial variations of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) system and the impact of this system on severe climate disasters in China are reviewed. Previous studies have improved our understanding of the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures and the annual cycle of the EAM system and the water vapor transports in the EAM region. Many studies have shown that the EAM system is a relatively independent subsystem of the Asian-Australian monsoon system, and that there exists an obvious quasi-biennial oscillation with a meridional tripole pattern distribution in the interannual variations of the EAM system. Further analyses of the basic physical processes, both internal and external, that influence the variability of the EAM system indicate that the EAM system may be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, referred to the EAM climate system in this paper. Further, the paper discusses how the interaction and relationships among various components of this system can be described through the East Asia Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern and the teleconnection pattern of meridional upper-tropospheric wind anomalies along the westerly jet over East Asia. Such reasoning suggests that the occurrence of severe floods in the Yangtze and Huaihe River valleys and prolonged droughts in North China are linked, respectively, to the background interannual and interdecadal variability of the EAM climate system. Besides, outstanding scientific issues related to the EAM system and its impact on climate disasters in China are also discussed.

  10. The role of East Asian monsoon system in shaping population divergence and dynamics of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hengxia; Yan, Xia; Shi, Yong; Qian, Chaoju; Li, Zhonghu; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Lirong; Li, Yi; Li, Xiaoze; Chen, Guoxiong; Li, Xinrong; Nevo, Eviatar; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Both of the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and the development of East Asian monsoon system (EAMS) could have comprehensively impacted the formation and evolution of Arid Central Asia (ACA). To understand how desert plants endemic to ACA responded to these two factors, we profiled the historical population dynamics and distribution range shift of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica (Tamaricaceae) based on species wide investigation of sequence variation of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal ITS. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered a deep divergence occurring at ca. 2.96 Mya between the western and eastern lineages of R. soongarica, and ecological niche modeling analysis strongly supported that the monsoonal climate could have fragmented its habitats in both glacial and interglacial periods and impelled its intraspecific divergence. Additionally, the population from the east monsoonal zone expanded rapidly, suggesting that the local monsoonal climate significantly impacted its population dynamics. The isolation by distance tests supported strong maternal gene flow along the direction of the East Asian winter monsoon, whose intensification induced the genetic admixture along the latitudinal populations of R. soongarica. Our results presented a new case that the development of EAMS had prominently impacted the intraspecific divergence and population dynamics of this desert plant. PMID:26510579

  11. Simulations of the 100-hPa South Asian High and precipitation over East Asia with IPCC coupled GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ningfang; Yu, Yongqiang; Qian, Yongfu

    2006-05-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) and precipitation over East Asia simulated by 11 coupled GCMs associated with the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report are evaluated. The seasonal behavior of the SAH is presented for each model. Analyses of the results show that all models are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle of the SAH. Locations of the SAH center are also basically reproduced by these models. All models underestimate the intensity and the extension of coverage in summer. The anomalous SAH can be divided into east and west modes according to its longitudinal position in summer on the interannual timescale, and the composite anomalies of the observed precipitation for these two modes tend to have opposite signs over East Asia. However, only several coupled GCMs can simulate the relationship between rainfall and SAH similar to the observed one, which may be associated with the bias in simulation of the subtropical anticyclone over the West Pacific (SAWP) at 500 hPa. In fact, it is found that any coupled GCM, that can reproduce the reasonable summer mean state of SAWP and the southward (northward) withdrawal (extension) for the east (west) mode of SAH as compared to the observed, will also simulate similar rainfall anomaly patterns for the east and west SAH modes over East Asia. Further analysis indicates that the observed variations in the SAH, SAWP and rainfall are closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial tropical Pacific. Particularly, some models cannot simulate the SAWP extending northward in the west mode and withdrawing southward in the east mode, which may be related to weak major El Niño or La Niña events. The abilities of the coupled GCMs to simulate the SAWP and ENSO events are associated partly with their ability to reproduce the observed relationship between SAH and the rainfall anomaly over East Asia.

  12. Preferred response of the East Asian summer monsoon to local and non-local anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Highwood, Eleanor J.; Wilcox, Laura J.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the atmospheric component of a state-of-the-art climate model (HadGEM2-ES) that includes earth system components such as interactive chemistry and eight species of tropospheric aerosols considering aerosol direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects, has been used to investigate the impacts of local and non-local emissions of anthropogenic sulphur dioxide on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). The study focuses on the fast responses (including land surface feedbacks, but without sea surface temperature feedbacks) to sudden changes in emissions from Asia and Europe. The initial responses, over days 1-40, to Asian and European emissions show large differences. The response to Asian emissions involves a direct impact on the sulphate burden over Asia, with immediate consequences for the shortwave energy budget through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. These changes lead to cooling of East Asia and a weakening of the EASM. In contrast, European emissions have no significant impact on the sulphate burden over Asia, but they induce mid-tropospheric cooling and drying over the European sector. Subsequently, however, this cold and dry anomaly is advected into Asia, where it induces atmospheric and surface feedbacks over Asia and the Western North Pacific (WNP), which also weaken the EASM. In spite of very different perturbations to the local aerosol burden in response to Asian and European sulphur dioxide emissions, the large scale pattern of changes in land-sea thermal contrast, atmospheric circulation and local precipitation over East Asia from days 40 onward exhibits similar structures, indicating a preferred response, and suggesting that emissions from both regions likely contributed to the observed weakening of the EASM. Cooling and drying of the troposphere over Asia, together with warming and moistening over the WNP, reduces the land-sea thermal contrast between the Asian continent and surrounding oceans. This leads to high sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies over Asia and low SLP anomalies over the WNP, associated with a weakened EASM. In response to emissions from both regions warming and moistening over the WNP plays an important role and determines the time scale of the response.

  13. Projected response of East Asian summer monsoon system to future reductions in emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2015-12-01

    The response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system to reductions in emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors at the end of the twenty-first century projected by Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 is studied using an aerosol-climate model with aerosol direct, semi-direct, and indirect effects included. Our results show that the global annual mean aerosol effective radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is +1.45 W m-2 from 2000 to 2100. The summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over the East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the TOA and surface increased by +3.9 and +4.0 W m-2, respectively, due to the reductions of aerosols in 2100 relative to 2000. Changes in radiations affect local thermodynamic and dynamic processes and the hydrological cycle. The summer mean surface temperature and pressure averaged over the EAMR are shown to increase by 1.7 K and decreased by 0.3 hPa, respectively, due to the reduced aerosols. The magnitudes of these changes are larger over land than ocean, causing a marked increase in the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure in the EAMR, thus strengthening the EASM. The summer mean southwest and south winds at 850 hPa are enhanced over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans, and the East Asian subtropical jet shifted northward due to the decreases of aerosols. These factors also indicate enhanced EASM circulation, which in turn causes a 10 % increase in summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR.

  14. Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols Above a Pristine South East Asian Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.; Hamilton, J.; Chen, Q.; Martin, S.; Trembath, J.

    2009-04-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth's atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are currently not well understood or quantified. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects around pristine rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Other tools such as positive matrix factorisation (PMF) have been used to help assess the relative source contributions to the organic aerosol. A suite of supporting aerosol and gas phase measurements were made, including size resolved number concentration measurements with Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS), as well as absorption measurements made with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). The ground site data are compared with Aerodyne Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) measurements made on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Airborne measurements were made above pristine rainforest surrounding the Danum Valley site, as well as nearby oil palm agricultural sites and palm oil rendering plants. Airborne hygroscopicity was measured using a Droplet Measurement Technology Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (DMT CCN counter) in conjunction with a constant pressure inlet. The aerosols' chemical origins have been further investigated by comparing these spectra to chamber experiments, mass spectral libraries and data from comparable experiments in other locations. These data are also being analysed in conjunction with offline techniques applied to samples collected using filters and a Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS). Methods used include liquid chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry. These techniques provide a more detailed chemical characterisation of the SOA and water soluble organic carbon, allowing direct links back to gas phase precursors. In conjunction with the field measurements, a programme of chamber experiments is being carried out at Manchester as part of the ACES project. This will generate comparable SOA under controlled conditions and subjecting them to similar analysis.

  15. Major changes in East Asian climate in the mid-Pliocene: Triggered by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau or global cooling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Junyi; Dai, Ying; Zhang, Zhongshi; Zhao, Deai; Li, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Yi, Liang; Wu, Haibin; Oldfield, Frank; Guo, Zhengtang

    2013-06-01

    Since the mid-Pliocene, East Asian climates have experienced significant changes. One view suggests that significant uplift of the Tibetan Plateau during this period could have been responsible for these dramatic changes in the strength of the East Asian monsoon and for Asian interior aridification, while some other authors attribute these changes to the ongoing global cooling and rapid growth of the Arctic ice-sheet. Up to the present, which factor dominates the major changes of East Asian climate in the mid-Pliocene is still a contentious issue. This study presents an analysis of several climate proxies including grain-size, (CaO* + Na2O + MgO)/TiO2 ratio, Na/Ka ratio and dust accumulation rates of the Xifeng Red Clay sequence in the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau and the Xihe Pliocene loess-soil sequence in West Qinling. They reveal that aridity in the continental interior and winter monsoon circulation both intensified, whereas the East Asian summer monsoon showed a weakening rather than intensifying trend since the mid-Pliocene. These changes are also supported by the other multi-proxy records from various regions in East Asia. Previous numerical modeling studies have demonstrated that uplift of the Tibetan Plateau would have simultaneously enhanced continental-scale summer and winter monsoon strength as well as central Asian aridity. The mid-Pliocene climate changes in East Asia are therefore unlikely to be a response to Plateau uplift. On the contrary, our recent modeling results give support to the view that ongoing cooling could have intensified both the aridity of the interior and the strength of the winter monsoon, but weakened the summer monsoon in East Asia.

  16. Major Changes in East Asian Climate in the Mid-Pliocene: Triggered By the Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau or Global Cooling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Dai, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, D.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Yi, L.; Oldfield, F.; Guo, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Since the mid-Pliocene, East Asian climates have experienced significant changes. One view suggests that significant uplift of the Tibetan Plateau during this period could have been responsible for these dramatic changes in the strength of the East Asian monsoon and for Asian interior aridification, while some other authors attribute these changes to the ongoing global cooling and rapid growth of the Arctic ice-sheet. Up to the present, which factor dominates the major changes of East Asian climate in the mid-Pliocene is still a contentious issue. This study presents an analysis of several climate proxies including magnetic susceptibility, grain-size, (CaO*+Na2O+MgO)/TiO2 ratio, Na/Ka ratio, Fe flux, and dust accumulation rates of the Xifeng Red Clay sequence in the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau and the Xihe Pliocene loess-soil sequence in West Qinling. They reveal that aridity in the continental interior and winter monsoon circulation both intensified, whereas the East Asian summer monsoon showed a weakening rather than intensifying trend since the mid-Pliocene. These changes are also supported by the other multi-proxy records from various regions in East Asia. Previous numerical modeling studies have demonstrated that uplift of the Tibetan Plateau would have simultaneously enhanced continental-scale summer and winter monsoon strength as well as central Asian aridity. The mid-Pliocene climate changes in East Asia are therefore unlikely to be a response to Plateau uplift. On the contrary, our recent modeling results give support to the view that ongoing cooling could have intensified both the aridity of the interior and the strength of the winter monsoon, but weakened the summer monsoon in East Asia.

  17. Dynamics of the East Asian Summer Monsoon in Present and Future Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinqiang

    This thesis aims at enhancing our fundamental understanding of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), and mechanisms implicated in its climatology in present-day and warmer climates. We focus on the most prominent feature of the EASM, i.e., the so-called Meiyu-Baiu (MB), which is characterized by a well-defined, southwest to northeast elongated quasi-stationary rainfall band, spanning from eastern China to Japan and into the northwestern Pacific Ocean in June and July. We begin with an observational study of the energetics of the MB front in present-day climate. Analyses of the moist static energy (MSE) budget of the MB front indicate that horizontal advection of moist enthalpy, primarily of dry enthalpy, sustains the front in a region of otherwise negative net energy input into the atmospheric column. A decomposition of the horizontal dry enthalpy advection into mean, transient, and stationary eddy fluxes identifies the longitudinal thermal gradient due to zonal asymmetries and the meridional stationary eddy velocity as the most influential factors determining the pattern of horizontal moist enthalpy advection. Numerical simulations in which the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is either retained or removed show that the TP influences the stationary enthalpy flux, and hence the MB front, primarily by changing the meridional stationary eddy velocity, with reinforced southerly wind on the northwestern flank of the north Pacific subtropical high (NPSH) over the MB region and northerly wind to its north. Changes in the longitudinal thermal gradient are mainly confined to the near downstream of the TP, with the resulting changes in zonal warm air advection having a lesser impact on the rainfall in the extended MB region. Similar mechanisms are shown to be implicated in present climate simulations in the Couple Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. We find that the spatial distribution of the EASM precipitation simulated by different models is highly correlated with the meridional stationary eddy velocity. The correlation becomes more robust when energy fluxes into the atmospheric column are considered, consistent with the observational analyses. The spread in the area-averaged rainfall amount can be partially explained by the spread in the simulated globally-averaged precipitation, with the rest primarily due to the lower-level meridional wind convergence. Clear relationships between precipitation and zonal and meridional eddy velocities are observed. Finally, the response of the EASM to greenhouse gas forcing is investigated at different time scales in CMIP5 model simulations. The reduction of radiative cooling and the increase in continental surface temperature occur much more rapidly than changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Without changes in SSTs, the rainfall in the monsoon region decreases (increases) over ocean (land) in most models. On longer time scales, as SSTs increase, rainfall changes are opposite. The total response to atmospheric CO2 forcing and subsequent SST warming is a large (modest) increase in rainfall over ocean (land) in the EASM region. Dynamic changes, in spite of significant contributions from the thermodynamic component, play an important role in setting up the spatial pattern of precipitation changes. Rainfall anomalies over East China are a direct consequence of local land-sea contrast, while changes in the larger-scale oceanic rainfall band are closely associated with the displacement of the larger-scale NPSH. Numerical simulations show that topography and SST patterns play an important role in rainfall changes in the EASM region.

  18. Role of the tropical Pacific Ocean in strengthening the East Asian Monsoon: Climate model study of MIS-13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, M.; Herold, N.; Yin, Q.; Berger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Studying past climates is a valuable approach to improve our understanding of the present and future climate systems. Among the significant events in the history of climate, the interglacial periods are good candidates for representation of the future climate because of their astronomical characteristics and their similarity to predicted anthropogenic warming. Moreover, some interglacials exhibited significant changes in atmospheric and oceanic properties due to only small changes in their climatic forcing (greenhouse gases and solar insolation) which also make them a good case for investigating past climates. For instance, the interglacial stage of around 0.5 Ma identified as Marine Isotopic stage 13 (MIS-13), the focus of this study, was characterized by extremely strong East Asian and Indian summer monsoons while the CO2 and CH4 levels were lower and seasonal radiation energy could reach up to 50 Wm-2 higher than today. The extreme monsoon precipitation is quite unexpected for a climate with such forcing. To understand the physics-based mechanism that enhances the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) during MIS-13, we used two fully coupled general circulation models, the HadCM3 and CCSM3. In MIS-13 experiments, concentrations of greenhouse gases were prescribed lower than in pre-industrial and seasonal insolation characterised by Northern-Hemisphere (NH) summer occurring at perihelion instead of aphelion as it does today. Results of both models confirm increased summer precipitation in the monsoon regions. We find that the tropical Pacific Ocean plays a major role in strengthening the EASM in MIS-13. Simulations of MIS-13 show stronger easterly surface winds along the equatorial Pacific and a subsequent increase in the mean thermocline tilt, in addition to a westward shift of the cold tongue. These changes alter the background climatic state of the equatorial Pacific towards a La Niña-type state. The interannual variability around the La Niña-like background state of MIS-13 did not show a significant change compared to the pre-industrial. However, the correlation between the sea surface temperature (SST) variability of the tropical Pacific and East Asian precipitation increased during MIS-13 which suggests an enhanced teleconnection between equatorial Pacific and East Asia. The enhanced teleconnection in MIS-13 experiment is mainly associated with non-uniform distribution of SST anomalies along the equatorial Pacific. This is more pronounced during the NH summer and modifies the east-west temperature gradient and consequently the wind field. Generally, such changes cause anomalous convection in the region and generate the teleconnection in the form of Rossby waves. In June and July, we find these Rossby waves traveling northwestward and are the main source of connection between tropical Pacific and East Asia. The north-westward propagation of these waves, presence of an anomalous anticyclone over Philippine Sea, and anomalous cyclones in both the eastern north Pacific and East Asia are characteristics of the Pacific-East Asian teleconnection. Moreover, the anomalous Pacific SST of MIS-13 also affects EASM indirectly by altering the Northern Pacific Subtropical High and the subtropical jet stream. *This work is supported by the European Research Council Advanced Grant EMIS (No 227348 of the Programme 'ideas')

  19. A Contrast of the East Asian Summer Monsoon-ENSO Relationship between 1962-77 and 1978-93(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Wang, Bin

    2002-11-01

    Using station rainfall data and the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, the authors investigate changes in the interannual relationship between the east Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the late 1970s, concurrent with the Pacific climate shift. The present study focuses on decaying phases of ENSO because changes in developing phases of ENSO are less significant. Remarkable changes are found in the summer rainfall anomaly in northern China and Japan. From pre- to postshift period, the summer rainfall anomaly in eastern north China during decaying phases of El Niño changed from above to below normal, whereas that in central Japan changed from negative to normal. Consistent with this, the barotropic anticyclonic anomaly over the Japan Sea changed to cyclonic; the associated anomalous winds changed from southerly to northerly over the Yellow Sea-northeastern China and from northeasterly to northwesterly over central Japan.The change in the ENSO-related east Asian summer circulation anomaly is attributed to changes in the location and intensity of anomalous convection over the western North Pacific (WNP) and India. After the late 1970s, the WNP convection anomaly is enhanced and shifted to higher latitudes due to increased summer mean SST in the Philippine Sea. This induces an eastward shift of an anomalous low pressure from east Asia to the North Pacific along 30°-45°N during decaying phases of El Niño. Thus, anomalous winds over northeastern China and Korea switch from southeasterly to northeasterly. Before the late 1970s, an anomalous barotropic anticyclone develops over east Asia and anomalous southerlies prevail over northeastern China during decaying phases of El Niño. This may relate to anomalous Indian convection through a zonal wave pattern along 30°-50°N. After the late 1970s, anomalous Indian convection weakens, which reduces the impact of the Indian convection on the EASM.

  20. Effects of Variations in East Asian Snow Cover on Modulating Atmospheric Circulation over the North Pacific Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2000-10-01

    At least four different modeling studies indicate that variability in snow cover over Asia may modulate atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific Ocean during winter. Here, satellite data on snow extent for east Asia for 1971-95 along with atmospheric fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis are used to examine whether the circulation signals seen in model results are actually observed in nature. Anomalies in snow extent over east Asia exhibit a distinct lack of persistence. This suggests that understanding the effects of east Asian snow cover is more germane for short- to medium-range weather forecasting applications than for problems on longer timescales. While it is impossible to attribute cause and effect in the empirical study, analyses of composite fields demonstrate relationships between snow cover extremes and atmospheric circulation downstream remarkably similar to those identified in model results. Positive snow cover extremes in midwinter are associated with a small decrease in air temperatures over the transient snow regions, a stronger east Asian jet, and negative geopotential height anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. Opposing responses are observed for negative snow cover extremes. Diagnosis of storm track feedbacks shows that the action of high-frequency eddies does not reinforce circulation anomalies in positive snow cover extremes. However, in negative snow cover extremes, there are significant decreases in high-frequency eddy activity over the central North Pacific Ocean, and a corresponding decrease in the mean cyclonic effect of these eddies on the geopotential tendency, contributing to observed positive height anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. The circulation signals over the North Pacific Ocean are much more pronounced in midwinter (January-February) than in the transitional seasons (November-December and March-April).

  1. A comparison of East Asian summer monsoon simulations from CAM3.1 with three dynamic cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ting; Wang, Lanning; Dong, Wenjie; Dong, Min; Zhang, Jingyong

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines the sensitivity of CAM3.1 simulations of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) to the choice of dynamic cores using three long-term simulations, one with each of the following cores: the Eulerian spectral transform method (EUL), semi-Lagrangian scheme (SLD) and finite volume approach (FV). Our results indicate that the dynamic cores significantly influence the simulated fields not only through dynamics, such as wind, but also through physical processes, such as precipitation. Generally speaking, SLD is superior to EUL and FV in simulating the climatological features of EASM and its interannual variability. The SLD version of the CAM model partially reduces its known deficiency in simulating the climatological features of East Asian summer precipitation. The strength and position of simulated western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and its ridge line compare more favourably with observations in SLD and FV than in EUL. They contribute to the intensification of the south-easterly along the south of WPSH and the vertical motion through the troposphere around 30° N, where the subtropical rain belt exists. Additionally, SLD simulates the scope of the westerly jet core over East Asia more realistically than the other two dynamic cores do. Considerable systematic errors of the seasonal migration of monsoon rain belt and water vapour flux exist in all of the three versions of CAM3.1 model, although it captures the broad northward shift of convection, and the simulated results share similarities. The interannual variation of EASM is found to be more accurate in SLD simulation, which reasonably reproduces the leading combined patterns of precipitation and 850-hPa winds in East Asia, as well as the 2.5- and 10-year periods of Li-Zeng EASM index. These results emphasise the importance of dynamic cores for the EASM simulation as distinct from the simulation's sensitivity to the physical parameterisations.

  2. The Relationship Between the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and the Use of Biomedical Services: Evidence From East Asian Medical Systems.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Mahn

    2016-01-01

    To provide East Asian evidence to the relationship between the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the use of biomedicine, this article examines the institutionalization of traditional East Asian medicine (EM) in China, Korea, and Japan and how it affects the relationship between EM use and biomedicine use. It uses the 2010 East Asian Social Survey. Logistic regressions specify the statistical association between EM use and biomedical physician visits. These models show that the high institutional acceptance of EM promotes the concurrent use of EM and biomedicine. In addition, since these countries feature different ways of institutionalizing EM (unification in China, equalization in Korea, and subjugation in Japan), the concurrent use is more obvious under the Chinese and the Korean system than the Japanese system. It concludes that the CAM use can be complementary to biomedicine, depending on how CAM and biomedicine are institutionalized in medical systems. PMID:26512027

  3. Recent intensification of the South and East Asian monsoon contrast associated with an increase in the zonal tropical SST gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2014-07-01

    Observed analysis of the 35 years of 1979-2013 reveals considerable interdecadal change and significant recent intensification in the difference of convective precipitation between the South Asian monsoon (SAM) and East Asian monsoon (EAM) systems during the major summer monsoon season (June-July). We propose that the recent strengthening of the zonal gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) between the Indian Ocean, western Pacific, and eastern Pacific is a possible cause for the intensification of the convective precipitation contrast. It is noted that the strengthening of the zonal SST gradient associated with the recent mega-La Niña trend tends to reinforce the negative connection between SAM and EAM systems by inducing enhanced convection over the maritime continent and then facilitating the northwestward emanation of Rossby waves. Consequently, a cyclonic circulation anomaly that effectively changes the local Hadley circulation has been formed over the SAM region, resulting in the noticeable difference between the SAM and EAM. The years 2013 and 1983 are further investigated as the strongest extreme years for positive and negative phases of submonsoon contrast, respectively. The result confirms that the meridional dipole height pattern along the Asian Jet stream, which is caused by the strong zonal gradient of tropical SST, serves as a key trigger in strengthening the submonsoon contrast.

  4. Recent Reversal of the Upper-Tropospheric Temperature Trend and its Role in Intensifying the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Siyao; Li, Jian; Yu, Rucong; Chen, Haoming

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the July and August (JA) mean upper-tropospheric temperature over East Asia shows a significant increasing trend, contrary to the decreasing trend in the late 1970 s. The largest warming center is over northern China (between 30°N-45°N and 85°E-120°E) around 300 hPa. Together with the temperature rising, the geo-potential height rises above the warming center and drops below, which connects closely to a correspondingly significant decadal shift of the general circulation over East Asia. In the upper-level of the troposphere, an anomalous anti-cyclone dominates, and the 200-hPa westerly jet strengthens due to the increasing pole-ward geo-potential height gradient. In the lower-troposphere, the anomalous southerly wind increases around Yangtze River Valley and the East Asian summer monsoon intensifies. The integrated circulation changes seriously impact summer precipitation over East Asia. The so-called “southern flood and northern drought” (SFND) pattern since the 1970 s over eastern China has changed. As the cooling center in the 1970 s moves southward, the dry belt moves southward as well. A wet belt dominates the Huaihe River Valley after the temperature trend reversal at 2005 while southern China experiences a dry condition.

  5. Recent Reversal of the Upper-Tropospheric Temperature Trend and its Role in Intensifying the East Asian Summer Monsoon.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siyao; Li, Jian; Yu, Rucong; Chen, Haoming

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the July and August (JA) mean upper-tropospheric temperature over East Asia shows a significant increasing trend, contrary to the decreasing trend in the late 1970 s. The largest warming center is over northern China (between 30°N-45°N and 85°E-120°E) around 300 hPa. Together with the temperature rising, the geo-potential height rises above the warming center and drops below, which connects closely to a correspondingly significant decadal shift of the general circulation over East Asia. In the upper-level of the troposphere, an anomalous anti-cyclone dominates, and the 200-hPa westerly jet strengthens due to the increasing pole-ward geo-potential height gradient. In the lower-troposphere, the anomalous southerly wind increases around Yangtze River Valley and the East Asian summer monsoon intensifies. The integrated circulation changes seriously impact summer precipitation over East Asia. The so-called "southern flood and northern drought" (SFND) pattern since the 1970 s over eastern China has changed. As the cooling center in the 1970 s moves southward, the dry belt moves southward as well. A wet belt dominates the Huaihe River Valley after the temperature trend reversal at 2005 while southern China experiences a dry condition. PMID:26135966

  6. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal a highly dynamic evolutionary history of the East Asian Tertiary relict Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin-Shuai; Chen, Chen; Comes, Hans Peter; Sakaguchi, Shota; Liu, Yi-Hui; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sakio, Hitoshi; Qiu, Ying-Xiong

    2012-10-01

    East Asia's temperate deciduous forests served as sanctuary for Tertiary relict trees, but their ages and response to past climate change remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we elucidated the evolutionary and population demographic history of Cercdiphyllum, comprising species in China/Japan (Cercdiphyllum japonicum) and central Japan (Cercdiphyllum magnificum). Fifty-three populations were genotyped using chloroplast and ribosomal DNA sequences and microsatellite loci to assess molecular structure and diversity in relation to past (Last Glacial Maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modelling. Late Tertiary climate cooling was reflected in a relatively recent speciation event, dated at the Mio-/Pliocene boundary. During glacials, the warm-temperate C. japonicum experienced massive habitat losses in some areas (north-central China/north Japan) but increases in others (southwest/-east China, East China Sea landbridge, south Japan). In China, the Sichuan Basin and/or the middle-Yangtze were source areas of postglacial northward recolonization; in Japan, this may have been facilitated through introgressive hybridization with the cool-temperate C. magnificum. Our findings challenge the notion of relative evolutionary and demographic stability of Tertiary relict trees, and may serve as a guideline for assessing the impact of Neogene climate change on the evolution and distribution of East Asian temperate plants. PMID:22845876

  7. Recent Reversal of the Upper-Tropospheric Temperature Trend and its Role in Intensifying the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Siyao; Li, Jian; Yu, Rucong; Chen, Haoming

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the July and August (JA) mean upper-tropospheric temperature over East Asia shows a significant increasing trend, contrary to the decreasing trend in the late 1970 s. The largest warming center is over northern China (between 30°N–45°N and 85°E–120°E) around 300 hPa. Together with the temperature rising, the geo-potential height rises above the warming center and drops below, which connects closely to a correspondingly significant decadal shift of the general circulation over East Asia. In the upper-level of the troposphere, an anomalous anti-cyclone dominates, and the 200–hPa westerly jet strengthens due to the increasing pole-ward geo-potential height gradient. In the lower-troposphere, the anomalous southerly wind increases around Yangtze River Valley and the East Asian summer monsoon intensifies. The integrated circulation changes seriously impact summer precipitation over East Asia. The so-called “southern flood and northern drought” (SFND) pattern since the 1970 s over eastern China has changed. As the cooling center in the 1970 s moves southward, the dry belt moves southward as well. A wet belt dominates the Huaihe River Valley after the temperature trend reversal at 2005 while southern China experiences a dry condition. PMID:26135966

  8. Influence of two types of El Nios on the East Asian climate during boreal summer: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zesheng; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Zhao, Ping; Cao, Jie

    2014-07-01

    The sea surface temperature anomaly pattern differs between the central Pacific (CP) and eastern Pacific (EP) El Nios during boreal summer. It is expected that the respective atmospheric response will be different. In order to identify differences in the responses to these two phenomena, we examine the Community Atmosphere Model Version 4 simulations forced with observed monthly sea surface temperature during 1979-2010 and compare with the corresponding observations. For CP El Nio, a triple precipitation anomaly pattern appears over East Asia. During EP El Nio, the triple pattern is not as significant as and shifts eastward and southward compared to CP El Nio. We also examine the influence of CP La Nia and EP La Nia on East Asia. In general, the impact of CP (EP) La Nia on tropics and East Asia seems to be opposite to that of CP (EP) El Nio. However, the impacts between the two types of La Nia are less independent compared to the two types of warm events. Both types of El Nio (La Nia) correspond to a stronger (weaker) western North Pacific summer monsoon. The sensitivity experiments support this result. But the CP El Nio (La Nia) may have more significant influence on East Asia summer climate than EP El Nio (La Nia), as the associated low-level anomalous wind pattern is more distinct and closer to the Asian continent compared to EP El Nio (La Nia).

  9. The peatlands developing history in the Sanjiang Plain, NE China, and its response to East Asian monsoon variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenqing; Xing, Wei; Wang, Guoping; Tong, Shouzheng; Lv, Xianguo; Sun, Jimin

    2015-06-01

    Studying the peatlands accumulation and carbon (C) storage in monsoonal areas could provide useful insights into the response of C dynamics to climate variation in the geological past. Here, we integrated 40 well-dated peat/lake sediment cores to reveal the peatlands evolution history in the Sanjiang Plain and examine its links to East Asian monsoon variations during the Holocene. The results show that 80% peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain initiated after 4.7 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP), with the largest initiating frequency around 4.5 ka. The mean C accumulation rate of peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain exhibits a synchronous increase with the peatlands expansion during the Holocene. Such a peatlands expanding and C accumulating pattern corresponds well to the remarkable drying event subsequent to the Holocene monsoon maximum. We suggest that in addition to the locally topographic conditions, Holocene variations of East Asian summer monsoon (especially its associated precipitation) have played a critical role in driving the peatlands initiation and expansion in the Sanjiang Plain.

  10. The peatlands developing history in the Sanjiang Plain, NE China, and its response to East Asian monsoon variation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenqing; Xing, Wei; Wang, Guoping; Tong, Shouzheng; Lv, Xianguo; Sun, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Studying the peatlands accumulation and carbon (C) storage in monsoonal areas could provide useful insights into the response of C dynamics to climate variation in the geological past. Here, we integrated 40 well-dated peat/lake sediment cores to reveal the peatlands evolution history in the Sanjiang Plain and examine its links to East Asian monsoon variations during the Holocene. The results show that 80% peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain initiated after 4.7 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP), with the largest initiating frequency around 4.5 ka. The mean C accumulation rate of peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain exhibits a synchronous increase with the peatlands expansion during the Holocene. Such a peatlands expanding and C accumulating pattern corresponds well to the remarkable drying event subsequent to the Holocene monsoon maximum. We suggest that in addition to the locally topographic conditions, Holocene variations of East Asian summer monsoon (especially its associated precipitation) have played a critical role in driving the peatlands initiation and expansion in the Sanjiang Plain. PMID:26076653

  11. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies eight new loci for type 2 diabetes in east Asians.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoon Shin; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Hu, Cheng; Long, Jirong; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Sim, Xueling; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Wu, Ying; Go, Min Jin; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Kwak, Soo Heon; Ma, Ronald C W; Yamamoto, Ken; Adair, Linda S; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Gao, Yutang; Hu, Frank B; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Lee, Nanette R; Li, Yun; Liu, Jian Jun; Lu, Wei; Nakamura, Jiro; Nakashima, Eitaro; Ng, Daniel Peng-Keat; Tay, Wan Ting; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wong, Tien Yin; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Congrong; So, Wing Yee; Ohnaka, Keizo; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Hara, Kazuo; Cho, Young Min; Cho, Nam H; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Bao, Yuqian; Hedman, Åsa K; Morris, Andrew P; McCarthy, Mark I; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Park, Kyong Soo; Jia, Weiping; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chan, Juliana C N; Maeda, Shiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Young; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Teo, Yik Ying; Tai, E Shyong; Shu, Xiao Ou; Mohlke, Karen L; Kato, Norihiro; Han, Bok-Ghee; Seielstad, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, which is involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels. The evidence of an association with T2D for PEPD and HNF4A has been shown in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings, derived from an east Asian population, provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D. PMID:22158537

  12. The peatlands developing history in the Sanjiang Plain, NE China, and its response to East Asian monsoon variation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenqing; Xing, Wei; Wang, Guoping; Tong, Shouzheng; Lv, Xianguo; Sun, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Studying the peatlands accumulation and carbon (C) storage in monsoonal areas could provide useful insights into the response of C dynamics to climate variation in the geological past. Here, we integrated 40 well-dated peat/lake sediment cores to reveal the peatlands evolution history in the Sanjiang Plain and examine its links to East Asian monsoon variations during the Holocene. The results show that 80% peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain initiated after 4.7 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP), with the largest initiating frequency around 4.5 ka. The mean C accumulation rate of peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain exhibits a synchronous increase with the peatlands expansion during the Holocene. Such a peatlands expanding and C accumulating pattern corresponds well to the remarkable drying event subsequent to the Holocene monsoon maximum. We suggest that in addition to the locally topographic conditions, Holocene variations of East Asian summer monsoon (especially its associated precipitation) have played a critical role in driving the peatlands initiation and expansion in the Sanjiang Plain. PMID:26076653

  13. Comparison of the impact of the Arctic Oscillation and Eurasian teleconnection on interannual variation in East Asian winter temperatures and monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2016-04-01

    The large-scale impacts of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the Eurasian teleconnection (EU) on the East Asian winter climate are compared for the past 34 winters, focusing on (1) interannual monthly to seasonal temperature variability, (2) East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and (3) the Siberian high (SH) and cold surge. Regression analysis reveals warming by AO and cooling by EU over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa (i.e., warm phase: +AO, -EU; cold phase: -AO, +EU). The EU impact was found to be comparable to the AO impact. For example, warm (cold) months during the warm (cold) AO phase are found clearly when the AO is in the same warm (cold) EU phase. No significant correlation was found between East Asian temperature and the AO when the warm (cold) AO coincided with the cold (warm) EU. The well-known relationship of strong (weak) SH during the cold (warm) AO phase was observed significantly more often when the AO was in the same cold (warm) EU phase. Also, the indices of EAWM, cold surge, and SH were more highly correlated with the EU than with the AO. The advective temperature change and associated circulation demonstrate that the large-scale field including the SH over the mid-latitude Asian inland is better represented by the EU, influencing the East Asian climate. These results suggest that the impact of EU should be considered more important than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  14. The zonal movement of the Indian-East Asian summer monsoon interface in relation to the land-sea thermal contrast anomaly over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yun; Cao, Jie; Lan, Guangdong; Su, Qin

    2016-05-01

    Based on atmospheric circulation reanalysis, global gridded precipitation, and outgoing longwave radiation datasets, this study reveals the physical process through which the land-sea thermal contrast over East Asia interrelates with the variability of the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoon (IIE). The results indicate that the release of latent heating exerted by the low-frequency variability of anomalous land-sea thermal contrast is one of the most important physical processes correlating with the zonal movement of the IIE, in which the release of latent heating over eastern East Asia makes the greatest contribution. When a lower apparent moisture sink occurs over the South China Sea but a higher one over southern China, an anomalously positive land-sea thermal contrast is formed. An anomalous convergent zone in relation to the positive land-sea thermal contrast, located in the eastern part of the IIE, will favor the IIE to move more eastward than normal, and vice versa. An anomalous divergent zone located in the eastern part of the IIE will benefit the IIE to shift more westward than normal. Experiments using a linear baroclinic model confirm the physical processes revealed by the observational analysis.

  15. Interdecadal shift in the relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Ding, R.; Wu, Z.; Feng, J.; Ha, K.

    2012-04-01

    Interdecadal shift in the interannual relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies (SSTA) is investigated. The result shows that a notable feature is the enhanced relationship between the previous winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the following EASM in the past 60 years, which is opposite to the weakening relationship between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and ENSO since 1970s. It is also found that pronounced changes in the interannual relationship between the EASM and summer SSTA over the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) happen in the late 1970s. Besides, an enhanced relationship between the previous autumn-winter SSTA over western tropical IO and the following EASM occurs in the late 1970s. The observational and numerical evidences manifest that spring North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) may exert notable impacts on the enhancement of the EASM-ENSO relationship. Anomalous spring NAO induces a tripole SSTA pattern in North Atlantic which persists into ensuring summer. The tripole SSTA excites downstream teleconnections of a distinct Rossby wave train prevailing over the northern Eurasia and a simple Gill-Matsuno-type quadrupole response over western Pacific. The former modulates the blocking highs over the Ural Mountain and the Okhotsk Sea. The latter enhances the linkage between the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and ENSO. The co-effects of the two teleconnection patterns help to strengthen (or weaken) the subtropical Meiyu-Baiu-Changma front, the primary rain-bearing system of the EASM. As such, spring NAO is tied to the strengthened connection between ENSO and the EASM. It can be seen from the correlations of the EASM index (EASMI) with the summer IO SSTA between 1953-1975 and 1978-2000 that the SSTA pattern similar to the positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) shows a strongly positive correlation with the EASMI in 1953-1975, but in 1978-2000, significant negative correlation appears in the northern IO and the IOD-like correlation pattern disappears. The summer strong IOD events in 1953-1975 can cause a weaker-than-normal western North Pacific (WNP) subtropical high, which tends to favor a strong EASM. In 1978-2000, the connection between the summer IOD and the WNP circulation is disrupted by the climate shift. Instead, the northern IO shows a close connection with the WNP circulation in 1978-2000. The warming over the northern IO is associated with the significant enhanced 500 hPa geopotential height and an anomalous anticyclone over the WNP. The change in the IO-EASM relationship is attributed to the interdecadal change of the background state of the ocean-atmosphere system and the interaction between the ENSO and IO. It is indicated that the strengthened ENSO-EASM relationship has likely also contributed to the strengthened relationship between the northern IO and the EASM in 1978-2000. What causes the enhanced relationship between the previous autumn-winter SSTA over western tropical IO and the following EASM since in the late 1970s awaits further investigation.

  16. Role of Atmospheric Circulation and Westerly Jet Changes in the mid-Holocene East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) varies on inter-decadal to interglacial-glacial timescales. The EASM is stronger in the mid-Holocene than today, and these changes can be readily explained by orbitally-driven insolation increase during the boreal summer. However, a detailed understanding of the altered seasonal evolution of the EASM during this time is still lacking. In particular, previous work has suggested a close link between seasonal migration of the EASM and that of the mid-latitude westerlies impinging on the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we explore, this problem in PMIP3 climate model simulations of the mid-Holocene, focusing on the role of atmospheric circulation and in particular how the westerly jet modulates the East Asia summer climate on paleoclimate timescales. Analysis of the model simulations suggests that, compared to the preindustrial simulations, the transition from Mei-Yu to deep summer rainfall occurs earlier in the mid-Holocene. This is accompanied by an earlier weakening and northward shift of westerly jet away from the Tibetan Plateau. The variation in the strength and the 3-D structure of the westerly jet in the mid-Holocene is summarized. We find that changes to the monsoonal rainfall, westerly jet and meridional circulation covary on paleoclimate timescales. Meridional wind changes in particular are tied to an altered stationary wave pattern, resembling today's the so-called 'Silk Road' teleconnection pattern, riding along the westerly jet. Diagnostic analysis also reveals changes in moist static energy and eddy energy fluxes associated with the earlier seasonal transition of the EASM. Our analyses suggest that the westerly jet is critical to the altered dynamics of the East Asian summer monsoon during the mid-Holocene.

  17. High reactivation of BK virus variants in Asian Indians with renal disorders and during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Saumen; Chakraborty, Tushar

    2004-03-01

    There is resurgence of interest in the study of occurrence, genotype and pathogenic associations of human Polyomavirus BK and JC in recent years. In the present study, we have ascertained the presence of BK virus shed in the urine samples of pregnant women and immunocompromised patients, for the first time in Asian Indian population, and have also characterised the prevalent genotypes of the non-coding control regions (NCCRs) of these natural isolates. The results strongly suggest a very high incidence, as well as degree, of BK virus reactivation in this population groups assayed. Approximately 65% of the patients and pregnant women together, tested positive based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and these results were further confirmed by Southern hybridisation and dot blot against BKV specific probes. The NCCRs of the several Indian endemic strains were analysed by sequencing PCR products, amplified directly from urine samples, with oligonucleotide primers designed from the constant region of T-Antigen and VP2 coding sequences. The typical features of the NCCRs of these Indian strains appeared to be comparable and related to the archetypal strain BKV (WW) with some alterations in few key positions. Apart from these subtle alterations, neither any major DNA rearrangement within the NCCR region nor any drastic modification marked BKV strains found in nephropathy and in the healthy subjects (pregnancy). However, in some of the immunocompromised patients studied, the degree of reactivations reflected by viruria, appeared to be much higher compared to other reports. PMID:14976415

  18. An FTO variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations after accounting for body mass index and waist circumference

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S. D.; Islam, M.; Hydrie, M. Z. I.; Chaudhary, B.; Bellary, S.; Hashmi, S.; O’Hare, J. P.; Kumar, S.; Sanghera, D. K.; Chaturvedi, N.; Barnett, A. H.; Shera, A. S.; Weedon, M. N.; Basit, A.; Frayling, T. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Jafar, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims A common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the association of the FTO rs9939609 variant with obesity, obesity-related traits and Type 2 diabetes in South Asian individuals, and to use meta-analyses to attempt to clarify to what extent BMI influences the association of FTO variants with diabetes in South Asians. Methods We analysed rs9939609 in two studies of Pakistani individuals: 1666 adults aged ≥ 40 years from the Karachi population-based Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study and 2745 individuals of Punjabi ancestry who were part of a Type 2 diabetes case–control study (UK Asian Diabetes Study/Diabetes Genetics in Pakistan; UKADS/DGP). The main outcomes were BMI, waist circumference and diabetes. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations between FTO alleles and outcomes. Summary estimates were combined in a meta-analysis of 8091 South Asian individuals (3919 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 4172 control subjects), including those from two previous studies. Results In the 4411 Pakistani individuals from this study, the age-, sex- and diabetes-adjusted association of FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI was 0.45 (95% CI 0.24–0.67) kg/m2 per A-allele (P = 3.0× 10−5) and with waist circumference was 0.88 (95% CI 0.36–1.41) cm per A-allele (P = 0.001). The A-allele (30% frequency) was also significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes [per A-allele odds ratio (95% CI) 1.18 (1.07–1.30); P = 0.0009]. A meta-analysis of four South Asian studies with 8091 subjects showed that the FTO A-allele predisposes to Type 2 diabetes [1.22 (95% CI 1.14–1.31); P = 1.07× 10−8] even after adjusting for BMI [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 1.02× 10−5] or waist circumference [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 3.97× 10−5]. Conclusions The strong association between FTO genotype and BMI and waist circumference in South Asians is similar to that observed in Europeans. In contrast, the strong association of FTO genotype with diabetes is only partly accounted for by BMI. PMID:21294771

  19. Seasonal scale variability of the East Asian winter monsoon and the development of a two-dimensional monsoon index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoojin; Kim, Kwang-Yul; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the seasonal scale variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), which is distinguished from the seasonal cycle with temporal variation throughout winter. Winters lasting 120 days (Nov. 17-Mar. 16) for a period of 64 years from the NCEP daily reanalysis data set are used to study the seasonal scale variability of the EAWM. Cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) analysis is adopted to decompose the variability of the EAWM. The second CSEOF mode of 850-hPa temperature exhibits a seasonal scale variation, the physical mechanism of which is explained in terms of physically consistent variations of temperature, geopotential height, sea level pressure, wind, and surface heat fluxes. The seasonal-scale EAWM exhibits a weak subseasonal and a strong interannual variability and has gradually weakened during the 64 years. In a weak EAWM phase, the land-sea contrast of sea level pressure declines in East Asia. Consistent with this change, low-level winds decrease and warm thermal advection increases over the eastern part of mid-latitude East Asia. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are reduced significantly over the marginal seas in East Asia. However, during a strong EAWM phase, the physical conditions in East Asia reverse. A large fraction of the variability of the EAWM is explained by the seasonal cycle and the seasonal scale variation. A two-dimensional EAWM index was developed to explain these two distinct components of the EAWM variability. The new index appears to be suitable for measuring both the subseasonal and the interannual variability of the EAWM.

  20. Seasonal flight activity by the Asian citrus psyllid in east central Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an important invasive citrus pest in the United States because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. Information was lacking on seasonal aspects of flight activit...

  1. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake": Japanese Americans and the…

  2. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  3. Correspondence regarding 'Clouded leopards, the secretive top-carnivore of South-East Asian rainforests: their distribution, status and conservation needs in Sabah, Malaysia'

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Chris H; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Meijaard, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Correspondence regarding Wilting A, Fischer F, Bakar SA, Linsenmair KE: Clouded leopards, the secretive top-carnivore of South-East Asian rainforests: their distribution, status and conservation needs in Sabah, Malaysia. BMC Ecol 2006, 6:16. Wilting et al. have provided their response to Gordon et al., directly following the correspondence. PMID:17605794

  4. Rationalization for Shared Collection Development: A Case Study of the Japanese Periodical Humanities Collection at the East Asian Library at the Ohio State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakaguchi, Kazuko

    This paper explores the possibility of resource sharing in the East Asian Library at the University of Ohio. The case analysis of vernacular periodicals in humanities consists of quantitative analysis based on interlibrary loan (ILL) transaction records and in-house studies as well as quantitative/qualitative evaluation based on faculty journal…

  5. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not

  6. Teaching and learning grade 7 science concepts by elaborate analogies: Mainstream and East and South Asian ESL students' experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Judy Joo-Hyun

    This study explored the effectiveness of an instructional tool, elaborate analogy, in teaching the particle theory to both Grade 7 mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students. Ten Grade 7 science classes from five different schools in a large school district in the Greater Toronto area participated. Each of the ten classes were designated as either Group X or Y. Using a quasi-experimental counterbalanced design, Group X students were taught one science unit using the elaborate analogies, while Group Y students were taught by their teachers' usual methods of teaching. The instructional methods used for Group X and Y were interchanged for the subsequent science unit. Quantitative data were collected from 95 students (50 mainstream and 45 ESL) by means of a posttest and a follow-up test for each of the units. When the differences between mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students were analyzed, the results indicate that both groups scored higher on the posttests when they were instructed with elaborate analogies, and that the difference between the two groups was not significant. That is, the ESL students, as well as the mainstream students, benefited academically when they were instructed with the elaborate analogies. The students obtained higher inferential scores on the posttest when their teacher connected the features of less familiar and more abstract scientific concepts to the features of the familiar and easy-to-visualize concept of school dances. However, after two months, the students were unable to recall inferential content knowledge. This is perhaps due to the lack of opportunity for the students to represent and test their initial mental models. Rather than merely employing elaborate analogies, perhaps, science teachers can supplement the use of elaborate analogies with explicit guidance in helping students to represent and test the coherence of their mental models.

  7. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  8. Intraseasonal SST variations in the South China Sea during boreal winter and impacts of the East Asian winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Chen, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Present study documents the intraseasonal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in the South China Sea (SCS) during boreal winter and its association with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) variability. In northern Tropics, the largest intraseasonal variability of SST during boreal winter is found in the SCS, with two localized regions of large standard deviation, one extending westward from the Luzon Strait and the other extending southward from the coast of central Vietnam. Correspondingly, large intraseasonal variability in surface heat fluxes is observed in the above regions. Analysis shows that the formation of large intraseasonal SST anomalies in these regions is attributed largely to wind-related surface latent heat flux changes, with supplementary contribution from cloud-related surface shortwave radiation changes. Wind-induced Ekman advection has a negative effect, and the Ekman upwelling pattern differs from the intraseasonal SST anomaly pattern. The intraseasonal variations of SST in the SCS display a close association with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) change with a time lag of 3-5 days. In a weak (strong) phase of the EAWM, decrease (increase) in surface wind speed and suppression (enhancement) in surface latent heat flux lead to intraseasonal SST warming (cooling). This intraseasonal SST signal displays a southward propagation with the SST change in northern SCS leading that in southern SCS by about 2 days. A similar southward propagation is seen in surface wind speed and latent heat flux anomalies. The southward propagation of cloud and shortwave radiation anomalies is limited to northern part of the SCS.

  9. ENSO Effect on East Asian Tropical Cyclone Landfall via Changes in Tracks and Genesis in a Statistical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements on a statistical tropical cyclone (TC) track model in the western North Pacific Ocean are described. The goal of the model is to study the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on East Asian TC landfall. The model is based on the International Best-Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) database of TC observations for 1945-2007 and employs local regression of TC formation rates and track increments on the Nino-3.4 index and seasonally varying climate parameters. The main improvements are the inclusion of ENSO dependence in the track propagation and accounting for seasonality in both genesis and tracks. A comparison of simulations of the 1945-2007 period with observations concludes that the model updates improve the skill of this model in simulating TCs. Changes in TC genesis and tracks are analyzed separately and cumulatively in simulations of stationary extreme ENSO states. ENSO effects on regional (100-km scale) landfall are attributed to changes in genesis and tracks. The effect of ENSO on genesis is predominantly a shift in genesis location from the southeast in El Nino years to the northwest in La Nina years, resulting in higher landfall rates for the East Asian coast during La Nina. The effect of ENSO on track propagation varies seasonally and spatially. In the peak activity season (July-October), there are significant changes in mean tracks with ENSO. Landfall-rate changes from genesis- and track-ENSO effects in the Philippines cancel out, while coastal segments of Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan show enhanced La Nina-year increases.

  10. Genetic evidence of an East Asian origin and paleolithic northward migration of Y-chromosome haplogroup N.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong; Qi, Xuebin; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The Y-chromosome haplogroup N-M231 (Hg N) is distributed widely in eastern and central Asia, Siberia, as well as in eastern and northern Europe. Previous studies suggested a counterclockwise prehistoric migration of Hg N from eastern Asia to eastern and northern Europe. However, the root of this Y chromosome lineage and its detailed dispersal pattern across eastern Asia are still unclear. We analyzed haplogroup profiles and phylogeographic patterns of 1,570 Hg N individuals from 20,826 males in 359 populations across Eurasia. We first genotyped 6,371 males from 169 populations in China and Cambodia, and generated data of 360 Hg N individuals, and then combined published data on 1,210 Hg N individuals from Japanese, Southeast Asian, Siberian, European and Central Asian populations. The results showed that the sub-haplogroups of Hg N have a distinct geographical distribution. The highest Y-STR diversity of the ancestral Hg N sub-haplogroups was observed in the southern part of mainland East Asia, and further phylogeographic analyses supports an origin of Hg N in southern China. Combined with previous data, we propose that the early northward dispersal of Hg N started from southern China about 21 thousand years ago (kya), expanding into northern China 12-18 kya, and reaching further north to Siberia about 12-14 kya before a population expansion and westward migration into Central Asia and eastern/northern Europe around 8.0-10.0 kya. This northward migration of Hg N likewise coincides with retreating ice sheets after the Last Glacial Maximum (22-18 kya) in mainland East Asia. PMID:23840409

  11. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries

    PubMed Central

    Ng, KH; Wong, JHD

    2008-01-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong. The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations. SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7). In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled “Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning”. PMID:21614324

  12. Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224,000 years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Kong, Xinggong; Shao, Xiaohua; Chen, Shitao; Wu, Jiangyin; Jiang, Xiouyang; Wang, Xianfeng; An, Zhisheng

    2008-02-28

    High-resolution speleothem records from China have provided insights into the factors that control the strength of the East Asian monsoon. Our understanding of these factors remains incomplete, however, owing to gaps in the record of monsoon history over the past two interglacial-glacial cycles. In particular, missing sections have hampered our ability to test ideas about orbital-scale controls on the monsoon, the causes of millennial-scale events and relationships between changes in the monsoon and climate in other regions. Here we present an absolute-dated oxygen isotope record from Sanbao cave, central China, that completes a Chinese-cave-based record of the strength of the East Asian monsoon that covers the past 224,000 years. The record is dominated by 23,000-year-long cycles that are synchronous within dating errors with summer insolation at 65 degrees N (ref. 10), supporting the idea that tropical/subtropical monsoons respond dominantly and directly to changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation on orbital timescales. The cycles are punctuated by millennial-scale strong-summer-monsoon events (Chinese interstadials), and the new record allows us to identify the complete series of these events over the past two interglacial-glacial cycles. Their duration decreases and their frequency increases during glacial build-up in both the last and penultimate glacial periods, indicating that ice sheet size affects their character and pacing. The ages of the events are exceptionally well constrained and may thus serve as benchmarks for correlating and calibrating climate records. PMID:18305541

  13. Effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon based on the CAM5.1 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongyun; Jiang, Zhihong; Song, Jie; Dai, Aiguo; Yang, Xiuqun; Huo, Fei

    2016-05-01

    The effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are investigated using a Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1. The results show that the urban land-use change in East China causes spatially-varying changes in surface net radiation and heat fluxes, atmospheric circulation, and water budgets. It results in significant surface warming (cooling) and precipitation decrease (increase) in a large region north (south) of 30°N. Urban expansion agglomerated in (29°-41°N, 110°-122°E) alters the surface energy budget and warms the surface, resulting in strengthened southwesterly airflow south of 25°N and increased convergence below the mid-troposphere between 20° and 30°N. A concomitant northward downdraft associated with the increased convection generates an anomalous high pressure north of 30°N. Meanwhile, the downdraft not only produces adiabatic warming but also inhibits the dynamic condition for precipitation formation. The anomalous high pressure formed in North China prevents the southwesterly airflow from advancing northward, leading to increase the convergence and precipitation in South China. These changes reduce the meridional temperature gradient in the mid-lower troposphere and weaken the westerly airflow near 30°N. In addition, horizontal transport of vorticity north of 35°N weakens significantly, which leads to an anomalous barotropic structure of anticyclonic there. As a result, the anomalous anticyclonic circulation and descent north of 30°N are strengthened. At the same time, the anomalous cyclonic circulation and ascent south of 30°N are enhanced. These process induced by the thermal state changes due to urbanization weakens the EASM.

  14. Effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon based on the CAM5.1 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongyun; Jiang, Zhihong; Song, Jie; Dai, Aiguo; Yang, Xiuqun; Huo, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are investigated using a Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1. The results show that the urban land-use change in East China causes spatially-varying changes in surface net radiation and heat fluxes, atmospheric circulation, and water budgets. It results in significant surface warming (cooling) and precipitation decrease (increase) in a large region north (south) of 30°N. Urban expansion agglomerated in (29°-41°N, 110°-122°E) alters the surface energy budget and warms the surface, resulting in strengthened southwesterly airflow south of 25°N and increased convergence below the mid-troposphere between 20° and 30°N. A concomitant northward downdraft associated with the increased convection generates an anomalous high pressure north of 30°N. Meanwhile, the downdraft not only produces adiabatic warming but also inhibits the dynamic condition for precipitation formation. The anomalous high pressure formed in North China prevents the southwesterly airflow from advancing northward, leading to increase the convergence and precipitation in South China. These changes reduce the meridional temperature gradient in the mid-lower troposphere and weaken the westerly airflow near 30°N. In addition, horizontal transport of vorticity north of 35°N weakens significantly, which leads to an anomalous barotropic structure of anticyclonic there. As a result, the anomalous anticyclonic circulation and descent north of 30°N are strengthened. At the same time, the anomalous cyclonic circulation and ascent south of 30°N are enhanced. These process induced by the thermal state changes due to urbanization weakens the EASM.

  15. Can Evidence from Genome-Wide Association Studies and Positive Natural Selection Surveys Be Used to Evaluate the Thrifty Gene Hypothesis in East Asians?

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Xuan-Han; Liu, Xuanyao; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Body fat deposition and distribution differ between East Asians and Europeans, and for the same level of obesity, East Asians are at higher risks of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other metabolic disorders. This observation has prompted the reclassifications of body mass index thresholds for the definitions of “overweight” and “obese” in East Asians. However, the question remains over what evolutionary mechanisms have driven the differences in adiposity morphology between two population groups that shared a common ancestor less than 80,000 years ago. The Thrifty Gene hypothesis has been suggested as a possible explanation, where genetic factors that allowed for efficient food-energy conversion and storage are evolutionarily favoured by conferring increased chances of survival and fertility. Here, we leveraged on the existing findings from genome-wide association studies and large-scale surveys of positive natural selection to evaluate whether there is currently any evidence to support the Thrifty Gene hypothesis. We first assess whether the existing genetic associations with obesity and T2D are located in genomic regions that are reported to be under positive selection, and if so, whether the risk alleles sit on the extended haplotype forms. In addition, we interrogate whether these risk alleles are the derived forms that differ from the ancestral alleles, and whether there is significant evidence of population differentiation at these SNPs between East Asian and European populations. Our systematic survey did not yield conclusive evidence to support the Thrifty Gene hypothesis as a possible explanation for the differences observed between East Asians and Europeans. PMID:25337808

  16. Southern East Asian origin and coexpansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family with Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Comas, Iñaki; Luo, Dan; Lu, Bing; Wu, Jie; Wei, Lanhai; Yang, Chongguang; Liu, Qingyun; Gan, Mingyu; Sun, Gang; Shen, Xin; Liu, Feiying; Gagneux, Sebastien; Mei, Jian; Lan, Rushu; Wan, Kanglin; Gao, Qian

    2015-06-30

    The Beijing family is the most successful genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and responsible for more than a quarter of the global tuberculosis epidemic. As the predominant genotype in East Asia, the Beijing family has been emerging in various areas of the world and is often associated with disease outbreaks and antibiotic resistance. Revealing the origin and historical dissemination of this strain family is important for understanding its current global success. Here we characterized the global diversity of this family based on whole-genome sequences of 358 Beijing strains. We show that the Beijing strains endemic in East Asia are genetically diverse, whereas the globally emerging strains mostly belong to a more homogenous subtype known as "modern" Beijing. Phylogeographic and coalescent analyses indicate that the Beijing family most likely emerged around 30,000 y ago in southern East Asia, and accompanied the early colonization by modern humans in this area. By combining the genomic data and genotyping result of 1,793 strains from across China, we found the "modern" Beijing sublineage experienced massive expansions in northern China during the Neolithic era and subsequently spread to other regions following the migration of Han Chinese. Our results support a parallel evolution of the Beijing family and modern humans in East Asia. The dominance of the "modern" Beijing sublineage in East Asia and its recent global emergence are most likely driven by its hypervirulence, which might reflect adaption to increased human population densities linked to the agricultural transition in northern China. PMID:26080405

  17. Migration of waterfowl in the east asian flyway and spatial relationship to HPAI H5N1 outbreaks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.; Prosser, D.J.; Spragens, K.A.; Palm, E.C.; Yan, B.; Li, T.; Lei, F.; Zhao, D.; Douglas, D.C.; Muzaffar, S.B.; Ji, W.

    2010-01-01

    Poyang Lake is situated within the East Asian Flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses Guangdong Province, China, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The lake is the largest freshwater body in China and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. Reports of HPAI H5N1 in healthy wild ducks at Poyang Lake have raised concerns about the potential of resilient free-ranging birds to disseminate the virus. Yet the role wild ducks play in connecting regions of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Asia is hindered by a lack of information about their migratory ecology. During 2007-08 we marked wild ducks at Poyang Lake with satellite transmitters to examine the location and timing of spring migration and identify any spatiotemporal relationship with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. Species included the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), northern pintail (Anas acuta), common teal (Anas crecca), falcated teal (Anas falcata), Baikal teal (Anas formosa), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), garganey (Anas querquedula), and Chinese spotbill (Anas poecilohyncha). These wild ducks (excluding the resident mallard and Chinese spotbill ducks) followed the East Asian Flyway along the coast to breeding areas in northern China, eastern Mongolia, and eastern Russia. None migrated west toward Qinghai Lake (site of the largest wild bird epizootic), thus failing to demonstrate any migratory connection to the Central Asian Flyway. A newly developed Brownian bridge spatial analysis indicated that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks reported in the flyway were related to latitude and poultry density but not to the core migration corridor or to wetland habitats. Also, we found a temporal mismatch between timing of outbreaks and wild duck movements. These analyses depend on complete or representative reporting of outbreaks, but by documenting movements of wild waterfowl, we present ecological knowledge that better informs epidemiological investigations seeking to explain and predict the spread of avian influenza viruses. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  18. Migration of Waterfowl in the East Asian Flyway and Spatial Relationship to HPAI H5N1 Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Palm, Eric C.; Yan, Baoping; Li, Tianxian; Lei, Fumin; Zhao, Delong; Douglas, David C.; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Ji, Weitao

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poyang Lake is situated within the East Asian Flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses Guangdong Province, China, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The lake is the largest freshwater body in China and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. Reports of HPAI H5N1 in healthy wild ducks at Poyang Lake have raised concerns about the potential of resilient free-ranging birds to disseminate the virus. Yet the role wild ducks play in connecting regions of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Asia is hindered by a lack of information about their migratory ecology. During 2007–08 we marked wild ducks at Poyang Lake with satellite transmitters to examine the location and timing of spring migration and identify any spatiotemporal relationship with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. Species included the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), northern pintail (Anas acuta), common teal (Anas crecca), falcated teal (Anas falcata), Baikal teal (Anas formosa), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), garganey (Anas querquedula), and Chinese spotbill (Anas poecilohyncha). These wild ducks (excluding the resident mallard and Chinese spotbill ducks) followed the East Asian Flyway along the coast to breeding areas in northern China, eastern Mongolia, and eastern Russia. None migrated west toward Qinghai Lake (site of the largest wild bird epizootic), thus failing to demonstrate any migratory connection to the Central Asian Flyway. A newly developed Brownian bridge spatial analysis indicated that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks reported in the flyway were related to latitude and poultry density but not to the core migration corridor or to wetland habitats. Also, we found a temporal mismatch between timing of outbreaks and wild duck movements. These analyses depend on complete or representative reporting of outbreaks, but by documenting movements of wild waterfowl, we present ecological knowledge that better informs epidemiological investigations seeking to explain and predict the spread of avian influenza viruses. PMID:20521681

  19. Migration of waterfowl in the East Asian flyway and spatial relationship to HPAI H5N1 outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, John Y; Newman, Scott H; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J; Spragens, Kyle A; Palm, Eric C; Yan, Baoping; Li, Tianxian; Lei, Fumin; Zhao, Delong; Douglas, David C; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Ji, Weitao

    2010-03-01

    Poyang Lake is situated within the East Asian Flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses Guangdong Province, China, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The lake is the largest freshwater body in China and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. Reports of HPAI H5N1 in healthy wild ducks at Poyang Lake have raised concerns about the potential of resilient free-ranging birds to disseminate the virus. Yet the role wild ducks play in connecting regions of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Asia is hindered by a lack of information about their migratory ecology. During 2007-08 we marked wild ducks at Poyang Lake with satellite transmitters to examine the location and timing of spring migration and identify any spatiotemporal relationship with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. Species included the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), northern pintail (Anas acuta), common teal (Anas crecca), falcated teal (Anas falcata), Baikal teal (Anas formosa), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), garganey (Anas querquedula), and Chinese spotbill (Anas poecilohyncha). These wild ducks (excluding the resident mallard and Chinese spotbill ducks) followed the East Asian Flyway along the coast to breeding areas in northern China, eastern Mongolia, and eastern Russia. None migrated west toward Qinghai Lake (site of the largest wild bird epizootic), thus failing to demonstrate any migratory connection to the Central Asian Flyway. A newly developed Brownian bridge spatial analysis indicated that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks reported in the flyway were related to latitude and poultry density but not to the core migration corridor or to wetland habitats. Also, we found a temporal mismatch between timing of outbreaks and wild duck movements. These analyses depend on complete or representative reporting of outbreaks, but by documenting movements of wild waterfowl, we present ecological knowledge that better informs epidemiological investigations seeking to explain and predict the spread of avian influenza viruses. PMID:20521681

  20. Gene-centric meta-analysis of lipid traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of circa 2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hi...

  1. HALO aircraft measurements of East Asian anthropogenic SO2 import into the lower stratosphere by a warm conveyor belt uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, H.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Baumann, R.; Pirjola, L.; Roiger, A.; Sailer, T.; Wirth, M.; Schumann, U.

    2012-04-01

    We report on a case study of anthropogenic SO2 pollution transport into the lower stratosphere from East Asian source regions. The pollution layer was observed over Central Europe by measurements from the new German research aircraft HALO. The layer contained enhanced SO2, HNO3 and water vapor and caused increased Lidar backscatter radiation. Meteorological analysis and air mass transport and dispersion model simulations reveal that the detected pollutants were released from ground-based sources in East-China, South-Korea, and Japan. The pollution plume was uplifted by a warm conveyor belt associated with a West-Pacific cyclone and finally injected into the lower stratosphere. Our HALO measurements were performed 5 days after the air mass uplift event, when significant parts of the Northern Hemisphere were already covered by the pollution plume. Accompanying trajectory chemistry and aerosol box model simulations indicate that H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets were generated in the SO2-rich plume and grew to sizes large enough to explain the observed increased Lidar backscatter signal. Implications of the SO2 transport pathway into the lower stratosphere presented in this study will be discussed.

  2. East Asian hydroclimate and agro-ecosystem research using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.; Chung, T.; Oh, J.; Bae, D.

    1997-05-01

    Investigations of East Asian hydroclimate and agro-ecosystem response to hydroclimate variability have been initiated using the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Regional Climate System Model (RCSM). This system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post-processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow modeling suite, and (4) a crop response modeling suite. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. Integration of the fourth component - the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) into the RCSM is part of our current research plan. This paper provides a brief overview of agro-ecosystem modeling, the RCSM, applications of the RCSM to East Asia, and future directions.

  3. Variations of surface ozone at Ieodo Ocean Research Station in the East China Sea and influence of Asian outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Shin, B.; Lee, M.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Shim, J.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.

    2015-06-01

    Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), a research tower (~ 40 m a.s.l.) for atmospheric and oceanographic observations, is located in the East China Sea (32.07° N, 125.10° E). The IORS is almost equidistant from South Korea, China, and Japan and, therefore, it is an ideal place to observe Asian outflows without local emission effects. The average ozone concentrations were 51.8 ± 15.9 ppbv during June 2003-December 2010. The seasonal variation of ozone was distinct, with a summer minimum (37.8 ppbv) and a spring maximum (61.1 ppbv), and was largely affected by seasonal wind pattern over East Asia. The fractional contribution of ozone at IORS could be attributed to six well distinguished air masses that were classified by the cluster analysis of backward trajectories. Marine air from the Pacific Ocean represents a relatively clean background air with a lowest ozone level of 32.2 ppbv in summer. In spring and winter the influence of Chinese outflows was dominant with higher ozone concentrations of 61.6 and 49.3 ppbv, respectively. This study confirms that the influence of Chinese outflows was the main factor determining O3 levels at IORS, of which extent was apt to be changed by meteorological state, particularly at a long-term scale.

  4. Designing clinical studies that take into account traditional East Asian medicine's systems and methods - with focus on pattern identification.

    PubMed

    Alraek, Terje

    2014-05-01

    This article is based on two presentations held at Chinese medicine conference in Rothenburg (2013), Germany and at the 19th Anniversary of Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) International Symposium of Current Research Trends in Traditional Medicine - Pattern of Identification (2013). In designing clinical studies, it is a research question that leads to appropriate study design. However, they are mostly diagnostic procedures and techniques that are the key points to reflect the application of systems and methods in all forms of medicine - traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) is no exception. The challenges within TEAM based on research reflect in different systems of medicine/theories such as traditional Japanese acupuncture, traditional Korean acupuncture and traditional Chinese acupuncture. This diversity of medical systems and methods applied in East Asia seems to have been fruitful within the different countries and traditional medicines have found their places within the respective countries health systems. The existing diversity, from a clinician's point of view, may be viewed as a treasure when dealing with patients in the 'real world'. On the other hand, this diversity seems to challenge the scientific mind worldwide, especially when it comes to research. Hence, there is a gap between clinical practice and research. PMID:24788085

  5. Variations of surface ozone at Ieodo Ocean Research Station in the East China Sea and the influence of Asian outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Shin, B.; Lee, M.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Shim, J.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.

    2015-11-01

    Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), a research tower (~ 40 m a.s.l.) for atmospheric and oceanographic observations, is located in the East China Sea (32.07° N, 125.10° E). The IORS is almost equidistant from South Korea, China, and Japan and, therefore, it is an ideal place to observe Asian outflows without local emission effects. The seasonal variation of ozone was distinct, with a minimum in August (37 ppbv) and two peaks in April and October (62 ppbv), and was largely affected by the seasonal wind pattern over east Asia. At IORS, six types of air masses were distinguished with different levels of O3 concentrations by the cluster analysis of backward trajectories. Marine air masses from the Pacific Ocean represent a relatively clean background air with a lowest ozone level of 32 ppbv, which was most frequently observed in summer (July-August). In spring (March-April) and winter (December-February), the influence of Chinese outflows was dominant with higher ozone concentrations of 62 and 49 ppbv, respectively. This study confirms that the influence of Chinese outflows was the main factor determining O3 levels at IORS and its extent was dependent on meteorological state, particularly at a long-term scale.

  6. Trends in Articulation Arrangements for Technical and Vocational Education in the South East Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Adrian R.

    Trends in articulation arrangements for technical and vocational education (TVE) in the South East Asia region were studied. A key feature of articulation is the existence of pathways that allow graduates of one course of study to progress to other courses. Effective articulation opens up advancement for individuals and helps to create a flexible…

  7. Recommended East Asian Core Collections for Children's, High School, Public, Community College and Undergraduate College Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, William H. O., Ed.

    A basic buying list for libraries seeking to develop their Far East holdings is given in this bibliography. Over 1700 items include published material up to 1973--books, periodicals, films, filmstrips, tapes, and phonograph records--pertaining to China, Formosa, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and Tibet. The items are arranged geographically with topical…

  8. Linguistic and Cultural Factors in East Asian Students' Oral Participation in U.S. University Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ee Lin

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, the United States education system has undergone a dramatic demographic shift characterized by a continuing increase in the cultural diversification of the student population. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 1999-2000 international students from East Asia (i.e., China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and…

  9. Review Essay: Moving beyond Global Encounters toward Global Reciprocity: Christian Education in East Asian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Christianity as a world religion was propagated from Europe and North America to Africa and Asia. Global Christianity spread to East Asia when Robert Morrison (1782-1843) arrived in Canton, China in 1807, and later in the late 19th-century Protestant missionaries from North America arrived in Japan and Korea. This Christianity experienced a modern…

  10. The Achievement Gap, Revisited: An Empirical Assessment of What We Can Learn from East Asian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czehut, Katherine Jessica Drake

    2012-01-01

    International mathematics assessments have established students in East Asia as among the best in the world and their U.S. counterparts as mediocre. What is not clear is why this "achievement gap" exists. The last major study to address this question, Stevenson and Stigler's (1992) "The Learning Gap," was published prior

  11. East Asian Monsoon Signals Reflected in Temperature and Precipitation Changes over the Past 300 Years in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zhixin; Sun, Di; Zheng, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    Based on observational data and Asian monsoon intensity datasets from China, the relationships between the East Asian winter monsoon index and winter temperature, the East Asian summer monsoon index and Meiyu precipitation over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, were analyzed. We found that the monsoon signals were reflected in the temperature and Meiyu precipitation variations. Thus, we used the reconstructed Meiyu precipitation and winter temperature series for the past 300 years and detected the summer/winter monsoon intensity signals using multi-taper spectral estimation method and wavelet analysis. The main periodicities of Meiyu precipitation and winter temperature, such as interannual cycle with 2–7-year, interdecadal-centennial cycles with 30–40-year and 50–100-year, were found. The good relationships between the East Asian summer and winter monsoons suggested that they were in phase at 31-year cycle, while out of phase at 100-year cycle, but with 20-year phase difference. In addition, the winter monsoon intensity may be regulated by the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Arctic Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and the summer monsoon is closely related to the signal intensities of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. PMID:26107375

  12. East Asian monsoon signals reflected in temperature and precipitation changes over the past 300 years in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhixin; Sun, Di; Zheng, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    Based on observational data and Asian monsoon intensity datasets from China, the relationships between the East Asian winter monsoon index and winter temperature, the East Asian summer monsoon index and Meiyu precipitation over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, were analyzed. We found that the monsoon signals were reflected in the temperature and Meiyu precipitation variations. Thus, we used the reconstructed Meiyu precipitation and winter temperature series for the past 300 years and detected the summer/winter monsoon intensity signals using multi-taper spectral estimation method and wavelet analysis. The main periodicities of Meiyu precipitation and winter temperature, such as interannual cycle with 2-7-year, interdecadal-centennial cycles with 30-40-year and 50-100-year, were found. The good relationships between the East Asian summer and winter monsoons suggested that they were in phase at 31-year cycle, while out of phase at 100-year cycle, but with 20-year phase difference. In addition, the winter monsoon intensity may be regulated by the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Arctic Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and the summer monsoon is closely related to the signal intensities of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. PMID:26107375

  13. Southern East Asian origin and coexpansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family with Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tao; Comas, Iñaki; Luo, Dan; Lu, Bing; Wu, Jie; Wei, Lanhai; Yang, Chongguang; Liu, Qingyun; Gan, Mingyu; Sun, Gang; Shen, Xin; Liu, Feiying; Gagneux, Sebastien; Mei, Jian; Lan, Rushu; Wan, Kanglin; Gao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The Beijing family is the most successful genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and responsible for more than a quarter of the global tuberculosis epidemic. As the predominant genotype in East Asia, the Beijing family has been emerging in various areas of the world and is often associated with disease outbreaks and antibiotic resistance. Revealing the origin and historical dissemination of this strain family is important for understanding its current global success. Here we characterized the global diversity of this family based on whole-genome sequences of 358 Beijing strains. We show that the Beijing strains endemic in East Asia are genetically diverse, whereas the globally emerging strains mostly belong to a more homogenous subtype known as “modern” Beijing. Phylogeographic and coalescent analyses indicate that the Beijing family most likely emerged around 30,000 y ago in southern East Asia, and accompanied the early colonization by modern humans in this area. By combining the genomic data and genotyping result of 1,793 strains from across China, we found the “modern” Beijing sublineage experienced massive expansions in northern China during the Neolithic era and subsequently spread to other regions following the migration of Han Chinese. Our results support a parallel evolution of the Beijing family and modern humans in East Asia. The dominance of the “modern” Beijing sublineage in East Asia and its recent global emergence are most likely driven by its hypervirulence, which might reflect adaption to increased human population densities linked to the agricultural transition in northern China. PMID:26080405

  14. Health effects of small volatile compounds from East asian medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Pennerman, Kayla K; Yin, Guohua; Bennett, Joan Wennstrom

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal fungi, taken whole or as various forms of extracts, have been used to alleviate, cure or prevent human ailments since pre-historic times. In particular, Asian cultures have incorporated a variety of mushrooms into their medical practices. Chemically pure, bioactive metabolites from fungi have been a mainstay of modern pharmacological research and in addition to antibiotics, include anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, enzyme inhibitors, antagonist and agonists of hormones, and a variety of psychotropic substances. However, to date not many studies have focused on the possible health benefits of odorant volatile organic compounds (i.e., gas phase compounds). An analysis of these compounds for their health related effects will expand the range of compounds available for the treatment of chronic and acute diseases. This review highlights phenolic acids and monoterpenes from Asian medicinal mushrooms (AMMs), which not only produce pleasant odors but also have antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Odorant bioactive volatile phase compounds from medicinal mushrooms remain an essentially untapped source for future medicines, and AMMs remain a promising resource for future pharmacological research. PMID:25892909

  15. Health Effects of Small Volatile Compounds from East Asian Medicinal Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guohua; Bennett, Joan Wennstrom

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal fungi, taken whole or as various forms of extracts, have been used to alleviate, cure or prevent human ailments since pre-historic times. In particular, Asian cultures have incorporated a variety of mushrooms into their medical practices. Chemically pure, bioactive metabolites from fungi have been a mainstay of modern pharmacological research and in addition to antibiotics, include anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, enzyme inhibitors, antagonist and agonists of hormones, and a variety of psychotropic substances. However, to date not many studies have focused on the possible health benefits of odorant volatile organic compounds (i.e., gas phase compounds). An analysis of these compounds for their health related effects will expand the range of compounds available for the treatment of chronic and acute diseases. This review highlights phenolic acids and monoterpenes from Asian medicinal mushrooms (AMMs), which not only produce pleasant odors but also have antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Odorant bioactive volatile phase compounds from medicinal mushrooms remain an essentially untapped source for future medicines, and AMMs remain a promising resource for future pharmacological research. PMID:25892909

  16. Variant metabolic risk factor profile leading to premature coronary disease: time to define the syndrome of accelerated atherocoronary metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, S R; Jayasinghe, S H

    2009-10-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is fast becoming a major morbidity and mortality burden in the developing world. The magnitude of the problem is predicted to exceed that of the developed world due to the sheer population numbers at risk. The Indian subcontinental ethnicity has been associated with a more severe form of CAD that has its onset at a younger age. This form of coronary disease and its risk factors seem quite different from what has been previously described in studies done among non-Asian Indian populations (mainly Caucasians living in the West). This fact has led to a situation where the current preventative and management protocols that have worked well in the non-Asian Indian populations, have failed to bring about the anticipated control over this disease condition, its progression and its incidence in this population. The time has come to identify the variant of CAD in the Asian Indian ethnic population and the associated metabolic factors, as a separate and distinct entity, and as a unique syndrome. This distinction may facilitate more focused and ethnicity-specific studies to be carried out to unravel the mysteries surrounding the clinical, pathological and molecular biological aspects of the CAD syndrome among Asian Indian ethnics. The outcomes and findings of such investigations may help gain a stranglehold on this rapidly-progressing disease condition among the populations in emerging and densely-populated economies of the South Asian region, as well as among millions of Asian-Indian ethnics living all over the world. Thus we may brace ourselves to better address or even prevent what has been dubbed "the next major clinical epidemic of our times". PMID:19907883

  17. The Asian-American E6 Variant Protein of Human Papillomavirus 16 Alone Is Sufficient To Promote Immortalization, Transformation, and Migration of Primary Human Foreskin Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Niccoli, Sarah; Abraham, Suraj; Richard, Christina

    2012-01-01

    We examined how well the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncogene can function in the absence of the E7 oncogene during the carcinogenic process in human keratinocytes using a common HPV variant strongly associated with cervical cancer: the Asian-American E6 variant (AAE6). This E6 variant is 20 times more frequently detected in cervical cancer than the prototype European E6 variant, as evidenced by independent epidemiological data. Using cell culture and cell-based functional assays, we assessed how this variant can perform crucial carcinogenesis steps compared to the prototype E6 variant. The ability to immortalize and transform primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFKs) to acquire resilient phenotypes and the ability to promote cell migration were evaluated. The immortalization capability was assayed based on population doublings, number of passages, surpassing mortality stages 1 and 2, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, and the ability to overcome G1 arrest via p53 degradation. Transformation and migration efficiency were analyzed using a combination of functional cell-based assays. We observed that either AAE6 or prototype E6 proteins alone were sufficient to immortalize PHFKs, although AAE6 was more potent in doing so. The AAE6 variant protein alone pushed PHFKs through transformation and significantly increased their migration ability over that of the E6 prototype. Our findings are in line with epidemiological data that the AA variant of HPV16 confers an increased risk over the European prototype for cervical cancer, as evidenced by a superior immortalization, transformation, and metastatic potential. PMID:22951839

  18. The impact of the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols on the subseasonal march of the East Asian subtropical summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongdong; Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Zhihong; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Zhu, Tong

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol emissions have rapidly increased in East Asia since the late 1970s. During the same period, the East Asian summer monsoon has shown a weakening trend. In this work, the direct effects (DE) of sulfate and black carbon (BC) aerosols on the subseasonal (pentad mean) march of the East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) are investigated using an interactive global climate-chemistry model. The simulation results suggest that the DE of sulfate aerosols have a notable effect on the cooling of the low troposphere across the continent in spring and autumn, hence, changing the time of the seasonal transition of the zonal land-sea thermal contrast (ZTC). The DE of BC result in cooling of the low troposphere and heating of the middle troposphere, leading to a different impact than that caused by sulfates. The cooling of the surface and troposphere by sulfates leads to a delay in the warming of East Asian continent in spring and the EASSM onset time; it also accelerates the process of the continent turning colder and advances the retreat of the EASSM. The deeper heating in the middle-upper troposphere than the cooling in the low troposphere due to the DE of BC or the combination of both lead to an advance in the onset time of the monsoon caused by the continent turning warmer earlier in spring. In autumn, the same cooling effect by sulfates leads to the continent turning colder earlier, resulting in an advance in the retreat time.

  19. Neurovirulence comparison of chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wei Chiam, Chun; Fun Chan, Yoke; Chai Ong, Kien; Thong Wong, Kum; Sam, I-Ching

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes fever, polyarthritis and rash. There are three genotypes: West African, Asian and East/Central/South African (ECSA). The latter two genotypes have caused global outbreaks in recent years. Recent ECSA CHIKV outbreaks have been associated with severe neurological disease, but it is not known if different CHIKV genotypes are associated with different neurovirulence. In this study, the neurovirulence of Asian (MY/06/37348) and ECSA (MY/08/065) strains of CHIKV isolated in Malaysia were compared. Intracerebral inoculation of either virus into suckling mice was followed by virus titration, histopathology and gene expression analysis of the harvested brains. Both strains of CHIKV replicated similarly, yet mice infected with MY/06/37348 showed higher mortality. Histopathology findings showed that both CHIKV strains spread within the brain (where CHIKV antigen was localized to astrocytes and neurons) and beyond to skeletal muscle. In MY/06/37348-infected mice, apoptosis, which is associated with neurovirulence in alphaviruses, was observed earlier in brains. Comparison of gene expression showed that a pro-apoptotic gene (eIF2αK2) was upregulated at higher levels in MY/06/37348-infected mice, while genes involved in anti-apoptosis (BIRC3), antiviral responses and central nervous system protection (including CD40, IL-10RA, MyD88 and PYCARD) were upregulated more highly in MY/08/065-infected mice. In conclusion, the higher mortality observed following MY/06/37348 infection in mice is due not to higher viral replication in the brain, but to differentially expressed genes involved in host immune responses. These findings may help to identify therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neurological CHIKV infections. PMID:26276497

  20. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian Regions, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2012-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) has conducted continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific Region (WPR) to optimise antibiotic treatment and control of gonococcal disease since 1992. From 2007, this has been enhanced by the inclusion of data from the WHO South East Asian Region (SEAR). Over time, there has been recruitment of additional centres in both regions. This report provides an analysis of antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae in the WHO WPR and SEAR derived from results of the 2010 GASP surveillance. In 2010 there were 9,744 N. gonorrhoeae isolates examined for their susceptibility to one or more of the antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhoea, incorporating External Quality Assurance controlled methods, from reporting centres in 19 countries and/or jurisdictions. A high proportion of penicillin and quinolone resistance was again detected amongst isolates tested in the 'Asian' countries of WHO WPR and SEAR. In contrast, lower levels of penicillin and quinolone resistance were reported from the Pacific Islands of Fiji and New Caledonia. The proportion of gonococci reported as having 'decreased susceptibility' to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone varied widely, ranging from 1.3% to 55.8%. There is a continued need for revision and clarification of some of the in vitro criteria that are currently used to categorise the clinical importance of gonococci with different ceftriaxone and oral cephalosporin MIC levels, and to relate these to treatment outcome. Azithromycin resistance was very low in most countries reporting, except in Mongolia where it was 34%. The number of instances of spectinomycin resistance remained low. A high proportion of strains tested continued to exhibit high-level plasmid mediated resistance to tetracyclines. The continuing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant gonococci in and from the WHO WPR and SEAR underlines the importance of the maintenance and expansion of surveillance programs such as GASP, which are essential for disease control. PMID:23153085

  1. Implications of East Asian summer and winter monsoons for interannual aerosol variations over central-eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xugeng; Zhao, Tianliang; Gong, Sunling; Xu, Xiangde; Han, Yongxiang; Yin, Yan; Tang, Lili; He, Hongchang; He, Jinhai

    2016-03-01

    Air quality change is generally driven by two factors: pollutant emissions and meteorology, which are difficult to distinguish via observations. To identify the contribution of meteorological factor to air quality change, an aerosol simulation from 1995 to 2004 with the global air quality model GEM-AQ/EC was designed without year-to-year changes in the anthropogenic aerosol (including sulfate and organic and black carbon) emissions over the 10-year span. To assess the impact of interannual variations of East Asian monsoon (EAM) on air quality change in China, this modeling study focused on the region of central-eastern China (CEC), a typical East Asian monsoon (EAM) region with high anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The simulation analysis showed that the interannual variability in surface aerosols over CEC was driven by fluctuation in meteorological factors associated with EAM changes. Large amplitudes of interannual variability in surface aerosol concentrations reaching 20-30% relative to the 10-year averages were found over southern CEC in summer and over northern CEC in winter. The weakened near-surface winds of EAMs in both summer and winter were significantly correlated with aerosol increases over most areas of CEC. The summer and winter monsoon changes enhance the surface aerosol concentrations with increasing trend rates exceeding 30% and 40% over the southern and northern CEC region, respectively, during the 10 years. The composite analyses of aerosol concentrations in weak and strong monsoon years revealed that positive anomalies in surface aerosol concentrations during weak summer monsoon years were centered over the vast CEC region from the North China Plain to the Sichuan Basin, and the anomaly pattern with "northern higher" and "southern lower" surface aerosol levels was distributed over CEC in weak winter monsoon years. Aerosol washout by summer monsoon rainfall exerted an impact on CEC aerosol distribution in summer; aerosol dry depositions in connection with atmospheric boundary layer conditions resulted in wintertime aerosol variations over CEC. Climate change with regard to EAMs could modulate the interannual variations in aerosols and air quality over CEC by changing near-surface winds, precipitation and atmospheric boundary layer.

  2. Interdecadal Variations of East Asian Monsoon as Inferred by Tree-ring Data From Northeastern Qaidam Basin, Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Huang, L.; Yin, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2006-12-01

    East Asian monsoon is crucial for modulating the climate in China. Especially, the summer monsoon is closely related to the severe flood and drought events in eastern China. To study the characteristics of summer monsoon a long-term record is needed. In this study we attempted to examine the interdecadal variations of East Asian monsoon by using tree-ring data. The summer monsoon index (Ism) for the period of 1873- 2000 was calculated using sea level pressure data. Firstly, we calculated the difference (ΔP) of the sea level pressure between the land (110ºE) and sea (160ºE) from 10ºN to 50ºN with 5º intervals. Then the ΔP values that are smaller than or equal to -5 hPa in June, July and August were summed and defined as the Ism. By this definition Ism values greater than 1.0 represent strong monsoon conditions, and vice versa. Sea level pressure data prior to 1951 were obtained from the Meteorological Office of United Kingdom, and that afterwards were from the NCEP data set. The tree ring data of Qilian junipers (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) are from the northeastern part of the Qaidam Basin, located along the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. These tree-ring data have been used to reconstruct local precipitation and soil moisture conditions. Previous studies have revealed that there was a teleconnection in rainfall between eastern China and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We examined the relationships of the ring-width series with the Ism series over the common period of 1873-2000 AD. We found that the tree-ring widths were statistical significantly correlated with Ism. These negative correlations increased significantly after a low-pass filter was used for both data sets, indicating very good potential for reconstruction of low-frequency variations of Ism in the past. Variability of the Ism series and ring-width series were examined using power spectrum analysis and wavelet transformation. The reconstructed Ism values during the period 1440-1550 and the first part of the 18th Century might be the strongest in the past 1000 years.

  3. Using Single-Scattering Albedo Spectral Curvature to Characterize East Asian Aerosol Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral dependence of aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) has been used to infer aerosol composition. In particular, aerosol mixtures dominated by dust absorption will have monotonically increasing SSA with wavelength while that dominated by black carbon absorption has monotonically decreasing SSA spectra. However, by analyzing SSA measured at four wavelengths, 440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm from the Aerosol Robotic Network data set, we find that the SSA spectra over East Asia are frequently peaked at 675 nm. In these cases, we suggest that SSA spectral curvature, defined as the negative of the second derivative of SSA as a function of wavelength, can provide additional information on the composition of these aerosol mixtures. Aerosol SSA spectral curvatures for East Asia during fall and winter are considerably larger than those found in places primarily dominated by biomass burning or dust aerosols. SSA curvature is found to increase as the SSA magnitude decreases. The curvature increases with coarse mode fraction (CMF) to a CMF value of about 0.4, then slightly decreases or remains constant at larger CMF. Mie calculations further verify that the strongest SSA curvature occurs at approx. 40% dust fraction, with 10% scattering aerosol fraction. The nonmonotonic SSA spectral dependence is likely associated with enhanced absorption in the shortwave by dust, absorption by black carbon at longer wavelengths, and also the flattened absorption optical depth spectral dependence due to the increased particle size.

  4. Impact of boundary layer processes on seasonal simulation of the East Asian summer monsoon using a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, D.-H.; Lee, D.-K.; Hong, S.-Y.

    2008-08-01

    In this study, an improved planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme (YSU scheme) is implemented in a regional climate model (SNURCM) to rectify the systematic bias of the model with the MRF PBL scheme, and the impact of new PBL processes on the simulation of precipitation in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is investigated through regional climate simulations with the MRF and the YSU schemes for the summer of 1998 when extreme floods occurred over East Asia. Compared to the experiment with the MRF scheme that shows excessive monsoon precipitation, particularly over the ocean, the experiment with the YSU scheme improves the seasonal mean precipitation as well as associated large-scale circulations. The temporal progression of the monsoon precipitation and 500 hPa geopotential height, and vertical structure are also improved by the revised scheme. The MRF scheme simulates more convective precipitation over the ocean than the YSU scheme, since excessive PBL mixing results in the positive feedback between convective precipitation and latent heat flux at the sea surface. The MRF scheme also simulates more non-convective precipitation over the ocean due to distorted large-scale circulations and excessive PBL mixing. In the experiment with the YSU scheme, the simulated precipitation over the ocean is in good agreement with the observation, since the positive feedback is relatively reduced and large-scale features are reasonably reproduced due to decreased PBL mixing. Excessive PBL mixing in the MRF scheme can also amplify the biases of precipitation over the ocean due to uncoupled air sea interaction that can result in the imbalance of the energy budget at the sea surface. This implies that new YSU PBL processes can have crucial influences on the regional climate simulation without an ocean model. The results of additional experiments without the spectral nudging technique also reaffirm the impact of the YSU scheme, and further indicate that the development of a coupled regional climate model is required for more reasonable simulation of the EASM.

  5. Emissions of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) from East Asian Aluminum and Semiconductor Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Li, S.; Muhle, J.; Fang, X.; Manning, A. J.; Arnold, T.; Park, S.; Park, M.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Stohl, A.; Weiss, R. F.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) are among the most potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), with atmospheric lifetimes of 50,000 and 10,000 years and 100-year Global Warming Potentials of 7,490 and 12,200, respectively. The Chinese aluminum smelting (AL) industry, accounting for 39% of the global aluminum production in 2010, has become a significant emitter of these compounds to the atmosphere, . The AL industry has estimated its Chinese emissions averaged over 2008-2010 at 1.4 Gg/yr of CF4 and 0.06 Gg/yr of C2F6. In this study we combine East Asian measurements of C2F6 at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea), Hateruma, and Ochi-Ishi (Japan) and of CF4 at Gosan, using inversion techniques and two Lagrangian particle dispersion models (FLEXPART and NAME), to estimate the emissions of these two compounds from China and East Asia. Our results yield total emissions from China for the 2008-2010 period of approximately 4 0.5 Gg/yr for CF4 and 0.8 0.1 Gg/yr for C2F6. These results may be reconciled if emissions of these compounds from China's semiconductor (SC) industry are larger than currently estimated. However, evidence presented in the analysis of the inversion results and in the C2F6/CF4 emission ratios observed for China suggest that China's AL industry emissions are likely to be the dominant source of the discrepancy between reported emissions and those inferred from atmospheric measurements. As the AL and SC industries evolve toward new manufacturing technologies that reduce GHG emissions, continued and improved atmospheric measurements and modeling in this region will be useful in assessing the effectiveness of these changes.

  6. East Asian Summer Monsoon Variations in the Last 1,700 Years Inferred from δ18o of Ostracode Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, K.; Sakai, S.; Seto, K.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of ostracode shells (δ18Oostracode) from the central part of Lake Nakaumi, southwest Japan were examined to clarify intensity of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in the last 1700 years. Adult whole shell of Bicornucythere bisanensis, which grow into adulthood from April to August in the present Nakaumi, was used for δ18O measurements. Long-term trend in δ18Oostracode correspond with salinity changes in Lake Nakaumi caused by regional geographic events based on analysis of fossil ostracode assemblages. Five short-term increases in δ18Oostracode were recognized in 500, 900, 1350, 1650 and 1850 AD, which correspond with weak periods of the EASM intensity based on δ18O of stalagmite in Wanxiang cave. Intensity of EASM is representative of precipitation around the Japan. For recent ostracodes, δ18Oostracode positively correlated with bottom water salinity, which related negatively to precipitation and positively to δ18O of lake water in the recent Nakaumi. Thus, it might be interpreted that the short-term fluctuations in δ18Oostracode were caused by intensity change of EASM, since δ18Oostracode will increase due to low precipitation during weak periods of EASM. Further, the compiled data demonstrate that at least five EASM weakening periods, in 500, 900, 1350, 1650 and 1850 AD, occurred between 30° and 40° N in East Asia in the last 1700 years. These timings accord with data from sites, which suggests that oscillations of the EASM have been synchronous across the region.

  7. Identifying, Instructing and Rehabilitating South East Asian Students with Special Needs and Counseling Their Parents. Report of a Meeting Held at the Annual Conference of the National Association for South East Asian Students with Special Needs (San Francisco, California, March 13, 1985) and a Workshop (June 9-12, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai; Grossman, Herbert

    The report provides background information on the educational needs of disabled South East Asian students and presents four papers from a meeting and workshop on the topic held respectively in March and June of 1985. A draft of an action plan advocated by meeting participants addresses ways to meet five major needs: (1) to obtain information on…

  8. Asian Indians in the United States: A 1980 Census Profile. Papers of the East-West Population Institute. Number 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xenos, Peter; And Others

    The South Asian population has emerged as a dynamic and affluent cultural minority in the United States. The 1980 Census, which provides the basis for this report, estimates the number of South Asians at around 400,000, and projections suggest that over one million will have joined the U.S. population by the year 2000. South Asian ethnicity is

  9. Ecomorphology, differentiated habitat use, and nocturnal activities of Rhinolophus and Hipposideros species in East Asian tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Fu; Kuo, Yen-Min; Chu, Wen-Chen; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the wing morphology and foraging distributions of sympatric Rhinolophus and Hipposideros species by acoustic sampling, measuring wing parameters, and observing bats in different settings of tropical East Asian forests, to evaluate their flexibility in habitat use and edge sensitivity. R. formosae and H. terasensis were more abundant at edges/in open habitats and shared the highest overlap, with R. formosae displaying the greatest breadth in habitat use, whereas R. monoceros had a higher abundance and feeding efficiency in forest interiors with a continuous canopy. H. terasensis was significantly larger and had higher wing loading and aspect ratio than R. formosae and R. monoceros, while R. formosae had higher wing loading but a lower aspect ratio than the smaller-sized R. monoceros. Shrubs and herbs were higher at sites where bats were captured than at those without bat captures, and R. monoceros and R. formosae were associated with greater canopy and ground coverage, respectively. R. monoceros always foraged while flying at lower heights close to the herb/shrub layers, while H. terasensis and R. formosae used perching to different extents, with R. formosae preferably using fly-catching techniques and appearing farther from the path in open forests rather than in forest interiors. Our results indicate that differences in wing parameters account for the different degrees of flexibility in habitat use, yet the deviations of call frequency from the expected values in R. formosae and H. terasensis suggest additional adaptations accounting for their flexibility in exploring habitats. PMID:22230387

  10. Characterization of two Austrian porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) field isolates reveals relationship to East Asian strains.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Leonie J; Zieglowski, Leonie; Koinig, Hanna; Lamp, Benjamin; Jansko, Bettina; Mößlacher, Georg; Riedel, Christiane; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Rümenapf, Till

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes major problems for the swine industry worldwide. Due to Austria's central location in Europe, a large number of animals are transported through the country. However, little is known about current PRRSV strains and epidemiology. We determined full-length genome sequences of two Austrian field isolates (AUT13-883 and AUT14-440) from recent PRRSV outbreaks and of a related German isolate (GER09-613). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strains belong to European genotype 1 subtype 1 and form a cluster together with a South Korean strain. Remarkably, AUT14-440 infected the simian cell line MARC-145 without prior adaptation. In addition, this isolate showed exceptional deletions in nonstructural protein 2, in the overlapping region of glycoprotein 3 and 4 and in the 3' untranslated region. Both Austrian isolates caused similar lung lesions but only pigs infected with AUT14-440 developed clear clinical signs of infection. Taken together, the genetic and biological characterization of two novel Austrian PRRSV field isolates revealed similarities to East Asian strains. This stresses the necessity for a more detailed analysis of current PRRSV strains in Europe beyond the determination of short ORF5 and ORF7 sequences. PMID:26754154

  11. Large-scale genetic study in East Asians identifies six new loci associated with colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ben; Jia, Wei-Hua; Matsuda, Koichi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Matsuo, Keitaro; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shin, Aesun; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Shi, Jiajun; Wen, Wanqing; Yang, Gong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Chun; Li, Bingshan; Guo, Yan; Ren, Zefang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Takahashi, Atsushi; Shin, Min-Ho; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Gao, Yu-Tang; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Soriul; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Slattery, Martha L.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Stenzel, Stephanie L.; Casey, Graham; Kim, Hyeong-Rok; Jeong, Jin-Young; Park, Ji Won; Li, Hong-Lan; Hosono, Satoyo; Cho, Sang-Hee; Kubo, Michiaki; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Known genetic loci explain only a small proportion of the familial relative risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted the largest genome-wide association study in East Asians with 14,963 CRC cases and 31,945 controls and identified six new loci associated with CRC risk (P = 3.42 × 10−8 to 9.22 × 10−21) at 10q22.3, 10q25.2, 11q12.2, 12p13.31, 17p13.3 and 19q13.2. Two of these loci map to genes (TCF7L2 and TGFB1) with established roles in colorectal tumorigenesis. Four other loci are located in or near genes involved in transcription regulation (ZMIZ1), genome maintenance (FEN1), fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 and FADS2), cancer cell motility and metastasis (CD9) and cell growth and differentiation (NXN). We also found suggestive evidence for three additional loci associated with CRC risk near genome-wide significance at 8q24.11, 10q21.1 and 10q24.2. Furthermore, we replicated 22 previously reported CRC loci. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CRC and suggests new biological pathways. PMID:24836286

  12. ntermediate frequency atmospheric disturbances: A dynamical bridge connecting western U.S. extreme precipitation with East Asian cold surges

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tianyu NMI; Evans, Katherine J; Deng, Yi; Dong, Xiquan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an atmospheric river (AR) detection algorithm is developed to investigate the downstream modulation of the eastern North Pacific ARs by another weather extreme, known as the East Asian cold surge (EACS), in both reanalysis data and high-resolution global model simulations. It is shown that following the peak of an EACS, atmospheric disturbances of intermediate frequency (IF; 10 30 day period) are excited downstream. This leads to the formation of a persistent cyclonic circulation anomaly over the eastern North Pacific that dramatically enhances the AR occurrence probability and the surface precipitation over the western U.S. between 30 N and 50 N. A diagnosis of the local geopotential height tendency further confirms the essential role of IF disturbances in establishing the observed persistent anomaly. This downstream modulation effect is then examined in the two simulations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model version 4 with different horizontal resolutions (T85 and T341) for the same period (1979 2005). The connection between EACS and AR is much better captured by the T341 version of the model, mainly due to a better representation of the scale interaction and the characteristics of IF atmospheric disturbances in the higher-resolution model. The findings here suggest that faithful representations of scale interaction in a global model are critical for modeling and predicting the occurrences of hydrological extremes in the western U.S. and for understanding their potential future changes.

  13. Rethinking 'style' for historians and philosophers of science: converging lessons from sexuality, translation, and East Asian studies.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Howard H

    2009-06-01

    Historians and philosophers of science have furnished a wide array of theoretical-historiographical terms to emphasize the discontinuities among different systems of knowledge. Some of the most famous include Thomas Kuhn's "paradigm", Michel Foucault's "episteme", and the notion of "styles of reasoning" more recently developed by Ian Hacking and Arnold Davidson. This paper takes up this theoretical-historiographical thread by assessing the values and limitations of the notion of "style" for the historical and philosophical study of science. Specifically, reflecting on various methodological and theoretical concerns prompted by sexuality, translation, and East Asian studies, this paper argues that the heretofore ways in which historians and philosophers of science have used the notion of "style" are severely restricted in terms of its mere applicability to the intellectual history of Western science. The particular example of the translation of "homosexuality" into Chinese during the May Fourth era reveals that the notion of "style" has the potential of carrying a much more dynamic conceptual weight, as when used in "styles of argumentation". The paper also engages briefly with the historiography of scientific "national styles" and ends with some concluding remarks on the limitations of "social histories from below" and the under appreciated importance of "epistemological histories of possibilities". PMID:19442926

  14. A palaeo-ecological assessment of the resilience of south-east Asian dry forests to monsoon extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, R. J.; Penny, D.; Maxwell, A.

    2014-12-01

    Predictions that the frequency and intensity of monsoon extremes will rise in coming decades are being made with increasing confidence. There is concern that these climatic changes may drive tropical monsoon forests across critical thresholds, triggering ecological regime shifts. The global consequences of such shifts, coupled with knowledge gaps around the nature and intensity of drivers needed to instigate ecosystem reorganization, highlights the need for research that analyses the resilience of these seasonal forest to future climatic change. While work has indicated that these forests may be susceptible to reorganization to savanna under changing precipitation regimes, the interactions between climatic drivers and ecosystem response is still poorly understood, particularly in the seasonal forests outside of the neo- and afro-tropics. This study presents results on the threshold dynamics of the extensive south-east Asian seasonally dry tropical forest ecoregion (SASDTF) through analysis of plant microfossils and charcoal archived in sediment cores extracted from two tropical crater lakes in Cambodia. These data are compared with regional paleoclimatic reconstructions to gauge past forest response to monsoon extremes, and provide insight into the magnitude and duration of climatic events most likely to result in the breaching of critical thresholds. Our results suggest that, at a biome level, the SASDTF appears resilient to low-amplitude climatic variations over millennia, despite instrumental observations of strong precipitation-tree cover coupling in global dry forest resilience models.

  15. Reply to comment by Rashid et al. on "Asynchronous variation in the East Asian winter monsoon during the Holocene"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liya; Zhang, Xiaojian; Leduc, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    Rashid et al. (2016) questioned the use of the Mg-/Ca-based sea surface temperature (SST) data from the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean as well as the alkenone-based SST data from the western tropical Indian Ocean we used to reflect the winter SSTs or regional changes in the Holocene SSTs. We first would like to reemphasize that the main message we wanted to convey in our article is that the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) strength decreased and then increased again during the Holocene but with a substantial lag in southern China as compared to northern China. We, of course, wanted to back up our model results with published SST data that may have detected such an asynchronous variation in the EAWM. For convenience, we used a series of proxy records extracted from the extended Global database for alkenone-derived HOlocene Sea-surface Temperature (GHOST) database that were initially intended to provide a template of Holocene SST trends for model/data comparison purpose (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.737370). Rashid et al. (2016) questioned our model/data comparison exercise, arguing that the data we present in Zhang et al. (2015a) cannot be used to track leads and lags in winter SSTs in the North Atlantic and northern Indian Ocean. Below we address point by point the issues raised by Rashid et al. (2016) and thank the authors for giving us the opportunity to sharpen our model/data comparison analysis.

  16. Seasonality of westerly moisture transport in the East Asian summer monsoon and its implications for interpreting precipitation δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Alexander J.; Sodemann, Harald; Baldini, James U. L.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Johnson, Kathleen R.; Hunen, Jeroen; Zhang, Pingzhong

    2015-06-01

    East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall impacts the world's most populous regions. Accurate EASM rainfall prediction necessitates robust paleoclimate reconstructions from proxy data and quantitative linkage to modern climatic conditions. Many precisely dated oxygen isotope records from Chinese stalagmites have been interpreted as directly reflecting past EASM rainfall amount variability, but recent research suggests that such records instead integrate multiple hydroclimatic processes. Using a Lagrangian precipitation moisture source diagnostic, we demonstrate that EASM rainfall is primarily derived from the Indian Ocean. Conversely, Pacific Ocean moisture export peaks during winter, and the moisture uptake area does not differ significantly between summer and winter and is thus a minor contributor to monsoonal precipitation. Our results are substantiated by an accurate reproduction of summer and winter spatial rainfall distributions across China. We also correlate modern EASM rainfall oxygen isotope ratios with instrumental rainfall amount and our moisture source data. This analysis reveals that the strength of the source effect is geographically variable, and differences in atmospheric moisture transport may significantly impact the isotopic signature of EASM rainfall at the Hulu, Dongge, and Wanxiang Cave sites. These results improve our ability to isolate the rainfall amount signal in paleomonsoon reconstructions and indicate that precipitation across central and eastern China will directly respond to variability in Indian Ocean moisture supply.

  17. Trace elements and pollutants concentrations in shorebirds from Yeongjong Island, Korea in the East Asian-Australian migration flyways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Park, Seong-Keun; Koo, Tae-Hoe

    2007-07-01

    This study presents concentration levels of trace metals and pollutants (zinc, manganese, copper, lead, and cadmium) in tissues (livers, kidneys, muscles, and bones) of shorebirds from Yeongjong Island, Korea, in the East Asian-Australian migration flyways. Essential trace elements, zinc concentrations in kidneys, and copper concentrations in muscles significantly differed among shorebirds, but manganese concentrations did not differ in each tissue. We suggest that essential elements are within normal range and are maintained there by normal homeostatic mechanism. Lead concentrations in livers, kidneys, muscles, and bones were significantly different among shorebird species. Lead concentrations in livers of Kentish Plovers, Mongolian Plovers, Dunlins, and Great Knots were less than the toxic level, and lead concentrations in livers of Terek Sandpipers were at the background level. Cadmium concentrations in livers, kidneys, muscles, and bones did not vary among shorebirds, and concentrations of cadmium in livers and kidneys were at background level in all shorebirds. In livers of Dunlins from Yeongjong Island, lead and cadmium concentrations were higher than other locations previously reported. PMID:17404831

  18. Incorporating Cultural Perspectives into Diabetes Self-Management Programs for East Asian Immigrants: A Mixed-Study Review.

    PubMed

    Park, Chorong; Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin

    2016-04-01

    It is important to understand East Asian immigrants (EAIs)' unique perspectives in managing diabetes in order to provide culturally-competent care. However, it is not known whether EAIs' perspectives are addressed in diabetes self-management interventions developed for EAIs. Therefore, a mixed-study review was conducted to identify EAIs' perspective from qualitative research (n = 9 studies) and to evaluate the components of EAI diabetes self-management interventions (n = 7). Themes from the qualitative synthesis demonstrated that EAIs have unique cultural values and traditional health beliefs while struggling with multi-contextual barriers due to immigration. The evaluation of EAI diabetes self-management interventions revealed that there was a lack of consensus on cultural strategies for EAIs' across the interventions. Addressing language barriers was the only factor consistently integrated in the cultural components of intervention by employing bilingual interventionists. EAIs' perspectives and experiences need to be incorporated in the future diabetes self-management interventions to better provide culturally-competent care. PMID:25740553

  19. On the linkage between the Asian summer monsoon and tropopause fold activity over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrlis, Evangelos; Å kerlak, Bojan; Sprenger, Michael; Wernli, Heini; Zittis, George; Lelieveld, Jos

    2014-03-01

    A climatology of tropopause folds occurring over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (EMME) has been established using the ERA-Interim reanalyses for the years 1979-2012. The methodology employs an algorithm that detects folds at grid points where the vertical profile features multiple crossings of the dynamical tropopause and allows their classification according to their vertical extent. Our results confirm the findings of an earlier 1 year climatology that recognized a global "hot spot" of summertime fold activity between the eastern Mediterranean and central Asia, in the vicinity of the subtropical jet. Two distinct maxima of activity are identified over Turkey and Iran-Afghanistan where fold frequency exceeds 25%. Occasionally, medium and deep folds form over the two regions at surprisingly low latitudes. This summertime peak in fold activity diverges from the zonal mean seasonal cycle over the subtropics and is driven by the South Asian Monsoon. Starting in late spring, the EMME is gradually brought under the influence of the zonally asymmetric background state induced by the monsoon. As areas of sharply sloping isentropes develop especially over the eastern Mediterranean and Iran-Afghanistan, subsidence and fold formation are favored. Further investigation of the reanalysis data provided empirical evidence that the monsoon also drives the interannual variability of EMME fold activity. An upward trend in fold activity is identified, especially in May, attributed to the recent advanced monsoon onset and the deepening convective activity throughout summer, which promotes upper-level baroclinicity over the EMME and favors folding.

  20. Taxonomic revision of the East Asian genus Scleropteroides Colonnelli, 1979 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Ceutorhynchinae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junhao; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Zhang, Runzhi; Ito, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Scleropteroides Colonnelli, 1979 (Ceutorhynchinae: Scleropterini) was revised on the basis of detailed morphological observations. The genus was redefined to include three species from East Asia: S. hypocrita (Hustache, 1916) is redescribed and recorded from northeastern China and northern Korea for the first time; S. horridulus (Voss, 1958) is redescribed with new records from southern Korea; S. insularis Voss, 1971 was moved from synonymy with S. hypocrita to that with S. horridulus (syn. n.), and S. longiprocessus Huang & Yoshitake, sp. n. is described as new, sympatric with S. hypocrita in Japan. All the species are associated with woody Rubus species (Rosaceae). A key to species, habitus photographs, illustrations of important characters, and distribution maps are provided for each species. PMID:25197212

  1. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults in Asians: similarities and differences between East and West.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yufei; Zhou, Zhiguang; Deng, Chao; Leslie, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a form of autoimmune diabetes with features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and in the middle of the diabetes spectrum. Scientists clash on the question of whether this type of diabetes is a unique diabetes subtype. Multicenter studies have been performed in different countries, including the Korea National Diabetes Program (KNDP) collaboratory group, the Ehime study in Japan, the Not Insulin-Requiring Autoimmune Diabetes (NIRAD) study in Italy, the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) study in Norway, the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) in the UK, the Action LADA study in Europe and the LADA China study in China. These studies found universal immunogenetic effects associated with LADA, but with some ethnic differences. Herein we summarize those multicenter studies and compare the ethnic similarities and differences between East and West from epidemiological, clinical, immune, and genetic viewpoints. PMID:23448619

  2. The complete plastid genome of Piper kadsura (Piperaceae), an East Asian woody vine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Choi, In-Su; Choi, Byoung-Hee; Yang, Sungyu; Choi, Goya

    2016-09-01

    We sequenced the complete plastid genome (plastome) for Piper kadsura, a woody vine endemic to East Asia. This species is part of the largest genus within Piperaceae and its genome is almost identical to its congener P. cenocladum. The plastome for P. kadsura comprises 131 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 79 protein-coding genes. It retains ycf1 as an intact open reading frame. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the monophyly of the Piper genus. The additional plastome sequence found in this evolutionarily and economically important genus will be a valuable, fundamental tool for future studies of phylogenetic relationships among basal angiosperms, and will provide a useful resource for molecular breeding programs. PMID:26260180

  3. Sex guilt mediates the relationship between religiosity and sexual desire in East Asian and Euro-Canadian college-aged women.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jane S T; Morshedian, Negar; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2012-12-01

    Research has examined the relationship between religiosity and sexuality but few studies have explored the mechanisms by which sexual variables are influenced by religiosity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of sex guilt in the relationship between religiosity and sexual desire in women. Euro-Canadian (n = 178) and East Asian (n = 361) female university students completed a battery of questionnaires. Higher levels of religious fundamentalism, intrinsic religiosity and spirituality were associated with higher levels of sex guilt in both ethnic groups. Paranormal belief was not associated with sex guilt in either ethnic group. The Euro-Canadian women reported significantly higher levels of sexual desire and significantly less sex guilt than the East Asian women. Among the Euro-Canadian women, sex guilt mediated the relationships between spirituality and sexual desire, and fundamentalism and sexual desire; among the East Asian women, sex guilt mediated the relationships between spirituality and sexual desire, fundamentalism and sexual desire, and intrinsic religiosity and sexual desire. These findings suggest that sex guilt may be one mechanism by which religiosity affects sexual desire among women. PMID:22441769

  4. Invasion of Africa by a single pfcrt allele of South East Asian type

    PubMed Central

    Ariey, Frédéric; Fandeur, Thierry; Durand, Remy; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Jambou, Ronan; Legrand, Eric; Ekala, Marie Thérèse; Bouchier, Christiane; Cojean, Sandrine; Duchemin, Jean Bernard; Robert, Vincent; Le Bras, Jacques; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2006-01-01

    Background Because of its dramatic public health impact, Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine (CQ) has been documented early on. Chloroquine-resistance (CQR) emerged in the late 1950's independently in South East Asia and South America and progressively spread over all malaria areas. CQR was reported in East Africa in the 1970's, and has since invaded the African continent. Many questions remain about the actual selection and spreading process of CQR parasites, and about the evolution of the ancestral mutant gene(s) during spreading. Methods Eleven clinical isolates of P. falciparum from Cambodia and 238 from Africa (Senegal, Ivory Coast, Bukina Faso, Mali, Guinea, Togo, Benin, Niger, Congo, Madagascar, Comoros Islands, Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique, Cameroun, Gabon) were collected during active case detection surveys carried out between 1996 and 2001. Parasite DNA was extracted from frozen blood aliquots and amplification of the gene pfcrt exon 2 (codon 72–76), exon 4 and intron 4 (codon 220 and microsatellite marker) were performed. All fragments were sequenced. Results 124 isolates with a sensitive (c76/c220:CVMNK/A) haplotype and 125 isolates with a resistant c76/c220:CVIET/S haplotype were found. The microsatellite showed 17 different types in the isolates carrying the c76/c220:CVMNK/A haplotype while all 125 isolates with a CVIET/S haplotype but two had a single microsatellite type, namely (TAAA)3(TA)15, whatever the location or time of collection. Conclusion Those results are consistent with the migration of a single ancestral pfcrt CQR allele from Asia to Africa. This is related to the importance of PFCRT in the fitness of P. falciparum point out this protein as a potential target for developments of new antimalarial drugs. PMID:16638153

  5. Wet removal of black carbon in Asian outflow: Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Matsui, H.; Kajino, M.; Nakamura, H.; Jung, J. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted over East Asia in March-April 2009. During the A-FORCE campaign, 120 vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were obtained in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere. This study examines the wet removal of BC in Asian outflow using the A-FORCE data. The concentrations of BC and CO were greatly enhanced in air parcels sampled at 3-6 km in altitude over the Yellow Sea on 30 March 2009, associated with upward transport due to a cyclone with modest amounts of precipitation over northern China. In contrast, high CO concentrations without substantial enhancements of BC concentrations were observed in air parcels sampled at 5-6 km over the East China Sea on 23 April 2009, caused by uplifting due to cumulus convection with large amounts of precipitation over central China. The transport efficiency of BC (TEBC, namely the fraction of BC particles not removed during transport) in air parcels sampled above 2 km during the entire A-FORCE period decreased primarily with the increase in the precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during vertical transport, although their correlation was modest (r2 = 0.43). TEBC also depended on the altitude to which air parcels were transported from the PBL and the latitude where they were uplifted locally over source regions. The median values of TEBC for air parcels originating from northern China (north of 33°N) and sampled at 2-4 km and 4-9 km levels were 86% and 49%, respectively, during the A-FORCE period. These median values were systematically greater than the corresponding median values (69% and 32%, respectively) for air parcels originating from southern China (south of 33°N). Use of the A-FORCE data set will contribute to the reduction of large uncertainties in wet removal process of BC in global- and regional-scale models.

  6. Sex preference for children in Thailand and some other South-East Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Wongboonsin, K; Ruffolo, V P

    1995-09-01

    In Southeast Asia general impressions are that son preference exists in Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam, and that there is no sex bias in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Social and cultural factors are given as the reasons supporting sex bias. The suggestion is made that change in cultural setting may be accomplished through IEC programs. Women's status should be improved, and young people's attitudes and norms must be changed. Coombs's scale is considered a useful means of assessing the extent of sex preference within a country, which is a necessary step before initiating programs. The 1994 Cairo Plan of Action regards the empowerment of women and improved status as necessary for the success of population programs and national development. Most of the countries in Southeast Asia experienced fertility decline during 1990-95. Fertility in Asian countries declined faster than fertility in Indochinese countries. Brunei has the smallest population and Indonesia has the largest population. Singapore has the lowest percentage increase (11.5%) in population and Laos has the highest (35.8%). Laos is the only country in the region with an expected increase in the population growth rate. Cambodia and Myanmar are declining, but at a very slow rate. Population projections for the year 2000 show that the most populous countries will be Indonesia (218 million), Vietnam (81.5 million), and the Philippines (76.1 million). Sex preferences can be measured by indicators such as Goodkind's sex combination preference among women with two children, the percentage of second-birth intervals under 3 years by the sex of the first birth, or the sex ratio of child mortality. Validity is questioned when parity progression ratios, ordinary least square regression of birth intervals, the excess of male over female births, and the sex ratio at birth are used. Coombs's scale is useful when aiming to eliminate the confounding influence of preference in number. Prior research has identified micro- and macrolevel factors affecting sex preference. The application of Coombs's scale in Thailand reveals a preference for both sexes. PMID:12290694

  7. Impacts of the spectral nudging technique on simulation of the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianping; Song, Shi; Wu, Jian

    2010-07-01

    This study assesses the performance of spectral nudging methodology in dynamical regional climate downscaling for summer climate over East Asia. The regional climate model NCAR-MM5v3 was used to dynamically downscale the 2.5-degree NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (NNRP) data onto 50-km regional grids. The main focus is the model’s simulation of precipitation. The NCEP/CPC precipitation analysis data were used as the verification. Boreal summers (June, July, and August) in 1991, 1998, and 2003 and heavy floods that occurred in Eastern China were selected for the study. Compared to the control runs (CTLs) without spectral nudging (SN), experiments with SNs greatly reduced systematic errors in upper-level large-scale circulations and were in better agreement with the NNRP. At the same time, SNs outperformed CTLs in simulating model variables near the surface. In comparison with observational precipitation data, spectral nudging also improved the model’s simulation of precipitation in spatial and temporal distributions. SN-simulated precipitation field patterns, including the spatial distribution of monthly mean precipitation band, the seasonal march of major precipitation bands, and the daily variability of regional-averaged time series, show much more consistency with observations than those of the CTL runs.

  8. Oxygen isotopes of East Asian dinosaurs reveal exceptionally cold Early Cretaceous climates

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, Romain; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Zhonghe; Wang, Xiaolin; Buffetaut, Eric; Lécuyer, Christophe; Ding, Zhongli; Fluteau, Frédéric; Hibino, Tsuyoshi; Kusuhashi, Nao; Mo, Jinyou; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Xing; Zhang, Fusong

    2011-01-01

    Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages from East Asia and particularly the Jehol Biota of northeastern China flourished during a period of highly debated climatic history. While the unique characters of these continental faunas have been the subject of various speculations about their biogeographic history, little attention has been paid to their possible climatic causes. Here we address this question using the oxygen isotope composition of apatite phosphate (δ) from various reptile remains recovered from China, Thailand, and Japan. δ values indicate that cold terrestrial climates prevailed at least in this part of Asia during the Barremian—early Albian interval. Estimated mean air temperatures of about 10 ± 4 °C at midlatitudes (∼42 °N) correspond to present day cool temperate climatic conditions. Such low temperatures are in agreement with previous reports of cold marine temperatures during this part of the Early Cretaceous, as well as with the widespread occurrence of the temperate fossil wood genus Xenoxylon and the absence of thermophilic reptiles such as crocodilians in northeastern China. The unique character of the Jehol Biota is thus not only the result of its evolutionary and biogeographical history but is also due to rather cold local climatic conditions linked to the paleolatitudinal position of northeastern China and global icehouse climates that prevailed during this part of the Early Cretaceous. PMID:21393569

  9. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies. PMID:24899857

  10. Complete genomic DNA sequence of the East Asian spotted fever disease agent Rickettsia japonica.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Minenosuke; Ogawa, Motohiko; Takaoka, Naohisa; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Toh, Hidehiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kuhara, Satoru; Suzuki, Harumi; Hattori, Masahira; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji; Azuma, Yoshinao; Shirai, Mutsunori

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia japonica is an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacteria that causes tick-borne Japanese spotted fever, which has spread throughout East Asia. We determined the complete genomic DNA sequence of R. japonica type strain YH (VR-1363), which consists of 1,283,087 base pairs (bp) and 971 protein-coding genes. Comparison of the genomic DNA sequence of R. japonica with other rickettsiae in the public databases showed that 2 regions (4,323 and 216 bp) were conserved in a very narrow range of Rickettsia species, and the shorter one was inserted in, and disrupted, a preexisting open reading frame (ORF). While it is unknown how the DNA sequences were acquired in R. japonica genomes, it may be a useful signature for the diagnosis of Rickettsia species. Instead of the species-specific inserted DNA sequences, rickettsial genomes contain Rickettsia-specific palindromic elements (RPEs), which are also capable of locating in preexisting ORFs. Precise alignments of protein and DNA sequences involving RPEs showed that when a gene contains an inserted DNA sequence, each rickettsial ortholog carried an inserted DNA sequence at the same locus. The sequence, ATGAC, was shown to be highly frequent and thus characteristic in certain RPEs (RPE-4, RPE-6, and RPE-7). This finding implies that RPE-4, RPE-6, and RPE-7 were derived from a common inserted DNA sequence. PMID:24039725

  11. Traditional medicines in modern societies: an exploration of integrationist options through East Asian experience.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Ian

    2003-06-01

    Modern scientific medicine is increasingly challenged by complementary and alternative therapies. Reviewing policy options for contemporary healthcare development, the World Health Organization's first global strategy on traditional and alternative medicine, released in May 2002, advocates integration. However, experience in East Asia, the only part of the world where state of the art modern scientific facilities are commonly found alongside thriving traditional practices, reveals that medical integration can take several forms. To clarify the available policy options, this article categorizes those forms, identifying three types of integration (unification, equalization and subjugation), plus one type of non-integration (marginalization). It marks out a zone of balanced healthcare development that cuts across two of the integrationist types, and comprises non-discriminatory state treatment of separate but linked sectors of traditional and modern medicine. The article closes by exploring arguments for and against locating state policy in this zone, and holds that policy should be situated here for medical practices that can meet broadly acceptable professional standards, demonstrate an existing social demand, and generate an adequate supply of medical practitioners, possibly through some state subsidy. PMID:12815539

  12. Sensitivity of diurnal variation in simulated precipitation during East Asian summer monsoon to cumulus parameterization schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, In-Jin; Jin, Emilia Kyung; Han, Ji-Young; Kim, So-Young; Kwon, Young

    2015-12-01

    The capability to simulate the diurnal variation of precipitation over East Asia region during the summertime of 2011 is investigated using five different cumulus parameterization schemes with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. A semidiurnal cycle with a 12 h interval over land and a diurnal cycle with a 24 h interval over ocean are commonly found in all simulations, consistent with the observed diurnal cycle. Two observed dominant peaks in the early morning and afternoon are reproduced in all simulations. With overestimated precipitation rate, however, the simulated afternoon peaks occur earlier than the observed peaks by 2 h for the Kain-Fritsch (KF) and Simplified Arakawa-Schubert schemes, and by 3 h for the Betts-Miller-Janjić and Tiedtke schemes. The overestimation of simulated precipitation frequency leads to amplitude and phase errors in the precipitation rate, and the early peak time of simulated precipitation intensity intensifies the phase error in the simulation over land. The KF scheme with alternative trigger function (KFtr) based on moisture advection provides slightly better results in terms of alleviating the overestimated precipitation rate and frequency and delaying the afternoon peaks. Additional sensitivity simulations based on the change of temperature perturbation in the trigger function of the KF and KFtr schemes demonstrate the afternoon peak tends to be delayed as temperature perturbation decreases, implying the significant role of convective initiation frequency in determining diurnal peaks of precipitation. Modulation of temperature perturbation alleviates the precipitation frequency bias, while it could not resolve the precipitation intensity bias.

  13. Oxygen isotopes of East Asian dinosaurs reveal exceptionally cold Early Cretaceous climates.

    PubMed

    Amiot, Romain; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Zhonghe; Wang, Xiaolin; Buffetaut, Eric; Lécuyer, Christophe; Ding, Zhongli; Fluteau, Frédéric; Hibino, Tsuyoshi; Kusuhashi, Nao; Mo, Jinyou; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Xing; Zhang, Fusong

    2011-03-29

    Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages from East Asia and particularly the Jehol Biota of northeastern China flourished during a period of highly debated climatic history. While the unique characters of these continental faunas have been the subject of various speculations about their biogeographic history, little attention has been paid to their possible climatic causes. Here we address this question using the oxygen isotope composition of apatite phosphate (δ ) from various reptile remains recovered from China, Thailand, and Japan. δ values indicate that cold terrestrial climates prevailed at least in this part of Asia during the Barremian-early Albian interval. Estimated mean air temperatures of about 10 ± 4 °C at midlatitudes (∼ 42 °N) correspond to present day cool temperate climatic conditions. Such low temperatures are in agreement with previous reports of cold marine temperatures during this part of the Early Cretaceous, as well as with the widespread occurrence of the temperate fossil wood genus Xenoxylon and the absence of thermophilic reptiles such as crocodilians in northeastern China. The unique character of the Jehol Biota is thus not only the result of its evolutionary and biogeographical history but is also due to rather cold local climatic conditions linked to the paleolatitudinal position of northeastern China and global icehouse climates that prevailed during this part of the Early Cretaceous. PMID:21393569

  14. Internal Variability-Generated Uncertainty in East Asian Climate Projections Estimated with 40 CCSM3 Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shuai-Lei; Luo, Jing-Jia; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Regional climate projections are challenging because of large uncertainty particularly stemming from unpredictable, internal variability of the climate system. Here, we examine the internal variability-induced uncertainty in precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) trends during 2005–2055 over East Asia based on 40 member ensemble projections of the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). The model ensembles are generated from a suite of different atmospheric initial conditions using the same SRES A1B greenhouse gas scenario. We find that projected precipitation trends are subject to considerably larger internal uncertainty and hence have lower confidence, compared to the projected SAT trends in both the boreal winter and summer. Projected SAT trends in winter have relatively higher uncertainty than those in summer. Besides, the lower-level atmospheric circulation has larger uncertainty than that in the mid-level. Based on k-means cluster analysis, we demonstrate that a substantial portion of internally-induced precipitation and SAT trends arises from internal large-scale atmospheric circulation variability. These results highlight the importance of internal climate variability in affecting regional climate projections on multi-decadal timescales. PMID:26930402

  15. Internal Variability-Generated Uncertainty in East Asian Climate Projections Estimated with 40 CCSM3 Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuai-Lei; Luo, Jing-Jia; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Regional climate projections are challenging because of large uncertainty particularly stemming from unpredictable, internal variability of the climate system. Here, we examine the internal variability-induced uncertainty in precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) trends during 2005-2055 over East Asia based on 40 member ensemble projections of the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). The model ensembles are generated from a suite of different atmospheric initial conditions using the same SRES A1B greenhouse gas scenario. We find that projected precipitation trends are subject to considerably larger internal uncertainty and hence have lower confidence, compared to the projected SAT trends in both the boreal winter and summer. Projected SAT trends in winter have relatively higher uncertainty than those in summer. Besides, the lower-level atmospheric circulation has larger uncertainty than that in the mid-level. Based on k-means cluster analysis, we demonstrate that a substantial portion of internally-induced precipitation and SAT trends arises from internal large-scale atmospheric circulation variability. These results highlight the importance of internal climate variability in affecting regional climate projections on multi-decadal timescales. PMID:26930402

  16. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies. PMID:24899857

  17. 500-year climate cycles stacking of recent centennial warming documented in an East Asian pollen record.

    PubMed

    Xu, Deke; Lu, Houyuan; Chu, Guoqiang; Wu, Naiqin; Shen, Caiming; Wang, Can; Mao, Limi

    2014-01-01

    Here we presented a high-resolution 5350-year pollen record from a maar annually laminated lake in East Asia (EA). Pollen record reflected the dynamics of vertical vegetation zones and temperature change. Spectral analysis on pollen percentages/concentrations of Pinus and Quercus, and a temperature proxy, revealed ~500-year quasi-periodic cold-warm fluctuations during the past 5350 years. This ~500-year cyclic climate change occurred in EA during the mid-late Holocene and even the last 150 years dominated by anthropogenic forcing. It was almost in phase with a ~500-year periodic change in solar activity and Greenland temperature change, suggesting that ~500-year small variations in solar output played a prominent role in the mid-late Holocene climate dynamics in EA, linked to high latitude climate system. Its last warm phase might terminate in the next several decades to enter another ~250-year cool phase, and thus this future centennial cyclic temperature minimum could partially slow down man-made global warming. PMID:24402348

  18. 500-year climate cycles stacking of recent centennial warming documented in an East Asian pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Deke; Lu, Houyuan; Chu, Guoqiang; Wu, Naiqin; Shen, Caiming; Wang, Can; Mao, Limi

    2014-01-01

    Here we presented a high-resolution 5350-year pollen record from a maar annually laminated lake in East Asia (EA). Pollen record reflected the dynamics of vertical vegetation zones and temperature change. Spectral analysis on pollen percentages/concentrations of Pinus and Quercus, and a temperature proxy, revealed ~500-year quasi-periodic cold-warm fluctuations during the past 5350 years. This ~500-year cyclic climate change occurred in EA during the mid-late Holocene and even the last 150 years dominated by anthropogenic forcing. It was almost in phase with a ~500-year periodic change in solar activity and Greenland temperature change, suggesting that ~500-year small variations in solar output played a prominent role in the mid-late Holocene climate dynamics in EA, linked to high latitude climate system. Its last warm phase might terminate in the next several decades to enter another ~250-year cool phase, and thus this future centennial cyclic temperature minimum could partially slow down man-made global warming.

  19. Sensitivity of a regional climate model to land surface parameterization schemes for East Asian summer monsoon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Xue, Yongkang; Fu, Congbin; Qiu, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Land surface processes play an important role in the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) system. Parameterization schemes of land surface processes may cause uncertainties in regional climate model (RCM) studies for the EASM. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a RCM to land surface parameterization (LSP) schemes for long-term simulation of the EASM. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with four different LSP schemes (Noah-MP, CLM4, Pleim-Xiu and SSiB), hereafter referred to as Sim-Noah, Sim-CLM, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB respectively, have been applied for 22-summer EASM simulations. The 22-summer averaged spatial distributions and strengths of downscaled large-scale circulation, 2-m temperature and precipitation are comprehensively compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis and dense station observations in China. Results show that the downscaling ability of RCM for the EASM is sensitive to LSP schemes. Furthermore, this study confirms that RCM does add more information to the EASM compared to reanalysis that imposes the lateral boundary conditions (LBC) because it provides 2-m temperature and precipitation that are with higher resolution and more realistic compared to LBC. For 2-m temperature and monsoon precipitation, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB simulations are more consistent with observation than simulations of Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM. To further explore the physical and dynamic mechanisms behind the RCM sensitivity to LSP schemes, differences in the surface energy budget between simulations of Ens-Noah-CLM (ensemble mean averaging Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM) and Ens-PX-SSiB (ensemble mean averaging Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB) are investigated and their subsequent impacts on the atmospheric circulation are analyzed. It is found that the intensity of simulated sensible heat flux over Asian continent in Ens-Noah-CLM is stronger than that in Ens-PX-SSiB, which induces a higher tropospheric temperature in Ens-Noah-CLM than in Ens-PX-SSiB over land. The adaptive modulation of geopotential height gradients affects wind field (through geostrophic balance) simulation especially at lower levels, which subsequently affects the simulation of large-scale circulation, 2-m temperature and monsoon precipitation as well as RCM's downscaling ability.

  20. Why are East Asians more susceptible to several infection-associated cancers (carcinomas of the nasopharynx, stomach, liver, adenocarcinoma of the lung, nasal NK/T-cell lymphomas)?

    PubMed

    Wee, J; Nei, W L; Yeoh, K W; Yeo, R M; Loong, S L; Qian, C-N

    2012-12-01

    There are at least five cancers with uniquely high incidence amongst East and Southeast Asian ethnic groups - namely nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); gastric carcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); adeno-carcinoma of the lung in female non-smokers and nasal NK/T-cell lymphomas. They all appear to be related to an infective cause (Epstein Barr Virus, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B virus). We hypothesize that a genetic bottleneck 30,000years ago at the Last Glacial Maximum could have resulted in unique genetic polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 8, making East Asians more vulnerable to these infective associated cancers. This bottleneck could have been caused by the presence of malaria in the southern Himalayan conduit between central and East Asia; and only those with an attenuated innate immune response to the malarial parasite (perhaps reflected by the TLR8 polymorphism) were spared the ravages of cerebral malaria; allowing these people to cross into east Asia, but then rendering them susceptible to later endemic infections and their associated cancers. PMID:23079399

  1. The interdecadal change of ENSO impact on wintertime East Asian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, XiaoJing; Lin, Hai; Ge, JingWen

    2015-12-01

    The interdecadal change in the relationship between the winter mean surface air temperature (SAT) over East Asia (EA) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is investigated using both observational data and a simple general circulation model. The positive phase of the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of SAT over EA is characterized by significant warming over midlatitude to high-latitude EA and is linked to the Arctic Oscillation. The second EOF (SAT-EOF2) is represented by significant cooling extending from 55°N to the tropics and abnormal warming over high-latitude EA. Focus is given to SAT-EOF2 which has a close relationship with the La Niña-type sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. A clear shift in SAT-EOF2 is observed in the mid-1980s. The relationships between SAT-EOF2 and ENSO in two subperiods, i.e., 1957 to 1982 (P1) and 1986 to 2010 (P2), are discussed and compared. Results show that the relationship between SAT-EOF2 and ENSO significantly strengthens after the mid-1980s due to stronger SST and precipitation anomalies in P2 than in P1 associated with ENSO in the tropical western Pacific. In the midlatitudes, the Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern is more closely related to ENSO in P2, whereas in P1, the ENSO-related atmospheric circulation anomalies are more similar to a zonally orientated teleconnection pattern. Numerical experiments suggest that the difference in the ENSO-related circulation anomaly in the midlatitudes is likely related to the difference in the climatological mean flows of these two subperiods.

  2. Deletion Variants of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus from Humans, Jordan, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Mart M.; Raj, V. Stalin; Shafei, Mah’d; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Abdallh, Sultan M.; Gazo, Mahmoud; Nofal, Samer; Lu, Xiaoyan; Erdman, Dean D.; Koopmans, Marion P.; Abdallat, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We characterized Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from a hospital outbreak in Jordan in 2015. The viruses from Jordan were highly similar to isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, except for deletions in open reading frames 4a and 3. Transmissibility and pathogenicity of this strain remains to be determined. PMID:26981770

  3. Deletion Variants of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus from Humans, Jordan, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Mart M; Raj, V Stalin; Shafei, Mah'd; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Abdallh, Sultan M; Gazo, Mahmoud; Nofal, Samer; Lu, Xiaoyan; Erdman, Dean D; Koopmans, Marion P; Abdallat, Mohammad; Haddadin, Aktham; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-04-01

    We characterized Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from a hospital outbreak in Jordan in 2015. The viruses from Jordan were highly similar to isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, except for deletions in open reading frames 4a and 3. Transmissibility and pathogenicity of this strain remains to be determined. PMID:26981770

  4. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for adiponectin levels in East Asians identifies a novel locus near WDR11-FGFR2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Gao, He; Li, Huaixing; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Park, Eun Jung; Wen, Wanqing; Adair, Linda S; Borja, Judith B; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Peng; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Fogarty, Marie P; Gan, Wei; He, Chih-Tsueng; Hsiung, Chao A; Hwu, Chii-Min; Ichihara, Sahoko; Igase, Michiya; Jo, Jaeseong; Kato, Norihiro; Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Kuzawa, Christophor W; Lee, Jeannette J M; Liu, Jianjun; Lu, Ling; McDade, Thomas W; Osawa, Haruhiko; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Teo, Yvonne; Vadlamudi, Swarooparani; Van Dam, Rob M; Wang, Yiqin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Ye, Xingwang; Young, Terri L; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Jingwen; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shin, Chol; Jee, Sun Ha; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Miki, Tetsuro; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Lin, Xu; Mohlke, Karen L; Tai, E Shyong

    2014-02-15

    Blood levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein correlated with metabolic and cardiovascular risks, are highly heritable. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies for adiponectin levels have identified 14 loci harboring variants associated with blood levels of adiponectin. To identify novel adiponectin-associated loci, particularly those of importance in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWA studies for adiponectin in 7827 individuals, followed by two stages of replications in 4298 and 5954 additional individuals. We identified a novel adiponectin-associated locus on chromosome 10 near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 3.0 × 10(-14)) and provided suggestive evidence for a locus on chromosome 12 near OR8S1-LALBA (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)). Of the adiponectin-associated loci previously described, we confirmed the association at CDH13 (P = 6.8 × 10(-165)), ADIPOQ (P = 1.8 × 10(-22)), PEPD (P = 3.6 × 10(-12)), CMIP (P = 2.1 × 10(-10)), ZNF664 (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)) and GPR109A (P = 7.4 × 10(-6)). Conditional analysis at ADIPOQ revealed a second signal with suggestive evidence of association only after conditioning on the lead SNP (Pinitial = 0.020; Pconditional = 7.0 × 10(-7)). We further confirmed the independence of two pairs of closely located loci (<2 Mb) on chromosome 16 at CMIP and CDH13, and on chromosome 12 at GPR109A and ZNF664. In addition, the newly identified signal near WDR11-FGFR2 exhibited evidence of association with triglycerides (P = 3.3 × 10(-4)), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, P = 4.9 × 10(-4)) and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip ratio (P = 9.8 × 10(-3)). These findings improve our knowledge of the genetic basis of adiponectin variation, demonstrate the shared allelic architecture for adiponectin with lipids and central obesity and motivate further studies of underlying mechanisms. PMID:24105470

  5. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

    2014-11-01

    The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast prediction skill represented by domain-averaged temporal correlation coefficient is 0.44, which is twice higher than the skill of the current dynamical hindcast, suggesting that the dynamical models have large rooms to improve. The maximum potential attainable prediction skills for the peak summer SEA rainfall is also estimated and discussed by using the PMA. High predictability regions are found over several climatological rainfall centers like Indo-China peninsula, southern coast of China, southeastern SCS, and Philippine Sea.

  6. Variability in Chinese loess single-grain provenance data and the influence of the Quaternary East Asian winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Thomas; Zaremba, Kaja; Bird, Anna; Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Limonta, Mara; Ando, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Lu, Huayu; Adamiec, Grzegorz

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau represents one of the world's most detailed and continuous dust and climate records, stretching back into the Miocene and, to the west of the Plateau, into the late Eocene. It has long been argued that Chinese loess deposits record variations in the East Asian monsoon system, both during the summer via pedogenetic indicators, and during winter via grain-size and sedimentation rates. However, the potential influence of non-monsoonal dust transporting winds on Chinese loess deposition has been increasingly suggested, leaving question marks over whether loess deposits record winter monsoon variability. Central to resolving this is to establish the source regions of loess material. Despite a great deal of previous work, the sources and transport mechanisms of dust on the Chinese Loess Plateau are still contested, although areas to the west and northwest of the Plateau have primarily been suggested. Recent applications of single-grain U-Pb dating of zircons in loess provenance has eliminated some of the proposed sources, although possible spatial and temporal variability across the Loess Plateau and through the Plio-Quaternary still remains contentious. Here we show detailed single-grain provenance data, including zircon U-Pb ages and heavy mineral assemblage data from multiple sites and across the Quaternary to examine the key source areas and consider their variations in space and time. These show changing source characteristics both spatially and temporally, with westerly/Yellow River influence in the west of the Plateau, and probable winter monsoon influence to the east. Furthermore, although abrupt variability within individual sediment units is commonly seen in many loess climate proxy records, a high resolution approach that would reveal this has not been applied in single-grain provenance studies. Consequently the extent to which individual samples from a unit are representative of the unit's source in general has not been demonstrated. Here we also present high sampling resolution garnet and zircon single-grain provenance results from last glacial loess from Beiguoyuan section on the NW of the Loess Plateau to test whether such shifts appear. The last glacial loess unit records significant variability in provenance on millennial timescales, potentially explaining the previously poor consensus on source changes. Overall, the results demonstrate that the Chinese Loess Plateau record cannot, in general, be used as an indicator of the winter monsoon. It shows multiple influences on sediment source that vary both spatially and through time, even when considering the same grain-sizes. However, some deposits to the northeast of the Plateau may be more influenced by winter monsoon circulation.

  7. Current status of nutrition labelling and claims in the South-East Asian region: are we in harmony?

    PubMed

    Tee, E-Siong; Tamin, Suryani; Ilyas, Rosmulyati; Ramos, Adelisa; Tan, Wei-Ling; Lai, Darwin Kah-Soon; Kongchuntuk, Hataya

    2002-01-01

    This review includes the situation of nutrition labelling and claims in six countries in South-East Asia: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. With the exception of Malaysia, there is no mandatory nutrition labelling requirements for foods in these countries except for special categories of foods and when nutritional claims are made for fortified or enriched foods. Nevertheless, several food manufacturers, especially multinationals, do voluntarily label the nutritional content of a number of food products. There is, therefore, increasing interest among authorities in countries in the region to start formulating regulations for nutrition labelling for a wider variety of foods. Malaysia has proposed new regulations to make it mandatory to label a number of foodstuffs with the four core nutrients, protein, carbohydrate, fat and energy. Other countries have preferred to start with voluntary labelling by the manufacturers, but have spelt out the requirements for this voluntary labelling. The format and requirements for nutrition labelling differ widely for countries in the region. Some countries, such as Malaysia, closely follow the Codex guidelines on nutrition labelling in terms of format, components to be included and mode of expression. Other countries, such as the Philippines and Thailand, have drafted nutrition labelling regulations very similar to those of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) of the United States. Nutrition and health claims are also not specifically permitted under food regulations that were enacted before 1998. However, various food products on the market have been carrying a variety of nutrition and health claims. There is concern that without proper regulations, the food industry may not be certain as to what claims can be made. Excessive and misleading claims made by irresponsible manufacturers would only serve to confuse and mislead the consumer. In recent years, there has been efforts in countries in the region to enact regulations on nutrition claims. Recently enacted regulations or amendments to existing regulations of almost all the countries reviewed have included provisions for nutrition claims. Malaysia is in the process of gazetting regulations to clearly stipulate the permitted nutrition claims and the conditions required to make these claims along the guidelines of Codex Alimentarius Commission. Only two countries in the region permit health claims to be made - Indonesia and Philippines. Other countries in the region are following developments in Codex and examining the need for allowing these claims. There are more differences than similarities in the regulations on nutrition labelling and claims among countries in the South-East Asian region as no previous efforts have been made to address these. Hopefully, through this first regional meeting, countries can initiate closer interaction, with a view to working towards greater harmonization of nutrition labelling and health claims in the region. PMID:12074192

  8. Millennial-scale Variation in East Asian Summer Monsoon Front Position Deduced from Provenance Changes in Yangtze River Delta Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, R.; Ke, W.; Saito, K.; Zheng, H.; Irino, T.; Chao, L.; He, M.; Sugisaki, S.; Kuboki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Uchida, M.

    2014-12-01

    Spatio-temporal variability of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation on millennial timescale during the Holocene is of major interest to climatologists. Recent studies on the variability of EASM precipitation during the Holocene focus on its high resolution reconstruction using stalagmite's δ18O record. However, stalagmite's δ18O does not necessarily reflect EASM precipitation intensity and information on spatial precipitation pattern is difficult to obtain.Yangtze River drainage occupies major part of South China and lies oblique to EASM front direction. Consequently, when EASM front penetrated deep(shallow) into China, more precipitation occurred in the upper(lower) reaches. Because over 96% of the sediment discharge from Yangtze is transported as suspension, it is possible to estimate relative contribution of precipitation between the lower and upper reaches from the provenance of suspended particles.Here we use ESR intensity of quartz in fine silt fraction from Yangtze River Delta core to detect changes in heavy precipitation area within Yangtze River drainage. ESR intensity reflects the average age of source rocks. Since Mesozoic rocks are widely exposed in the upper reaches whereas Proterozoic rocks are exposed in the lower reaches, it is possible to detect relative contribution of suspended sediments from the upper vs. lower reaches. Our study on ESR intensity on modern Yangtze River sediments suggests that we can distinguish the suspended sediments from the upper vs. lower reaches, and that their mixing ratio reflects the relative ratio of the water from the two areas. We will present the result and demonstrate its implication.

  9. Probabilistic versus deterministic skill in predicting the western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon variability with multimodel ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dejian; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Xie, Qian; Zhang, Yaocun; Ren, Xuejuan; Tang, Youmin

    2016-02-01

    Based on historical forecasts of three quasi-operational multimodel ensemble (MME) systems, this study assesses the superiority of coupled MME over contributing single-model ensembles (SMEs) and over uncoupled atmospheric MME in predicting the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon variability. The probabilistic and deterministic forecast skills are measured by Brier skill score (BSS) and anomaly correlation (AC), respectively. A forecast-format-dependent MME superiority over SMEs is found. The probabilistic forecast skill of the MME is always significantly better than that of each SME, while the deterministic forecast skill of the MME can be lower than that of some SMEs. The MME superiority arises from both the model diversity and the ensemble size increase in the tropics, and primarily from the ensemble size increase in the subtropics. The BSS is composed of reliability and resolution, two attributes characterizing probabilistic forecast skill. The probabilistic skill increase of the MME is dominated by the dramatic improvement in reliability, while resolution is not always improved, similar to AC. A monotonic resolution-AC relationship is further found and qualitatively explained, whereas little relationship can be identified between reliability and AC. It is argued that the MME's success in improving the reliability arises from an effective reduction of the overconfidence in forecast distributions. Moreover, it is examined that the seasonal predictions with coupled MME are more skillful than those with the uncoupled atmospheric MME forced by persisting sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, since the coupled MME has better predicted the SST anomaly evolution in three key regions.

  10. Interdecadal change of the controlling mechanisms for East Asian early summer rainfall variation around the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Kwon, MinHo

    2013-04-01

    East Asian (EA) summer monsoon shows considerable differences in the mean state and principal modes of interannual variation between early summer (May-June, MJ) and late summer (July-August, JA). The present study focuses on the early summer (MJ) precipitation variability. We find that the interannual variation of the MJ precipitation and the processes controlling the variation have been changed abruptly around the mid-1990s. The rainfall anomaly represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function has changed from a dipole-like pattern in pre-95 epoch (1979-1994) to a tripole-like pattern in post-95 epoch (1995-2010); the prevailing period of the corresponding principal component has also changed from 3-5 to 2-3 years. These changes are concurrent with the changes of the corresponding El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. During the pre-95 epoch, the MJ EA rainfall anomaly is coupled to a slow decay of canonical ENSO events signified by an eastern Pacific warming, which induces a dipole rainfall feature over EA. On the other hand, during the post-95 epoch the anomalous MJ EA rainfall is significantly linked to a rapid decay of a central Pacific warming and a distinct tripolar sea surface temperature (SST) in North Atlantic. The central Pacific warming-induced Philippine Sea anticyclone induces an increased rainfall in southern China and decreased rainfall in central eastern China. The North Atlantic Oscillation-related tripolar North Atlantic SST anomaly induces a wave train that is responsible for the increase northern EA rainfall. Those two impacts form the tripole-like rainfall pattern over EA. Understanding such changes is important for improving seasonal to decadal predictions and long-term climate change in EA.

  11. Interdecadal change of the controlling mechanisms for East Asian early summer rainfall variation around the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Kwon, MinHo

    2014-03-01

    East Asian (EA) summer monsoon shows considerable differences in the mean state and principal modes of interannual variation between early summer (May-June, MJ) and late summer (July-August, JA). The present study focuses on the early summer (MJ) precipitation variability. We find that the interannual variation of the MJ precipitation and the processes controlling the variation have been changed abruptly around the mid-1990s. The rainfall anomaly represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function has changed from a dipole-like pattern in pre-95 epoch (1979-1994) to a tripole-like pattern in post-95 epoch (1995-2010); the prevailing period of the corresponding principal component has also changed from 3-5 to 2-3 years. These changes are concurrent with the changes of the corresponding El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. During the pre-95 epoch, the MJ EA rainfall anomaly is coupled to a slow decay of canonical ENSO events signified by an eastern Pacific warming, which induces a dipole rainfall feature over EA. On the other hand, during the post-95 epoch the anomalous MJ EA rainfall is significantly linked to a rapid decay of a central Pacific warming and a distinct tripolar sea surface temperature (SST) in North Atlantic. The central Pacific warming-induced Philippine Sea anticyclone induces an increased rainfall in southern China and decreased rainfall in central eastern China. The North Atlantic Oscillation-related tripolar North Atlantic SST anomaly induces a wave train that is responsible for the increase northern EA rainfall. Those two impacts form the tripole-like rainfall pattern over EA. Understanding such changes is important for improving seasonal to decadal predictions and long-term climate change in EA.

  12. Dynamics of phytoplankton community structure in the South China Sea in response to the East Asian aerosol input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.; Yu, J.; Ho, T.-Y.; Wang, L.; Song, S.; Kong, L.; Liu, H.

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated atmospheric deposition as an important source of bioreactive compounds to the ocean. The South China Sea (SCS), where aerosol loading is among the highest in the world, however, is poorly studied, particularly on the in situ response of phytoplankton community structures to atmospheric deposition. By conducting a series of microcosm bioassays at different hydrographical locations and simulating different aerosol event scales, we observed both positive and negative responses to the input of East Asian (EA) aerosol with high nitrogen (N) and trace metal contents, in terms of biomass, composition and physiological characteristics of phytoplankton communities. High levels of aerosol loading relieved phytoplankton nitrogen and trace metal limitations in SCS, and thus increased total phytoplankton biomass, enhanced their physiological indicators (e.g. photosynthetic efficiency) and shifted phytoplankton assemblages from being dominated by picoplankton to microphytoplanton, especially diatoms. However, under low levels of aerosol loading, the composition shift and biomass accumulation were not apparent, suggesting that the stimulation effects might be counterbalanced by enhanced grazing mortality indicated by increased abundance of protist grazers. Trace metal toxicity of the aerosols might also be the reason for the reduction of picocyanobacteria when amended with high EA aerosols. The magnitude and duration of the deposition event, as well as the hydrographical and trophic conditions of receiving waters are also important factors when predicting the influence of an aerosol deposition event. Our results demonstrated different responses of phytoplankton and microbial food web dynamics to different scales of atmospheric input events in SCS and highlighted the need for achieving an accurate comprehension of atmospheric nutrient on the biogeochemical cycles of the oceans.

  13. Forced response of the East Asian summer rainfall over the past millennium: results from a coupled model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hongli; Kuang, Xueyuan; Ti, Ruyuan

    2011-01-01

    The centennial-millennial variation of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation over the past 1000 years was investigated through the analysis of a millennium simulation of the coupled ECHO-G model. The model results indicate that the centennial-millennial variation of the EASM is essentially a forced response to the external radiative forcing (insolation, volcanic aerosol, and green house gases). The strength of the response depends on latitude; and the spatial structure of the centennial-millennial variation differs from the interannual variability that arises primarily from the internal feedback processes within the climate system. On millennial time scale, the extratropical and subtropical precipitation was generally strong during Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and weak during Little Ice Age (LIA). The tropical rainfall is insensitive to the effective solar radiation forcing (insolation plus radiative effect of volcanic aerosols) but significantly responds to the modern anthropogenic radiative forcing. On centennial time scale, the variation of the extratropical and subtropical rainfall also tends to follow the effective solar radiation forcing closely. The forced response features in-phase rainfall variability between the extratropics and subtropics, which is in contrast to the anti-correlation on the interannual time scale. Further, the behavior of the interannual-decadal variation in the extratropics is effectively modulated by change of the mean states on the millennial time scale, suggesting that the structure of the internal mode may vary with significant changes in the external forcing. These findings imply that on the millennial time scale, (a) the proxy data in the extratropical EA may more sensitively reflect the EASM rainfall variations, and (b) the Meiyu and the northern China rainfall provide a consistent measure for the EASM strength.

  14. East Asian summer monsoon dynamics lag continental air temperature changes during the last 130,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, M. A.; Peterse, F.; Zhou, B.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Beets, K.; Zheng, H.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) precipitation intensity have been derived from loess-paleosol sequences and oxygen isotope (δ18O) records of well-dated stalagmites from several caves in China, and show that the strength of the EASM generally responds to changes in Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. In contrast, past continental air temperature dynamics are still poorly understood for this area, mainly due to the lack of paleotemperature records. Application of the recently developed MBT-CBT (methylation of branched tetraethers-cyclisation of branched tetraethers) paleothermometer, based on the distribution of soil bacterial membrane lipids [1], on a loess-paleosol sequence from the Mangshan loess plateau provided one of the first continuous, high resolution, absolute air temperature records for southeast Asia [2]. The 34,000-year record indicated that the onset of atmospheric warming and the intensification of the EASM were decoupled during the last deglaciation, and suggested that factors controlling temperature and precipitation were different. Here we present the extended temperature record for this exact same loess-paleosol sequence, so that it now covers the last 130,000 years. Comparison of the MBT-CBT-derived temperature record with speleothem δ18O and monsoon proxy records (grain size and magnetic susceptibility) from the same loess-paleosol sequence shows that EASM precipitation dynamics structurally lag the changes in continental air temperature throughout the whole record. The offset in timing between temperature and precipitation becomes even clearer upon filtration of the proxy records at the 23 kyr band. The filtered MBT-CBT record exactly tracks that of NH summer insolation, whereas all monsoon records (both loess proxies and speleothem) are laggin behind. This supports the earlier suggestion that temperature and precipitation have different driving forces, an observation that may lead us towards a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling ice age terminations in this area. References: [1] Weijers et al., 2007, GCA [2] Peterse et al., 2011 EPSL

  15. Improving the performance of air-conditioning systems in an ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) climate

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, J.F.; Warren, M.L.

    1988-09-01

    This paper describes an analysis of air conditioning performance under hot and humid tropical climate conditions appropriate to the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This region, with over 280 million people, has one of the fastest economic and energy consumption growth rates in the world. The work reported here is aimed at estimating the conservation potential derived from good design and control of air conditioning systems in commercial buildings. To test the performance of different air conditioning system types and control options, whole building energy performance was simulated using DOE-2. The 5100 m/sup 2/ (50,000 ft/sup 2/) prototype office building module was previously used in earlier commercial building energy standards analysis for Malaysia and Singapore. In general, the weather pattern for ASEAN countries is uniform, with hot and humid air masses known as ''monsoons'' dictating the weather patterns. Since a concentration of cities occurs near the tip of the Malay peninsula, hourly temperature, humidity, and wind speed data for Kuala Lumpur was used for the analysis. Because of the absence of heating loads in ASEAN regions, we have limited air conditioning configurations to two pipe fan coil, constant volume, variable air volume, powered induction, and ceiling bypass configurations. Control strategies were varied to determine the conservation potential in both energy use and peak electric power demands. Sensitivities including fan control, pre-cooling and night ventilation, supply air temperature control, zone temperature set point, ventilation and infiltration, daylighting and internal gains, and system sizing were examined and compared with a base case which was a variable air volume system with no reheat or economizer. Comfort issues, such as over-cooling and space humidity, were also examined.

  16. Tropospheric Ozone Variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon as Observed by Satellite (IASI), Aircraft (MOZAIC) and Ground Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, S.; Boynard, A.; Hao, N.; Huang, F.; Wang, L.; Ji, D.; Barret, B.; Ghude, S. D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Clerbaux, C.

    2015-11-01

    Satellite measurements from the thermal Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), the Measurements of OZone and water vapor by in-service AIrbus airCraft (MOZAIC), as well as observations from ground based stations, are used to assess the tropospheric ozone (O3) variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Six years [2008-2013] of IASI data analysis reveals the ability of the instrument to detect the onset and the progression of the monsoon reflected by a decrease in the tropospheric [0-6] km O3 column due to the EASM, and to reproduce this decrease from one year to the other. Focusing on the period of May-August 2011, taken as an example year, IASI data show clear inverse relationship between tropospheric [0-6] km O3 on one hand and meteorological parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed, on the other hand. Aircraft data from the MOZAIC project at Hyderabad, Nanjing and Guangzhou are used to validate the IASI data and to assess the effect of the monsoon on the vertical distribution of the tropospheric O3 at different locations. Results show good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 between the [0-6] km O3 column derived from IASI and MOZAIC. The aircraft data show a decrease in the tropospheric O3 that is more important in the free troposphere than in the boundary layer and at Hyderabad than at the other two Chinese cities. Ground station data at different locations in India and China show a spatiotemporal dependence on meteorology during the monsoon, with decrease up to 22 ppbv in Hyderabad, and up to 5 ppbv in the North China Plain.

  17. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian Regions, 2009.

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    Long-term surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been conducted in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) to optimise antibiotic treatment of gonococcal disease since 1992. From 2007, the Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) has been enhanced by the inclusion of data from the South East Asian Region (SEAR) and recruitment of additional centres in the WPR. Approximately 8,704 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were examined for their susceptibility to one or more antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhoea, incorporating External Quality Assurance controlled methods, from reporting centres in 21 countries and/or jurisdictions. A high proportion of penicillin and/or quinolone resistance was again detected amongst isolates tested in North Asia and the WHO SEAR. In contrast, from the Pacific Island states Fiji reported low penicillin and quinolone resistance, New Caledonia again reported no penicillin resistance and little quinolone resistance, Tonga reported no penicillin resistance and there was a continued absence of quinolone resistance reported in Papua New Guinea in 2009. The proportion of gonococci reported as 'decreased susceptibility' and 'resistant' to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone varied widely but no major changes were evident in cephalosporin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) patterns in 2009. Altered cephalosporin susceptibility has been associated with treatment failures following therapy with oral third-generation cephalosporins. There is a need for revision and clarification of some of the in vitro criteria that are currently used to categorise the clinical importance of gonococci with different ceftriaxone and oral cephalosporin MIC levels. The number of instances of spectinomycin resistance remained low. A high proportion of strains tested continued to exhibit high-level plasmid mediated resistance to tetracyclines. The continuing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant gonococci in and from the WHO WPR and SEAR suggests that surveillance programs such as GASP be maintained and expanded. PMID:21698977

  18. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian regions, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Tapsall, J W; Limnios, E A; Abu Bakar, Hjh Mahani Hj; Darussalam, Brunei; Ping, Yin Yue; Buadromo, E M; Kumar, P; Singh, S; Lo, J; Bala, M; Risbud, A; Deguchi, T; Tanaka, M; Watanabe, Y; Lee, K; Chong, Y; Noikaseumsy, S; Phouthavane, T; Sam, I-Ching; Tundev, O; Lwin, K M; Eh, P H; Goarant, C; Goursaud, R; Bathgate, T; Brokenshire, M; Latorre, L; Velemu, E; Carlos, C; Leano, S; Telan, E O; Goh, S S; Koh, S T; Ngan, C; Tan, A L; Mananwatte, S; Piyanoot, N; Lokpichat, S; Sirivongranson, P; Fakahau, M; Sitanilei, H; Hung, Le Van

    2010-03-01

    Long-term surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been conducted in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) to optimise antibiotic treatment of gonococcal disease since 1992. In 2007 and 2008, this Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) was enhanced by the inclusion of data from the South East Asian Region (SEAR) and recruitment of additional centres within the WPR. Approximately 17,450 N. gonorrhoeae were examined for their susceptibility to one or more antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhoea by external quality controlled methods in 24 reporting centres in 20 countries and/or jurisdictions. A high proportion of penicillin and/or quinolone resistance was again detected amongst isolates tested in North Asia and the WHO SEAR, but much lower rates of penicillin resistance and little quinolone resistance was present in most of the Pacific Island countries. The proportion of gonococci reported as 'resistant', 'less susceptible' or 'non-susceptible' gonococci to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone lay in a wide range, but no major changes were evident in cephalosporin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) patterns in 2007-2008. Altered cephalosporin susceptibility was associated with treatment failures following therapy with oral third-generation cephalosporins. There is a need for revision and clarification of some of the in vitro criteria that are currently used to categorise the clinical importance of gonococci with different ceftriaxone and oral cephalosporin MIC levels. The number of instances of spectinomycin resistance remained low. A high proportion of strains tested continued to exhibit a form of plasmid mediated high level resistance to tetracyclines. The continuing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant gonococci in and from the WHO WPR and SEAR supports the need for gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs such as GASP to be maintained and potentially expanded. PMID:20521493

  19. Relationships between ENSO and the East Asian-western North Pacific monsoon: observations versus 18 CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-02-01

    The western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone (WNPAC) plays an essential role in linking El Niño and the East Asian-western North Pacific monsoon. The WNPAC and the corresponding WNP anomalous cyclone (WNPC) associated with La Niña are studied by examining the pre-industrial control runs of 18 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. The WNPAC is asymmetric with the WNPC during ENSO mature winters, which can be reproduced by seven out of the eighteen models. Based on the differences between the seven models and the other models, it is verified that the asymmetry results from the combined effects of the asymmetric remote forcing from the equatorial central-eastern Pacific and the asymmetric local sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. It is further demonstrated that the asymmetric circulation anomalies over the tropical WNP contribute to the asymmetric decaying rates between El Niño and La Niña. Those models that can (cannot) simulate the asymmetry between the WNPAC and WNPC tend to reproduce ENSO with asymmetric (symmetric) decaying rates. In El Niño decaying summers, the WNPAC is still maintained due to the sequential effects of the local forcing of the underlying cold SST anomalies remaining from the previous winter and spring, and the remote forcing from the tropical Indian Ocean. Multi-model results show that the coupling of the local cold SST anomalies and the WNPAC forms a damping mode, which is only conducive to maintaining the WNPAC in the early summer, while the response of the WNPAC to the remote forcing from the tropical Indian Ocean intensifies from June to July, concurring with the establishment of the climatological WNP summer monsoon trough.

  20. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Wei; Yen, Shen-Horn; Lees, David C; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of "Agehana" has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, "Agehana" fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present "East Asia-America" disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima. PMID:26484776

  1. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of “Agehana” has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, “Agehana” fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present “East Asia-America” disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima. PMID:26484776

  2. Vertical variation of optical properties of mixed Asian dust/pollution plumes according to pathway of airmass transport over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, S.-K.; Mller, D.; Lee, K. H.; Shin, D.; Kim, Y. J.; Noh, Y. M.

    2015-02-01

    We use five years (2009-2013) of multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements at Gwangju, Korea (35.10 N, 126.53 E) for the identification of changes of optical properties of East Asian dust in dependence of its transport path over China. Profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratios, and backscatter-related ngstrm exponents (wavelength pair 355/532 nm) were measured at Gwangju. Linear particle depolarization ratios were used to identify East Asian dust layers. We used backward trajectory modelling to identify the pathway and the vertical position of dust-laden air masses over China during long-range transport. Most cases of Asian dust events can be described by the emission of dust in desert areas and subsequent transport over highly polluted regions of China. The Asian dust plumes could be categorized into two classes according to the height above ground in which these plumes were transported: (I) the dust layers passed over China at high altitude levels until arrival over Gwangju, and (II) the Asian dust layers were transported near the surface and the lower troposphere over industrialized areas before they arrived over Gwangju. We find that the optical characteristics of these mixed Asian dust layers over Gwangju differ in dependence of their vertical position above ground over China and the change of height above ground during transport. The mean linear particle depolarization ratio was 0.21 0.06 (at 532 nm), the mean lidar ratios were 52 7 sr at 355 nm and 53 8 sr at 532 nm, and the mean ngstrm exponent was 0.74 0.31 in case I. In contrast, plumes transported at lower altitudes (case II) showed low depolarization ratios, and higher lidar ratio and ngstrm exponents. The mean linear particle depolarization ratio was 0.13 0.04, the mean lidar ratios were 63 9 sr at 355 nm and 62 8 sr at 532 nm, respectively, and the mean ngstrm exponent was 0.98 0.51. These numbers show that the optical characteristics of mixed Asian plumes are more similar to optical characteristics of urban pollution. We find a decrease of the linear depolarization ratio of the mixed dust/pollution plume in dependence of transport time if the pollution layer travelled over China at low heights, i.e., below approximately 3 km above ground. In contrast we do not find such a trend if the dust plumes travelled at heights above 4 km over China. We need a longer time series of lidar measurements in order to determine the change of optical properties of dust with transport time in a quantitative way.

  3. The Duty to Succeed: Honor versus Happiness in College and Career Choices of East Asian Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundes, Lauren; Cho, Eunice; Kwak, Spencer

    2009-01-01

    To better understand factors underlying educational and career choices, this study used both survey data from an online networking tool and data collected in college classrooms to gauge differences between Asians (primarily Korean) and white students in the United States. More Asians (41%) than whites (9%) prioritized prestige over happiness,…

  4. Effects of East Asian Short-lived Anthropogenic Air Pollutants on the Northern Hemispheric Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lau, N.; Fan, S.; Tao, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Levy, H.

    2012-12-01

    Short-lived anthropogenic pollutants (such as ozone and aerosols) not only degrade ambient air quality and influence human health, but also play an important role in scattering/absorbing atmospheric radiation and disturbing regional climate. Due to the rapid industrialization, anthropogenic emissions from East Asia (EA) have increased substantially during the past decades. At the same time, EA has experienced a changing climate in terms of surface temperature and precipitation. In order to understand to what extent that EA short-lived anthropogenic emissions could influence domestic and downwind air quality (e.g. surface O3 and PM2.5), and explore the potential linkage between hemispheric-scale climate perturbation and regional anthropogenic forcing, we simulate global climate and chemical compositions during 1981-2000 based on the coupled general circulation model CM3 for atmosphere (with interactive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry), oceans, land and sea ice, recently developed at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL/NOAA). We also conduct a parallel sensitivity simulation which is identical to the base simulation but with all anthropogenic emissions over EA turned off. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations represents the short-term response of the Northern Hemispheric climate system and atmospheric composition to the perturbation of regional anthropogenic forcing. We find that East Asian short-lived anthropogenic emissions exert significant adverse impacts on local air quality during 1981-2000, accounting for 10-30ppbV daily-averaged O3 over Eastern China in JJA. In particular, EA anthropogenic emissions elevate the summertime daily maximum 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) by 30-40ppbV over the North China Plain, where the typical background MDA8 ozone ranges 30 to 45ppbV. In addition, the surface PM2.5 concentrations peak at the same season and over the same region, with a seasonal mean of 10-30ug/m3, mostly contributed from local anthropogenic sources. In terms of long-range transport, anthropogenic pollutants from EA generally account for 2-5ppbv surface ozone from east to west mid-latitude North Pacific, but with distinct seasonal variability. During spring, EA anthropogenic emissions enhance nearly 2ppbV ozone over the west coast of California, USA, which increases the number of days when MADA8 exceeds 75ppbV by 2~5days/season in JJA. We find that the high aerosol loadings over EA significantly elevate aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Eastern China (0.2-0.4 in DJF and 0.3-0.5 in JJA), which warms up the atmosphere (15~20 Watts/m2) at the expense of cooling the surface (-30~-20 Watts/m2), potentially reducing the local surface temperature by -0.5K ~ -2K. Moreover, our model results also show that EA anthropogenic pollutants significantly depress local precipitation rate (up to 1.5 mm/day) and rain frequency (4-10 days/season), particularly over South and Southwestern China. This may partly explain the change of seasonal precipitation patterns over EA during the past decades.

  5. Simulation of the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and the East Asian summer monsoon: Intercomparison between MPI-ESM and ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yiran; Cao, Jie; Li, Hui; Wang, Jian; Ding, Yuchao

    2016-03-01

    The time-mean and interannual variability of the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoon (IIE) was assessed using both Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) and ECHAM5/MPI-OM and by calculating diagnostics and skill metrics around the IIE area. Progress has been made in modeling these aspects by moving from ECHAM5/MPI-OM to MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM is more skillful than ECHAM5/MPI-OM in modeling the time-mean state and the extreme condition of the IIE. Though simulation of the interannual variability significantly deviates to some extent in both MPI-ESM and ECHAM5/MPI-OM, MPI-ESM-LR shows better skill in reflecting the relationship among sea surface temperature anomalies over the Pacific, circulation anomalies over East Asia, and IIE variability. The temperature becomes warmer under the RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios in comparison with the historical experiments, but the position of the IIE and the key physical process in relation to the IIE variability almost remains the same, suggesting that the Indian summer monsoon tends to change in phase with the East Asian summer monsoon under each RCP scenario. The relatively realistic description of the physical processes modulated by terrain in MPI-ESM may be one of the most important reasons why MPI-ESM performs better in simulating the IIE.

  6. Tumourigenesis Driven by the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Asian-American E6 Variant in a Three-Dimensional Keratinocyte Model

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert; Togtema, Melissa; Lambert, Paul F.; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Infection with a transforming human papillomavirus (HPV) such as type 16 (of species Alphapapillomavirus 9) causes ano-genital and oral tumours via viral persistence in human squamous cell epithelia. Epidemiological studies showed that the naturally occurring HPV16 Asian-American (AA) variant (sublineage D2/D3) is found more often than the European Prototype (EP) (sublineage A1) in high-grade cervical neoplasia and tumours compared to non-cancer controls. Just three amino acid changes within the early gene, E6, of HPV16 AA have been linked to this augmented tumourigenicity. The AAE6 variant's greater immortalizing and transforming potential over EPE6 has recently been confirmed in retrovirally-transduced keratinocytes expressing the E6 gene only. However, the tumourigenic role of the full-length viral genome of HPV16 has not yet been addressed with regard to these E6 variants. To investigate this process in the context of these two HPV16 E6 genotypes, an organotypic tissue culture model was used to simulate the HPV infectious life cycle. The AAE6 variant demonstrated an enhanced ability over EPE6 to drive the viral life cycle toward tumourigenesis, as evidenced phenotypically—by a more severe grade of epithelial dysplasia with higher proliferation and deregulated differentiation, and molecularly—by high viral oncogene E6 and E7 expression, but lack of productive viral life cycle markers. In contrast, EPE6 had low E6 and E7 but high E1∧E4 expression, indicative of a productive life cycle. We suggest increased viral integration into the host genome for AAE6 as one possible mechanism for these observed differences from EPE6. Additionally, we found downstream effects on immortalization and host innate immune evasion. This study highlights how minor genomic variations in transforming viruses can have a significant affect on their tumourigenic ability. PMID:24983759

  7. Tumourigenesis driven by the human papillomavirus type 16 Asian-American e6 variant in a three-dimensional keratinocyte model.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert; Togtema, Melissa; Lambert, Paul F; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Infection with a transforming human papillomavirus (HPV) such as type 16 (of species Alphapapillomavirus 9) causes ano-genital and oral tumours via viral persistence in human squamous cell epithelia. Epidemiological studies showed that the naturally occurring HPV16 Asian-American (AA) variant (sublineage D2/D3) is found more often than the European Prototype (EP) (sublineage A1) in high-grade cervical neoplasia and tumours compared to non-cancer controls. Just three amino acid changes within the early gene, E6, of HPV16 AA have been linked to this augmented tumourigenicity. The AAE6 variant's greater immortalizing and transforming potential over EPE6 has recently been confirmed in retrovirally-transduced keratinocytes expressing the E6 gene only. However, the tumourigenic role of the full-length viral genome of HPV16 has not yet been addressed with regard to these E6 variants. To investigate this process in the context of these two HPV16 E6 genotypes, an organotypic tissue culture model was used to simulate the HPV infectious life cycle. The AAE6 variant demonstrated an enhanced ability over EPE6 to drive the viral life cycle toward tumourigenesis, as evidenced phenotypically-by a more severe grade of epithelial dysplasia with higher proliferation and deregulated differentiation, and molecularly-by high viral oncogene E6 and E7 expression, but lack of productive viral life cycle markers. In contrast, EPE6 had low E6 and E7 but high E1∧E4 expression, indicative of a productive life cycle. We suggest increased viral integration into the host genome for AAE6 as one possible mechanism for these observed differences from EPE6. Additionally, we found downstream effects on immortalization and host innate immune evasion. This study highlights how minor genomic variations in transforming viruses can have a significant affect on their tumourigenic ability. PMID:24983759

  8. Widespread pollution events of carbon monoxide observed over the western North Pacific during the East Asian Regional Experiment (EAREX) 2005 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Wada, Akira; Taguchi, Shoichi; Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Tsuruta, Haruo; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Nobuyuki; Katagiri, Syuichiro; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro

    2007-11-01

    Temporal variations of carbon monoxide (CO) were observed simultaneously at seven surface stations located in east Asia/western North Pacific from 24°N to 43°N during the East Asian Regional Experiment (EAREX) 2005 campaign in March 2005. Three major pollution events with enhanced CO levels were recorded around the same time at four stations over the East China Sea and at two northern stations of Japan. These pollution events were also observed 3-4 d later at Minamitorishima, located far from the Asian continent. A synoptic weather analysis showed that all of the major CO enhancements were brought about by the passages of cold fronts associated with the eastward migrating cyclonic development. The CO distribution simulated by a three-dimensional transport model showed that the polluted air masses exported from the continent were trapped behind the cold fronts and then merged into elongated belts of enriched CO before spreading over the western North Pacific. Transport of regionally tagged CO tracer simulated by the model indicated that the Chinese and Korean emissions were the major contributors to the pollution over the East China Sea, while the Japanese emissions had impacts at relatively higher latitude regions during the campaign. The simulation results also showed that the CO enhancements detected at Minamitorishima were caused by a long-range transport of pollution emissions from various regions in east Asia. The CO-enriched plumes from Southeast Asia and south Asia emissions were found above the boundary layer in the frontal zone but not at the surface.

  9. Influence of platelet reactivity on BARC classification in East Asian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Results of the ACCEL-BLEED study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae Jung; Tantry, Udaya S; Park, Yongwhi; Choi, Young-Min; Ahn, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Kye Hwan; Koh, Jin-Sin; Park, Jeong-Rang; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Kwak, Choong Hwan; Hwang, Jin-Yong; Gurbel, Paul A; Smith, Sidney C; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    An increasing body of data suggests that East Asian patients have differing risk profiles for both thrombophilia and bleeding compared with Western population. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of bleeding to platelet function in East Asians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients who had undergone uneventful PCI (n= 301) were prospectively enrolled and bleeding events were evaluated during dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel. Platelet function was measured during hospitalisation and at 30-day follow-up by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P) assay. During 30-day follow-up, 29.2 % of patients (n= 88) experienced post-discharge Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) complications (24.6 % and 7.0 % of BARC type 1 and 2, respectively). Patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction had fewer episodes of type 1 BARC bleeding (odds ratio: 0.41; 95 % confidence interval: 0.22 to 0.76; p= 0.005). The cut-off of low platelet reactivity (LPR) (20 µM ADP-induced platelet aggregation ≤ 46.1 %; platelet reactivity index ≤ 45.1 %) was the independent determinant of type 2 BARC bleeding (odds ratio: 3.55 and 4.44; p= 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). The first 30-day BARC bleeding episodes were associated with an increased rate of subsequent premature DAPT discontinuation during one-year follow-up (4.7 % vs 11.4 %; odds ratio: 2.60; 95 % confidence interval: 1.04 to 6.50; p= 0.035). In conclusion, among East Asians, mild bleeding episodes are common early after PCI and are associated with premature DAPT discontinuation. Type 2 BARC bleeding episodes are associated with LPR cut-offs measured at 30 days post-discharge. PMID:26790469

  10. Studying the Genetics of Complex Disease With Ancestry-Specific Human Phenotype Networks: The Case of Type 2 Diabetes in East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jingya; Moore, Jason H; Darabos, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of over 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, East Asians develop T2DM at a higher rate, younger age, and lower body mass index than their European ancestry counterparts. The reason behind this occurrence remains elusive. With comprehensive searches through the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS catalog literature, we compiled a database of 2,800 ancestry-specific SNPs associated with T2DM and 70 other related traits. Manual data extraction was necessary because the GWAS catalog reports statistics such as odds ratio and P-value, but does not consistently include ancestry information. Currently, many statistics are derived by combining initial and replication samples from study populations of mixed ancestry. Analysis of all-inclusive data can be misleading, as not all SNPs are transferable across diverse populations. We used ancestry data to construct ancestry-specific human phenotype networks (HPN) centered on T2DM. Quantitative and visual analysis of network models reveal the genetic disparities between ancestry groups. Of the 27 phenotypes in the East Asian HPN, six phenotypes were unique to the network, revealing the underlying ancestry-specific nature of some SNPs associated with T2DM. We studied the relationship between T2DM and five phenotypes unique to the East Asian HPN to generate new interaction hypotheses in a clinical context. The genetic differences found in our ancestry-specific HPNs suggest different pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM among different populations. Our study underlines the importance of ancestry in the development of T2DM and its implications in pharmocogenetics and personalized medicine. PMID:27061195

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study in Asian Populations Identifies Variants in ETS1 and WDFY4 Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanling; Shen, Nan; Ye, Dong-Qing; Liu, Qiji; Zhang, Yan; Qian, Xiao-Xia; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Ying, Dingge; Pan, Hai-Feng; Mok, Chi Chiu; Chan, Tak Mao; Wong, Raymond Woon Sing; Lee, Ka Wing; Mok, Mo Yin; Wong, Sik Nin; Leung, Alexander Moon Ho; Li, Xiang-Pei; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Wong, Chun-Ming; Lee, Tsz Leung; Ho, Marco Hok Kung; Lee, Pamela Pui Wah; Chang, Yuk Kwan; Li, Philip H.; Li, Ruo-Jie; Zhang, Lu; Wong, Wilfred Hing Sang; Ng, Irene Oi Lin; Lau, Chak Sing; Sham, Pak Chung; Lau, Yu Lung

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex and potentially fatal autoimmune disease, characterized by autoantibody production and multi-organ damage. By a genome-wide association study (320 patients and 1,500 controls) and subsequent replication altogether involving a total of 3,300 Asian SLE patients from Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Thailand, as well as 4,200 ethnically and geographically matched controls, genetic variants in ETS1 and WDFY4 were found to be associated with SLE (ETS1: rs1128334, P?=?2.3310?11, OR?=?1.29; WDFY4: rs7097397, P?=?8.1510?12, OR?=?1.30). ETS1 encodes for a transcription factor known to be involved in a wide range of immune functions, including Th17 cell development and terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes. SNP rs1128334 is located in the 3?-UTR of ETS1, and allelic expression analysis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed significantly lower expression level from the risk allele. WDFY4 is a conserved protein with unknown function, but is predominantly expressed in primary and secondary immune tissues, and rs7097397 in WDFY4 changes an arginine residue to glutamine (R1816Q) in this protein. Our study also confirmed association of the HLA locus, STAT4, TNFSF4, BLK, BANK1, IRF5, and TNFAIP3 with SLE in Asians. These new genetic findings may help us to gain a better understanding of the disease and the functions of the genes involved. PMID:20169177

  12. Extending the Record of Millennial-scale Variability of East Asian Summer Monsoon Back to 650 ka and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, R.; Lavidalie, N.; Nagashima, K.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Millennial-scale abrupt climatic changes known as Dansgaard-Oeschger [D-O] events are northern hemispheric phenomena of global significance. Asian summer monsoon [ASM] shows distinct millennial-scale variability associated with D-O events, and recent ultra-high resolution analyses of NGRIP ice core demonstrated that the decreases in dust emission from Asian deserts slightly lead abrupt warming events in Greenland during deglaciation. If true, it is essential to know the origin of millennial-scale variability of ASM and its tele-connection mechanism with Greenland climate. In this respect, obtaining a long, continuous, high- resolution record of ASM is critical. Hemipelagic sediments of the Japan Sea are characterized by cm to m- scale alternations of dark and light layers. Previous studies demonstrated that deposition of the dark and light layers is synchronous and basin-wide. Correlation of the gray scale profile with δ18O profile of Greenland ice cores revealed surprising similarity in millennial-scale variation pattern with darker intervals corresponding to D-O interstadials. The similarity continues back to the last interglacial maximum although the amplitude of gray scale variation seems slightly reduced. Nutrient budget calculation of the Japan Sea suggests that nutrient influx from the East China Sea [ECS] through the Tsushima Strait (sill depth of ca. 130m) is the major control of the surface productivity and deposition of the dark layers. Nutrient influx from the ECS is controlled by relative contribution of the nutrient-rich ECS coastal water and nutrient-poor Kuroshio water. ECS coastal water expands to the entrance of the Tsushima Strait during summer when intense precipitation over south China increases Yangtze River discharge. Thus the nutrient influx from the ECS into the Japan Sea is considered as reflecting summer monsoon intensity. Nutrient supplied to the Japan Sea was effectively trapped in the sea when the sill depth was between ca. 40 and 100m, yielding a favorable condition to deposit the dark and light layers. Leakage of nutrient-rich subsurface water have occurred when sill depth became deeper than ca. 100m, and resulted in the reduction in sensitivity of organic burial to the nutrient influx. When the sill depth was shallower than ca. 40m, the Japan Sea became isolated and deepwater became euxinic, which resulted in further reduction in sensitivity of organic burial to the nutrient influx. The observation that gray scale profile of the Japan Sea sediments faithfully records millennial-scale variability of ASM is further supported by excellent correlation between the gray scale profile and "Â18O of stalagmites in Chinese caves during the last 220 ka. We further correlated the gray scale profile with CH4 record of Antarctic ice cores during the last 650 ka, since CH4 record is claimed as the best proxy to extend the D-O signals back to 800 ka. The result confirms overall correlation although absence of CH4 peaks is observed in several intervals. Thus, gray scale profile of the Japan Sea sediments is the most reliable and long record of the millennial-scale variability of ASM. Previous result of ODP Leg 127 suggests appearance of the dark and light layers at ca. 1.6 Ma, suggesting high potential of the Japan Sea sediments to extend the record further back. 1.6 Ma could represent onset timing of millennial-scale variability of ASM. Alternatively, it may represent the opening of Tsushima Strait or shift in the course of the Yangtze River. IODP drilling of the Japan Sea and the northern ECS will give us an answer.

  13. Orbital forcing of the East Asian summer monsoon based on quantitative paleorainfall records from Chinese Loess using 10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, W.; White, L.; Cheng, L.; Wu, Z.; zhou, W.; Kong, X.

    2013-12-01

    Here we outline a method for deriving quantitative records of paleoprecipitation using meteoric 10Be flux as recorded in Quaternary loess sediments, and apply this method to derive a ~500ka rainfall record from Chinese loess. The method involves measuring loess 10Be concentration by AMS, then applying corrections for radioactive decay, recycled 10Be in reaerosolized dust, and for variations in geomagnetic field to correct for atmospheric 10Be production rate variations. 10Be flux is calculated by multiplying the corrected 10Be concentrations with loess accumulation rate, where the later is derived from a (non-orbitally tuned) timescale determined from correlating variations in loess magnetic susceptibility with U/Th dated Chinese speleothem δ18O records. The dependence of 10Be flux on rainfall rate is determined using modern observations of 7Be flux in rainfall, and atmospheric 10Be/7Be cosmogenic nuclide production ratios. Modern rainfall on the Chinese Loess Plateau has been shown to be primarily a function of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) intensity. Our 10Be rainfall proxy shows that glacial to peak interglacial rainfall rates in this region have varied by about a factor of two over the last 0.5 Ma. Our results suggests EASM intensity during interglacials MIS11, MIS 9c and MIS13 were all comparable (~850 mm/yr), but slightly less (by ~8%) than for MIS1, and about 15% less than for MIS5e, which is similar to the high latitude ice volume pattern of response except for MIS11. We note that the 10Be rainfall record of MIS13 differs from typical Chinese loess magnetic susceptibility records that suggest MIS13 was the strongest EASM of the last 6 interglacials. Our record instead indicates a relative subdued MIS13 EASM, more consistent with the Antarctic EPICA ice core deuterium or marine δ18O records. We correlate our results with orbital forced solar insolation variations at high and low latitudes as well as with interhemispheric insolation gradients. We find that both high latitude (65°N) insolation and the inter-hemispheric subtropical (30°N-30°S) insolation gradient are highly correlated with EASM intensity. We suggest the former is important in terms of controlling global mean temperature and ocean-atmospheric temperature gradient, whereas the later is also important for generating cross equatorial moisture transport that enhance the Asian Monsoon. We propose a mechanism involving regulation of cross equatorial moisture transport by the southern hemisphere low to mid-latitude Mascarene and Australian highs during Austral Precession lows, that explains precession modulation of EASM intensity and the phasing of δ18O variations observed in U/Th dated Chinese speleothems.

  14. Effects observed in the ionospheric F region in the east Asian sector during the intense geomagnetic disturbances in the early part of November 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Y.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Igarashi, K.; Yumoto, K.; Huang, C.-S.; Lan, H. T.; Saito, A.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Pillat, V. G.; Bittencourt, J. A.

    2009-03-01

    The Sun was very active in the early part of November 2004. During the period of 8-10 November 2004, intense geomagnetic disturbances with two superstorms were observed. In a companion paper (hereinafter referred to as paper 1), the effects observed in the F region during the intense geomagnetic disturbances in the early part of November 2004 in the Latin American sector were presented. In the present paper, we investigate the effects observed in the F region during the intense geomagnetic disturbances in the early part of November 2004 in the east Asian sector. We have used the ionospheric sounding observations at Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) and Okinawa, Yamagawa, Kokubunji, and Wakkanai (Japan) in the present investigations. Also, GPS observations in the east Asian sector (several longitude zones) have been used to study the effect in the F region during the intense geomagnetic disturbances. The ion density versus latitudinal variations obtained by the DMSP F15 satellite orbiting at about 800 km altitude in the east Asian sector and the magnetic field data obtained at several stations in the Japanese meridian are also presented. Several important features from these observations in both the sectors during this extended period of intense geomagnetic disturbances are presented. The east Asian sector showed very pronounced effects during the second superstorm, which was preceded by two storm enhancements. It should be mentioned that around the beginning of the night on 10 November, ionospheric irregularities propagating from higher midlatitude region to low-latitude region were observed in the Japanese sector. The most intense geomagnetic field H component in that sector was observed on 10 November at L = 2.8, indicating that the auroral oval and the heating got further to low latitudes and the ionospheric irregularities observed in the Japanese sector on this night are midlatitude ionospheric disturbances associated with the second superstorm. The absence of ionospheric irregularities in the Japanese sector during the 8 November superstorm suggests that the magnetosphere-ionosphere system was possibly preconditioned (primed) when the second interplanetary structure impacted the magnetosphere.

  15. Quality of life in South East Asian patients who consult for dyspepsia: Validation of the short form Nepean Dyspepsia Index

    PubMed Central

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Wee, Hwee-Lin; Goh, Khean-Lee; Thumboo, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Background Treatment objectives for dyspepsia include improvements in both symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). There is a lack of disease-specific instruments measuring HRQoL in South East Asian dyspeptics. Objectives To validate English and locally translated version of the Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI) in Malaysian patients who consult for dyspepsia. Methods The English version of the SF-NDI was culturally adapted locally and a Malay translation was developed using standard procedures. English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI were assessed against the SF-36 and the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ), examining internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Results Pilot testing of the translated Malay and original English versions of the SF-NDI in twenty subjects did not identify any cross-cultural adaptation problems. 143 patients (86 English-speaking and 57 Malay speaking) with dyspepsia were interviewed and the overall response rate was 100% with nil missing data. The median total SF-NDI score for both languages were 72.5 and 60.0 respectively. Test-retest reliability was good with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 (English) and 0.83 (Malay), while internal consistency of SF-NDI subscales revealed α values ranging from 0.83 – 0.88 (English) and 0.83 – 0.90 (Malay). In both languages, SF-NDI sub-scales and total score demonstrated lower values in patients with more severe symptoms and in patients with functional vs organic dyspepsia (known groups validity), although these were less marked in the Malay language version. There was moderate to good correlation (r = 0.3 – 0.6) between all SF-NDI sub-scales and various domains of the SF-36 (convergent validity). Conclusion This study demonstrates that both English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI are reliable and probably valid instruments for measuring HRQoL in Malaysian patients with dyspepsia. PMID:19463190

  16. Long-Term Evolution of the East Asian Monsoon and Impact on Erosion and Weathering Around the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Deep-water sediment records in the South China Sea have the potential to allow environment in the adjacent landmasses to be reconstructed since the Eocene rifting of the basin if the effects of provenance and drainage capture can be quantified and accounted for. The rifted margin of South China, fed by the Pearl River, likely holds the simplest record, as until the uplift of Taiwan after ~5 Ma the sediment must be dominantly derived from southern China, which is relatively tectonically quiescent. Provenance data suggest that the Pearl River was likely not involved in the major drainage capture events that affect the Yangtze, Red and Mekong Rivers. Choosing the right monsoon proxy is difficult because heavier rain provides moisture, potentially increasing alteration of sediment, yet greater run-off also causes faster transport, which reduces the time available for alteration to occur. The Middle Miocene is generally identified as the time during which the most altered sediment accumulated, while seismic data also finger this period as one with the fastest sediment delivery rates, indicating rapid erosion onshore. Prior to 22 Ma and during the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (15.5-17.0 Ma) conditions were wet and tropical but not very seasonal, i.e. the summer monsoon was weak. Chemical weathering traced by clay minerals and geochemical proxies such as K/Al decreased as the Neogene advanced, likely reflecting falling global temperatures rather than weaker summer rainfall. Weathering decreased even faster between 10 and 8 Ma, when the summer monsoon is inferred to have weakened until 5 Ma, consistent with falling sediment delivery rates to the continental margin. Records after that time are more variable, but are also complicated by sediment flux from Taiwan. The onset of Northern Hemispheric Glaciation appears to be linked to short-lived periods of stronger and weaker monsoon. No simple relationship can be inferred between the intensity of the East Asian Monsoon and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, which is believed to have grown steadily to the SE since the end of the Oligocene.

  17. Coal Ash Aerosol in East Asian Outflow as a Source for Oceanic Deposition of Iron and Other Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Hua, X.

    2008-12-01

    While ocean deposition of East Asian dust is given significant emphasis as a source of biologically-active trace elements, iron in particular, dust events are episodic and highly seasonal. There is, however, a constant source of aerosol that is chemically similar to dust (albeit amorphous in structure rather than crystalline) in the ash particles emitted from many hundreds of coal-fired power plants that are sited along the entire coastal region of China and Korea. The emission controls on these facilities vary widely and, in even cases of state-of-the-art emission controls, the secondary release of ash can be significant. There are of course even more small industrial and household sources of coal combustion emissions, in most cases with little or no emissions controls. Ash from a modern coal-fired power facility in Korea has been examined chemically and morphologically with electron microscopic techniques. As is characteristic of all such facilities, two principal types of ash are present: (1) flyash, silicate glass spheres that are emitted with the smoke and removed by electrostatic precipitators; and (2) bottom ash, "clinkers" and noncombustible material sticking to the furnace walls that are mixed with water and ground after cooling, then removed as a slurry to a dumping area. In addition, iron sulfide (pyrite) is a common constituent of coal and provides both a source of sulfur dioxide gas and also molten iron spherical particles in the ash. The iron spheres then are rapidly oxidized upon cooling. Bottom ash is a more complex material than flyash in that it contains more iron and other trace metals, plus it contains varying amounts of uncombusted carbon. The post-combustion handling of bottom ash can lead to significant emissions despite the fact that little or none goes out the stack. The iron oxide spheres can also be emitted by this secondary method. The concentrations of ash can be very high in close proximity to power plants (PM10 of several hundred micrograms per cubic meter of air) and traces of these aerosols have been found in the ACE-Asia and PACDEX experiments above the Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea and across the width of the North Pacific.

  18. Fluxes and In-Canopy Gradients of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds Above Contrasting South East Asian Land Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemitz, E.; Misztal, P.; Langford, B.; Oram, D.; Phillips, G.; di Marco, C.; Davison, B.; Hewitt, N.; Cape, N.

    2008-12-01

    Fluxes of volatile organic compounds were measured above tropical rainforest and oil palm plantation in the Malaysian state of Sabah on the island of Borneo. During April and July 2008 an Ionikon proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (ptrms) was operated at the 100 m Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) tower at Bukit Atur, at the edge of the Danum Valley conservation area. An ultrasonic anemometer and air inlet were mounted at 76 m, with the ptrms housed in a laboratory building at the foot of the tower, measuring fluxes over tropical rainforest (selectively logged in 1989) with a typical canopy height of 30 to 40 m. In addition, during the July period, a second ptrms was coupled to a lift system which automatically moved an inlet to sample in-canopy gradients inside the forest canopy, between 2 and 30 m. During May 2008, the ptrms was moved to an oil palm plantation, north of the town of Lahad Datu, were fluxes were measured at a height of 15 m above the 12 m tall canopy, together with concentrations and fluxes of ozone and aerosols. These measurements formed part of two major UK projects: OP3-Danum-2008 (Oxidant and Particle Production Processes above South East Asian Rainforest) was aimed at quantifying biogenic emissions and evaluating their impact on air chemistry and the production of photo-oxidants and biogenic secondary organic aerosol, while ACES (Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System) studies the role of primary biogenic emissions, in-canopy processes and the effect of land-use change on aerosols. Initial results indicate that fluxes of isoprene above forest averaged 1.4 mg m-2 s-1 which is somewhat smaller than previous measurements in Amazonia and than previous estimates derived from leaf- level measurements, reflecting uncertainties in the assumed plant species composition. Concentrations peaked at the top of the canopy during midday. With an average of 5.5 mg m-2s-1, isoprene fluxes above the oil palm plantation were four times larger. Average fluxes of total monoterpenes were 0.15 mg m-2 s-1 at the forest site and 0.85 mg m-2 s-1 above oil palm. Fluxes of isoprene oxidation products (MVK + MACR) were upwards above forest and downward above oil palm, indicating that the high measurement height on the GAW tower provided more time for chemical conversion. Particle number fluxes above forest showed periods of apparent emission during midday indicative of VOC emissions resulting in particle growth.

  19. Traditional East Asian medicine: how to understand and approach diagnostic findings and patterns in a modern scientific framework?

    PubMed

    Birch, Stephen; Alraek, Terje

    2014-05-01

    Research into the diagnostic methods and patterns of traditional East Asian medical (TEAM) systems of practice such as acupuncture and herbal medicine face certain challenges due to the nature of thinking in TEAM and the subjective basis of judgments made in practice. The TEAM-based diagnosis can take into account various findings and signs such as the appearance of the tongue, palpable qualities of the radial pulses, palpable qualities and findings on the abdomen, the complexion of the patient and so on. Both diagnostic findings and the patterns of diagnosis cannot be assumed to have objective bases or to be causally related to the complaints of the patient. However, the diagnoses of TEAM based acupuncture and herbal medicine have tended to look at pictures of the whole patient and rather than focus on a particular symptom, they have looked across a myriad of signs and symptoms to decide or identify the 'pattern' of diagnosis according to the theory in question. Although open for selective and subjective biases each diagnosis pattern always comes with a prescribed treatment tailored to the pattern. Further, the same research requirements needed for the validation of the diagnoses are needed also for these clinical observations and judgments. Hence, it is necessary, albeit challenging for research on TEAM diagnoses to first address these issues before proceeding to more complex investigations such as the development of instruments for making diagnostic observations, instruments for forming diagnostic conclusions or studies investigating the physiological bases of the diagnostic patterns. Preliminary work has started and instruments have been made, but we suggest that any instrumentation must necessarily be first validated by matching of the calibrated or scaled observations or judgments to observations made and agreed upon by relevant experts. Reliability of all observations and judgments are needed before any other tool, technology or more advanced approach can proceed and also whenever the natural system of diagnosis-treatment is applied in clinical trials. In this paper the authors highlight the core problems and describe a step wise process for addressing them. PMID:24788086

  20. Changes in the frequencies of record-breaking temperature events in China and its association with East Asian Winter Monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Xueyuan; Zhang, Yaocun; Huang, Ying; Huang, Danqing

    2014-02-01

    The daily maximum and minimum temperatures observed at the 1897 meteorological stations of China over the past 60 years (1951-2010) are analyzed in this study to examine the interdecadal variation of frequency for record-breaking event (RBE) of temperature in the context of global warming. The results indicate that the frequency of record-breaking high temperature in the first decade of the 21st century is the highest in the three decades from the 1980s to the 2000s, implying a distinct warming trend. Meanwhile, frequencies of record-breaking low temperature in the 1990s and the beginning of the 21st century are also significant. In particular, the RBEs of low temperature occurred over most of China in the 1990s but concentrated in northern China during the 2000s. To understand why the record low temperatures in northern China are repeatedly broken in the 2000s, the related East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) variability is investigated. The empirical orthogonal function analysis of surface air temperature reveals that the northern mode of the EAWM variability, which is highly associated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) activities at both interdecadal and interannual timescales, has been intensifying since late 1990s. Corresponding to the intensification of the northern mode of the EAWM variability and the negative phase of AO in the 2000s, the Siberian High and East Asian trough intensify while the polar-front jet stream strengthens and the subtropical westerly jet stream abnormally shifts northward. As a result, anomalously strong cold air masses, originated from Siberia, intrude into East Asia but are blocked by the enhanced northward subtropical westerly jet and cannot reach low-latitude area. Therefore, the extremely strong cold air masses are amassed in mid-high latitudes of East Asia, resulting in RBEs of low temperature in this area.

  1. Observed and expected frequencies of structural hemoglobin variants in newborn screening surveys in Africa and the Middle East: Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Frédéric B.; Adamkiewicz, Thomas V.; Amendah, Djesika; Williams, Thomas N.; Gupta, Sunetra; Grosse, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to compare observed and expected genotype proportions from newborn screening surveys of structural hemoglobin variants. Methods We conducted a systematic review of newborn screening surveys of hemoglobins S and C in Africa and the Middle-East. We compared observed frequencies to those expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Significant deviations were identified by an exact test. The fixation index FIS was calculated to assess excess homozygosity. We compared newborn estimates corrected and uncorrected for HWE deviations using demographic data. Results Sixty samples reported genotype counts for hemoglobin variants in Africa and the Middle-East. Observed and expected counts matched in 27%. The observed number of sickle-cell anemia (SCA) individuals was higher than expected in 42 samples, reaching significance (p<0.05) in 24. High FIS were common across the study regions. The estimated total number of newborns with SCA, corrected based on FIS, were 33,261 annual births instead of 24,958 for the 38 samples across sub-Saharan Africa and 1,109 annual births instead of 578 for 12 samples from the Middle East. Conclusion Differences between observed and expected genotype frequencies are common in surveys of hemoglobin variants in the study regions. Further research is required to identify and quantify factors responsible for such deviations. Estimates based on HWE might substantially underestimate the annual number of SCA affected newborns (up to one third in sub-Saharan Africa and one half in the Middle East). PMID:26633548

  2. The birth prevalence of PKU in populations of European, South Asian and sub-Saharan African ancestry living in South East England.

    PubMed

    Hardelid, P; Cortina-Borja, M; Munro, A; Jones, H; Cleary, M; Champion, M P; Foo, Y; Scriver, C R; Dezateux, C

    2008-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism (OMIM 261600). Treatment with a low-phenylalanine diet following early ascertainment by newborn screening prevents impaired cognitive development, the major disease phenotype in PKU. The overall birth prevalence of PKU in European, Chinese and Korean populations is approximately 1/10,000. Since the human PAH locus contains PKU-causing alleles and polymorphic core haplotypes that describe and corroborate an out-of-Africa range expansion in modern human populations, it is of interest to know the prevalence of PKU in different ethnic groups with diverse geographical origin. We estimated PKU prevalence in South East England, where a sizeable proportion of the population are of Sub-Saharan African or South Asian ancestry. Over the period 1994 to 2004 167 children were diagnosed with PKU. Using birth registration and census data to derive denominators, PKU birth prevalence per 10,000 live births (95% Bayesian credible intervals) was estimated to be 1.14 (0.96-1.33) among white, 0.11 (0.02-0.37) among black, and 0.29 (0.10-0.63) among Asian ethnic groups. This suggests that PKU is up to an order of magnitude less prevalent in populations with Sub-Saharan African and South Asian ancestry that have migrated to the UK. PMID:18184144

  3. Population Burden of Betel Quid Abuse and Its Relation to Oral Premalignant Disorders in South, Southeast, and East Asia: An Asian Betel-Quid Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. Methods. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. Results. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%−99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%−99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%−89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Conclusions. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms. PMID:22390524

  4. Projected changes of wintertime synoptic-scale transient eddy activities in the East Asian eddy-driven jet from CMI