Science.gov

Sample records for east cancer consortium

  1. PanScan, the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium, and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium consists of more than a dozen prospective epidemiologic cohort studies within the NCI Cohort Consortium, whose leaders work together to investigate the etiology and natural history of pancreatic cancer.

  2. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  3. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  4. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Cancer.gov

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  5. INTERNATIONAL CHILDHOOD CANCER COHORT CONSORTIUM (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood cancers are rare conditions whose etiology is poorly understood. There is evidence that for some, the causal pathway may commence in utero or during peri-conception. One traditional epidemiologic approach to the study of rare diseases is the use of a retrospective cas...

  6. NCI International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    A collaboration among NCI and extramural investigators, established by DCEG in 2006, that utilizes data and biospecimens from completed and ongoing case series and observational studies of gastric cancer to replicate and extend findings from previous studies hindered by small numbers of EBV-positive cases, and to stimulate multidisciplinary research in this area.

  7. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology. PMID:25263570

  8. Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) Created: Eight Grants Awarded | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Division of Cancer Prevention awarded eight grants to create the Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) on August 3, 2015. | 8 lead investigators combining imaging methods for the visualization of lesions with biomarkers to improve the accuracy of screening, early cancer detection, and the diagnosis of early stage cancers.

  9. The global cancer genomics consortium's third annual symposium: from oncogenomics to cancer care

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Luis; Casimiro, Sandra; Gupta, Sudeep; Knapp, Stefan; Pillai, M.Radhakrishna; Toi, Masakazu; Badwe, Rajendra; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The Global Cancer Genomics Consortium (GCGC) is a cohesive network of oncologists, cancer biologists and structural and genomic experts residing in six institutions from Portugal, United Kingdom, Japan, India, and United States. The team is using its combined resources and infrastructures to address carefully selected, shared, burning questions in cancer medicine. The Third Annual Symposium was organized by the Institute of Molecular Medicine, Lisbon Medical School, Lisbon, Portugal, from September 18 to 20, 2013. To highlight the benefits and limitations of recent advances in cancer genomics, the meeting focused on how to better translate our gains in oncogenomics to cancer patients while engaging our younger colleagues in cancer medicine at-large. Over two hundreds participants actively discussed some of the most recent advances in the areas cancer genomics, transcriptomics and cancer system biology and how to best apply such knowledge to cancer therapeutics, biomarkers discovery and drug development, and an essential role played by bio-banking throughout the process. In brief, the GCGC symposium provided a platform for students and translational cancer researchers to share their excitement and worries as we are beginning to translate the gains in oncogenomics to a better cancer patient treatment.

  10. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility: results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K; Herranz, J; Pita, G; Moreno, L T; Alonso, M R; Dennis, J; Wang, Q; Bolla, M K; Meyer, K B; Menéndez-Rodríguez, P; Hardisson, D; Mendiola, M; González-Neira, A; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Swerdlow, A; Ashworth, A; Orr, N; Jones, M; Matsuo, K; Ito, H; Iwata, H; Kondo, N; Hartman, M; Hui, M; Lim, W Y; T-C Iau, P; Sawyer, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerin, M; Miller, N; Kang, D; Choi, J-Y; Park, S K; Noh, D-Y; Hopper, J L; Schmidt, D F; Makalic, E; Southey, M C; Teo, S H; Yip, C H; Sivanandan, K; Tay, W-T; Brauch, H; Brüning, T; Hamann, U; Dunning, A M; Shah, M; Andrulis, I L; Knight, J A; Glendon, G; Tchatchou, S; Schmidt, M K; Broeks, A; Rosenberg, E H; van't Veer, L J; Fasching, P A; Renner, S P; Ekici, A B; Beckmann, M W; Shen, C-Y; Hsiung, C-N; Yu, J-C; Hou, M-F; Blot, W; Cai, Q; Wu, A H; Tseng, C-C; Van Den Berg, D; Stram, D O; Cox, A; Brock, I W; Reed, M W R; Muir, K; Lophatananon, A; Stewart-Brown, S; Siriwanarangsan, P; Zheng, W; Deming-Halverson, S; Shrubsole, M J; Long, J; Shu, X-O; Lu, W; Gao, Y-T; Zhang, B; Radice, P; Peterlongo, P; Manoukian, S; Mariette, F; Sangrajrang, S; McKay, J; Couch, F J; Toland, A E; Yannoukakos, D; Fletcher, O; Johnson, N; Silva, I dos Santos; Peto, J; Marme, F; Burwinkel, B; Guénel, P; Truong, T; Sanchez, M; Mulot, C; Bojesen, S E; Nordestgaard, B G; Flyer, H; Brenner, H; Dieffenbach, A K; Arndt, V; Stegmaier, C; Mannermaa, A; Kataja, V; Kosma, V-M; Hartikainen, J M; Lambrechts, D; Yesilyurt, B T; Floris, G; Leunen, K; Chang-Claude, J; Rudolph, A; Seibold, P; Flesch-Janys, D; Wang, X; Olson, J E; Vachon, C; Purrington, K; Giles, G G; Severi, G; Baglietto, L; Haiman, C A; Henderson, B E; Schumacher, F; Le Marchand, L; Simard, J; Dumont, M; Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F; Winqvist, R; Pylkäs, K; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A; Grip, M; Devilee, P; Tollenaar, R A E M; Seynaeve, C; García-Closas, M; Chanock, S J; Lissowska, J; Figueroa, J D; Czene, K; Eriksson, M; Humphreys, K; Darabi, H; Hooning, M J; Kriege, M; Collée, J M; Tilanus-Linthorst, M; Li, J; Jakubowska, A; Lubinski, J; Jaworska-Bieniek, K; Durda, K; Nevanlinna, H; Muranen, T A; Aittomäki, K; Blomqvist, C; Bogdanova, N; Dörk, T; Hall, P; Chenevix-Trench, G; Easton, D F; Pharoah, P D P; Arias-Perez, J I; Zamora, P; Benítez, J; Milne, R L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods: Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=1.02–1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2. Conclusion: Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2. PMID:24548884

  11. Consortium for Molecular Characterization of Screen-Detected Lesions Created: Eight Grants Awarded | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has awarded eight grants to create the Consortium for Molecular Characterization of Screen-Detected Lesions. The consortium has seven molecular characterization laboratories (MCLs) and a coordinating center, and is supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention and the Division of Cancer Biology. | 7 laboratories and a coordinating center focused on identifying screening-detected pre-cancers and early cancers, including within the tumor microenvironment.

  12. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J; Ramus, S J; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Menon, U; Gayther, S A; Anderson, A R; Edlund, C K; Wu, A H; Chen, X; Beesley, J; Webb, P M; Holt, S K; Chen, C; Doherty, J A; Rossing, M A; Whittemore, A S; McGuire, V; DiCioccio, R A; Goodman, M T; Lurie, G; Carney, M E; Wilkens, L R; Ness, R B; Moysich, K B; Edwards, R; Jennison, E; Kjaer, S K; Hogdall, E; Hogdall, C K; Goode, E L; Sellers, T A; Vierkant, R A; Cunningham, J C; Schildkraut, J M; Berchuck, A; Moorman, P G; Iversen, E S; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Vitonis, A F; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Song, H; Pharoah, P D P; Spurdle, A B; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Brewster, W; Galitovskiy, V; Chenevix-Trench, G

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P⩽0.10 in a log-additive model: rs2740574 in CYP3A4 (P=0.011), rs1805386 in LIG4 (P=0.007), and rs3218536 in XRCC2 (P=0.095). Additional genotyping in other OCAC studies was undertaken and only the variant in CYP3A4, rs2740574, continued to show an association in the replication data among homozygous carriers: ORhomozygous(hom)=2.50 (95% CI 0.54-11.57, P=0.24) with 1406 cases and 2827 controls. Overall, in the combined data the odds ratio was 2.81 among carriers of two copies of the minor allele (95% CI 1.20–6.56, P=0.017, phet across studies=0.42) with 1969 cases and 3491 controls. There was no association among heterozygous carriers. CYP3A4 encodes a key enzyme in oestrogen metabolism and our finding between rs2740574 and risk of ovarian cancer suggests that this pathway may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional follow-up is warranted. PMID:19127255

  13. Trailblazing in East Texas: A Progress Report on the Forest Trail Library Consortium's Networking Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claer, Joycelyn H.

    This report describes the development of the Forest Trail Library Consortium (FTLC), a network of academic, public, and school libraries in Texas. The growth of FTLC from 4 charter members to its current 16 members is traced, including details about goals and funding. The role of special interest groups (SIGs) is examined, and the goals and…

  14. International Cancer Genome Consortium Data Portal--a one-stop shop for cancer genomics data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjun; Baran, Joachim; Cros, A; Guberman, Jonathan M; Haider, Syed; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Rivkin, Elena; Wang, Jianxin; Whitty, Brett; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) is a collaborative effort to characterize genomic abnormalities in 50 different cancer types. To make this data available, the ICGC has created the ICGC Data Portal. Powered by the BioMart software, the Data Portal allows each ICGC member institution to manage and maintain its own databases locally, while seamlessly presenting all the data in a single access point for users. The Data Portal currently contains data from 24 cancer projects, including ICGC, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Johns Hopkins University, and the Tumor Sequencing Project. It consists of 3478 genomes and 13 cancer types and subtypes. Available open access data types include simple somatic mutations, copy number alterations, structural rearrangements, gene expression, microRNAs, DNA methylation and exon junctions. Additionally, simple germline variations are available as controlled access data. The Data Portal uses a web-based graphical user interface (GUI) to offer researchers multiple ways to quickly and easily search and analyze the available data. The web interface can assist in constructing complicated queries across multiple data sets. Several application programming interfaces are also available for programmatic access. Here we describe the organization, functionality, and capabilities of the ICGC Data Portal. PMID:21930502

  15. Association of body mass index and risk of death from pancreas cancer in Asians: findings from the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingsong; Fu, Rong; Grant, Eric; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Gupta, Prakash C; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ozasa, Kotaro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kakizaki, Masako; Tanaka, Hideo; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Ahsan, Habibul; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Ohishi, Waka; Watanabe, Takashi; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Matsuo, Keitaro; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Parvez, Faruque; Rolland, Betsy; McLerran, Dale; Sinha, Rashmi; Boffetta, Paolo; Zheng, Wei; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to examine the association between BMI and the risk of death from pancreas cancer in a pooled analysis of data from the Asia Cohort Consortium. The data for this pooled analysis included 883 529 men and women from 16 cohort studies in Asian countries. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for pancreas cancer mortality in relation to BMI. Seven predefined BMI categories (<18.5, 18.5-19.9, 20.0-22.4, 22.5-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, ≥ 30) were used in the analysis, with BMI of 22.5-24.9 serving as the reference group. The multivariable analyses were adjusted for known risk factors, including age, smoking, and a history of diabetes. We found no statistically significant overall association between each BMI category and the risk of death from pancreas cancer in all Asians, and obesity was unrelated to the risk of mortality in both East Asians and South Asians. Age, smoking, and a history of diabetes did not modify the association between BMI and the risk of death from pancreas cancer. In planned subgroup analyses among East Asians, an increased risk of death from pancreas cancer among those with a BMI less than 18.5 was observed for individuals with a history of diabetes; hazard ratio=2.01 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-4.00) (P for interaction=0.07). The data do not support an association between BMI and the risk of death from pancreas cancer in these Asian populations. PMID:23044748

  16. Association of body mass index and risk of death from pancreas cancer in Asians: findings from the Asia Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingsong; Fu, Rong; Grant, Eric; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Gupta, Prakashi C.; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ozasa, Kotaro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kakizaki, Masako; Tanaka, Hideo; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahn, Yoon-OK; Ahsan, Habibul; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Ohishi, Waka; Watanabe, Takashi; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Takeshi; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K.; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Parvez, Faruque; Rolland, Betsy; McLerran, Dale; Sinha, Rashmi; Boffetta, Paolo; Zheng, Wei; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to examine the association between BMI and the risk of death from pancreas cancer in a pooled analysis of data from the Asia Cohort Consortium. Methods The data for this pooled-analysis included 883,529 men and women from 16 cohort studies in Asian countries. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pancreas cancer mortality in relation to BMI. Seven predefined BMI categories (<18.5, 18.5–19.9, 20.0–22.4, 22.5–24.9, 25.0–27.4, 27.5–29.9, ≥30) were used in the analysis, with BMI of 22.5–24.9 serving as the reference group. The multivariable analyses were adjusted for known risk factors, including age, smoking, and history of diabetes. Results We found no statistically significant overall association between each BMI category and risk of death from pancreas cancer in all Asians, and obesity was unrelated to mortality risk in both East Asians and South Asians. Age, smoking, and history of diabetes did not modify the association between BMI and risk of death from pancreas cancer. In planned subgroup analyses among East Asians, an increased risk of death from pancreas cancer among those with a BMI<18.5 was observed for individuals with a history of diabetes; HR = 2.01(95%CI: 1.01–4.00) (p for interaction=0.07). Conclusion The data do not support an association between BMI and risk of death from pancreas cancer in these Asian populations. PMID:23044748

  17. Factors associated with oxidative stress and cancer risk in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Blein, S; Berndt, S; Joshi, A D; Campa, D; Ziegler, R G; Riboli, E; Cox, D G

    2014-03-01

    Both endogenous factors (genomic variations) and exogenous factors (environmental exposures, lifestyle) impact the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Variants of the ND3 (rs2853826; G10398A) gene of the mitochondrial genome, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; rs4880 Val16Ala) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX-1; rs1050450 Pro198Leu), are purported to have functional effects on regulation of ROS balance. In this study, we examined associations of breast and prostate cancer risks and survival with these variants, and interactions between rs4880-rs1050450, and alcohol consumption-rs2853826. Nested case-control studies were conducted in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), consisting of nine cohorts. The analyses included over 10726 post-menopausal breast and 7532 prostate cancer cases with matched controls. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations with risk, and proportional hazard models were used for survival outcomes. We did not observe significant interactions between polymorphisms in MnSOD and GPX-1, or between mitochondrial polymorphisms and alcohol intake and risk of either breast (p-interaction of 0.34 and 0.98, respectively) or prostate cancer (p-interaction of 0.49 and 0.50, respectively). We observed a weak inverse association between prostate cancer risk and GPX-1 Leu198Leu carriers (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97, p = 0.01). Overall survival among women with breast cancer was inversely associated with G10398 carriers who consumed alcohol (HR 0.66 95% CI 0.49-0.88). Given the high power in our study, it is unlikely that interactions tested have more than moderate effects on breast or prostate cancer risk. Observed associations need both further epidemiological and biological confirmation. PMID:24437375

  18. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Rita; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Chang, Shen-Chih; Lazarus, Philip; Teare, M Dawn; Woll, Penella J; Orlow, Irene; Cox, Brian; Brhane, Yonathan; Liu, Geoffrey; Hung, Rayjean J

    2015-02-15

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled using random effects models. Subgroup analyses were done for sex, histology and tobacco smoking status. The shapes of dose-response associations were examined using restricted cubic spline regression. The overall pooled OR for habitual versus nonhabitual or never users was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.66-1.38). Compared to nonhabitual or never users, the summary OR was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.63-1.24) for individuals who smoked 1 or more joint-equivalents of cannabis per day and 0.94 (95%CI: 0.67-1.32) for those consumed at least 10 joint-years. For adenocarcinoma cases the ORs were 1.73 (95%CI: 0.75-4.00) and 1.74 (95%CI: 0.85-3.55), respectively. However, no association was found for the squamous cell carcinoma based on small numbers. Weak associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were observed in never tobacco smokers. Spline modeling indicated a weak positive monotonic association between cumulative cannabis use and lung cancer, but precision was low at high exposure levels. Results from our pooled analyses provide little evidence for an increased risk of lung cancer among habitual or long-term cannabis smokers, although the possibility of potential adverse effect for heavy consumption cannot be excluded. PMID:24947688

  19. The role of the 'innovative therapies for children with cancer' (ITCC) European consortium.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, C Michel; Kearns, Pamela; Caron, Huib; Verschuur, Arnauld; Riccardi, Riccardo; Boos, Joachim; Doz, Francois; Geoerger, Birgit; Morland, Bruce; Vassal, Gilles

    2010-06-01

    Overall survival from childhood malignancies has dramatically improved, with survival rates now reaching over 70%. Nevertheless, some types of childhood cancer remain a difficult challenge, and for those who survive the burden of treatment can be considerable. The current paradigm for new cancer therapies is to increase our knowledge of the molecular basis of carcinogenesis, followed by the development of cancer-cell specific therapies. Historically, drug development was focused on adult cancers, and the potential efficacy in childhood malignancies was not considered. Recently, a European academic consortium was established, namely 'innovative therapies for children with cancer' (ITCC), to address this unmet need. This initiative is focused on the evaluation of novel agents in pediatric cancer pre-clinical models, and early clinical development of promising new drugs. The number of pediatric patients eligible to participate in such trials is limited, and accurate pre-clinical evaluation may provide evidence-based prioritization for clinical development. Until recently, clinical development of new drugs in childhood cancer was restricted by the limited accessibility of such agents. Recent changes in EU legislation oblige pharmaceutical companies to provide pediatric clinical data for all new drugs relevant to children, including anti-cancer drugs. Pediatric consortiums like ITCC have established networks of expertise with the specific aim of evaluating new drugs for the treatment of childhood cancers. Through proper evaluation in collaborative clinical trials we will learn how best to use these new therapeutic approaches and improve the survival rates and reduce toxicity for children with cancer. PMID:20231057

  20. Breast cancer risk and 6q22.33: combined results from Breast Cancer Association Consortium and Consortium of Investigators on Modifiers of BRCA1/2.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M; Antoniou, Antonis C; McGuffog, Lesley; Humphreys, Manjeet K; Dunning, Alison M; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Dork, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Karstens, Johann H; Hillemanns, Peter; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine; Wang, Xianshu; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian; Elliott, Graeme; Reed, Malcolm W R; Burwinkel, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Van 't Veer, Laura J; Braaf, Linde M; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; Peto, Julian; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Rahman, Nazneen; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Hammet, Fleur; Van Dorpe, Thijs; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Hatse, Sigrid; Lambrechts, Diether; Andrulis, Irene L; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Juri I; Prokofieva, Daria; Bermisheva, Marina; Khusnutdinova, Elza; van Asperen, Christi J; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Hooning, Maartje J; Devilee, Peter; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Milne, Roger L; Arias, José Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Giles, Graham G; Spurdle, Amanda B; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Holland, Helene; Healey, Sue; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Caligo, Maria A; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Fredericksen, Zachary; Lindor, Noralane; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Loman, Niklas; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Verheus, Martijn; Rookus, Matti A; Seynaeve, Caroline; Oldenburg, Rogier A; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Aalfs, Cora M; Gille, Hans J P; Wijnen, Juul T; Gómez García, Encarna B; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T; Frost, Debra; Luccarini, Craig; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-Ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Gold, Bert; Pharoah, Paul D P; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341) was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication analysis of rs2180341 using data from 31,428 invasive breast cancer cases and 34,700 controls collected from 25 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). In addition, we evaluated whether rs2180341 modifies breast cancer risk in 3,361 BRCA1 and 2,020 BRCA2 carriers from 11 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Based on the BCAC data from women of European ancestry, we found evidence for a weak association with breast cancer risk for rs2180341 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, p = 0.023). There was evidence for heterogeneity in the ORs among studies (I(2) = 49.3%; p = <0.004). In CIMBA, we observed an inverse association with the minor allele of rs2180341 and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele OR = 0.89, 95%CI 0.80-1.00, p = 0.048), indicating a potential protective effect of this allele. These data suggest that that 6q22.33 confers a weak effect on breast cancer risk. PMID:22768030

  1. Breast Cancer Risk and 6q22.33: Combined Results from Breast Cancer Association Consortium and Consortium of Investigators on Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; McGuffog, Lesley; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Dunning, Alison M.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Dork, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Karstens, Johann H.; Hillemanns, Peter; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine; Wang, Xianshu; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian; Elliott, Graeme; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Van ‘t Veer, Laura J.; Braaf, Linde M.; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; Peto, Julian; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Rahman, Nazneen; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Van Dorpe, Thijs; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Hatse, Sigrid; Lambrechts, Diether; Andrulis, Irene L.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Juri I.; Prokofieva, Daria; Bermisheva, Marina; Khusnutdinova, Elza; van Asperen, Christi J.; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Devilee, Peter; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Milne, Roger L.; Arias, José Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Giles, Graham G.; kConFab; Group, AOCS Study; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Holland, Helene; Healey, Sue; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Caligo, Maria A.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Fredericksen, Zachary; Lindor, Noralane; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; SWE-BRCA; Loman, Niklas; Karlsson, Per; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Melin, Beatrice; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; HEBON; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Verheus, Martijn; Rookus, Matti A.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Gille, Hans J.P.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Gómez García, Encarna B.; EMBRACE; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Luccarini, Craig; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-Ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Gold, Bert; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341) was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication analysis of rs2180341 using data from 31,428 invasive breast cancer cases and 34,700 controls collected from 25 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). In addition, we evaluated whether rs2180341 modifies breast cancer risk in 3,361 BRCA1 and 2,020 BRCA2 carriers from 11 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Based on the BCAC data from women of European ancestry, we found evidence for a weak association with breast cancer risk for rs2180341 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00–1.06, p = 0.023). There was evidence for heterogeneity in the ORs among studies (I2 = 49.3%; p = <0.004). In CIMBA, we observed an inverse association with the minor allele of rs2180341 and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele OR = 0.89, 95%CI 0.80–1.00, p = 0.048), indicating a potential protective effect of this allele. These data suggest that that 6q22.33 confers a weak effect on breast cancer risk. PMID:22768030

  2. Five polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Mia M; Milne, Roger L; Cox, Angela; Camp, Nicola J; Goode, Ellen L; Humphreys, Manjeet K; Dunning, Alison M; Morrison, Jonathan; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Abbas, Sascha; Salazar, Ramona; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Kämpjärvi, Kati; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Nevanlinna, Heli; Bogdanova, Natalia; Coinac, Irina; Schürmann, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Bartram, Claus R; Schmutzler, Rita K; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brauch, Hiltrud; Torres, Diana; Hamann, Ute; Justenhoven, Christina; Ribas, Gloria; Arias, José I; Benitez, Javier; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik L; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Strick, Reiner; Ekici, Arif B; Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Van't Veer, Laura J; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Apicella, Carmel; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kristensen, Vessela; Grenaker Alnaes, Grethe; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Cox, David G; Hankinson, Susan E; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Devilee, Peter; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Peplonska, Beata; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Li, Yuqing; Liu, Jianjun; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Rafii, Saeed; Reed, Malcolm W R; Pooley, Karen A; Conroy, Don; Baynes, Caroline; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wang, Hui-Chun; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Wu, Pei-Ei; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogoas, Argyrios; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Trentham Dietz, Amy; Sigurdson, Alice J; Alexander, Bruce H; Bhatti, Parveen; Allen-Brady, Kristina; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Wong, Jathine; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B; Beesley, Jonathan; Pharoah, Paul D P; Easton, Doug F; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that minor alleles for ERCC4 rs744154, TNF rs361525, CASP10 rs13010627, PGR rs1042838, and BID rs8190315 may influence breast cancer risk, but the evidence is inconclusive due to their small sample size. These polymorphisms were genotyped in more than 30,000 breast cancer cases and 30,000 controls, primarily of European descent, from 30 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) as a measure of association. We found that the minor alleles for these polymorphisms were not related to invasive breast cancer risk overall in women of European descent: ECCR4 per-allele OR (95% CI) = 0.99 (0.97-1.02), minor allele frequency = 27.5%; TNF 1.00 (0.95-1.06), 5.0%; CASP10 1.02 (0.98-1.07), 6.5%; PGR 1.02 (0.99-1.06), 15.3%; and BID 0.98 (0.86-1.12), 1.7%. However, we observed significant between-study heterogeneity for associations with risk for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in CASP10, PGR, and BID. Estimates were imprecise for women of Asian and African descent due to small numbers and lower minor allele frequencies (with the exception of BID SNP). The ORs for each copy of the minor allele were not significantly different by estrogen or progesterone receptor status, nor were any significant interactions found between the polymorphisms and age or family history of breast cancer. In conclusion, our data provide persuasive evidence against an overall association between invasive breast cancer risk and ERCC4 rs744154, TNF rs361525, CASP10 rs13010627, PGR rs1042838, and BID rs8190315 genotypes among women of European descent. PMID:19423537

  3. Five Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk: Results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Mia M.; Milne, Roger L.; Cox, Angela; Camp, Nicola J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Dunning, Alison M.; Morrison, Jonathan; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Abbas, Sascha; Salazar, Ramona; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Kämpjärvi, Kati; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Nevanlinna, Heli; Bogdanova, Natalia; Coinac, Irina; Schürmann, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Bartram, Claus R.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brauch, Hiltrud; Torres, Diana; Hamann, Ute; Justenhoven, Christina; Ribas, Gloria; Arias, José I.; Benitez, Javier; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik L.; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Strick, Reiner; Ekici, Arif B.; Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Van’t Veer, Laura J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Cox, David G.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Devilee, Peter; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Peplonska, Beata; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Li, Yuqing; Liu, Jianjun; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Rafii, Saeed; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Pooley, Karen A.; Conroy, Don; Baynes, Caroline; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wang, Hui-Chun; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Wu, Pei-Ei; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogoas, Argyrios; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Dietz, Amy Trentham; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Bhatti, Parveen; Allen-Brady, Kristina; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.; Wong, Jathine; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Easton, Doug F.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that minor alleles for ERCC4 rs744154, TNF rs361525, CASP10 rs13010627, PGR rs1042838, and BID rs8190315 may influence breast cancer risk, but the evidence is inconclusive due to their small sample size. These polymorphisms were genotyped in more than 30,000 breast cancer cases and 30,000 controls, primarily of European descent, from 30 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) as a measure of association. We found that the minor alleles for these polymorphisms were not related to invasive breast cancer risk overall in women of European descent: ECCR4 per-allele OR (95% CI) = 0.99 (0.97–1.02), minor allele frequency = 27.5%; TNF 1.00 (0.95–1.06), 5.0%; CASP10 1.02 (0.98–1.07), 6.5%; PGR 1.02 (0.99–1.06), 15.3%; and BID 0.98 (0.86–1.12), 1.7%. However, we observed significant between-study heterogeneity for associations with risk for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in CASP10, PGR, and BID. Estimates were imprecise for women of Asian and African descent due to small numbers and lower minor allele frequencies (with the exception of BID SNP). The ORs for each copy of the minor allele were not significantly different by estrogen or progesterone receptor status, nor were any significant interactions found between the polymorphisms and age or family history of breast cancer. In conclusion, our data provide persuasive evidence against an overall association between invasive breast cancer risk and ERCC4 rs744154, TNF rs361525, CASP10 rs13010627, PGR rs1042838, and BID rs8190315 genotypes among women of European descent. PMID:19423537

  4. The African cancer advocacy consortium: shaping the path for advocacy in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although there is significant evidence of a cancer epidemic in Africa, there is limited awareness about cancer in most African countries. By partnering with international organizations and institutions such as the University of Florida and the Prostate Net, the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) is committed to improving cancer advocacy in Africa. This paper presents some of the recent efforts on cancer advocacy in Africa, including the results of a SWOT analysis conducted for the cancer advocacy workshop and the guidelines developed by cancer advocates on best practices for cancer advocacy in Africa. One of the outcomes of these efforts is the African Cancer Advocates Consortium (ACAC) founded by cancer advocates in Africa to, “Make Cancer a Top Priority in Africa”. While we have started the work to strengthen cancer advocacy in Africa, we still have a long way to go. Our goal of making cancer a priority in Africa can mainly be achieved by: (1) increasing the manpower for cancer advocacy through education and training; and (2) strengthening the network of cancer advocates across the continent. PMID:23902674

  5. Connecting Genomic Alterations to Cancer Biology with Proteomics: The NCI Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Matthew; Gillette, Michael; Carr, Steven A.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Townsend, Reid; Kinsinger, Christopher; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Liebler, Daniel

    2013-10-03

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium is applying the latest generation of proteomic technologies to genomically annotated tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program, a joint initiative of the NCI and the National Human Genome Research Institute. By providing a fully integrated accounting of DNA, RNA, and protein abnormalities in individual tumors, these datasets will illuminate the complex relationship between genomic abnormalities and cancer phenotypes, thus producing biologic insights as well as a wave of novel candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets amenable to verifi cation using targeted mass spectrometry methods.

  6. International Lung Cancer Consortium: Coordinated association study of 10 potential lung cancer susceptibility variants

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Therese; Sauter, Wiebke; McKay, James D.; Hosgood, H.Dean; Gallagher, Carla; Amos, Christopher I.; Spitz, Margaret; Muscat, Joshua; Lazarus, Philip; Illig, Thomas; Wichmann, H.Erich; Bickeböller, Heike; Risch, Angela; Dienemann, Hendrik; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Naeim, Behnaz Pezeshki; Yang, Ping; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Haugen, Aage; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Jin Hee; Duell, Eric J.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Kiyohara, Chikako; Shen, Hongbing; Matsuo, Keitaro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Seow, Adeline; Ng, Daniel P.K.; Lan, Qing; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Constantinescu, Vali; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Caporaso, Neil E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thun, Michael; Landi, Maria Teresa; Trubicka, Joanna; Lener, Marcin; Lubiński, Jan; Wang, Ying; Chabrier, Amélie; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Analysis of candidate genes in individual studies has had only limited success in identifying particular gene variants that are conclusively associated with lung cancer risk. In the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), we conducted a coordinated genotyping study of 10 common variants selected because of their prior evidence of an association with lung cancer. These variants belonged to candidate genes from different cancer-related pathways including inflammation (IL1B), folate metabolism (MTHFR), regulatory function (AKAP9 and CAMKK1), cell adhesion (SEZL6) and apoptosis (FAS, FASL, TP53, TP53BP1 and BAT3). Methods. Genotype data from 15 ILCCO case–control studies were available for a total of 8431 lung cancer cases and 11 072 controls of European descent and Asian ethnic groups. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each variant and lung cancer risk. Results. Only the association between a non-synonymous variant of TP53BP1 (rs560191) and lung cancer risk was significant (OR = 0.91, P = 0.002). This association was more striking for squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.86, P = 6 × 10−4). No heterogeneity by center, ethnicity, smoking status, age group or sex was observed. In order to confirm this association, we included results for this variant from a set of independent studies (9966 cases/11 722 controls) and we reported similar results. When combining all these studies together, we reported an overall OR = 0.93 (0.89–0.97) (P = 0.001). This association was significant only for squamous cell carcinoma [OR = 0.89 (0.85–0.95), P = 1 × 10−4]. Conclusion. This study suggests that rs560191 is associated to lung cancer risk and further highlights the value of consortia in replicating or refuting published genetic associations. PMID:20106900

  7. Birthweight and Childhood Cancer: Preliminary Findings from the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C)

    PubMed Central

    Paltiel, Ora; Tikellis, Gabriella; Linet, Martha; Golding, Jean; Lemeshow, Stanley; Phillips, Gary; Lamb, Karen; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Håberg, Siri E; Strøm, Marin; Granstrøm, Charlotta; Northstone, Kate; Klebanoff, Mark; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Milne, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Marie; Kogevinas, Manolis; Ha, Eunhee; Dwyer, Terence

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birthweight is derived primarily from registry and case–control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. Methods We pooled data on infant and parental characteristics and cancer incidence from six geographically and temporally diverse member cohorts [the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK), the Collaborative Perinatal Project (USA), the Danish National Birth Cohort (Denmark), the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (Israel), the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (Norway), and the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey (Australia)]. Birthweight metrics included a continuous measure, deciles, and categories (≥4.0 vs. <4.0 kilogram). Childhood cancer (377 cases diagnosed prior to age 15 years) risk was analysed by type (all sites, leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-leukaemia) and age at diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox proportional hazards models stratified by cohort. Results A linear relationship was noted for each kilogram increment in birthweight adjusted for gender and gestational age for all cancers [HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.02, 1.54]. Similar trends were observed for leukaemia. There were no significant interactions with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or pregnancy weight gain. Birthweight ≥4.0 kg was associated with non-leukaemia cancer among children diagnosed at age ≥3 years [HR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.06, 2.46], but not at younger ages [HR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.45, 1.24, P for difference = 0.02]. Conclusion Childhood cancer incidence rises with increasing birthweight. In older children, cancers other than leukaemia are particularly related to high birthweight. Maternal adiposity, currently widespread, was not demonstrated to

  8. Intrauterine devices and endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis of the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Ashley S.; Gaudet, Mia M.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Nagle, Christina M.; Ou Shu, Xiao; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Olov Adami, Hans; Beresford, Shirley; Bernstein, Leslie; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Hill, Dierdre; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Lacey, James V.; Levi, Fabio; Liang, Xiaolin; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony; McCann, Susan E.; Negri, Eva; Olson, Sara H.; Palmer, Julie R.; Patel, Alpa V.; Petruzella, Stacey; Prescott, Jennifer; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Sherman, Mark E.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wise, Lauren A.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Wanghong; Yang, Hannah P.; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Brinton, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs), long-acting and reversible contraceptives, induce a number of immunological and biochemical changes in the uterine environment that could affect endometrial cancer (EC) risk. We addressed this relationship through a pooled analysis of data collected in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. We combined individual-level data from 4 cohort and 14 case-control studies, in total 8,801 EC cases and 15,357 controls. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated pooled odds ratios (pooled-ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EC risk associated with ever use, type of device, ages at first and last use, duration of use, and time since last use, stratified by study and adjusted for confounders. Ever use of IUDs was inversely related to EC risk (pooled-OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.74–0.90). Compared with never use, reduced risk of EC was observed for inert IUDs (pooled-OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.58–0.82), older age at first use (≥35 years pooled-OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.43–0.67), older age at last use (≥45 years pooled-OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.50–0.72), longer duration of use (≥10 years pooled-OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.52–0.71), and recent use (within 1 year of study entry pooled-OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.30–0.49). Future studies are needed to assess the respective roles of detection biases and biologic effects related to foreign body responses in the endometrium, heavier bleeding (and increased clearance of carcinogenic cells), and localized hormonal changes. PMID:25242594

  9. Asthma and lung cancer risk: a systematic investigation by the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Albert; Bickeböller, Heike; McCormack, Valerie; Brenner, Darren R.; Duell, Eric J.; Tjønneland, Anne; Friis, Soren; Muscat, Joshua E.; Yang, Ping; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Zaridze, David; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Janout, Vladimir; Bencko, Vladimir; Brennan, Paul; Mates, Dana; Schwartz, Ann G.; Cote, Michele L.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Oh, Sam S.; Field, John K.; Raji, Olaide; McLaughlin, John R.; Wiencke, John; LeMarchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Bonassi, Stefano; Andrew, Angeline S.; Lan, Qing; Hu, Wei; Orlow, Irene; Park, Bernard J.; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Asthma has been hypothesized to be associated with lung cancer (LC) risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of 16 studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) to quantitatively assess this association and compared the results with 36 previously published studies. In total, information from 585 444 individuals was used. Study-specific measures were combined using random effects models. A meta-regression and subgroup meta-analyses were performed to identify sources of heterogeneity. The overall LC relative risk (RR) associated with asthma was 1.28 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.16–1.41] but with large heterogeneity (I2 = 73%, P < 0.001) between studies. Among ILCCO studies, an increased risk was found for squamous cell (RR = 1.69, 95%, CI = 1.26–2.26) and for small-cell carcinoma (RR = 1.71, 95% CI = 0.99–2.95) but was weaker for adenocarcinoma (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.88–1.36). The increased LC risk was strongest in the 2 years after asthma diagnosis (RR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.09–4.17) but subjects diagnosed with asthma over 10 years prior had no or little increased LC risk (RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.94–1.30). Because the increased incidence of LC was chiefly observed in small cell and squamous cell lung carcinomas, primarily within 2 years of asthma diagnosis and because the association was weak among never smokers, we conclude that the association may not reflect a causal effect of asthma on the risk of LC. PMID:22198214

  10. Reducing the Burden of Cancer in East Africa

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of CGH is to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to reduce cancer deaths worldwide. To carry out that mission, we facilitate the sharing of knowledge and expertise. CGH's latest effort, the East Africa Cancer Control Leadership Forum, carried out this mission by helping African partners develop their own individual cancer control programs.

  11. Radiogenomics Consortium (RGC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiogenomics Consortium's hypothesis is that a cancer patient's likelihood of developing toxicity to radiation therapy is influenced by common genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

  12. Seeking genetic susceptibility variants for colorectal cancer: the EPICOLON consortium experience.

    PubMed

    Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Abulí, Anna; Muñoz, Jenifer; Bessa, Xavier; Brea-Fernández, Alejandro; Ferro, Marta; Giráldez, María Dolores; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Jover, Rodrigo; Piqué, Josep M; Andreu, Montserrat; Castells, Antoni; Carracedo, Angel

    2012-03-01

    The EPICOLON consortium was initiated in 1999 by the Gastrointestinal Oncology Group of the Spanish Gastroenterology Association. It recruited consecutive, unselected, population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and control subjects matched by age and gender without personal or familial history of cancer all over Spain with the main goal of gaining knowledge in Lynch syndrome and familial CRC. This epidemiological, prospective and multicentre study collected extensive clinical data and biological samples from ∼2000 CRC cases and 2000 controls in Phases 1 and 2 involving 25 and 14 participating hospitals, respectively. Genetic susceptibility projects in EPICOLON have included candidate-gene approaches evaluating single-nucleotide polymorphisms/genes from the historical category (linked to CRC risk by previous studies), from human syntenic CRC susceptibility regions identified in mouse, from the CRC carcinogenesis-related pathways Wnt and BMP, from regions 9q22 and 3q22 with positive linkage in CRC families, and from the mucin gene family. This consortium has also participated actively in the identification 5 of the 16 common, low-penetrance CRC genetic variants identified so far by genome-wide association studies. Finishing their own pangenomic study and performing whole-exome sequencing in selected CRC samples are among EPICOLON future research prospects. PMID:22294762

  13. Diabetes and other comorbidities in breast cancer survival by race/ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Kurian, Allison W.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; John, Esther M.; Lu, Yani; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Bernstein, Leslie; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of comorbidities in survival of breast cancer patients has not been well studied, particularly in non-white populations. Methods We investigated the association of specific comorbidities with mortality in a multiethnic cohort of 8,952 breast cancer cases within the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC), which pooled questionnaire and cancer registry data from five California-based studies. In total, 2,187 deaths (1,122 from breast cancer) were observed through December 31, 2010. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality associated with previous cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure (HBP), and myocardial infarction (MI). Results Risk of breast cancer-specific mortality increased among breast cancer cases with a history of diabetes (HR=1.48, 95% CI=1.18, 1.87) or MI (HR=1.94, 95% CI=1.27–2.97). Risk patterns were similar across race/ethnicity (non-Latina White, Latina, African American and Asian American), body size, menopausal status, and stage at diagnosis. In subgroup analyses, risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated among cases with diabetes who received neither radiation nor chemotherapy (HR=2.11, 95% CI=1.32–3.36); no increased risk was observed among those who received both treatments (HR=1.13, 95% CI= 0.70–1.84) (P interaction= 0.03). A similar pattern was found for MI by radiation and chemotherapy (P interaction=0.09). Conclusion These results may inform future treatment guidelines for breast cancer patients with a history of diabetes or MI. Impact Given the growing number of breast cancer survivors worldwide, we need to better understand how comorbidities may adversely affect treatment decisions and ultimately outcome. PMID:25425578

  14. N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms, tobacco smoking, and breast cancer risk in the breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium.

    PubMed

    Cox, David G; Dostal, Lucie; Hunter, David J; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hoover, Robert; Ziegler, Regina G; Thun, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Common polymorphisms in the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) modify the association between cigarette smoking and bladder cancer and have been hypothesized to determine whether active cigarette smoking increases breast cancer risk. The authors sought to replicate the latter hypothesis in a prospective analysis of 6,900 breast cancer cases and 9,903 matched controls drawn from 6 cohorts (1989-2006) in the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. Standardized methods were used to genotype the 3 most common polymorphisms that define NAT2 acetylation phenotype (rs1799930, rs1799931, and rs1801280). In unconditional logistic regression analyses, breast cancer risk was higher in women with more than 20 pack-years of active cigarette smoking than in never smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17, 1.39), after controlling for established risk factors other than alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. However, associations were similar for the slow (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.39) and rapid/intermediate (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.42) acetylation phenotypes, with no evidence of interaction (P = 0.87). These results provide some support for the hypothesis that long-term cigarette smoking may be causally associated with breast cancer risk but underscore the need for caution when interpreting sparse data on gene-environment interactions. PMID:22074863

  15. Association of marijuana smoking with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers: Pooled analysis from the INHANCE Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Morgan A.; Chaturvedi, Anil K.; Kelsey, Karl; Straif, Kurt; Berthiller, Julien; Schwartz, Stephen M; Smith, Elaine; Wyss, Annah; Brennan, Paul; Olshan, Andrew F.; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Muscat, Joshua; Lazarus, Philip; McClean, Michael; Chen, Chu; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Matos, Elena; Menezes, Ana; Daudt, Alexander W.; Fernandez, Leticia; Posner, Marshall; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers have increased over the last twenty years which parallels increased use of marijuana among individuals born after 1950. Methods Pooled analysis of individual-level data from nine case-control studies from the U.S. and Latin America in the INHANCE consortium. Self-reported information on marijuana smoking, demographic, and behavioral factors was obtained from 1,921 oropharyngeal cases, 356 oral tongue cases, and 7,639 controls. Results Compared with never marijuana smokers, ever marijuana smokers had an elevated risk of oropharyngeal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.47) and a reduced risk of oral tongue cancer (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.75). The risk of oropharyngeal cancer remained elevated among never tobacco and alcohol users. The risk of oral tongue cancer decreased with increasing frequency (ptrend=0.005), duration (ptrend=0.002), and joint-years of marijuana use (ptrend=0.004), and was reduced among never users tobacco and alcohol users. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for potential confounding by HPV exposure attenuated the association of marijuana use with oropharyngeal cancer (aOR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.25), but had no effect on the oral tongue cancer association. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of marijuana use with Head and Neck Carcinoma may differ by tumor site. Impact The associations of marijuana use with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancer are consistent with both possible pro- and anti-carcinogenic effects of cannabinoids. Additional work is needed to rule out various sources of bias, including residual confounding by HPV infection and misclassification of marijuana exposure. PMID:24351902

  16. International Lung Cancer Consortium: Pooled Analysis of Sequence Variants in DNA Repair and Cell Cycle Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Rayjean J.; Christiani, David C.; Risch, Angela; Popanda, Odilia; Haugen, Aage; Zienolddiny, Shan; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Lan, Qing; Spitz, Margaret R.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; LeMarchand, Loic; Vineis, Paolo; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kiyohara, Chikako; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Pezeshki, Benhnaz; Harris, Curtis; Mechanic, Leah; Seow, Adeline; Ng, Daniel P.K.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Zaridze, David; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Bencko, Vladimir; Caporaso, Neil; Chen, Chu; Duell, Eric J.; Goodman, Gary; Field, John K.; Houlston, Richard S.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Lazarus, Philip; Muscat, Joshua; McLaughlin, John; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shen, Hongbing; Stucker, Isabelle; Tajima, Kazuo; Matsuo, Keitaro; Thun, Michael; Yang, Ping; Wiencke, John; Andrew, Angeline S.; Monnier, Stephanie; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background The International Lung Cancer Consortium was established in 2004. To clarify the role of DNA repair genes in lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a pooled analysis of genetic variants in DNA repair pathways, whose associations have been investigated by at least 3 individual studies. Methods Data from 14 studies were pooled for 18 sequence variants in 12 DNA repair genes, including APEX1, OGG1, XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, ERCC1, XPD, XPF, XPG, XPA, MGMT, and TP53. The total number of subjects included in the analysis for each variant ranged from 2,073 to 13,955 subjects. Results Four of the variants were found to be weakly associated with lung cancer risk with borderline significance: these were XRCC3 T241M [heterozygote odds ratio (OR), 0.89; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.79–0.99 and homozygote OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71–1.00] based on 3,467 cases and 5,021 controls from 8 studies, XPD K751Q (heterozygote OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89–1.10 and homozygote OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02–1.39) based on 6,463 cases and 6,603 controls from 9 studies, and TP53 R72P (heterozygote OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00–1.29 and homozygote OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02–1.42) based on 3,610 cases and 5,293 controls from 6 studies. OGG1 S326C homozygote was suggested to be associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians (homozygote OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01–1.79) based on 2,569 cases and 4,178 controls from 4 studies but not in Asians. The other 14 variants did not exhibit main effects on lung cancer risk. Discussion In addition to data pooling, future priorities of International Lung Cancer Consortium include coordinated genotyping and multistage validation for ongoing genome-wide association studies. PMID:18990748

  17. The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC): Prognostic factors associated with racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Vigen, Cheryl; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lu, Yani; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Monroe, Kristine R.; Kurian, Allison W.; Cheng, Iona; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Roh, Janise M.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Henderson, Brian E.; Bernstein, Leslie; John, Esther M.; Sposto, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in mortality among US breast cancer patients are well-documented. Our knowledge of the contribution of lifestyle factors to disease prognosis is based primarily on non-Latina Whites and is limited for Latina, African American and Asian American women. To address this knowledge gap, the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC) harmonized and pooled interview information (e.g., demographics, family history of breast cancer, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption) from six California-based breast cancer studies and assembled corresponding cancer registry data (clinical characteristics, mortality), resulting in 12,210 patients (6,501 non-Latina Whites, 2,060 African Americans, 2,032 Latinas, 1,505 Asian Americans, 112 other race/ethnicity) diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1993 and 2007. In total, 3,047 deaths (1,570 breast cancer-specific) were observed with a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.3 (3.5) years. Cox-proportional hazards regression models were fit to data to estimate hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with non-Latina Whites, the HR of breast cancer-specific mortality was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.97-1.33) for African Americans, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-1.00) for Latinas, and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.37-0.97) for Asian Americans after adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and select lifestyle factors. The CBCSC represents a large and racially/ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients from California. This cohort will enable analyses to jointly consider a variety of clinical, lifestyle, and contextual factors in attempting to explain the long-standing disparities in breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23864487

  18. Vigorous physical activity and risk of breast cancer in the African American breast cancer epidemiology and risk consortium.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bandera, Elisa V; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Troester, Melissa A; Park, Song-Yi; McInerney, Kathryn A; Zirpoli, Gary; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between physical activity and breast cancer risk has been extensively studied among women of European descent, with most studies reporting inverse associations. However, data on American women of African ancestry (AA) and by tumor subtypes are sparse. Thus, we examined associations of vigorous exercise and breast cancer risk overall, and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. We pooled data from four large studies on 2482 ER+ cases, 1374 ER- cases, and 16,959 controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of breast cancer overall, and polytomous logistic regression was used to model the risk of ER+ and ER- cancer. Recent vigorous exercise was associated with a statistically significant, modestly decreased risk for breast cancer overall (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.81-0.96) and for ER+ cancer (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.80-0.98), but not for ER- cancer (OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.82-1.06). Overall, there was no strong evidence of effect modification by age, menopausal status, body mass index, and parity. However, our data were suggestive of modification by family history, such that an inverse association was present among women without a family history but not among those with a relative affected by breast cancer. Results from this large pooled analysis provide evidence that vigorous physical activity is associated with a modestly reduced risk of breast cancer in AA women, specifically ER+ cancer. PMID:27514396

  19. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer: An Analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael B.; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Michels, Karin B.; Casagrande, John T.; Cooke, Rosie; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Ewertz, Marianne; Falk, Roni T.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gkiokas, George; Habel, Laurel A.; Hsing, Ann W.; Johnson, Kenneth; Kolonel, Laurence N.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lynge, Elsebeth; Lubin, Jay H.; McCormack, Valerie A.; Negri, Eva; Olsson, Håkan; Parisi, Dominick; Petridou, Eleni Th.; Riboli, Elio; Sesso, Howard D.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Thomas, David B.; Willett, Walter C.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. Methods The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium provided 2,378 cases and 51,959 controls for analysis from 10 case-control and 10 cohort studies. Individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate study design-specific (case-control/cohort) odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), which were then combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. Results Cigarette smoking status, smoking pack-years, duration, intensity, and age at initiation were not associated with male breast cancer risk. Relations with cigar and pipe smoking, tobacco chewing, and snuff use were also null. Recent alcohol consumption and average grams of alcohol consumed per day were also not associated with risk; only one sub-analysis of very high recent alcohol consumption (>60 grams/day) was tentatively associated with male breast cancer (ORunexposed referent=1.29, 95%CI:0.97–1.71; OR>0–<7 g/day referent=1.36, 95%CI:1.04–1.77). Specific alcoholic beverage types were not associated with male breast cancer. Relations were not altered when stratified by age or body mass index. Conclusions In this analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project we found little evidence that tobacco and alcohol exposures were associated with risk of male breast cancer. Impact Tobacco and alcohol do not appear to be carcinogenic for male breast cancer. Future studies should aim to assess these exposures in relation to subtypes of male breast cancer. PMID:25515550

  20. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Jacobs, Eric J; Arslan, Alan A; Qi, Dai; Patel, Alpa V; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Weinstein, Stephanie J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Purdue, Mark P; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wilkins, Lynn R; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Cai, Qiuyin; Harvey, Chinonye; Hayes, Richard; Clipp, Sandra; Horst, Ronald L; Irish, Lonn; Koenig, Karen; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2010-07-01

    Results from epidemiologic studies examining pancreatic cancer risk and vitamin D intake or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (the best indicator of vitamin D derived from diet and sun) have been inconsistent. Therefore, the authors conducted a pooled nested case-control study of participants from 8 cohorts within the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP) (1974-2006) to evaluate whether prediagnostic circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with the development of pancreatic cancer. In total, 952 incident pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases occurred among participants (median follow-up, 6.5 years). Controls (n = 1,333) were matched to each case by cohort, age, sex, race/ethnicity, date of blood draw, and follow-up time. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate smoking-, body mass index-, and diabetes-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for pancreatic cancer. Clinically relevant 25(OH)D cutpoints were compared with a referent category of 50-<75 nmol/L. No significant associations were observed for participants with lower 25(OH)D status. However, a high 25(OH)D concentration (> or =100 nmol/L) was associated with a statistically significant 2-fold increase in pancreatic cancer risk overall (odds ratio = 2.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.64). Given this result, recommendations to increase vitamin D concentrations in healthy persons for the prevention of cancer should be carefully considered. PMID:20562185

  1. Age at last birth in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: pooled analysis in the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Pike, Malcolm C; Karageorgi, Stalo; Deming, Sandra L; Anderson, Kristin; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A; Cai, Hui; Cerhan, James R; Cozen, Wendy; Chen, Chu; Doherty, Jennifer; Freudenheim, Jo L; Goodman, Marc T; Hankinson, Susan E; Lacey, James V; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Lurie, Galina; Mack, Thomas; Matsuno, Rayna K; McCann, Susan; Moysich, Kirsten B; Olson, Sara H; Rastogi, Radhai; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Risch, Harvey; Robien, Kim; Schairer, Catherine; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Spurdle, Amanda B; Strom, Brian L; Thompson, Pamela J; Ursin, Giske; Webb, Penelope M; Weiss, Noel S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Hannah P; Yu, Herbert; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2012-08-15

    Childbearing at an older age has been associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer, but whether the association is independent of the number of births or other factors remains unclear. Individual-level data from 4 cohort and 13 case-control studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 8,671 cases of endometrial cancer and 16,562 controls were included in the analysis. After adjustment for known risk factors, endometrial cancer risk declined with increasing age at last birth (P(trend) < 0.0001). The pooled odds ratio per 5-year increase in age at last birth was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.90). Women who last gave birth at 40 years of age or older had a 44% decreased risk compared with women who had their last birth under the age of 25 years (95% confidence interval: 47, 66). The protective association was similar across the different age-at-diagnosis groups and for the 2 major tumor histologic subtypes (type I and type II). No effect modification was observed by body mass index, parity, or exogenous hormone use. In this large pooled analysis, late age at last birth was independently associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, and the reduced risk persisted for many years. PMID:22831825

  2. Carotenoid intake and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Cadoni, Gabriella; Ferraroni, Monica; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Food and nutrition play an important role in head and neck cancer (HNC) etiology; however, the role of carotenoids remains largely undefined. We explored the relation of HNC risk with the intake of carotenoids within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. We pooled individual-level data from 10 case-control studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Japan. The analysis included 18,207 subjects (4414 with oral and pharyngeal cancer, 1545 with laryngeal cancer, and 12,248 controls), categorized by quintiles of carotenoid intake from natural sources. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, the risk reduction associated with total carotenoid intake was 39 % (95 % CI 29-47 %) for oral/pharyngeal cancer and 39 % (95 % CI 24-50 %) for laryngeal cancer. Intakes of β-carotene equivalents, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were associated with at least 18 % reduction in the rate of oral and pharyngeal cancer (95 % CI 6-29 %) and 17 % reduction in the rate of laryngeal cancer (95 % CI 0-32 %). The overall protective effect of carotenoids on HNC was stronger for subjects reporting greater alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). The odds ratio for the combined effect of low carotenoid intake and high alcohol or tobacco consumption versus high carotenoid intake and low alcohol or tobacco consumption ranged from 7 (95 % CI 5-9) to 33 (95 % CI 23-49). A diet rich in carotenoids may protect against HNC. Persons with both low carotenoid intake and high tobacco or alcohol are at substantially higher risk of HNC. PMID:25930054

  3. Anthropometric Measures, Body Mass Index and Pancreatic Cancer: a Pooled Analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan)

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Alan A.; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Kooperberg, Charles; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Steplowski, Emily; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gross, Myron D.; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Amundadottir, Laufey; Bamlet, William R.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bingham, Sheila A.; Boeing, Heiner; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clipp, Sandra; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Kraft, Peter; Lynch, Shannon M.; Manjer, Jonas; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; McWilliams, Robert R.; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Palli, Domenico; Rohan, Thomas E.; Slimani, Nadia; Thomas, Gilles; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolpin, Brian M.; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Patel, Alpa V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pooled data were analyzed from the NCI Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) to study the association between pre-diagnostic anthropometric measures and risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods PanScan applied a nested case-control study design and included 2,170 cases and 2,209 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression for cohort-specific quartiles of body mass index (BMI), weight, height, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), as well as conventional BMI categories: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese (30.0-34.9 kg/m2), and severely obese (≥35.0 kg/m2). Models were adjusted for potential confounders. Results Among all subjects, a positive association between increasing BMI and risk of pancreatic cancer was observed (adjusted OR for the highest vs. lowest BMI quartile = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.12-1.58, Ptrend < 0.001). Among men, the adjusted OR for pancreatic cancer for the highest vs. lowest quartile of BMI was 1.33 (95% CI = 1.04-1.69, Ptrend <0.03). Among women, the adjusted OR for pancreatic cancer for the highest quartile of BMI was 1.34 (95% CI = 1.05-1.70, Ptrend = 0.01). Increased WHR was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer among women (adjusted OR for the highest vs. lowest quartile = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.31-2.69, Ptrend = 0.003) but less so in men. Conclusion The findings provide strong support for a positive association between BMI and pancreatic cancer risk. In addition, centralized fat distribution may increase pancreatic cancer risk, especially in women. PMID:20458087

  4. The INHANCE consortium: toward a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Winn, D M; Lee, Y-C A; Hashibe, M; Boffetta, P

    2015-09-01

    The International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium is a collaboration of research groups leading large epidemiology studies to improve the understanding of the causes and mechanisms of head and neck cancer. The consortium includes investigators of 35 studies who have pooled their data on 25 500 patients with head and neck cancer (i.e., cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx) and 37 100 controls. The INHANCE analyses have confirmed that tobacco use and alcohol intake are key risk factors of these diseases and have provided precise estimates of risk and dose response, the benefit of quitting, and the hazard of smoking even a few cigarettes per day. Other risk factors include short height, lean body mass, low education and income, and a family history of head and neck cancer. Risk factors are generally similar for oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx, although the magnitude of risk may vary. Some major strengths of pooling data across studies include more precise estimates of risk and the ability to control for potentially confounding factors and to examine factors that may interact with each other. The INHANCE consortium provides evidence of the scientific productivity and discoveries that can be obtained from data pooling projects. PMID:25809224

  5. A Collaborative Study of the Etiology of Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women: the AMBER Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Julie R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with at least five intrinsic subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Tumors that express the estrogen receptor (ER+) have better outcomes than ER− tumors, due in part to the success of hormonal therapies that target ER+ tumors. The incidence of ER− breast cancer, and the subset of ER− cancers that are basal-like, is about twice as high among African American (AA) women as among U.S. women of European descent (EA). This disparity appears to explain, in part, the disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer that occurs in AA women. Epidemiologic research on breast cancer in AA women lags behind research in EA women. Here, we review differences in the etiology of breast cancer subtypes among AA women and describe a new consortium of ongoing studies of breast cancer in AA women. Methods We combined samples and data from four large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer in AA women, two cohort and two case-control, creating the AMBER consortium. Tumor tissue is obtained and stored in tissue microarrays, with assays of molecular markers carried out at a pathology core. Genotyping, carried out centrally, includes a whole exome SNP array and over 180,000 custom SNPs for fine-mapping of GWAS loci and candidate pathways. Results To date, questionnaire data from 5,739 breast cancer cases and 14,273 controls have been harmonized. Genotyping of the first 3,200 cases and 3,700 controls is underway, with a total of 6,000 each expected by the end of the study period. Conclusions The new consortium will likely have sufficient statistical power to assess potential risk factors, both genetic and non-genetic in relation to specific subtypes of breast cancer in AA women. PMID:24343304

  6. Alcohol intake and risk of colorectal cancer: Results from the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Park, J Y; Dahm, C C; Keogh, R H; Mitrou, P N; Cairns, B J; Greenwood, D C; Spencer, E A; Fentiman, I S; Shipley, M J; Brunner, E J; Cade, J E; Burley, V J; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D; Stephen, A M; White, I R; Luben, R N; Mulligan, A A; Khaw, K-T; Rodwell, S A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have suggested that excessive alcohol intake increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, findings regarding tumour subsites and sex differences have been inconsistent. Methods: We investigated the prospective associations between alcohol intake on overall and site- and sex-specific CRC risk. Analyses were conducted on 579 CRC cases and 1996 matched controls nested within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium using standardised data obtained from food diaries as a main nutritional method and repeated using data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Results: Compared with individuals in the lightest category of drinkers (>0–<5 g per day), the multivariable odds ratios of CRC were 1.16 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.88, 1.53) for non-drinkers, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.24) for drinkers with 5–<15 g per day, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.25) for drinkers with 15–<30 g per day, 1.02 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.58) for drinkers with 30–<45 g per day and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.91) for drinkers with ⩾45 g per day. No clear associations were observed between site-specific CRC risk and alcohol intake in either sex. Analyses using FFQ showed similar results. Conclusion: We found no significantly increased risk of CRC up to 30 g per day of alcohol intake within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium. PMID:20648013

  7. Multiple Novel Prostate Cancer Predisposition Loci Confirmed by an International Study: The PRACTICAL Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Easton, Douglas F.; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Ingles, Sue A.; Schaid, Daniel; Thibodeau, Stephen; Dörk, Thilo; Neal, David; Cox, Angela; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walter; Guy, Michelle; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Kedda, Mary-Anne; Spurdle, Amanda; Steginga, Suzanne; John, Esther M.; Giles, Graham; Hopper, John; Chappuis, Pierre O.; Hutter, Pierre; Foulkes, William D.; Hamel, Nancy; Salinas, Claudia A.; Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Johanneson, Bo; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Stern, Mariana C.; Corral, Roman; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schürmann, Peter; Meyer, Andreas; Kuefer, Rainer; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Liu, Jo-fen; O'Mara, Tracy; Gardiner, R.A. (Frank); Aitken, Joanne; Joshi, Amit D.; Severi, Gianluca; English, Dallas R.; Southey, Melissa; Edwards, Stephen M.; Amin Al Olama, Ali; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2009-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study found that genetic variants on chromosomes 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 19 and X were associated with prostate cancer risk. We evaluated the most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in these loci using a worldwide consortium of 13 groups (PRACTICAL). Blood DNA from 7,370 prostate cancer cases and 5,742 male controls was analyzed by genotyping assays. Odds ratios (OR) associated with each genotype were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Six of the seven SNPs showed clear evidence of association with prostate cancer (P = 0.0007-P = 10−17). For each of these six SNPs, the estimated per-allele OR was similar to those previously reported and ranged from 1.12 to 1.29. One SNP on 3p12 (rs2660753) showed a weaker association than previously reported [per-allele OR, 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.16; P = 0.06) versus 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.31)]. The combined risks associated with each pair of SNPs were consistent with a multiplicative risk model. Under this model, and in combination with previously reported SNPs on 8q and 17q, these loci explain 16% of the familial risk of the disease, and men in the top 10% of the risk distribution have a 2.1-fold increased risk relative to general population rates. This study provides strong confirmation of these susceptibility loci in multiple populations and shows that they make an important contribution to prostate cancer risk prediction. PMID:18708398

  8. Coordinating Centers in Cancer-Epidemiology Research: The Asia Cohort Consortium Coordinating Center

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-01-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good Coordinating Center (CC) is essential to the success of any multi-site collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical-trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer-epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past three years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a coordinating center for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. PMID:21803842

  9. Coordinating centers in cancer epidemiology research: the Asia Cohort Consortium coordinating center.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-10-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good coordinating center (CC) is essential to the success of any multisite collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past 3 years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a CC for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. PMID:21803842

  10. Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Marjorie L; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Freedman, D Michal; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Flanders, W Dana; Koenig, Karen; Kolonel, Laurence; Laden, Francine; Le Marchand, Loic; Purdue, Mark; Snyder, Kirk; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yang, Gong; Yu, Kai; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Ashby, Jason; Bertrand, Kimberly; Cai, Hui; Chen, Yu; Gallicchio, Lisa; Giovannucci, Edward; Jacobs, Eric J; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartge, Patricia; Hartmuller, Virginia; Harvey, Chinonye; Hayes, Richard B; Horst, Ronald L; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2010-07-01

    Low vitamin D status is common globally and is associated with multiple disease outcomes. Understanding the correlates of vitamin D status will help guide clinical practice, research, and interpretation of studies. Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured in a single laboratory were examined in 4,723 cancer-free men and women from 10 cohorts participating in the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers, which covers a worldwide geographic area. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were examined in relation to 25(OH)D using stepwise linear regression and polytomous logistic regression. The prevalence of 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25 nmol/L ranged from 3% to 36% across cohorts, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L ranged from 29% to 82%. Seasonal differences in circulating 25(OH)D were most marked among whites from northern latitudes. Statistically significant positive correlates of 25(OH)D included male sex, summer blood draw, vigorous physical activity, vitamin D intake, fish intake, multivitamin use, and calcium supplement use. Significant inverse correlates were body mass index, winter and spring blood draw, history of diabetes, sedentary behavior, smoking, and black race/ethnicity. Correlates varied somewhat within season, race/ethnicity, and sex. These findings help identify persons at risk for low vitamin D status for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:20562191

  11. Contribution of the Neighborhood Environment and Obesity to Breast Cancer Survival: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Koo, Jocelyn; Monroe, Kristine R.; Yang, Juan; John, Esther M.; Kurian, Allison W.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Henderson, Brian E.; Bernstein, Leslie; Lu, Yani; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl; Wu, Anna H.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about neighborhood attributes that may influence opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity in relation to breast cancer mortality. We used data from the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium and the California Neighborhoods Data System to examine the neighborhood environment, body mass index, and mortality after breast cancer. We studied 8,995 African American, Asian American, Latina, and non-Latina White women with breast cancer. Residential addresses were linked to the CNDS to characterize neighborhoods. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the associations between neighborhood factors and obesity, and Cox proportional hazards regression to examine associations between neighborhood factors and mortality. For Latinas, obesity was associated with more neighborhood crowding (Quartile 4 (Q4) vs. Q1: Odds Ratio (OR)=3.24; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.50-7.00); breast cancer-specific mortality was inversely associated with neighborhood businesses (Q4 vs. Q1: Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.46; 95% CI: 0.25-0.85) and positively associated with multi-family housing (Q3 vs. Q1: HR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.20-3.26). For non-Latina Whites, lower neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with obesity (Quintile 1 (Q1) vs. Q5: OR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.31-4.84), breast cancer-specific (Q1 vs. Q5: HR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.47-5.12), and all-cause (Q1 vs. Q5: HR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.17-2.62) mortality. For Asian Americans, no associations were seen. For African Americans, lower neighborhood SES was associated with lower mortality in a nonlinear fashion. Attributes of the neighborhood environment were associated with obesity and mortality following breast cancer diagnosis, but these associations differed across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:26063477

  12. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E; Couch, Fergus J; Hopper, John L; Dite, Gillian S; Apicella, Carmel; Smith, Letitia D; Hammet, Fleur; Southey, Melissa C; Van 't Veer, Laura J; de Groot, Renate; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Jud, Sebastian; Ekici, Arif B; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Alexander; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Sohn, Christof; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Ørsted, David D; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Milne, Roger L; Pérez, Jose I Arias; Zamora, Pilar; Rodríguez, Primitiva Menéndez; Benítez, Javier; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Hamann, Ute; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bremer, Michael; Karstens, Johann H; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Nevanlinna, Heli A; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana M; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Päivi; Eskelinen, Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Holland, Helene; Lambrechts, Diether; Claes, Bart; Vandorpe, Thijs; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Hein, Rebecca; Löning, Thomas; Kosel, Matthew; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hunter, David J; Hankinson, Susan E; Andrulis, Irene L; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, Petra E A; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Van Asperen, Christi J; Seynaeve, Caroline S; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Peplonska, Beata; Figueroa, Jonine; Yang, Xiaohong R; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Oldenburg, Rogier A; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Ozturk, Bahar; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Connley, Daniel; Cramp, Helen E; Cross, Simon S; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Reed, Malcolm W R; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Humphreys, Manjeet K; Caldas, Carlos; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Provenzano, Elena; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Brennan, Paul; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Pharoah, Paul D P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-08-15

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtypes were defined by five markers (ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR) and other pathological and clinical features. Analyses included up to 30 040 invasive breast cancer cases and 53 692 controls from 31 studies within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We confirmed previous reports of stronger associations with ER+ than ER- tumors for six of the eight loci identified in GWAS: rs2981582 (10q26) (P-heterogeneity = 6.1 × 10(-18)), rs3803662 (16q12) (P = 3.7 × 10(-5)), rs13281615 (8q24) (P = 0.002), rs13387042 (2q35) (P = 0.006), rs4973768 (3p24) (P = 0.003) and rs6504950 (17q23) (P = 0.002). The two candidate loci, CASP8 (rs1045485, rs17468277) and TGFB1 (rs1982073), were most strongly related with the risk of PR negative tumors (P = 5.1 × 10(-6) and P = 4.1 × 10(-4), respectively), as previously suggested. Four of the eight loci identified in GWAS were associated with triple negative tumors (P ≤ 0.016): rs3803662 (16q12), rs889312 (5q11), rs3817198 (11p15) and rs13387042 (2q35); however, only two of them (16q12 and 2q35) were associated with tumors with the core basal phenotype (P ≤ 0.002). These analyses are consistent with different biological origins of breast cancers, and indicate that tumor stratification might help in the identification and characterization of novel risk factors for breast cancer subtypes. This may eventually result in further improvements in prevention, early detection and treatment. PMID:21596841

  13. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Sherman, Mark E.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hopper, John L.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Smith, Letitia D.; Hammet, Fleur; Southey, Melissa C.; Van ’t Veer, Laura J.; de Groot, Renate; Smit, Vincent T.H.B.M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Jud, Sebastian; Ekici, Arif B.; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Alexander; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Sohn, Christof; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Ørsted, David D.; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Milne, Roger L.; Pérez, Jose I. Arias; Zamora, Pilar; Rodríguez, Primitiva Menéndez; Benítez, Javier; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Hamann, Ute; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bremer, Michael; Karstens, Johann H.; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Nevanlinna, Heli A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana M.; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Päivi; Eskelinen, Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Holland, Helene; Lambrechts, Diether; Claes, Bart; Vandorpe, Thijs; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Hein, Rebecca; Löning, Thomas; Kosel, Matthew; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hunter, David J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Marie Mulligan, Anna; O'Malley, Frances P.; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, Petra E.A.; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Van Asperen, Christi J.; Seynaeve, Caroline S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Peplonska, Beata; Figueroa, Jonine; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Ozturk, Bahar; van Leenders, Geert J.L.H.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Connley, Daniel; Cramp, Helen E.; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Caldas, Carlos; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Provenzano, Elena; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Brennan, Paul; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtypes were defined by five markers (ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR) and other pathological and clinical features. Analyses included up to 30 040 invasive breast cancer cases and 53 692 controls from 31 studies within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We confirmed previous reports of stronger associations with ER+ than ER− tumors for six of the eight loci identified in GWAS: rs2981582 (10q26) (P-heterogeneity = 6.1 × 10−18), rs3803662 (16q12) (P = 3.7 × 10−5), rs13281615 (8q24) (P = 0.002), rs13387042 (2q35) (P = 0.006), rs4973768 (3p24) (P = 0.003) and rs6504950 (17q23) (P = 0.002). The two candidate loci, CASP8 (rs1045485, rs17468277) and TGFB1 (rs1982073), were most strongly related with the risk of PR negative tumors (P = 5.1 × 10−6 and P = 4.1 × 10−4, respectively), as previously suggested. Four of the eight loci identified in GWAS were associated with triple negative tumors (P ≤ 0.016): rs3803662 (16q12), rs889312 (5q11), rs3817198 (11p15) and rs13387042 (2q35); however, only two of them (16q12 and 2q35) were associated with tumors with the core basal phenotype (P ≤ 0.002). These analyses are consistent with different biological origins of breast cancers, and indicate that tumor stratification might help in the identification and characterization of novel risk factors for breast cancer subtypes. This may eventually result in further improvements in prevention, early detection and treatment. PMID:21596841

  14. The 4th Bi-annual international African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium conference: building capacity to address cancer health disparities in populations of African descent.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Elizabeth; Campbell, Jasmine; Bowen, Carlene; Delmoor, Ernestine; Jean-Louis, Gilda; Noumbissi, Raphiatou; O'Garro, Yvonne; Richards-Waritay, Oni; Straughter, Stanley; Tolbert, Vera; Wilson, Barbara; Ragin, Camille

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the 4(th) International Meeting of the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3), organized and sponsored by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC), and held on July 21-22, 2012 at the Lincoln University Graduate Center, Lincoln Plaza, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. AC3 investigators gathered in Philadelphia, PA to present the results of our ongoing collaborative research efforts throughout the African Diaspora. The general theme addressed cancer health disparities and presentations represented all cancer types. However, there was particular emphasis on women's cancers, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:26422007

  15. De-Risking Immunotherapy: Report of a Consensus Workshop of the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Mellman, Ira; Hubbard-Lucey, Vanessa M; Tontonoz, Matthew J; Kalos, Michael D; Chen, Daniel S; Allison, James P; Drake, Charles G; Levitsky, Hy; Lonberg, Nils; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Fearon, Douglas T; Wherry, E John; Lowy, Israel; Vonderheide, Robert H; Hwu, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    With the recent FDA approvals of pembrolizumab and nivolumab, and a host of additional immunomodulatory agents entering clinical development each year, the field of cancer immunotherapy is changing rapidly. Strategies that can assist researchers in choosing the most promising drugs and drug combinations to move forward through clinical development are badly needed in order to reduce the likelihood of late-stage clinical trial failures. On October 5, 2014, the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute, a collaborative think tank composed of stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory agencies, and patient interest groups, met to discuss strategies for de-risking immunotherapy development, with a focus on integrating preclinical and clinical studies, and conducting smarter early-phase trials, particularly for combination therapies. Several recommendations were made, including making better use of clinical data to inform preclinical research, obtaining adequate tissues for biomarker studies, and choosing appropriate clinical trial endpoints to identify promising drug candidates and combinations in nonrandomized early-phase trials. PMID:27036972

  16. Common genetic determinants of breast-cancer risk in East Asian women: a collaborative study of 23 637 breast cancer cases and 25 579 controls

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Ben; Cai, Qiuyin; Sung, Hyuna; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Shi, Jiajun; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Long, Jirong; Dennis, Joe; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Chun; Cai, Hui; Park, Sue K.; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Dunning, Alison M.; Benitez, Javier; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Tessier, Daniel; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jong-Young; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Wenjin; Ji, Bu-Tian; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tanaka, Hideo; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Kang, In Nee; Wong, Tien Y.; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lee, Soo Chin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ren, Zefang; Haiman, Christopher A.; Sueta, Aiko; Kim, Mi Kyung; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Wen, Wanqing; Hall, Per; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Easton, Douglas F.; Kang, Daehee

    2013-01-01

    In a consortium including 23 637 breast cancer patients and 25 579 controls of East Asian ancestry, we investigated 70 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 67 independent breast cancer susceptibility loci recently identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted primarily in European-ancestry populations. SNPs in 31 loci showed an association with breast cancer risk at P < 0.05 in a direction consistent with that reported previously. Twenty-one of them remained statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni-corrected significance level of <0.0015. Eight of the 70 SNPs showed a significantly different association with breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status at P < 0.05. With the exception of rs2046210 at 6q25.1, the seven other SNPs showed a stronger association with ER-positive than ER-negative cancer. This study replicated all five genetic risk variants initially identified in Asians and provided evidence for associations of breast cancer risk in the East Asian population with nearly half of the genetic risk variants initially reported in GWASs conducted in European descendants. Taken together, these common genetic risk variants explain ∼10% of excess familial risk of breast cancer in Asian populations. PMID:23535825

  17. [Developments in cancer care with innovative genomics. 2008 report of the National Cancer Consortium].

    PubMed

    Tímár, József; Kásler, Miklós; Heringh, Alexandra; Soós, Miklós; Mathiász, Dóra; Romány, Anna; Józsa, Adrienn; Szilák, László; Forrai, Tamás; Patthy, László; Kovács, Gábor

    2009-12-01

    In the 3rd year of the program 8 new molecular diagnostic services have been introduced to clinic in the management of breast-, lung-, colorectal cancers as well as in GIST and melanoma. Two patents have been filed for innovative modulation of mito/motogenic signaling pathways in cancer cells. In preclinical models of human cancer a functional imaging technique was developed to detect vascular eff ects of erythropoietin. Using a genomic approach, the sequential changes in human melanoma during systemic dissemination were determined revealing several novel potential prognostic factors and some interesting novel targets for therapy. PMID:20071304

  18. In-Home Coal and Wood Use and Lung Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Boffetta, Paolo; Greenland, Sander; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; McLaughlin, John; Seow, Adeline; Duell, Eric J.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Morgenstern, Hal; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brennan, Paul; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Background Domestic fuel combustion from cooking and heating is an important public health issue because roughly 3 billion people are exposed worldwide. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified indoor emissions from household coal combustion as a human carcinogen (group 1) and from biomass fuel (primarily wood) as a probable human carcinogen (group 2A). Objectives We pooled seven studies from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (5,105 cases and 6,535 controls) to provide further epidemiological evaluation of the association between in-home solid-fuel use, particularly wood, and lung cancer risk. Methods Using questionnaire data, we classified subjects as predominant solid-fuel users (e.g., coal, wood) or nonsolid-fuel users (e.g., oil, gas, electricity). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and to compute 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking status, race/ethnicity, and study center. Results Compared with nonsolid-fuel users, predominant coal users (OR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.49–1.81), particularly coal users in Asia (OR = 4.93; 95% CI, 3.73–6.52), and predominant wood users in North American and European countries (OR = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06–1.38) experienced higher risk of lung cancer. The results were similar in never-smoking women and other subgroups. Conclusions Our results are consistent with previous observations pertaining to in-home coal use and lung cancer risk, support the hypothesis of a carcinogenic potential of in-home wood use, and point to the need for more detailed study of factors affecting these associations. PMID:20846923

  19. 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NIH Pain Consortium will convene the 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research, featuring keynote speakers and expert panel sessions on Innovative Models and Methods. The first keynote address will be delivered by David J. Clark, MD, PhD, Stanford University entitled “Challenges of Translational Pain Research: What Makes a Good Model?” |

  20. The second annual conference of International ovarian cancer consortium and the symposium on tumor microenvironment and therapeutic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Isidoro, Ciro; Song, Yong Sang; Surh, Young-Joon; Dhanasekaran, Danny N.

    2016-01-01

    The second Annual Meeting of the International Ovarian Cancer Consortium (IOCC) was held in conjunction with the Symposium on Tumor Microenvironment and Therapeutic Resistance at the Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and USA. A brief welcoming event along with the banquet on Aug 16th was followed by the eight thematic scientific sessions from August 16 to 18, 2015. Forty-three lectures, organized in eight sessions, were discussed in front of an audience of more than hundred attendees. Emphasis was put on oncogene signaling in cancer genesis and progression, new approaches in Precision Medicine and therapy of ovarian cancer, the role of tumor microenvironment in carcinogenesis, and preventive/curative potential of natural products. In this meeting-report, we highlight the findings and the perspectives in cancer biology and therapeutic strategies that emerged during the conference.

  1. Obesity and Mortality After Breast Cancer by Race/Ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Marilyn L.; John, Esther M.; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Cheng, Iona; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Henderson, Brian E.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Kurian, Allison W.; Lu, Yani; Monroe, Kristine R.; Roh, Janise M.; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl; Wu, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated body size and survival by race/ethnicity in 11,351 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2007 with follow-up through 2009 by using data from questionnaires and the California Cancer Registry. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazard model–estimated associations of body size (body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) with breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality. Among 2,744 ascertained deaths, 1,445 were related to breast cancer. Being underweight (BMI <18.5) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality compared with being normal weight in non-Latina whites (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.20), whereas morbid obesity (BMI ≥40) was suggestive of increased risk (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.43). In Latinas, only the morbidly obese were at high risk of death (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.15). No BMI–mortality associations were apparent in African Americans and Asian Americans. High WHR (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with breast cancer mortality in Asian Americans (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.03; P for trend = 0.01), whereas no associations were found in African Americans, Latinas, or non-Latina whites. For all-cause mortality, even stronger BMI and WHR associations were observed. The impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer patients' risk of death may vary across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:24107615

  2. Associations of body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; McLerran, Dale F; Gupta, Prakash C; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2015-09-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. PMID:26243736

  3. Associations of Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption With Prostate Cancer Mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Fowke, Jay H.; McLerran, Dale F.; Gupta, Prakash C.; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M.; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K.; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963–2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. PMID:26243736

  4. ESR1/SYNE1 polymorphism and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk: an Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium study

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Jennifer A.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Chen, Chu; Van Den Berg, David J.; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Ness, Roberta B.; Moysich, Kirsten; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Webb, Penelope M.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T.; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J.; Carney, Michael E.; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Hogdall, Claus; Goode, Ellen L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Berchuck, Andrew; Moorman, Patricia G.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Yang, Hannah P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Song, Honglin; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara; McGuire, Valerie; Whittemore, Alice S.; Di Cioccio, Richard A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Brewster, Wendy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Pearce, Celeste Leigh

    2010-01-01

    We genotyped 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) region in three population-based case-control studies of epithelial ovarian cancer conducted in the United States, comprising a total of 1,128 and 1,866 non-Hispanic white invasive cases and controls, respectively. A SNP 19 kb downstream of ESR1 (rs2295190, G-to-T change) was associated with invasive ovarian cancer risk, with a per-T-allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06–1.44, p=0.006). rs2295190 is a non-synonymous coding SNP in a neighboring gene called spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope 1 (SYNE1) which is involved in nuclear organization and structural integrity, function of the Golgi apparatus, and cytokinesis. An isoform encoded by SYNE1 has been reported to be downregulated in ovarian and other cancers. rs2295190 was genotyped in an additional 12 studies through the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, with 5,279 invasive epithelial cases and 7,450 controls. The per-T-allele OR for this 12-study set was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02–1.17, p=0.017). Results for the serous subtype in the 15 combined studies were similar to those overall (n=3,545; OR=1.09, 95% CI, 1.01–1.18, p=0.025), and our findings were strongest for the mucinous subtype (n=447; OR=1.32, 95% CI, 1.11–1.58, p=0.002). No association was observed for the endometrioid subtype. In an additional analysis of 1,459 borderline ovarian cancer cases and 7,370 controls, rs2295190 was not associated with risk. These data provide suggestive evidence that the rs2295190 T allele, or another allele in linkage disequilibrium with it, may be associated with increased risk of invasive ovarian cancer. PMID:20056644

  5. Multi-institutional oncogenic driver mutation analysis in lung adenocarcinoma: The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium experience

    PubMed Central

    Dias-Santagata, Dora; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Chen, Heidi; Fujimoto, Junya; Kugler, Kelly; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Iafrate, A. John; Ladanyi, Marc; Kris, Mark G.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Bunn, Paul A.; Minna, John D.; Kwiatkowski, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Molecular genetic analyses of lung adenocarcinoma have recently become standard of care for treatment selection. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium was formed to enable collaborative multi-institutional analyses of 10 potential oncogenic driver mutations. Technical aspects of testing, and clinicopathologic correlations are presented. Methods Mutation testing in at least one of 8 genes (EGFR, KRAS, ERBB2, AKT1, BRAF, MEK1, NRAS, PIK3CA) using SNaPshot, mass spectrometry, Sanger sequencing +/− PNA and/or sizing assays, along with ALK and/or MET FISH were performed in 6 labs on 1007 patients from 14 institutions. Results 1007 specimens had mutation analysis performed, and 733 specimens had all 10 genes analyzed. Mutation identification rates did not vary by analytic method. Biopsy and cytology specimens were inadequate for testing in 26% and 35% of cases compared to 5% of surgical specimens. Among the 1007 cases with mutation analysis performed, EGFR, KRAS, ALK, and ERBB2 alterations were detected in 22, 25, 8.5, and 2.4% of cases, respectively. EGFR mutations were highly associated with female sex, Asian race, and never smoking status; and less strongly associated with stage IV disease, presence of bone metastases, and absence of adrenal metastases. ALK rearrangements were strongly associated with never smoking status, and more weakly associated with presence of liver metastases. ERBB2 mutations were strongly associated with Asian race and never smoking status. Two mutations were seen in 2.7% of samples, all but one of which involved one or more of PIK3CA, ALK or MET. Conclusion Multi-institutional molecular analysis across multiple platforms, sample types, and institutions can yield consistent results and novel clinicopathological observations. PMID:25738220

  6. Comparisons of Gastric Cancer Treatments: East vs. West

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Vivian E

    2012-01-01

    There has been a large amount of speculation concerning the differences in the outcomes in patients who have gastric cancer in the Eastern and Western worlds. The differences in biology, surgical and adjuvant treatment have been used to explain such differences. There are clear differences observed in the histology (diffuse vs. intestinal), tumor location (proximal vs. distal), environmental exposures, dietary factors and Helicobacter pylori status. A higher incidence of gastric cancer in the East has led to screening programs, and leading to an earlier stage at presentation. Surgical treatment differs in that the extended lymph node dissection is routinely practiced in the Asian countries. Additionally, different adjuvant therapeutic regimens are used in both regions. The purpose of this review is to describe the differences in both presentation and treatment between the East and the West. PMID:22792517

  7. FAMILY HISTORY OF CANCER: POOLED ANALYSIS IN THE INTERNATIONAL HEAD AND NECK CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY (INHANCE) CONSORTIUM

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Eva; Boffetta, Paolo; Berthiller, Julien; Castellsague, Xavier; Curado, Maria Paula; Maso, Luigino Dal; Daudt, Alexander W.; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Franceschi, Silvia; Hayes, Richard B.; Herrero, Rolando; Koifman, Sergio; Lazarus, Philip; Lence, Juan J.; Levi, Fabio; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; Menezes, Ana; Muscat, Joshua; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Olshan, Andrew F.; Rudnai, Peter; Shangina, Oxana; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Talamini, Renato; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M.; Zaridze, David; Lissowska, Jolanta; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Vecchia, Carlo La; Hashibe, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco consumption are well recognized risk factors for head and neck cancer (HNC). Evidence suggests that genetic predisposition may also play a role. Only a few epidemiologic studies, however, have considered the relation between HNC risk and family history of HNC and other cancers. We pooled individual- level data across 12 case-control studies including 8,967 HNC cases and 13,627 controls. We obtained pooled odds ratios (OR) using fixed and random effect models, and adjusting for potential confounding factors. All statistical tests were two-sided. A family history of HNC in first-degree relatives increased the risk of HNC (OR=1.7, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.2-2.3). The risk was higher when the affected relative was a sibling (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.1) rather than a parent (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.8), and for more distal HNC anatomic sites (hypopharynx and larynx). The risk was also higher, or limited to, subjects exposed to tobacco. The OR rose to 7.2 (95% CI 5.5-9.5) among subjects with family history, who were alcohol and tobacco users. A weak but significant association (OR=1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) emerged for family history of other tobacco-related neoplasms, particularly with laryngeal cancer (OR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5). No association was observed for family history of non-tobacco related neoplasms and the risk of HNC (OR=1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1). Familial factors play a role in the etiology of HNC. In both subjects with and without family history of HNC, avoidance of tobacco and alcohol exposure may be the best way to avoid HNC. PMID:18814262

  8. East-West Symposium on nasopharyngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.-F. . E-mail: Fei-Fei.Liu@rmp.uhn.on.ca; Frappier, Lori; Kim, John; O'Sullivan, Brian; Hui, Angela; Bastianutto, Carlo

    2007-03-01

    Background: To achieve greater understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, molecular oncology, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), an international meeting was held in June 2005, Toronto, Canada. Results: Further insights were obtained into the role of EBV in NPC development, with its diverse effects ranging from proliferative signals via NF-kB, to immunesuppression, to angiogenic gene regulation. Subsequently, multiple pathways are dysregulated in NPC as revealed by expression array analyses, including apoptosis, integrin, and B-catenin cascades. Advances have been made in the diagnosis and monitoring of NPC, using transoral brushings and plasma levels of EBV transcripts, which may not directly correlate with the number of circulating tumor cells, but is nevertheless informative in predicting and tracking disease response. Many novel therapies have promising results, particularly in the areas of immunotherapies, and the exploration of molecularly targeted approaches such as cetuximab or histone deacetylase inhibitors. Conclusions: The results from large randomized trials and meta-analyses have consistently demonstrated the benefit of concurrent chemotherapy with curative radiation therapy, but at a cost of greater acute and late-tissue toxicities. Further advances are required to achieve an improved understanding on the inter-relationship between environmental and genetic determinants in NPC development, to reduce the global burden of this disease. At the same time, novel therapeutic approaches are necessary to increase curability of NPC, but with reduced long-term toxicities.

  9. Interactions between breast cancer susceptibility loci and menopausal hormone therapy in relationship to breast cancer in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Mia M; Barrdahl, Myrto; Lindström, Sara; Travis, Ruth C; Auer, Paul L; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Eliassen, A Heather; Gapstur, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Gunter, Marc; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Peeters, Petra H M; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Yang, Xiaohong R; Prentice, Ross L; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Canzian, Federico; Kraft, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Current use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has important implications for postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and observed associations might be modified by known breast cancer susceptibility loci. To provide the most comprehensive assessment of interactions of prospectively collected data on MHT and 17 confirmed susceptibility loci with invasive breast cancer risk, a nested case-control design among eight cohorts within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium was used. Based on data from 13,304 cases and 15,622 controls, multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Effect modification of current and past use was evaluated on the multiplicative scale. P values <1.5 × 10(-3) were considered statistically significant. The strongest evidence of effect modification was observed for current MHT by 9q31-rs865686. Compared to never users of MHT with the rs865686 GG genotype, the association between current MHT use and breast cancer risk for the TT genotype (OR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.43-2.24; P interaction = 1.2 × 10(-4)) was less than expected on the multiplicative scale. There are no biological implications of the sub-multiplicative interaction between MHT and rs865686. Menopausal hormone therapy is unlikely to have a strong interaction with the common genetic variants associated with invasive breast cancer. PMID:26802016

  10. Variant ABO Blood Group Alleles, Secretor Status and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Results from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Kraft, Peter; Xu, Mousheng; Steplowski, Emily; Olsson, Martin L.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea; Petersen, Gloria; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Austin, Melissa A.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Canzian, Federico; Chanock, Stephen J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Kooperberg, Charles; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Overvad, Kim; Patel, Alpa V.; Sanchéz, Maria-José; Sansbury, Leah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slimani, Nadia; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Visvanathan, Kala; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Watters, Joanne; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hartge, Patricia; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Subjects with non-O ABO blood group alleles have increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Glycosyltransferase activity is greater for the A1 versus A2 variant, while O01 and O02 variants are nonfunctioning. We hypothesized: (1) A1 allele would confer greater risk than A2 allele, (2) protective effect of the O allele would be equivalent for O01 and O02 variants, (3) secretor phenotype would modify the association with risk. Methods We determined ABO variants and secretor phenotype from single nucleotide polymorphisms in ABO and FUT2 genes in 1533 cases and 1582 controls from 12 prospective cohort studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer were calculated using logistic regression. Results An increased risk was observed in participants with A1, but not A2 alleles. Compared to subjects with genotype O/O, genotypes A2/O, A2/A1, A1/O, and A1/A1 had ORs of 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–1.26), 1.46 (95%CI, 0.98–2.17), 1.48 (95%CI, 1.23–1.78), and 1.71 (95%CI, 1.18–2.47). Risk was similar for O01 and O02 variant O alleles. Compared to O01/O01, the ORs for each additional allele of O02, A1, and A2 were 1.00 (95%CI, 0.87–1.14), 1.38 (95%CI, 1.20–1.58), and 0.96 (95%CI, 0.77–1.20); P-value, O01 versus O02=0.94, A1 versus A2=0.004. Secretor phenotype was not an effect modifier (P-interaction=0.63). Conclusions Among participants in a large prospective cohort consortium, ABO allele subtypes corresponding to increased glycosyltransferase activity were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. Impact These data support the hypothesis that ABO glycosyltransferase activity influences pancreatic cancer risk, rather than actions of other nearby genes on chromosome 9q34. PMID:20971884

  11. Legal aspects of genetic databases for international biomedical research: the example of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC).

    PubMed

    Romeo-Casabona, Carlos; Nicolás, Pilar; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Joly, Yann; Wallace, Susan E; Chalmers, Don; Dyke, Stephanie; Kennedy, Karen; Troncoso, Antonio; Kaan, Terry; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    There is a noticeable lack of international regulation on personal data exchange and management in research. This article sheds light in this area by describing how the International Cancer Genome Consortium is developing policies and procedures to address the ethical and legal issues raised by the international transfer of data and results. These policies and procedures aim, first and most importantly, to safeguard the interests of the research participants and other involved stakeholders and, secondly, to facilitate the sharing of data and results to realize greater benefits from this kind of internationally collaborative genetic research. PMID:23520913

  12. Launching a Novel Preclinical Infrastructure: Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium Directed Therapeutic Targeting of TNFα to Cancer Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Mazcko, Christina; Hanna, Engy; Kachala, Stefan; LeBlanc, Amy; Newman, Shelley; Vail, David; Henry, Carolyn; Thamm, Douglas; Sorenmo, Karin; Hajitou, Amin; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2009-01-01

    Background Under the direction and sponsorship of the National Cancer Institute, we report on the first pre-clinical trial of the Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium (COTC). The COTC is a novel infrastructure to integrate cancers that naturally develop in pet dogs into the development path of new human drugs. Trials are designed to address questions challenging in conventional preclinical models and early phase human trials. Large animal spontaneous cancer models can be a valuable addition to successful studies of cancer biology and novel therapeutic drug, imaging and device development. Methodology/Principal Findings Through this established infrastructure, the first trial of the COTC (COTC001) evaluated a targeted AAV-phage vector delivering tumor necrosis factor (RGD-A-TNF) to αV integrins on tumor endothelium. Trial progress and data was reviewed contemporaneously using a web-enabled electronic reporting system developed for the consortium. Dose-escalation in cohorts of 3 dogs (n = 24) determined an optimal safe dose (5×1012 transducing units intravenous) of RGD-A-TNF. This demonstrated selective targeting of tumor-associated vasculature and sparing of normal tissues assessed via serial biopsy of both tumor and normal tissue. Repetitive dosing in a cohort of 14 dogs, at the defined optimal dose, was well tolerated and led to objective tumor regression in two dogs (14%), stable disease in six (43%), and disease progression in six (43%) via Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Conclusions/Significance The first study of the COTC has demonstrated the utility and efficiency of the established infrastructure to inform the development of new cancer drugs within large animal naturally occurring cancer models. The preclinical evaluation of RGD-A-TNF within this network provided valuable and necessary data to complete the design of first-in-man studies. PMID:19330034

  13. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes: A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van ‘t Veer, Laura J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O’Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Dörk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Pérez, Jose Ignacio; Rodríguez, Primitiva Menéndez; Zamora, Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Górski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collée, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Päivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Dynnes Ørsted, David; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P.E.A.; Tollenaar, RAEM.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35 568 invasive breast cancer case patients from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Logistic regression models were used in case–case analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and tumor subtypes, and case–control analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and the risk of developing specific tumor subtypes in 12 population-based studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In case–case analyses, of the epidemiological risk factors examined, early age at menarche (≤12 years) was less frequent in case patients with PR− than PR+ tumors (P = .001). Nulliparity (P = 3 × 10−6) and increasing age at first birth (P = 2 × 10−9) were less frequent in ER− than in ER+ tumors. Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) in younger women (≤50 years) was more frequent in ER−/PR− than in ER+/PR+ tumors (P = 1 × 10−7), whereas obesity in older women (>50 years) was less frequent in PR− than in PR+ tumors (P = 6 × 10−4). The triple-negative (ER−/PR−/HER2−) or core basal phenotype (CBP; triple-negative and cytokeratins [CK]5/6+ and/or epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]+) accounted for much of the heterogeneity in parity-related variables and BMI in younger women. Case–control analyses showed that nulliparity, increasing age at first birth, and obesity in younger women showed the expected associations with the risk of ER+ or PR+ tumors but not triple-negative (nulliparity vs parity, odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.19, P = .61; 5-year increase in age at first full-term birth, OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.05, P = .34; obesity in younger women, OR = 1.36, 95

  14. High-throughput automated scoring of Ki67 in breast cancer tissue microarrays from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Mustapha; Howat, William J; Daley, Frances; Zabaglo, Lila; McDuffus, Leigh-Anne; Blows, Fiona; Coulson, Penny; Raza Ali, H; Benitez, Javier; Milne, Roger; Brenner, Herman; Stegmaier, Christa; Mannermaa, Arto; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Sinn, Peter; Couch, Fergus J; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Devilee, Peter; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hewitt, Stephen; Eccles, Diana; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Wm Martens, John; Hm van Deurzen, Carolien; Investigators, kConFab; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk; Broeks, Annegien; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Van't Veer, Laura; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Orr, Nick; Dowsett, Mitch; Easton, Douglas; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Pharoah, Paul D; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2016-07-01

    Automated methods are needed to facilitate high-throughput and reproducible scoring of Ki67 and other markers in breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) in large-scale studies. To address this need, we developed an automated protocol for Ki67 scoring and evaluated its performance in studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We utilized 166 TMAs containing 16,953 tumour cores representing 9,059 breast cancer cases, from 13 studies, with information on other clinical and pathological characteristics. TMAs were stained for Ki67 using standard immunohistochemical procedures, and scanned and digitized using the Ariol system. An automated algorithm was developed for the scoring of Ki67, and scores were compared to computer assisted visual (CAV) scores in a subset of 15 TMAs in a training set. We also assessed the correlation between automated Ki67 scores and other clinical and pathological characteristics. Overall, we observed good discriminatory accuracy (AUC = 85%) and good agreement (kappa = 0.64) between the automated and CAV scoring methods in the training set. The performance of the automated method varied by TMA (kappa range= 0.37-0.87) and study (kappa range = 0.39-0.69). The automated method performed better in satisfactory cores (kappa = 0.68) than suboptimal (kappa = 0.51) cores (p-value for comparison = 0.005); and among cores with higher total nuclei counted by the machine (4,000-4,500 cells: kappa = 0.78) than those with lower counts (50-500 cells: kappa = 0.41; p-value = 0.010). Among the 9,059 cases in this study, the correlations between automated Ki67 and clinical and pathological characteristics were found to be in the expected directions. Our findings indicate that automated scoring of Ki67 can be an efficient method to obtain good quality data across large numbers of TMAs from multicentre studies. However, robust algorithm development and rigorous pre- and post-analytical quality control procedures are

  15. High‐throughput automated scoring of Ki67 in breast cancer tissue microarrays from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Howat, William J; Daley, Frances; Zabaglo, Lila; McDuffus, Leigh‐Anne; Blows, Fiona; Coulson, Penny; Raza Ali, H; Benitez, Javier; Milne, Roger; Brenner, Herman; Stegmaier, Christa; Mannermaa, Arto; Chang‐Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Sinn, Peter; Couch, Fergus J; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Devilee, Peter; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hewitt, Stephen; Eccles, Diana; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; WM Martens, John; HM van Deurzen, Carolien; Investigators, kConFab; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk; Broeks, Annegien; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Van't Veer, Laura; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Orr, Nick; Dowsett, Mitch; Easton, Douglas; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Pharoah, Paul D; Garcia‐Closas, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Automated methods are needed to facilitate high‐throughput and reproducible scoring of Ki67 and other markers in breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) in large‐scale studies. To address this need, we developed an automated protocol for Ki67 scoring and evaluated its performance in studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We utilized 166 TMAs containing 16,953 tumour cores representing 9,059 breast cancer cases, from 13 studies, with information on other clinical and pathological characteristics. TMAs were stained for Ki67 using standard immunohistochemical procedures, and scanned and digitized using the Ariol system. An automated algorithm was developed for the scoring of Ki67, and scores were compared to computer assisted visual (CAV) scores in a subset of 15 TMAs in a training set. We also assessed the correlation between automated Ki67 scores and other clinical and pathological characteristics. Overall, we observed good discriminatory accuracy (AUC = 85%) and good agreement (kappa = 0.64) between the automated and CAV scoring methods in the training set. The performance of the automated method varied by TMA (kappa range= 0.37–0.87) and study (kappa range = 0.39–0.69). The automated method performed better in satisfactory cores (kappa = 0.68) than suboptimal (kappa = 0.51) cores (p‐value for comparison = 0.005); and among cores with higher total nuclei counted by the machine (4,000–4,500 cells: kappa = 0.78) than those with lower counts (50–500 cells: kappa = 0.41; p‐value = 0.010). Among the 9,059 cases in this study, the correlations between automated Ki67 and clinical and pathological characteristics were found to be in the expected directions. Our findings indicate that automated scoring of Ki67 can be an efficient method to obtain good quality data across large numbers of TMAs from multicentre studies. However, robust algorithm development and rigorous pre‐ and post

  16. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  17. Patients' Experiences With Care for Lung Cancer and Colorectal Cancer: Findings From the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ayanian, John Z.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Arora, Neeraj K.; Kahn, Katherine L.; Malin, Jennifer L.; Ganz, Patricia A.; van Ryn, Michelle; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; He, Yulei; Urmie, Julie M.; Weeks, Jane C.; Harrington, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess patients' experiences with cancer care, ratings of their quality of care, and correlates of these assessments. Patients and Methods For 4,093 patients with lung cancer and 3,685 patients with colorectal cancer in multiple US regions and health care delivery systems, we conducted telephone surveys of patients or their surrogates in English, Spanish, or Chinese at 4 to 7 months after diagnosis. The surveys assessed ratings of the overall quality of cancer care and experiences with three domains of interpersonal care (physician communication, nursing care, and coordination and responsiveness of care). Results English-speaking Asian/Pacific Islander patients and Chinese-speaking patients and those in worse health reported significantly worse adjusted experiences with all three domains of interpersonal care, whereas white, black, and Hispanic patients reported generally similar experiences with interpersonal care. The overall quality of cancer care was rated as excellent by 44.4% of patients with lung cancer and 53.0% of patients with colorectal cancer, and these ratings were most strongly correlated with positive experiences with coordination and responsiveness of care (Spearman rank coefficients of 0.49 and 0.42 for lung and colorectal cancer, respectively). After multivariate adjustment, excellent ratings were less common for each cancer among black patients, English-speaking Asian/Pacific Islander patients, Chinese-speaking patients, and patients reporting worse health status (all P ≤ .05). Conclusion Patients' reports and ratings of care differed significantly by race, language, and health status. Efforts to improve patients' experiences with cancer care should focus on problems affecting Asian and Pacific Islander patients and those in worse health. PMID:20713876

  18. Genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk in African American women in the AMBER consortium.

    PubMed

    Yao, Song; Haddad, Stephen A; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Zhu, Qianqian; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Bensen, Jeannette T; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Haiman, Christopher A; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-05-01

    Studies of genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk have been conducted mostly in populations of European ancestry, and only sparsely in African Americans (AA), who are known for a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. We analyzed 24,445 germline variants in 63 genes from vitamin D-related pathways in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium, including 3,663 breast cancer cases and 4,687 controls. Odds ratios (OR) were derived from logistic regression models for overall breast cancer, by estrogen receptor (ER) status (1,983 ER positive and 1,098 ER negative), and for case-only analyses of ER status. None of the three vitamin D-related pathways were associated with breast cancer risk overall or by ER status. Gene-level analyses identified associations with risk for several genes at a nominal p ≤ 0.05, particularly for ER- breast cancer, including rs4647707 in DDB2. In case-only analyses, vitamin D metabolism and signaling pathways were associated with ER- cancer (pathway-level p = 0.02), driven by a single gene CASR (gene-level p = 0.001). The top SNP in CASR was rs112594756 (p = 7 × 10(-5), gene-wide corrected p = 0.01), followed by a second signal from a nearby SNP rs6799828 (p = 1 × 10(-4), corrected p = 0.03). In summary, several variants in vitamin D pathways were associated with breast cancer risk in AA women. In addition, CASR may be related to tumor ER status, supporting a role of vitamin D or calcium in modifying breast cancer phenotypes. PMID:26650177

  19. Challenges in initiating and conducting personalized cancer therapy trials: perspectives from WINTHER, a Worldwide Innovative Network (WIN) Consortium trial.

    PubMed

    Rodon, J; Soria, J C; Berger, R; Batist, G; Tsimberidou, A; Bresson, C; Lee, J J; Rubin, E; Onn, A; Schilsky, R L; Miller, W H; Eggermont, A M; Mendelsohn, J; Lazar, V; Kurzrock, R

    2015-08-01

    Advances in 'omics' technology and targeted therapeutic molecules are together driving the incorporation of molecular-based diagnostics into the care of patients with cancer. There is an urgent need to assess the efficacy of therapy determined by molecular matching of patients with particular targeted therapies. WINTHER is a clinical trial that uses cutting edge genomic and transcriptomic assays to guide treatment decisions. Through the lens of this ambitious multinational trial (five countries, six sites) coordinated by the Worldwide Innovative Networking Consortium for personalized cancer therapy, we discovered key challenges in initiation and conduct of a prospective, omically driven study. To date, the time from study concept to activation has varied between 19 months at Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus in France to 30 months at the Segal Cancer Center, McGill University (Canada). It took 3+ years to be able to activate US sites due to national regulatory hurdles. Access to medications proposed by the molecular analysis remains a major challenge, since their availability through active clinical trials is highly variable over time within sites and across the network. Rules regarding the off-label use of drugs, or drugs not yet approved at all in some countries, pose a further challenge, and many biopharmaceutical companies lack a simple internal mechanism to supply the drugs even if they wish to do so. These various obstacles should be addressed to test and then implement precision medicine in cancer. PMID:25908602

  20. Challenges in initiating and conducting personalized cancer therapy trials: perspectives from WINTHER, a Worldwide Innovative Network (WIN) Consortium trial

    PubMed Central

    Rodon, J.; Soria, J. C.; Berger, R.; Batist, G.; Tsimberidou, A.; Bresson, C.; Lee, J. J.; Rubin, E.; Onn, A.; Schilsky, R. L.; Miller, W. H.; Eggermont, A. M.; Mendelsohn, J.; Lazar, V.; Kurzrock, R.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in ‘omics’ technology and targeted therapeutic molecules are together driving the incorporation of molecular-based diagnostics into the care of patients with cancer. There is an urgent need to assess the efficacy of therapy determined by molecular matching of patients with particular targeted therapies. WINTHER is a clinical trial that uses cutting edge genomic and transcriptomic assays to guide treatment decisions. Through the lens of this ambitious multinational trial (five countries, six sites) coordinated by the Worldwide Innovative Networking Consortium for personalized cancer therapy, we discovered key challenges in initiation and conduct of a prospective, omically driven study. To date, the time from study concept to activation has varied between 19 months at Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus in France to 30 months at the Segal Cancer Center, McGill University (Canada). It took 3+ years to be able to activate US sites due to national regulatory hurdles. Access to medications proposed by the molecular analysis remains a major challenge, since their availability through active clinical trials is highly variable over time within sites and across the network. Rules regarding the off-label use of drugs, or drugs not yet approved at all in some countries, pose a further challenge, and many biopharmaceutical companies lack a simple internal mechanism to supply the drugs even if they wish to do so. These various obstacles should be addressed to test and then implement precision medicine in cancer. PMID:25908602

  1. Unifying Screening Processes Within the PROSPR Consortium: A Conceptual Model for Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jane J.; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Zauber, Ann G.; Geiger, Ann M.; Kamineni, Aruna; Weaver, Donald L.; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2015-01-01

    General frameworks of the cancer screening process are available, but none directly compare the process in detail across different organ sites. This limits the ability of medical and public health professionals to develop and evaluate coordinated screening programs that apply resources and population management strategies available for one cancer site to other sites. We present a trans-organ conceptual model that incorporates a single screening episode for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers into a unified framework based on clinical guidelines and protocols; the model concepts could be expanded to other organ sites. The model covers four types of care in the screening process: risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Interfaces between different provider teams (eg, primary care and specialty care), including communication and transfer of responsibility, may occur when transitioning between types of care. Our model highlights across each organ site similarities and differences in steps, interfaces, and transitions in the screening process and documents the conclusion of a screening episode. This model was developed within the National Cancer Institute–funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR). PROSPR aims to optimize the screening process for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer and includes seven research centers and a statistical coordinating center. Given current health care reform initiatives in the United States, this conceptual model can facilitate the development of comprehensive quality metrics for cancer screening and promote trans-organ comparative cancer screening research. PROSPR findings will support the design of interventions that improve screening outcomes across multiple cancer sites. PMID:25957378

  2. Colorectal cancer screening of the general population in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yasushi; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Li, Xiao-Bo; Wong, Martin C S; Chiu, Han-Mo; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Utsumi, Takahiro; Hattori, Santa; Sano, Wataru; Iwatate, Mineo; Chiu, Philip; Sung, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing, and CRC has been becoming the major cause of cancer deaths in Asian countries. Therefore, an organized screening program to reduce CRC incidence and mortality is currently implemented in each country. In the present review, we summarize the current status and future perspectives of CRC screening of the general population in East Asian and South-East Asian countries. The fecal occult blood test is widely used for CRC screening in these countries, and its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality has been demonstrated; however, the low participation rate in CRC screening programs is a problem to be solved in every country. Improvement in the public awareness of CRC and promotion of CRC screening by physicians will help to raise the participation rate and reduce the number of deaths caused by CRC. Regarding screening colonoscopy, several studies have recently demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. However, at present, CRC screening colonoscopy is not adopted as a primary population-based screening tool because of staffing constraints in relation to large population sizes, increased medical costs, and potential adverse events (e.g. perforation and drug-induced anaphylaxis). Further study is required to consider colonoscopy as CRC screening that is established in Western countries. PMID:26595883

  3. The global cancer genomics consortium's symposium: new era of molecular medicine and epigenetic cancer medicine - cross section of genomics and epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Toi, Masakazu; Pillai, M. Radhakrishna; Gupta, Sudeep; Badwe, Rajendra; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; Costa, Luis; Chow, Louis WC; Knapp, Stefan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    The Global Cancer Genomics Consortium (GCGC) colleagues continue to function together as an interactive multidisciplinary team of cancer biologists and oncologists with interests in genomics and building a bidirectional bridge between cancer clinics and laboratories while taking advantage of shared resources among its member scientists. The GCGC includes member scientists from six institutions in Lisbon, United Kingdom, Japan, India and United States, and was formed in December 2010 for a period of five years. Driven by valuable lessons learned from the previous symposiums, the fourth GCGC Symposium focused on a cross section of genomic and epigenetic cancer medicine and it's for this reason we chose the conference theme - New Era of Molecular Medicine and Epigenetic Cancer Medicine: Cross Section of Genomics and Epigenetics. This year's symposium was co-organized by the Organization for Oncology and Translational Research (OOTR) at the Shiran Hall, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, from November 14 and 15, 2014. The symposium attracted around 80 participants from 14 countries, and counted with 23 invited platform speakers. Scientific sessions included eight platform sessions and one poster session, and three plenary lectures. The symposium focused on cancer stem cells and self-renewal, cancer transcriptome, tumor heterogeneity, tumor biology, breast cancer genomics, targeted therapeutics and personalized medicine. The issues of cancer stem cells and tumor heterogeneity were echoed in most of the scientific presentations. The meeting concluded with an oral presentation by the best poster awardee and closing remarks by meeting co-chairs.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fine Particulate Matter Mass and Chemical Composition: The Middle East Consortium for Aerosol Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdeen, Ziad; Heo, Jongbae; Wu, Bo; Shpund, Jacob; Vanger, Arye; Sharf, Geula; Moise, Tamar; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Al-Mahasneh, Qusai M.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Schauer, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from January to December 2007 to investigate the sources and chemical speciation in Palestine, Jordan, and Israel. The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected on 6-day intervals at eleven urban and rural sites simultaneously. Major chemical components including metals, ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 across the 11 sites varied from 20.6 to 40.3 μg/m3, with an average of 28.7 μg/m3. Seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentrations was substantial, with higher average concentrations (37.3 μg/m3) in the summer (April–June) months compared to winter (October–December) months (26.0 μg/m3) due mainly to high contributions of sulfate and crustal components. PM2.5 concentrations in the spring were greatly impacted by regional dust storms. Carbonaceous mass was the most abundant component, contributing 40% to the total PM2.5 mass averaged across the eleven sites. Crustal components averaged 19.1% of the PM2.5 mass and sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate accounted for 16.2%, 6.4%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the total PM2.5 mass. The results of this study demonstrate the need to better protect the health and welfare of the residents on both sides of the Jordan River in the Middle East. PMID:25045751

  5. Vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Chuang, Shu-chun; Neto, Jose Eluf; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W.; Curado, Maria Paula; Winn, Deborah M.; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Castellsague, Xavier; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lazarus, Philip; Muscat, Joshua; McClean, Michael; Kelsey, Karl T.; Hayes, Richard B.; Purdue, Mark P.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Chu; Benhamou, Simone; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yu, Guopei; Schantz, Stimson; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case-control studies (7,002 HNC cases and 8,383 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. There were a total of 2,028 oral cavity cancer, 2,465 pharyngeal cancer, and 874 unspecified oral/pharynx cancer, 1,329 laryngeal cancer and 306 overlapping HNC cases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self reported ever use of any vitamins, multivitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, beta-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc supplements were assessed. We further examined frequency, duration and cumulative exposure of each vitamin or mineral when possible and stratified by smoking and drinking status. All ORs were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, education level, and pack-years of smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking and fruit/vegetable intake. A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.16-0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer. PMID:22173631

  6. Cancer Patient and Survivor Research from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium: A Preview of Three Large Randomized Trials and Initial Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    MARCUS, ALFRED C.; DIEFENBACH, MICHAEL A.; STANTON, ANNETTE L.; MILLER-HALEGOUA, SUZANNE N.; FLEISHER, LINDA; RAICH, PETER C.; MORRA, MARION E.; PEROCCHIA, ROSEMARIE SLEVIN; TRAN, ZUNG VU; BRIGHT, MARY ANNE

    2014-01-01

    Three large randomized trials are described from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium (CISRC). Three web-based multimedia programs are being tested to help newly diagnosed prostate (Project 1) and breast cancer patients (Project 2) make informed treatment decisions and breast cancer patients prepare for life after treatment (Project 3). Project 3 is also testing a telephone callback intervention delivered by a cancer information specialist. All participants receive standard print material specific to each project. Preliminary results from the two-month follow-up interviews are reported for the initial wave of enrolled participants, most of whom were recruited from the Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) telephone information program (Project 1 = 208, Project 2 = 340, Project 3 = 792). Self-reported use of the multimedia program was 51%, 52% and 67% for Projects 1–3, respectively. Self-reported use of the print materials (read all, most or some) was 90%, 85% and 83% for Projects 1–3, respectively. The callback intervention was completed by 92% of Project 3 participants. Among those using the CISRC interventions, perceived utility and benefit was high, and more than 90% would recommend them to other cancer patients. Five initial lessons learned are presented that may help inform future cancer communications research. PMID:23448232

  7. Vitamin E intake from natural sources and head and neck cancer risk: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium

    PubMed Central

    Edefonti, V; Hashibe, M; Parpinel, M; Ferraroni, M; Turati, F; Serraino, D; Matsuo, K; Olshan, A F; Zevallos, J P; Winn, D M; Moysich, K; Zhang, Z-F; Morgenstern, H; Levi, F; Kelsey, K; McClean, M; Bosetti, C; Schantz, S; Yu, G-P; Boffetta, P; Chuang, S-C; A Lee, Y-C; La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence for the possible effect of vitamin E on head and neck cancers (HNCs) is limited. Methods: We used individual-level pooled data from 10 case–control studies (5959 cases and 12 248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium to assess the association between vitamin E intake from natural sources and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models applied to quintile categories of nonalcohol energy-adjusted vitamin E intake. Results: Intake of vitamin E was inversely related to oral/pharyngeal cancer (OR for the fifth vs the first quintile category=0.59, 95% CI: 0.49–0.71; P for trend <0.001) and to laryngeal cancer (OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.54–0.83, P for trend <0.001). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of the estimated effect across studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer. Inverse associations were generally observed for the anatomical subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancer and within covariate strata for both sites. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that greater vitamin E intake from foods may lower HNC risk, although we were not able to explain the heterogeneity observed across studies or rule out certain sources of bias. PMID:25989276

  8. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 controls who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17–1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10–1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99–1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89–2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62–5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for non-small cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11–4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. PMID:24615328

  9. Oncofertility Consortium

    MedlinePlus

    ... September 15, 2016 National Physicians Cooperative Brigid Martz Smith July 21, 2016 Postdoctoral Position in Pediatric Fertility ... 2016 Oncofertility Consortium Clinic/Center Map Brigid Martz Smith June 30, 2016 Zika Virus Concerns Grow as ...

  10. COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics): an international consortium to study the role of polymorphic variation on the risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, I P M; Dunlop, M; Campbell, H; Zanke, B; Gallinger, S; Hudson, T; Koessler, T; Pharoah, P D; Niittymäkix, I; Tuupanenx, S; Aaltonen, L A; Hemminki, K; Lindblom, A; Försti, A; Sieber, O; Lipton, L; van Wezel, T; Morreau, H; Wijnen, J T; Devilee, P; Matsuda, K; Nakamura, Y; Castellví-Bel, S; Ruiz-Ponte, C; Castells, A; Carracedo, A; Ho, J W C; Sham, P; Hofstra, R M W; Vodicka, P; Brenner, H; Hampe, J; Schafmayer, C; Tepel, J; Schreiber, S; Völzke, H; Lerch, M M; Schmidt, C A; Buch, S; Moreno, V; Villanueva, C M; Peterlongo, P; Radice, P; Echeverry, M M; Velez, A; Carvajal-Carmona, L; Scott, R; Penegar, S; Broderick, P; Tenesa, A; Houlston, R S

    2009-01-01

    It is now recognised that a part of the inherited risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) can be explained by the co-inheritance of low-penetrance genetic variants. The accumulated experience to date in identifying these variants has served to highlight difficulties in conducting statistically and methodologically rigorous studies and follow-up analyses. The COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics) consortium includes 20 research groups in Europe, Australia, the Americas, China and Japan. The overarching goal of COGENT is to identify and characterise low-penetrance susceptibility variants for CRC through association-based analyses. In this study, we review the rationale for identifying low-penetrance variants for CRC and our proposed strategy for establishing COGENT. PMID:19920828

  11. Cancer in the global health era: opportunities for the Middle East and Asia.

    PubMed

    Dey, Subhojit; Soliman, Amr S

    2010-07-01

    The global burden of cancer is rising with almost 70% of cancer cases being in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).The Middle East and Asia have two thirds of the world's population and the largest regional concentration of LMICs. Because of massive demographic and epidemiologic transitions, cancer mortality is projected to increase substantially in these populations. Lung cancer among men and breast cancer among women are the most prominent cancer sites in both the Middle East and Asia. Enhanced tobacco control and managing obesity are the most important measures for effective control of most cancers. However, detailed research is required within each population to best identify risk factors and to develop evidence-based methods for cancer prevention. International collaborations are an essential step in facilitating this process, because it can improve cancer registries, create robust infrastructure, improve skills of personnel and lead to effective cancer control and prevention. PMID:20566537

  12. Mouthwash use and cancer of the head and neck: a pooled analysis from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Hayes, Richard B; Sartori, Samantha; Lee, Yuan-Chin A; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew; Winn, Deborah M; Castellsagué, Xavier; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Purdue, Mark; Koifman, Sergio; Curado, Maria P; Vilensky, Marta; Gillison, Maura; Fernandez, Leticia; Menezes, Ana; Daudt, Alexander W; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guopei; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Haddad, Robert I; La Vecchia, Carlo; Hashibe, Mia

    2016-07-01

    Most mouthwashes contain alcohol, a known cause of head and neck cancer (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx), likely through the carcinogenic activity of acetaldehyde, formed in the oral cavity from alcohol. We carried out a pooled analysis of 8981 cases of head and neck cancer and 10 090 controls from 12 case-control studies with comparable information on mouthwash use in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of mouthwash use with cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx, adjusting for study, age, sex, pack-years of tobacco smoking, number of alcoholic drinks/day, and education. Compared with never users of mouthwash, the odds ratio (OR) of all head and neck cancers was 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94-1.08] for ever users, based on 12 studies. The corresponding ORs of cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00-1.23) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.06-1.56), respectively. OR for all head and neck cancer was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01-1.30) for use for more than 35 years, based on seven studies (P for linear trend=0.01), and OR 1.31 (95% CI: 1.09-1.58) for use more than one per day, based on five studies (P for linear trend <0.001). Although limited by the retrospective nature of the study and the limited ability to assess risks of mouthwash use in nonusers of tobacco and alcohol, this large investigation shows potential risks for head and neck cancer subsites and in long-term and frequent users of mouthwash. This pooled analysis provides the most precise estimate of the association between mouthwash use and head and neck cancer. PMID:26275006

  13. Parity, Lactation, and Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women: Results from the AMBER Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Viscidi, Emma; Troester, Melissa A.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Schedin, Pepper; Bethea, Traci N.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Borges, Virginia; McKinnon, Craig; Haiman, Christopher A.; Lunetta, Kathryn; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Olshan, Andrew F.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Background African American (AA) women have a disproportionately high incidence of estrogen receptor–negative (ER-) breast cancer, a subtype with a largely unexplained etiology. Because childbearing patterns also differ by race/ethnicity, with higher parity and a lower prevalence of lactation in AA women, we investigated the relation of parity and lactation to risk of specific breast cancer subtypes. Methods Questionnaire data from two cohort and two case-control studies of breast cancer in AA women were combined and harmonized. Case patients were classified as ER+ (n = 2446), ER- (n = 1252), or triple negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-; n = 567) based on pathology data; there were 14180 control patients. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in polytomous logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study, age, reproductive and other risk factors. Results ORs for parity relative to nulliparity was 0.92 (95% CI = 0.81 to 1.03) for ER+, 1.33 (95% CI = 1.11 to 1.59) for ER-, and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.06 to 1.70) for triple-negative breast cancer. Lactation was associated with a reduced risk of ER- (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.95) but not ER+ cancer. ER- cancer risk increased with each additional birth in women who had not breastfed, with an OR of 1.68 (95% CI = 1.15 to 2.44) for 4 or more births relative to one birth with lactation. Conclusions The findings suggest that parous women who have not breastfed are at increased risk of ER- and triple-negative breast cancer. Promotion of lactation may be an effective tool for reducing occurrence of the subtypes that contribute disproportionately to breast cancer mortality. PMID:25224496

  14. Common genetic variants in prostate cancer risk prediction – Results from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Sara; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cox, David; Travis, Ruth C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Andriole, Gerald; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Ganziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Henderson, Brian; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Pala, Valeria; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Tjonneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Willett, Walter C.; Yeager, Meredith; Hayes, Richard B.; Severi, Gianluca; Haiman, Christopher A.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Kraft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the goals of personalized medicine is to generate individual risk profiles that could identify individuals in the population that exhibit high risk. The discovery of more than two-dozen independent SNP markers in prostate cancer has raised the possibility for such risk stratification. In this study, we evaluated the discriminative and predictive ability for prostate cancer risk models incorporating 25 common prostate cancer genetic markers, family history of prostate cancer and age. Methods We fit a series of risk models and estimated their performance in 7,509 prostate cancer cases and 7,652 controls within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). We also calculated absolute risks based on SEER incidence data. Results The best risk model (C-statistic=0.642) included individual genetic markers and family history of prostate cancer. We observed a decreasing trend in discriminative ability with advancing age (P=0.009), with highest accuracy in men younger than 60 years (C-statistic=0.679). The absolute ten-year risk for 50-year old men with a family history ranged from 1.6% (10th percentile of genetic risk) to 6.7% (90th percentile of genetic risk). For men without family history, the risk ranged from 0.8% (10th percentile) to 3.4% (90th percentile). Conclusions Our results indicate that incorporating genetic information and family history in prostate cancer risk models can be particularly useful for identifying younger men that might benefit from PSA screening. Impact Although adding genetic risk markers improves model performance, the clinical utility of these genetic risk models is limited. PMID:22237985

  15. Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yao; Wang, Hong-Kai; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia. PMID:25080928

  16. Natural vitamin C intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: A pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Turati, Federica; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Chuang, Shu-Chun; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2015-07-15

    Evidence of associations between single nutrients and head and neck cancer (HNC) is still more limited and less consistent than that for fruit and vegetables. However, clarification of the protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables is important to our understanding of HNC etiology. We investigated the association between vitamin C intake from natural sources and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx using individual-level pooled data from ten case-control studies (5,959 cases and 12,248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. After harmonization of study-specific exposure information via the residual method, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models on quintile categories of 'non-alcohol energy-adjusted' vitamin C intake. In the presence of heterogeneity of the estimated ORs among studies, we derived those estimates from generalized linear mixed models. Higher intakes of vitamin C were inversely related to oral and pharyngeal (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.45-0.65, for the fifth quintile category versus the first one, p for trend<0.001) and laryngeal cancers (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.40-0.68, p for trend = 0.006), although in the presence of heterogeneity among studies for both sites. Inverse associations were consistently observed for the anatomical subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancer, and across strata of age, sex, education, body mass index, tobacco, and alcohol, for both cancer sites. The inverse association of vitamin C intake from foods with HNC may reflect a protective effect on these cancers; however, we cannot rule out other explanations. PMID:25627906

  17. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Travis, Ruth C; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Calle, Eugenia E; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O; Thun, Michael J; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J

    2009-10-01

    Sex hormones, particularly the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiologic evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterized variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5% to 10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men [association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292-rs727479 (A-A) versus noncarriers; P = 1 x 10(-5)], and with inverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterized by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk of prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  18. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Ruth C.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Calle, Eugenia E.; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M.; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Sex hormones, in particular the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiological evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterised variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5–10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men (association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292–rs727479 (A–A) versus noncarriers; P=1 × 10−5), and withinverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterised by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk for prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  19. 7q21-rs6964587 and breast cancer risk: an extended case–control study by the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Roger L; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Burwinkel, Barbara; Malats, Núria; Arias, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Humphreys, Manjeet K; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Devilee, Peter; van Asperen, Christie J; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Irwanto, Astrid K; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E; Flyger, Henrik; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Fasching, Peter A; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Wu, Pei-Ei; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian; Elliott, Graeme; Reed, Malcolm W R; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Peto, Julian; Frank, Bernd; Heil, Joerg; Meindl, Alfons; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Southey, Melissa C; Smith, Letitia; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L; Dunning, Alison M; Pooley, Karen A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Background Using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, the authors previously reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism 7q21-rs6964587 (AKAP9-M463I) is associated with breast cancer risk. The authors have now assessed this association more comprehensively using 16 independent case–control studies. Methods The authors genotyped 14 843 invasive case patients and 19 852 control subjects with white European ancestry and 2595 invasive case patients and 2192 control subjects with Asian ancestry. ORs were estimated by logistic regression, adjusted for study. Heterogeneity in ORs was assessed by fitting interaction terms or by subclassifying case patients and applying polytomous logistic regression. Results For white European women, the minor T allele of 7q21-rs6964587 was associated with breast cancer risk under a recessive model (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13, p = 0.04). Results were inconclusive for Asian women. From a combined analysis of 24 154 case patients and 33 376 control subjects of white European ancestry from the present and previous series, the best-fitting model was recessive, with an estimated OR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.13, p = 0.001). The OR was greater at younger ages (p trend = 0.01). Conclusion This may be the first common susceptibility allele for breast cancer to be identified with a recessive mode of inheritance. PMID:21931171

  20. Polymorphism in the GALNT1 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white women: the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Catherine M; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Goode, Ellen L; Vierkant, Robert A; Fridley, Brooke L; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiao Qing; Webb, Penelope M; Chanock, Stephen; Cramer, Daniel W; Moysich, Kirsten; Edwards, Robert P; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Yang, Hannah; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Hein, Rebecca; Green, Adele C; Lissowska, Jolanta; Carney, Michael E; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Ness, Roberta B; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Wu, Anna H; Van Den Berg, David J; Stram, Daniel O; Terry, Kathryn L; Whiteman, David C; Whittemore, Alice S; DiCioccio, Richard A; McGuire, Valerie; Doherty, Jennifer A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hogdall, Claus; Hogdall, Estrid; Krüger Kjaer, Susanne; Blaakaer, Jan; Quaye, Lydia; Ramus, Susan J; Jacobs, Ian; Song, Honglin; Pharoah, Paul D P; Iversen, Edwin S; Marks, Jeffrey R; Pike, Malcolm C; Gayther, Simon A; Cunningham, Julie M; Goodman, Marc T; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Berchuck, Andrew; Sellers, Thomas A

    2010-02-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a well-described hallmark of cancer. In a previous ovarian cancer case control study that examined polymorphisms in 26 glycosylation-associated genes, we found strong statistical evidence (P = 0.00017) that women who inherited two copies of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, GALNT1, had decreased ovarian cancer risk. The current study attempted to replicate this observation. The GALNT1 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17647532 was genotyped in 6,965 cases and 8,377 controls from 14 studies forming the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. The fixed effects estimate per rs17647532 allele was null (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.07). When a recessive model was fit, the results were unchanged. Test for heterogeneity of the odds ratios revealed consistency across the 14 replication sites but significant differences compared with the original study population (P = 0.03). This study underscores the need for replication of putative findings in genetic association studies. PMID:20142253

  1. Treatment reality in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer: a prospective analysis of the OVCAD consortium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately one third of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer is 70 years or older. Information on the treatment reality of these elderly patients is limited. Methods 275 patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer FIGO stage II-IV undergoing cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy were prospectively included in this European multicenter study. Patients <70 and ≥70 years were compared regarding clinicopathological variables and prognosis. Results Median age was 58 years (18–85); 47 patients (17.1%) were 70 years or older. The postoperative 60-day-mortality rate was 2.1% for elderly and 0.4% for younger patients (p < 0.001). Elderly patients were less likely to receive optimal therapy (no residual disease after surgery and platinum combination chemotherapy) compared to patients <70 years (40.4% vs. 70.1%, p < 0.001) and their outcome was less favorable regarding median PFS (12 vs. 20 months, p = 0.022) and OS (30 vs. 64 months, p < 0.001). However, in multivariate analysis age itself was not a prognostic factor for PFS while the ECOG performance status had prognostic significance in elderly patients. Conclusions Elderly patients with ovarian cancer are often treated less radically. Their outcome is impaired despite no consistent prognostic effect of age itself. Biological age and functional status should be considered before individualized treatment plans are defined. PMID:23809664

  2. Efficacy of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) in advanced bladder cancer: results from the International Radical Cystectomy Consortium (IRCC)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghmin, Ali; Kauffman, Eric C.; Shi, Yi; Badani, Ketan; Balbay, M. Derya; Canda, Erdem; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ghavamian, Reza; Grubb, Robert; Hemal, Ashok; Kaouk, Jihad; Kibel, Adam S.; Maatman, Thomas; Menon, Mani; Mottrie, Alex; Nepple, Kenneth; Pattaras, John G.; Peabody, James O.; Poulakis, Vassilis; Pruthi, Raj; Redorta, Juan Palou; Rha, Koon-Ho; Richstone, Lee; Schanne, Francis; Scherr, Douglas S.; Siemer, Stefan; Stöckle, Michael; Wallen, Eric M.; Weizer, Alon; Wiklund, Peter; Wilson, Timothy; Wilding, Gregory; Woods, Michael; Guru, Khurshid A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterise the surgical feasibility and outcomes of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) for pathological T4 bladder cancer. Patients and Methods Retrospective evaluation of a prospectively maintained International Radical Cystectomy Consortium database was conducted for 1118 patients who underwent RARC between 2003 and 2012. We dichotomised patients based on pathological stage (≤pT3 vs pT4) and evaluated demographic, operative and pathological variables in relation to morbidity and mortality. Results In all, 1000 ≤pT3 and 118 pT4 patients were evaluated. The pT4 patients were older than the ≤pT3 patients (P = 0.001). The median operating time and blood loss were 386 min and 350 mL vs 396 min and 350 mL for p T4 and ≤pT3, respectively. The complication rate was similar (54% vs 58%; P = 0.64) among ≤pT3 and pT4 patients, respectively. The overall 30-and 90-day mortality rate was 0.4% and 1.8% vs 4.2% and 8.5% for ≤pT3 vs pT4 patients (P < 0.001), respectively. The body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiology score, length of hospital stay (LOS) >10 days, and 90-day readmission were significantly associated with complications in pT4 patients. Meanwhile, BMI, LOS >10 days, grade 3–5 complications, 90-day readmission, smoking, previous abdominal surgery and neoadjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with mortality in pT4 patients. On multivariate analysis, BMI was an independent predictor of complications in pT4 patients, but not for mortality. Conclusions RARC for pT4 bladder cancer is surgically feasible but entails significant morbidity and mortality. BMI was independent predictor of complications in pT4 patients. PMID:24219170

  3. Estrogen Receptor Beta rs1271572 Polymorphism and Invasive Ovarian Carcinoma Risk: Pooled Analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Carney, Michael E.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Song, Honglin; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Webb, Penelope M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Goodman, Marc T.

    2011-01-01

    The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). All participants were non-Hispanic white women. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for site and age. Women with the TT genotype were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to carriers of the G allele (OR = 1.10; 95%; CI: 1.01–1.21; p = 0.04); the OR was 1.09 (CI: 0.99–1.20; p = 0.07) after excluding data from the center (Hawaii) that nominated this SNP for OCAC genotyping A stronger association of rs1271572 TT versus GT/GG with risk was observed among women aged ≤50 years versus older women (OR = 1.35; CI: 1.12–1.62; p = 0.002; p for interaction = 0.02) that remained statistically significant after excluding Hawaii data (OR = 1.34; CI: 1.11–1.61; p = 0.009). No heterogeneity of the association was observed by study, menopausal status, gravidity, parity, use of contraceptive or menopausal hormones, tumor histological type, or stage at diagnosis. This pooled analysis suggests that rs1271572 might influence the risk of ovarian cancer, in particular among younger women. PMID:21673961

  4. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Malcolm A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  5. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  6. Sexual behaviours and the risk of head and neck cancers: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Berthiller, Julien; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Winn, Deborah M; Smith, Elaine M; Shan'gina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Purdue, Mark P; Pilarska, Agnieszka; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael D; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Kelsey, Karl T; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernández, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsagué, Xavier; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual contact may be the means by which head and neck cancer patients are exposed to human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods We undertook a pooled analysis of four population-based and four hospital-based case–control studies from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, with participants from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, India, Italy, Spain, Poland, Puerto Rico, Russia and the USA. The study included 5642 head and neck cancer cases and 6069 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of associations between cancer and specific sexual behaviours, including practice of oral sex, number of lifetime sexual partners and oral sex partners, age at sexual debut, a history of same-sex contact and a history of oral–anal contact. Findings were stratified by sex and disease subsite. Results Cancer of the oropharynx was associated with having a history of six or more lifetime sexual partners [OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 1.54] and four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.42, 3.58). Cancer of the tonsil was associated with four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32, 8.53), and, among men, with ever having oral sex (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09, 2.33) and with an earlier age at sexual debut (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.37, 5.05). Cancer of the base of the tongue was associated with ever having oral sex among women (OR = 4.32, 95% CI 1.06, 17.6), having two sexual partners in comparison with only one (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19, 3.46) and, among men, with a history of same-sex sexual contact (OR = 8.89, 95% CI 2.14, 36.8). Conclusions Sexual behaviours are associated with cancer risk at the head and neck cancer subsites that have previously been associated with HPV infection. PMID:20022926

  7. Meta-analysis of mismatch repair polymorphisms within the cogent consortium for colorectal cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Picelli, Simone; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hoffmeister, Michael; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Naccarati, Alessio; Pardini, Barbara; Vodickova, Ludmila; Müller, Heiko; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; Stibbard, Geoffrey; Peterlongo, Paolo; Nici, Carmela; Veneroni, Silvia; Li, Li; Casey, Graham; Tenesa, Albert; Farrington, Susan M; Tomlinson, Ian; Moreno, Victor; van Wezel, Tom; Wijnen, Juul; Dunlop, Malcolm; Radice, Paolo; Scott, Rodney J; Vodicka, Pavel; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Brenner, Hermann; Buch, Stephan; Völzke, Henry; Hampe, Jochen; Schafmayer, Clemens; Lindblom, Annika

    2013-01-01

    In the last four years, Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified sixteen low-penetrance polymorphisms on fourteen different loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to the low risks conferred by known common variants, most of the 35% broad-sense heritability estimated by twin studies remains unexplained. Recently our group performed a case-control study for eight Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4 CRC genes. The present investigation is a follow-up of that study. We have genotyped six SNPs that showed a positive association and carried out a meta-analysis based on eight additional studies comprising in total more than 8000 cases and 6000 controls. The estimated recessive odds ratio for one of the SNPs, rs3219489 (MUTYH Q338H), decreased from 1.52 in the original Swedish study, to 1.18 in the Swedish replication, and to 1.08 in the initial meta-analysis. Since the corresponding summary probability value was 0.06, we decided to retrieve additional information for this polymorphism. The incorporation of six further studies resulted in around 13000 cases and 13000 controls. The newly updated OR was 1.03. The results from the present large, multicenter study illustrate the possibility of decreasing effect sizes with increasing samples sizes. Phenotypic heterogeneity, differential environmental exposures, and population specific linkage disequilibrium patterns may explain the observed difference of genetic effects between Sweden and the other investigated cohorts. PMID:24039736

  8. Cigarette, Cigar, and Pipe Smoking and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancers: Pooled Analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, Annah; Hashibe, Mia; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M.; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M.; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P.; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Michaluart, Pedro; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B.; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W.; Dal Maso, Luigino; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Cadoni, Gabriella; Boccia, Stefania; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ≤ 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers. PMID:23817919

  9. Medication risk communication with cancer patients in a Middle East cancer care setting

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, Kerry; Al-Okka, Maha; Jumaat, Ebaa; Eissa, Nesma; Elbashir, Merwa; Al-Yafei, Sumaya M Al Saadi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cancer treatments are frequently associated with adverse effects, but there may be a cultural reluctance by care providers to be forthcoming with patients regarding these risks for fear of promoting nonadherence. Conversely, research in a number of countries indicates high levels of patient desire for this information. We sought to explore cancer patient experiences, satisfaction, and preferences for medication risk communication in a Middle East care setting. Methods We developed and administered a ten-item questionnaire (Arabic and English) to a convenience sample of consenting adult patients receiving treatment at the National Center for Cancer Care and Research in Qatar. Results One hundred and forty-three patients were interviewed. Most (88%) stated that the level of side effect information they received was sufficient, with physicians (86%) followed by pharmacists (39%) as the preferred sources. The majority (97%) agreed that knowing about possible side effects would help them recognize and manage the reaction, and 92% agreed that it would help them understand how to minimize or prevent the risks. Eighteen percent indicated that this information would make them not want to take treatment. Two-thirds (65%) had previously experienced intolerance to their cancer treatment regimen. Conclusion Most patients surveyed expressed preference for the details of possible side effects they may encounter in their treatment. However, one in five considered such information a factor for nonadherence, indicating the need for patient-specific approaches when communicating medication risks. PMID:27175061

  10. Representativeness of Participants in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) Consortium Relative to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Paul J.; Ayanian, John Z.; Weeks, Jane C.; Kahn, Katherine L.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Lee, Jeannette; Pendergast, Jane; Harrington, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The research goals of the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) Consortium are to determine how characteristics and beliefs of patients, providers, and health-care organizations influence the treatments and outcomes of individuals with newly diagnosed lung and colorectal cancers. Because CanCORS results will inform national policy, it is important to know how they generalize to the United States population with these cancers. Research Design This study assessed the representativeness of the CanCORS cohort of 10,547 patients with lung cancer (LC) or colorectal cancer (CRC) enrolled between 2003 and 2005. We compared characteristics (gender, race, age and disease stage) to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) population of 234,464 patients with new onset of these cancers during the CanCORS recruitment period. Results The CanCORS sample is well matched to the SEER Program for both cancers. In CanCORS, 41% LC / 47% CRC were female versus 47% LC / 49% CRC in SEER. African American, Hispanic and Asian cases differed by no more than 5 percentage points between CanCORS and SEER. The SEER population is slightly older, with the percentage of patients over 75 years 33.1% LC / 37.3% CRC in SEER versus 26.9% LC / 29.4% in CanCORS, and also has a slightly higher proportion of early stage patients. We also found that the CanCORS cohort was representative within specific SEER regions that map closely to CanCORS sites. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the CanCORS Consortium was successful in enrolling a demographically representative sample within the CanCORS regions. PMID:22406968

  11. 9q31.2-rs865686 as a Susceptibility Locus for Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: Evidence from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Helen; Dudbridge, Frank; Fletcher, Olivia; Orr, Nick; Johnson, Nichola; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Mahmoodi, Maryam; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linda M.; Muir, Kenneth R.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Chaiwerawattana, Arkom; Wiangnon, Surapon; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Bojesen, Stig E; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Milne, Roger L.; Benítez, Javier; Arias-Pérez, José-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Dur, Christina Clarke; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Langheinz, Anne; Meindl, Alfons; Golatta, Michael; Bartram, Claus R.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Eilber, Ursula; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuriy; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofyeva, Darya; Zinnatullina, Guzel; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Kataja, Vesa; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Ann; Paridaens, Robert; Weltens, Caroline; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bernard, Loris; Manoukian, Siranoush; Radice, Paolo; Couch, Fergus J.; Vachon, Celine; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet; Giles, Graham; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Cariona A.; Severi, Gianluca; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Martens, John W.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Jager, Agnes; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M.A.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Jingmei; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Pharoah, Paul; Blows, Fiona M.; Dunning, Alison M.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk; Easton, Douglas F.; Humphreys, Manjeet; Wang, Qin; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Background Our recent genome-wide association study identified a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31.2 (rs865686). Methods To further investigate the rs865686–breast cancer association, we conducted a replication study within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, which comprises 37 case–control studies (48,394 cases, 50,836 controls). Results This replication study provides additional strong evidence of an inverse association between rs865686 and breast cancer risk [study-adjusted per G-allele OR, 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88; 0.91, P = 2.01 × 10–29] among women of European ancestry. There were ethnic differences in the estimated minor (G)-allele frequency among controls [0.09, 0.30, and 0.38 among, respectively, Asians, Eastern Europeans, and other Europeans; P for heterogeneity (Phet) = 1.3 × 10–143], but no evidence of ethnic differences in per allele OR (Phet = 0.43). rs865686 was associated with estrogen receptor–positive (ER+) disease (per G-allele OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86–0.91; P = 3.13 × 10–22) but less strongly, if at all, with ER-negative (ER–) disease (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.94–1.02; P = 0.26; Phet = 1.16 × 10–6), with no evidence of independent heterogeneity by progesterone receptor or HER2 status. The strength of the breast cancer association decreased with increasing age at diagnosis, with case-only analysis showing a trend in the number of copies of the G allele with increasing age at diagnosis (P for linear trend = 0.0095), but only among women with ER+ tumors. Conclusions This study is the first to show that rs865686 is a susceptibility marker for ER+ breast cancer. Impact The findings further support the view that genetic susceptibility varies according to tumor subtype. PMID:22859399

  12. An early history of human breast cancer: West meets East

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shou-He

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a global issue. This is especially true in countries like China, where cancer incidence has increased likely because of changes in environment and lifestyle. However, cancer is not a modern disease; early cases have been recorded in ancient medical books in the West and in China. Here, we provide a brief history of cancer, focusing on cancer of the breast, and review the etymology of ai, the Chinese character for cancer. Notable findings from both Western and Chinese traditional medicine are presented to give an overview of the most important, early contributors to our evolving understanding of human breast cancer. We also discuss the earliest historical documents to record patients with breast cancer. PMID:23958056

  13. How much do cancer-related symptoms contribute to health-related quality of life in lung and colorectal cancer patients? A report from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Kenzik, Kelly; Ganz, Patricia A.; Martin, Michelle; Petersen, Laura; Hays, Ron D.; Arora, Neeraj; Pisu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of symptoms with physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in colorectal cancer (CRC) and lung cancer patients Methods Newly diagnosed CRC (n=3,040) and lung cancer (n=2,297) participants of the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium completing surveys on general HRQOL and symptoms. HRQOL was measured by the SF-12 physical and mental component summary scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). Non-specific cancer symptoms were measured using EORTC-QLQ-C30 items. Cancer type-specific modules developed by the EORTC were used to assess CRC and lung cancer-specific symptoms. For each cancer, linear regression models examined the relationship of non-specific and cancer-specific symptoms with PCS and MCS, controlling for demographic and clinical information. Results CRC and lung cancer patients’ PCS scores were below the general population norm of 50 (43 and 37, respectively) and MCS scores were at population norm. For CRC, in the model with both symptom indices, an increase in non-specific symptoms was more strongly associated with lower PCS and MCS scores than an increase in CRC-specific symptoms (standardized coefficients; β=−0.41 vs. −0.09 for PCS and β=−0.38 vs. −0.08 for MCS). In the similar model for lung cancer, increases in lung cancer-specific symptoms were more strongly associated with lower PCS scores (β=−0.34 vs. −0.20) while non-specific symptoms were more strongly associated with lower MCS (β=−0.34 vs. −0.14). Conclusion Symptoms were associated with HRQOL impairments in recently diagnosed patients. Additional supportive care implemented early in cancer care, regardless of cancer stage, may provide symptom relief and improve HRQOL. PMID:25891437

  14. Gene-based analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway in relation to breast cancer in African American women: the AMBER consortium.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Yao, Song; Bensen, Jeannette T; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Haiman, Christopher A; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-01-01

    We conducted gene-based analysis in 26 genes in the FGFR signaling pathway to identify genes carrying genetic variation affecting risk of breast cancer and the specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each gene were selected and genotyped on a customized Illumina Exome Array. Imputation was carried out using 1000 Genomes haplotypes. The analysis included 3237 SNPs in 3663 breast cancer cases (including 1983 ER-positive, and 1098 ER-negative) and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk consortium, a collaborative project of four large studies of breast cancer in African American women (Carolina Breast Cancer Study, Black Women's Health Study, Women's Circle of Health Study, and Multiethnic Cohort). We used a multi-locus adaptive joint (AdaJoint) test to determine the association of each gene in the FGFR signaling pathway with overall breast cancer and ER subtypes. The FGF1 gene was significantly associated with risk of ER-negative breast cancer (P = 0.001). The FGFR2 gene was associated with risk of overall breast cancer (P = 0.002) and ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.002). The FGF1 gene affects risk of ER-negative breast cancer in African American women. We confirmed the association of the FGFR2 gene with risk of overall and ER-positive breast cancer. These results highlight the importance of the FGFR signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and suggest that different genes in the same pathway may be associated with different ER breast cancer subtypes. PMID:26743380

  15. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Milne, Roger L; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Koppert, Linetta B; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L; Schmidt, Daniel F; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-11-15

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, P = 2.9 × 10(-6)], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.12, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05-1.10, P = 1.0 × 10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04-1.07, P = 2.0 × 10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act. PMID

  16. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Roger L.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lambrechts, Diether; Peuteman, Gilian; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katazyna; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Yen Lim, Wei; Wan Chan, Ching; Marme, Federick; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Hooning, Maartje J.; Kriege, Mieke; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linde; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Barile, Monica; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Hopper, John L.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C.; Hwang Teo, Soo; Har Yip, Cheng; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Tay, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Ben; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; McKay, James; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Giles, Graham G.; Benítez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Berchuck, Andrew; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis; McGuffog, Lesley; Offit, Ken; Lee, Andrew; Dicks, Ed; Luccarini, Craig; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; LaBoissière, Sylvie; Robidoux, Frederic; Nielsen, Sune F.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Windebank, Sharon A.; Hilker, Christopher A.; Meyer, Jeffrey; Angelakos, Maggie; Maskiell, Judi; van der Schoot, Ellen; Rutgers, Emiel; Verhoef, Senno; Hogervorst, Frans; Boonyawongviroj, Prat; Siriwanarungsan, Pornthep; Schrauder, Michael; Rübner, Matthias; Oeser, Sonja; Landrith, Silke; Williams, Eileen; Ryder-Mills, Elaine; Sargus, Kara; McInerney, Niall; Colleran, Gabrielle; Rowan, Andrew; Jones, Angela; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiß, Andeas; Bugert, Peter; Álvarez, Núria; Lacey, James; Wang, Sophia; Ma, Huiyan; Lu, Yani; Deapen, Dennis; Pinder, Rich; Lee, Eunjung; Schumacher, Fred; Horn-Ross, Pam; Reynolds, Peggy; Nelson, David; Ziegler, Hartwig; Wolf, Sonja; Hermann, Volker; Lo, Wing-Yee; Justenhoven, Christina; Baisch, Christian; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Rabstein, Sylvia; Lotz, Anne; Harth, Volker; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Erkkilä, Irja; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; von Smitten, Karl; Antonenkova, Natalia; Hillemanns, Peter; Christiansen, Hans; Myöhänen, Eija; Kemiläinen, Helena; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Bowtell, D; Chenevix-Trench, G; deFazio, A; Gertig, D; Green, A; Webb, P; Green, A.; Parsons, P.; Hayward, N.; Webb, P.; Whiteman, D.; Fung, Annie; Yashiki, June; Peuteman, Gilian; Smeets, Dominiek; Brussel, Thomas Van; Corthouts, Kathleen; Obi, Nadia; Heinz, Judith; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Celik, Muhabbet; Olchers, Til; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Scuvera, Giulietta; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Feroce, Irene; Maniscalco, Angela; Rossi, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Tranchant, Martine; Valois, Marie-France; Turgeon, Annie; Heguy, Lea; Sze Yee, Phuah; Kang, Peter; Nee, Kang In; Mariapun, Shivaani; Sook-Yee, Yoon; Lee, Daphne; Ching, Teh Yew; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Otsukka, Meeri; Mononen, Kari; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; staff, OFBCR; Krol-Warmerdam, E.; Molenaar, J.; Blom, J.; Brinton, Louise; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Peplonska, Beata; Zatonski, Witold; Chao, Pei; Stagner, Michael; Bos, Petra; Blom, Jannet; Crepin, Ellen; Nieuwlaat, Anja; Heemskerk, Annette; Higham, Sue; Cross, Simon; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Brock, Ian; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don; Baynes, Caroline; Chua, Kimberley

    2014-01-01

    Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10−6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10−6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10−17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10−8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10−10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act

  17. Genome-wide analysis identifies novel loci associated with ovarian cancer outcomes: findings from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Johnatty, Sharon E.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Kar, Siddhartha; Beesley, Jonathan; Lu, Yi; Gao, Bo; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Lambrechts, Diether; Nieuwenhuysen, Els Van; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Levine, Douglas A.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubiński, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Brinton, Louise; Lissowska, Jolanta; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Song, Honglin; Rhenius, Valerie; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana; Sieh, Weiva; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Sutphen, Rebecca; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J.; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm C; Stram, Daniel O.; Wu, Anna H.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Goodman, Marc T.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Carney, Michael E.; Thompson, Pamela J; Heitz, Florian; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Pisterer, Jacobus; Hillemanns, Peter; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Winham, Stacey J; Earp, Madalene; Larson, Melissa C.; Fogarty, Zachary C.; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Orlow, Irene; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Høgdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; McNeish, Ian; Paul, James; Carty, Karen; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Glasspool, Rosalind; Sellers, Thomas; Kennedy, Catherine; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Berchuck, Andrew; MacGregor, Stuart; deFazio, Anna; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Goode, Ellen L.; deFazio, Anna; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chemotherapy resistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of ovarian cancer. We hypothesize that germline polymorphisms might be associated with clinical outcome. Experimental Design We analyzed ~2.8 million genotyped and imputed SNPs from the iCOGS experiment for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in 2,901 European epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients who underwent firstline treatment of cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy regardless of regimen, and in a subset of 1,098 patients treated with ≥4 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin at standard doses. We evaluated the top SNPs in 4,434 EOC patients including patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Additionally we conducted pathway analysis of all intragenic SNPs and tested their association with PFS and OS using gene set enrichment analysis. Results Five SNPs were significantly associated (p≤1.0x10−5) with poorer outcomes in at least one of the four analyses, three of which, rs4910232 (11p15.3), rs2549714 (16q23) and rs6674079 (1q22) were located in long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) RP11–179A10.1, RP11–314O13.1 and RP11–284F21.8 respectively (p≤7.1x10−6). ENCODE ChIP-seq data at 1q22 for normal ovary shows evidence of histone modification around RP11–284F21.8, and rs6674079 is perfectly correlated with another SNP within the super-enhancer MEF2D, expression levels of which were reportedly associated with prognosis in another solid tumor. YAP1- and WWTR1 (TAZ)-stimulated gene expression, and HDL-mediated lipid transport pathways were associated with PFS and OS, respectively, in the cohort who had standard chemotherapy (pGSEA≤6x10−3). Conclusion We have identified SNPs in three lncRNAs that might be important targets for novel EOC therapies. PMID:26152742

  18. Lung cancer among women in north-east China.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Williams, A. H.; Dai, X. D.; Blot, W.; Xu, Z. Y.; Sun, X. W.; Xiao, H. P.; Stone, B. J.; Yu, S. F.; Feng, Y. P.; Ershow, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer involving interviews with 965 female patients and 959 controls in Shenyang and Harbin, two industrial cities which have among the highest rates of lung cancer in China, revealed that cigarette smoking is the main causal factor and accounted for about 35% of the tumours among women. Although the amount smoked was low (the cases averaged eight cigarettes per day), the percentage of smokers among women over age 50 in these cities was nearly double the national average. Air pollution from coal burning stoves was implicated, as risks of lung cancer increased in proportion to years of exposure to 'Kang' and other heating devices indigenous to the region. In addition, the number of meals cooked by deep frying and the frequency of smokiness during cooking were associated with risk of lung cancer. More cases than controls reported workplace exposures to coal dust and to smoke from burning fuel. Elevated risks were observed for smelter workers and decreased risks for textile workers. Prior chronic bronchitis/emphysema, pneumonia, and recent tuberculosis contributed significantly to lung cancer risk, as did a history of tuberculosis and lung cancer in family members. Higher intake of carotene-rich vegetables was not protective against lung cancer in this population. The findings were qualitatively similar across the major cell types of lung cancer, except that the associations with smoking and previous lung diseases were stronger for squamous/oat cell cancers than for adenocarcinoma of the lung. PMID:2257230

  19. Comparison of 6q25 Breast Cancer Hits from Asian and European Genome Wide Association Studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC)

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Rebecca; Maranian, Melanie; Hopper, John L.; Kapuscinski, Miroslaw K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Park, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Bueno-de-Mesquit, H. Bas; Muir, Kenneth R.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Rattanamongkongul, Suthee; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Marmee, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Zamora, M. Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Rahman, Nazneen; Seal, Sheila; Turnbull, Clare; Renwick, Anthony; Meindl, Alfons; Schott, Sarah; Bartram, Claus R.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Karstens, Johann H.; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Zalutsky, Iosif V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokovieva, Darya; Farahtdinova, Albina; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Investigators, kConFab; Lambrechts, Diether; Zhao, Hui; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Figueroa, Jonine D.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Collée, Margriet; Hall, Per; Humpreys, Keith; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Ahmed, Shahana; Ghoussaini, Maya; Pharoah, Paul DP.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Morrison, Jonathan; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    The 6q25.1 locus was first identified via a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Chinese women and marked by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2046210, approximately 180 Kb upstream of ESR1. There have been conflicting reports about the association of this locus with breast cancer in Europeans, and a GWAS in Europeans identified a different SNP, tagged here by rs12662670. We examined the associations of both SNPs in up to 61,689 cases and 58,822 controls from forty-four studies collaborating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, of which four studies were of Asian and 39 of European descent. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Case-only analyses were used to compare SNP effects in Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+) versus negative (ER−) tumours. Models including both SNPs were fitted to investigate whether the SNP effects were independent. Both SNPs are significantly associated with breast cancer risk in both ethnic groups. Per-allele ORs are higher in Asian than in European studies [rs2046210: OR (A/G) = 1.36 (95% CI 1.26–1.48), p = 7.6×10−14 in Asians and 1.09 (95% CI 1.07–1.11), p = 6.8×10−18 in Europeans. rs12662670: OR (G/T) = 1.29 (95% CI 1.19–1.41), p = 1.2×10−9 in Asians and 1.12 (95% CI 1.08–1.17), p = 3.8×10−9 in Europeans]. SNP rs2046210 is associated with a significantly greater risk of ER− than ER+ tumours in Europeans [OR (ER−) = 1.20 (95% CI 1.15–1.25), p = 1.8×10−17 versus OR (ER+) = 1.07 (95% CI 1.04–1.1), p = 1.3×10−7, pheterogeneity = 5.1×10−6]. In these Asian studies, by contrast, there is no clear evidence of a differential association by tumour receptor status. Each SNP is associated with risk after adjustment for the other SNP. These results suggest the presence of two variants at 6q25.1 each independently associated with breast cancer risk in Asians and in Europeans. Of these two, the one

  20. Association analysis of 9,560 prostate cancer cases from the International Consortium of Prostate Cancer Genetics confirms the role of reported prostate-cancer associated SNPs for familial disease

    PubMed Central

    Teerlink, Craig C.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Rinckleb, Antje; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Egrot, Christophe; Cussenot, Olivier; Foulkes, William D.; Giles, Graham G.; Hopper, John L.; Severi, Gianluca; Eeles, Ros; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Guy, Michelle; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Ray, Anna M.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Lange, Ethan M.; FitzGerald, Liesel M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Isaacs, Sarah D.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Isaacs, William B.; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo; Schleutker, Johanna; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Emanuelsson, Monica; Carpten, John; Bailey-Wilson, Joan; Whittemore, Alice S.; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Catalona, William J.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Jin, Guangfu; Lu, Lingyi; Xu, Jianfeng; Camp, Nicola J.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous GWAS studies have reported significant associations between various common SNPs and prostate cancer risk using cases unselected for family history. How these variants influence risk in familial prostate cancer is not well studied. Here, we analyzed 25 previously reported SNPs across 14 loci from prior prostate cancer GWAS. The International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) previously validated some of these using a family-based association method (FBAT). However, this approach suffered reduced power due to the conditional statistics implemented in FBAT. Here, we use a case-control design with an empirical analysis strategy to analyze the ICPCG resource for association between these 25 SNPs and familial prostate cancer risk. Fourteen sites contributed 12,506 samples (9,560 prostate cancer cases, 3,368 with aggressive disease, and 2,946 controls from 2,283 pedigrees). We performed association analysis with Genie software which accounts for relationships. We analyzed all familial prostate cancer cases and the subset of aggressive cases. For the familial prostate cancer phenotype, 20 of the 25 SNPs were at least nominally associated with prostate cancer and 16 remained significant after multiple testing correction (p≤1E−3) occurring on chromosomal bands 6q25, 7p15, 8q24, 10q11, 11q13, 17q12, 17q24, and Xp11. For aggressive disease, 16 of the SNPs had at least nominal evidence and 8 were statistically significant including 2p15. The results indicate that the majority of common, low-risk alleles identified in GWAS studies for all prostate cancer also contribute risk for familial prostate cancer, and that some may be contribute risk to aggressive disease. PMID:24162621

  1. Risk Analysis of Prostate Cancer in PRACTICAL, a Multinational Consortium, Using 25 Known Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Loci

    PubMed Central

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Stephenson, Robert; Cox, Angela; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; FitzGerald, Liesel; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Saunders, Edward; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Guy, Michelle; Dadaev, Tokhir; Little, Sarah J.; Govindasami, Koveela; Sawyer, Emma; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Herkommer, Kathleen; Hopper, John L.; Lophatonanon, Aritaya; Rinckleb, Antje E.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk which explain a substantial proportion of familial relative risk. These variants can be used to stratify individuals by their risk of PrCa. Methods We genotyped 25 PrCa susceptibility loci in 40,414 individuals and derived a polygenic risk score (PRS). We estimated empirical Odds Ratios for PrCa associated with different risk strata defined by PRS and derived age-specific absolute risks of developing PrCa by PRS stratum and family history. Results The PrCa risk for men in the top 1% of the PRS distribution was 30.6 (95% CI 16.4-57.3) fold compared with men in the bottom 1%, and 4.2 (95% CI 3.2-5.5) fold compared with the median risk. The absolute risk of PrCa by age 85 was 65.8% for a man with family history in the top 1% of the PRS distribution, compared with 3.7% for a man in the bottom 1%. The PRS was only weakly correlated with serum PSA level (correlation=0.09). Conclusions Risk profiling can identify men at substantially increased or reduced risk of PrCa. The effect size, measured by OR per unit PRS, was higher in men at younger ages and in men with family history of PrCa. Incorporating additional newly identified loci into a PRS should improve the predictive value of risk profiles. Impact We demonstrate that the risk profiling based on SNPs can identify men at substantially increased or reduced risk that could have useful implications for targeted prevention and screening programs. PMID:25837820

  2. Allergies and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Pooled Analysis From the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sara H.; Hsu, Meier; Satagopan, Jaya M.; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Silverman, Debra T.; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Anderson, Kristin E.; Borgida, Ayelet; Bracci, Paige M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Cotterchio, Michelle; Dai, Qi; Duell, Eric J.; Fontham, Elizabeth H.; Gallinger, Steven; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Kurtz, Robert C.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lowenfels, Albert B.; Luckett, Brian; Ludwig, Emmy; Petersen, Gloria M.; Polesel, Jerry; Seminara, Daniela; Strayer, Lori; Talamini, Renato

    2013-01-01

    In order to quantify the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with history of any allergy and specific allergies, to investigate differences in the association with risk according to age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index, and to study the influence of age at onset, we pooled data from 10 case-control studies. In total, there were 3,567 cases and 9,145 controls. Study-specific odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and body mass index. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed by using the Cochran Q statistic. Study-specific odds ratios were pooled by using a random-effects model. The odds ratio for any allergy was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 1.00) with heterogeneity among studies (P < 0.001). Heterogeneity was attributable to one study; with that study excluded, the pooled odds ratio was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.84) (Pheterogeneity = 0.23). Hay fever (odds ratio = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96) and allergy to animals (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94) were related to lower risk, while there was no statistically significant association with other allergies or asthma. There were no major differences among subgroups defined by age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index. Older age at onset of allergies was slightly more protective than earlier age. PMID:23820785

  3. Interactions Between Genome-wide Significant Genetic Variants and Circulating Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1, Sex Hormones, and Binding Proteins in Relation to Prostate Cancer Risk in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Travis, Ruth C.; Appleby, Paul N.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lindstrom, Sara; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cox, David; Hsing, Ann W.; Ma, Jing; Severi, Gianluca; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Johansson, Mattias; Quirós, J. Ramón; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Stampfer, Meir J.; Giles, Graham G.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hayes, Richard B.; Key, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer risk. There is limited information on the mechanistic basis of these associations, particularly about whether they interact with circulating concentrations of growth factors and sex hormones, which may be important in prostate cancer etiology. Using conditional logistic regression, the authors compared per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for 39 GWAS-identified SNPs across thirds (tertile groups) of circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) for 3,043 cases and 3,478 controls in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. After allowing for multiple testing, none of the SNPs examined were significantly associated with growth factor or hormone concentrations, and the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by these concentrations, although 4 interactions were marginally significant (MSMB-rs10993994 with androstenedione (uncorrected P = 0.008); CTBP2-rs4962416 with IGFBP-3 (uncorrected P = 0.003); 11q13.2-rs12418451 with IGF-1 (uncorrected P = 0.006); and 11q13.2-rs10896449 with SHBG (uncorrected P = 0.005)). The authors found no strong evidence that associations between GWAS-identified SNPs and prostate cancer are modified by circulating concentrations of IGF-1, sex hormones, or their major binding proteins. PMID:22459122

  4. Cancer Care in East and Central Harlem: Community Partnership Needs Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jandorf, Lina; Freemantle, Hurdley; Sly, Jamilia; Ellison, Jennie; Wong, Carrie R.; Villagra, Cristina; Hong, Joseph; Kaleya, Sara; Poultney, Madrid; Villegas, Carmen; Brenner, Barbara; Bickell, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In the largely African American and Hispanic communities of East and Central Harlem in New York City (NYC), health inequities are glaring. Mortality from cancer is 20–30 % higher than in Manhattan and 30–40 % higher than rates in the general population in NYC. Despite advances in risk assessment, early detection, treatment, and survivorship, individuals in Harlem and similar urban communities are not benefiting equally. Guided by community-based participatory research, this study serves as an important step in understanding cancer care needs and the range of factors that impact the disparate rates of cancer in East and Central Harlem. Forty individual interviews were conducted with community leaders and residents. Major themes included: need for appropriate supportive services; health care access and financial challenges; beliefs related to stigma, trust, and accountability; and the impact of the physical environment on health. Education was seen as a critical area of need and intervention. PMID:23108854

  5. Pre-diagnostic vitamin D concentrations and cancer risks in older individuals: an analysis of cohorts participating in the CHANCES consortium.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Mena, José Manuel; Schöttker, Ben; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Olsen, Anja; Halkjær, Jytte; Kampman, Ellen; de Groot, Lisette; Jansen, Eugene; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Siganos, Galatios; Wilsgaard, Tom; Perna, Laura; Holleczek, Bernd; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-03-01

    The associations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with total and site-specific cancer incidence have been examined in several epidemiological studies with overall inconclusive findings. Very little is known about the association of vitamin D with cancer incidence in older populations. We assessed the association of pre-diagnostic serum 25(OH)D levels with incidence of all cancers combined and incidence of lung, colorectal, breast, prostate and lymphoid malignancies among older adults. Pre-diagnostic 25(OH)D concentrations and cancer incidence were available in total for 15,486 older adults (mean age 63, range 50-84 years) participating in two cohort studies: ESTHER (Germany) and TROMSØ (Norway); and a subset of previously published nested-case control data from a another cohort study: EPIC-Elderly (Greece, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain and Sweden) from the CHANCES consortium on health and aging. Cox proportional hazards or logistic regression were used to derive multivariable adjusted hazard and odds ratios, respectively, and their 95% confidence intervals across 25(OH)D categories. Meta-analyses with random effects models were used to pool study-specific risk estimates. Overall, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were not significantly associated with increased incidence of most of the cancers assessed. However, there was some evidence of increased breast cancer and decreased lymphoma risk with higher 25(OH)D concentrations. Our meta-analyses with individual participant data from three large European population-based cohort studies provide at best limited support for the hypothesis that vitamin D may have a major role in cancer development and prevention among European older adults. PMID:25977096

  6. Replication and cumulative effects of GWAS-identified genetic variations for prostate cancer in Asians: a case–control study in the ChinaPCa consortium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meilin; Liu, Fang; Hsing, Ann W.; Wang, Xiang; Shao, Qiang; Qi, Jun; Ye, Yu; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Hongyan; Gao, Xin; Wang, Guozeng; Chu, Lisa W.; Ding, Qiang; OuYang, Jun; Gao, Xu; Huang, Yichen; Chen, Yanbo; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Rao, Jiangyu; Shi, Rong; Wu, Qijun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Haowen; Zheng, Jie; Hu, Yanlin; Guo, Ling; Lin, Xiaoling; Tao, Sha; Jin, Guangfu; Sun, Jielin; Lu, Daru; Zheng, S.Lilly; Sun, Yinghao; Mo, Zengnan; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Zhengdong

    2012-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study has identified five new genetic variants for prostate cancer susceptibility in a Japanese population, but it is unknown whether these newly identified variants are associated with prostate cancer risk in other populations, including Chinese men. We genotyped these five variants in a case–control study of 1524 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and 2169 control subjects from the Chinese Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ChinaPCa). We found that three of the five genetic variants were associated with prostate cancer risk (P = 4.33 × 10−8 for rs12653946 at 5p15, 4.43 × 10−5 for rs339331 at 6q22 and 8.42 × 10−4 for rs9600079 at 13q22, respectively). A cumulative effect was observed in a dose-dependent manner with increasing numbers of risk variant alleles (Ptrend = 2.58 × 10−13), and men with 5–6 risk alleles had a 2-fold higher risk of prostate cancer than men with 0–2 risk alleles (odds ratio = 2.26, 95% confidence interval = 1.78–2.87). Furthermore, rs339331 T allele was significantly associated with RFX6 and GPRC6A higher messenger RNA expression, compared with the C allele. However, none of the variants was associated with clinical stage, Gleason score or family history. These results provide further evidence that the risk loci identified in Japanese men also contribute to prostate cancer susceptibility in Chinese men. PMID:22114074

  7. Cancer epidemiology and control in peninsular and island South-East Asia - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A; Manan, Azizah Ab; Chow, Khuan Yew; Cornain, Santoso F; Devi, C R Beena; Triningsih, F X Ediati; Laudico, Adriano; Mapua, Cynthia A; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Noorwati, S; Nyunt, Kan; Othman, Nor Hayati; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Sinuraya, Evlina Suzanna; Yip, Cheng Har; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor and the Philippines constitute peninsular and island South-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity, with Chinese elements added to the basic Austromalaysian populations, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and underlying risk factors. The fact of problems are shared in common, particularly regarding increasing cancer rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of available data for cancer registration, epidemiology and control was conducted. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung, followed by the liver, colon or the prostate in the majority of cases, while breast and cervical cancers predominate in most female populations. However, there are interesting differences among the racial groups, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer, point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. A major task is persuading the general populace of the efficacy of early detection and clinical treatment. PMID:20553070

  8. Cancer epidemiology and control in north-East Asia - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Long, Ne; Moore, Malcolm A; Chen, Wanqing; Gao, Chao-Ming; Lai, Mei-Shu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Oyunchimeg, Dondov; Park, Sohee; Shin, Hai-Rim; Tajima, Kazuo; Yoo, Keun-Young; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan constitute North-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity and culture, with various degress of mixed Chinese and Altaic elements, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and particularly cancer. The fact of problems shared in common, with increasing disease rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of cancer registration and epidemiology data was conducted. The most frequent cancers in males of North-East Asia are in the lung, liver and stomach, with considerable geographical and temporal variation in their respective prevalences. However, colorectal cancer is also of increasing importance. In females the breast, together with the lung in China, the liver in Mongolia and the stomach in Korea and Japan, are most frequent. Variation in risk factors depends to a large extent on the local level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. PMID:20553072

  9. Breast cancer and age in Black and White women in South East England.

    PubMed

    Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Møller, Henrik

    2012-03-01

    Black women have lower age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates than White women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about such differences in risk in separate age groups. Records on female residents of South East England diagnosed with breast cancer between 1998 and 2003 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-specific incidence rates were calculated for each 5-year age group using 2001 Census population data for White, Black Caribbean and Black African women. Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients were younger than both the White patients and those with no ethnicity recorded. Black Caribbean and Black African women in the population also had a younger age profile than White women. The computed age-specific incidence rates in women aged under 50 were similar in the different ethnic groups, whereas in women aged 50 and over White women had higher rates. The younger age of Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients in South East England reflects the younger age of these populations, rather than an increased risk of disease at younger ages. PMID:21445965

  10. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  11. Cancer epidemiology in mainland South-East Asia - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A; Attasara, Pattarawin; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Le, Tran Ngoan; Nguyen, Thi Hoai Nga; Raingsey, Prak Piseth; Sriamporn, Supannee; Sriplung, Hutcha; Srivanatanakul, Petcharin; Bui, Duc Tung; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The countries of mainland South-East Asia, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Viet Nam, share a long history of interactions and many cultural similarities, as well as geographical contiguity. They therefore can be usefully examined as a group when considering measures for control of cancer and other non-communicable diseases. Liver cancer is consistently found at higher incidence than most other parts of Asia, with lung cancer as the other most important neoplasm in males. In females cervical and breast cancer about equally predominate, throughout. However, there are also major differences, particularly with regard to stomach and nasopharyngeal cancer, only found at relatively high incidence in Viet Nam. The present review was conducted to gather together registry data on cancer prevalence and epidemiological findings cited in PubMed in order to obtain as comprehensive picture as possible of the present status. It is hoped that future cooperation across the region will facilitate development of coordinated cancer control programs to reduce the burden. PMID:20553069

  12. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: a new enigma?

    PubMed

    Hussein, Nawfal R

    2010-07-14

    The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/10(5)) to low in Israel (12.5/10(5)) and very low in Egypt (3.4/10(5)). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

  13. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: A new enigma?

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Nawfal R

    2010-01-01

    The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/105) to low in Israel (12.5/105) and very low in Egypt (3.4/105). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

  14. Overview of cervical cancer screening practices in the extended Middle East and North Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Khazraji, Youssef Chami; Cherif, Moktar Hamdi; Mahnane, Abbes; Hsairi, Mohamed; El Shalakamy, Amr; Osgul, Nejat; Tuncer, Murat; Jumaan, Aisha O; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    National Organized Cervical Cancer Screening (NOCCS) programs are lacking in most of the "Extended Middle East and North Africa" (EMENA) countries. Consequently, most cervical cancers are diagnosed late and are associated with high mortality. In fact, in most of these countries, national mortality data are unknown due to the absence of population-based mortality registries. Most countries of the EMENA practice more or less limited opportunistic, cytology-based, screening tests, which often lack quality assurance and follow-up care. A few countries, within the initiation of a National Cancer Control Plan, have just started to implement organized screening programs using, for cervical cancer detection, visual inspection with acetic acid (Morocco) or cytology (Turkey). Moreover, most countries of the EMENA lack national guideline, as well as resources for the management of abnormal cytologic screening (or any other screening test). The main obstacle for the implementation of NOCCS is a lack of political understanding to support such public health programs and provide the necessary resources. Other obstacles that hinder the participation of women in cervical screening include a lack of knowledge of the disease, socio-religious and cultural barriers, and geographic and economic difficulties in accessing medical services. These countries are already convinced that prevention of cervical cancers in women who have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is possible through various screening and treatment algorithms, but most countries still need to invest in well organized programs that can reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in women. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and

  15. Dietary patterns derived with multiple methods from food diaries and breast cancer risk in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Dahm, Christina C; Key, Timothy J; Cairns, Benjamin J; Burley, Victoria J; Cade, Janet E; Greenwood, Darren C; Keogh, Ruth H; Bhaniani, Amit; McTaggart, Alison; Lentjes, Marleen AH; Mishra, Gita; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Objectives In spite of several studies relating dietary patterns to breast cancer risk, evidence so far remains inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of dietary patterns derived with three different methods with breast cancer risk. Subjects/ Methods The Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), principal components analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to derive dietary patterns in a case-control study of 610 breast cancer cases and 1891 matched controls within 4 UK cohort studies. Dietary intakes were collected prospectively using 4-to 7-day food diaries and resulting food consumption data were grouped into 42 food groups. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between pattern scores and breast cancer risk adjusting for relevant covariates. A separate model was fitted for post-menopausal women only. Results The MDS was not associated with breast cancer risk (OR comparing 1st tertile with 3rd 1.20 (95% CI 0.92; 1.56)), nor the first PCA-derived dietary pattern, explaining 2.7% of variation of diet and characterized by cheese, crisps and savoury snacks, legumes, nuts and seeds (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.91; 1.53)). The first RRR-derived pattern, a ‘high-alcohol’ pattern, was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.00; 1.62), which was most pronounced in post-menopausal women (OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.08; 1.98). Conclusions A ‘high-alcohol’ dietary pattern derived with RRR was associated with an increased breast cancer risk; no evidence of associations of other dietary patterns with breast cancer risk was observed in this study. PMID:25052230

  16. A case-control analysis of smoking and breast cancer in African American women: findings from the AMBER Consortium.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Bandera, Elisa V; Bethea, Traci N; Troester, Melissa A; Viscidi, Emma; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-06-01

    Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-)]. The study included 5791 African American women with breast cancer and 17376 African American controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study and risk factors. Results differed by menopausal status. Among postmenopausal women, positive associations were observed for long duration and greater pack-years of smoking: relative to never smoking, fully adjusted ORs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26) for duration ≥20 years and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01-1.33) for ≥20 pack-years. By contrast, inverse associations were observed among premenopausal women, with ORs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-95) for current smoking and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96) for former smoking, without trends by duration. Associations among postmenopausal women were somewhat stronger for ER+ breast cancer. The findings suggest that the relation of cigarette smoking to breast cancer risk in African American women may vary by menopausal status and breast cancer subtype. PMID:27207658

  17. Breast cancer screening using tomosynthesis in combination with digital mammography compared to digital mammography alone: a cohort study within the PROSPR consortium.

    PubMed

    Conant, Emily F; Beaber, Elisabeth F; Sprague, Brian L; Herschorn, Sally D; Weaver, Donald L; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; McCarthy, Anne Marie; Poplack, Steven P; Haas, Jennifer S; Armstrong, Katrina; Schnall, Mitchell D; Barlow, William E

    2016-02-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is emerging as the new standard of care for breast cancer screening based on improved cancer detection coupled with reductions in recall compared to screening with digital mammography (DM) alone. However, many prior studies lack follow-up data to assess false negatives examinations. The purpose of this study is to assess if DBT is associated with improved screening outcomes based on follow-up data from tumor registries or pathology. Retrospective analysis of prospective cohort data from three research centers performing DBT screening in the PROSPR consortium from 2011 to 2014 was performed. Recall and biopsy rates were assessed from 198,881 women age 40-74 years undergoing screening (142,883 DM and 55,998 DBT examinations). Cancer, cancer detection, and false negative rates and positive predictive values were assessed on examinations with one year of follow-up. Logistic regression was used to compare DBT to DM adjusting for research center, age, prior breast imaging, and breast density. There was a reduction in recall with DBT compared to DM (8.7 vs. 10.4 %, p < 0.0001), with adjusted OR = 0.68 (95 % CI = 0.65-0.71). DBT demonstrated a statistically significant increase in cancer detection over DM (5.9 vs. 4.4/1000 screened, adjusted OR = 1.45, 95 % CI = 1.12-1.88), an improvement in PPV1 (6.4 % for DBT vs. 4.1 % for DM, adjusted OR = 2.02, 95 % CI = 1.54-2.65), and no significant difference in false negative rates for DBT compared to DM (0.46 vs. 0.60/1000 screened, p = 0.347). Our data support implementation of DBT screening based on increased cancer detection, reduced recall, and no difference in false negative screening examinations. PMID:26931450

  18. Post-GWAS gene-environment interplay in breast cancer: results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium and a meta-analysis on 79,000 women.

    PubMed

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Joshi, Amit D; Travis, Ruth C; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Auer, Paul L; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia; Diver, W Ryan; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen J; Hoover, Robert N; Rudolph, Anja; Ziegler, Regina G; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Hankinson, Susan E; Lindström, Sara; Willet, Walter; Hunter, David J; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Zhang, Shumin; Dossus, Laure; Cox, David G; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lund, Eiliv; Naccarati, Alessio; Peeters, Petra H; Quirós, J Ramón; Riboli, Elio; Sund, Malin; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Prentice, Ross L; Kraft, Peter; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2014-10-01

    We studied the interplay between 39 breast cancer (BC) risk SNPs and established BC risk (body mass index, height, age at menarche, parity, age at menopause, smoking, alcohol and family history of BC) and prognostic factors (TNM stage, tumor grade, tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status and progesterone receptor status) as joint determinants of BC risk. We used a nested case-control design within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), with 16 285 BC cases and 19 376 controls. We performed stratified analyses for both the risk and prognostic factors, testing for heterogeneity for the risk factors, and case-case comparisons for differential associations of polymorphisms by subgroups of the prognostic factors. We analyzed multiplicative interactions between the SNPs and the risk factors. Finally, we also performed a meta-analysis of the interaction ORs from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. After correction for multiple testing, no significant interaction between the SNPs and the established risk factors in the BPC3 study was found. The meta-analysis showed a suggestive interaction between smoking status and SLC4A7-rs4973768 (Pinteraction = 8.84 × 10(-4)) which, although not significant after considering multiple comparison, has a plausible biological explanation. In conclusion, in this study of up to almost 79 000 women we can conclusively exclude any novel major interactions between genome-wide association studies hits and the epidemiologic risk factors taken into consideration, but we propose a suggestive interaction between smoking status and SLC4A7-rs4973768 that if further replicated could help our understanding in the etiology of BC. PMID:24895409

  19. Incidence and survival trends of lip, intra-oral cavity and tongue base cancers in south-east England

    PubMed Central

    Ekrikpo, U; Lyne, O; Wiseberg, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral cavity cancers are on the increase in the UK. Understanding site-specific epidemiological trends is important for cancer control measures. This study demonstrates the changing epidemiological trends in lip, intra-oral cavity and tongue base cancers in south-east England from 1987 to 2006. Aim: Methods This was a retrospective study using anonymised data obtained from the Thames Cancer Registry (TCR) London. Data were analysed using SPSS v.17 and survival analyses with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Age standardisation of the incidence rates was performed. It was conducted in south-east England, which has an average population of 12 million. The study analysed 9,318 cases (ICD-10 code C00–C06, C14). Kent Research Ethics Committee UK granted ethical approval. Results Oral cancers were more common in men, with male: female ratio of 1.6:1. Tongue cancers had the highest frequency at 3,088 (33.1%). Incidence varied with each cancer type. Mean incidence (per 1,000,000) ranged from 2.3 (lip cancer) to 13.8 (tongue cancer). There has been a statistically significant increase in incidence for cancers of the tongue base, other parts of tongue, gum and palate (p<0.001). Median survival time varied by sub-site, with lip cancer having the best median survival time (11.09 years) compared with tongue base cancer (2.42 years). Survival analyses showed worse prognosis for men, older age at diagnosis, and presence of synchronous tumours (p<0.001). Conclusion There is a rising incidence of tongue and tongue base, gum and palate cancers in south-east England with wide variability in survival. Oral cancer awareness and screening programmes should be encouraged. PMID:26263810

  20. Genome-wide association analyses in East Asians identify new susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Ben; Matsuo, Keitaro; Shin, Aesun; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Ren, Zefang; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Shi, Jiajun; Wen, Wanqing; Yang, Gong; Delahanty, Ryan J.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Gao, Yu-Tang; Oh, Jae Hwan; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Park, Eun Jung; Li, Hong-Lan; Park, Ji Won; Jo, Jaeseong; Jeong, Jin-Young; Hosono, Satoyo; Casey, Graham; Peters, Ulrike; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    To identify novel genetic factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), we conducted a genome-wide association study in East Asians. By analyzing genome-wide data in 2,098 cases and 5,749 controls, we selected 64 promising SNPs for replication in an independent set of samples including up to 5,358 cases and 5,922 controls. We identified four SNPs with a P-value of 8.58 × 10−7 to 3.77 × 10−10 in the combined analysis of all East Asian samples. Three of the four SNPs were replicated in a study conducted among 26,060 European descendants with a combined P-value of 1.22 × 10−10 for rs647161 (5q31.1), 6.64 × 10−9 for rs2423279 (20p12.3), and 3.06 × 10−8 for rs10774214 (12p13.32 near the CCND2 gene), respectively, derived from the meta-analysis of data from both East Asian and European populations. This study identified three new CRC susceptibility loci and provides additional insight into the genetics and biology of CRC. PMID:23263487

  1. Quantitative trait loci predicting circulating sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald L.; Ardanaz, Eva; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Diver, W. Ryan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loïc; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Stattin, Pär; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Kaaks, Rudolf; Hunter, David J.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies suggest a heritable component to circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, 874 SNPs in 37 candidate genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway were examined in relation to circulating levels of SHBG (N = 4720), testosterone (N = 4678), 3α-androstanediol-glucuronide (N = 4767) and 17β-estradiol (N = 2014) in Caucasian men. rs1799941 in SHBG is highly significantly associated with circulating levels of SHBG (P = 4.52 × 10−21), consistent with previous studies, and testosterone (P = 7.54 × 10−15), with mean difference of 26.9 and 14.3%, respectively, comparing wild-type to homozygous variant carriers. Further noteworthy novel findings were observed between SNPs in ESR1 with testosterone levels (rs722208, mean difference = 8.8%, P = 7.37 × 10−6) and SRD5A2 with 3α-androstanediol-glucuronide (rs2208532, mean difference = 11.8%, P = 1.82 × 10−6). Genetic variation in genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway is associated with differences in circulating SHBG and sex steroid hormones. PMID:19574343

  2. Genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes and breast cancer susceptibility: a pooled analysis of 42,510 cases and 40,577 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jieping; Rudolph, Anja; Moysich, Kirsten B; Behrens, Sabine; Goode, Ellen L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Wang, Qin; Benitez, Javier; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; González-Neira, Anna; Menéndez, Primitiva; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Van Dijck, Laurien; Smeets, Ann; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Eilber, Ursula; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Couch, Fergus J; Hallberg, Emily; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Winqvist, Robert; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Czene, Kamila; Brand, Judith S; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Pharoah, Paul D P; Shah, Mitul; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Ambrosone, Christine B; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression plays a pivotal role in assisting tumors to evade immune destruction and promoting tumor development. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes may be implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. We included 42,510 female breast cancer cases and 40,577 controls of European ancestry from 37 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (2015) with available genotype data for 3595 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 133 candidate genes. Associations between genotyped SNPs and overall breast cancer risk, and secondarily according to estrogen receptor (ER) status, were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Gene-level associations were assessed based on principal component analysis. Gene expression analyses were conducted using RNA sequencing level 3 data from The Cancer Genome Atlas for 989 breast tumor samples and 113 matched normal tissue samples. SNP rs1905339 (A>G) in the STAT3 region was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (per allele odds ratio 1.05, 95 % confidence interval 1.03-1.08; p value = 1.4 × 10(-6)). The association did not differ significantly by ER status. On the gene level, in addition to TGFBR2 and CCND1, IL5 and GM-CSF showed the strongest associations with overall breast cancer risk (p value = 1.0 × 10(-3) and 7.0 × 10(-3), respectively). Furthermore, STAT3 and IL5 but not GM-CSF were differentially expressed between breast tumor tissue and normal tissue (p value = 2.5 × 10(-3), 4.5 × 10(-4) and 0.63, respectively). Our data provide evidence that the immunosuppression pathway genes STAT3, IL5, and GM-CSF may be novel susceptibility loci for breast cancer in women of European ancestry. PMID:26621531

  3. Efficacy of pazopanib in progressive, radioiodine-refractory, metastatic differentiated thyroid cancers: results of a phase 2 consortium study

    PubMed Central

    Bible, Keith C; Suman, Vera J; Molina, Julian R; Smallridge, Robert C; Maples, William J; Menefee, Michael E; Rubin, Joseph; Sideras, Kostandinos; Morris, John C; McIver, Bryan; Burton, Jill K; Webster, Kevin P; Bieber, Carolyn; Traynor, Anne M; Flynn, Patrick J; Goh, Boon Cher; Tang, Hui; Ivy, Susan Percy; Erlichman, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Chemotherapy has historically proven ineffective in advanced differentiated thyroid cancers, but the realisation that various tyrosine kinases are activated in the disease suggested a potential therapeutic role for tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. We investigated the safety and efficacy of pazopanib. Methods This phase 2 trial was done from Feb 22, 2008, to Jan 31, 2009, in patients with metastatic, rapidly progressive, radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancers. Each patient received 800 mg continuous pazopanib daily in 4-week cycles until disease progression, drug intolerance, or both occurred. Up to two previous therapies were allowed, and measurable disease with radiographic progression in the 6-month period before enrolment was a requirement for inclusion. The primary endpoint was any tumour response, according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00625846. Findings 39 patients were enrolled. One patient had received no previous radioiodine therapy and another withdrew consent before treatment. Clinical outcomes could, therefore, be assessed in 37 patients (19 [51%] men, median age 63 years). The study is closed to accrual of new patients, but several enrolled patients are still being treated. Patients received a median of 12 cycles (range 1 to >23, total >383). Confirmed partial responses were recorded in 18 patients (response rate 49%, 95% CI 35–68), with likelihood of response lasting longer than 1 year calculated to be 66%. Maximum concentration of pazopanib in plasma during cycle one was significantly correlated with radiographic response (r=−0·40, p=0·021). 16 (43%) patients required dose reductions owing to adverse events, the most frequent of which (any grade) were fatigue (29 patients), skin and hair hypopigmentation (28), diarrhoea (27), and nausea (27). Two patients who died during treatment had pre-existing contributory disorders

  4. High Prevalence of the BIM Deletion Polymorphism in Young Female Breast Cancer in an East Asian Country

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Shen, Chen-Yang; Lee, Jih-Hsiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Hsin; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, Dwan-Ying; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wu; Chen, I-Chun; Wu, Pei-Fang; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Background A rapid surge of female breast cancer has been observed in young women in several East Asian countries. The BIM deletion polymorphism, which confers cell resistance to apoptosis, was recently found exclusively in East Asian people with prevalence rate of 12%. We aimed to evaluate the possible role of this genetic alteration in carcinogenesis of breast cancer in East Asians. Method Female healthy volunteers (n = 307), patients in one consecutive stage I-III breast cancer cohort (n = 692) and one metastatic breast cancer cohort (n = 189) were evaluated. BIM wild-type and deletion alleles were separately genotyped in genomic DNAs. Results Both cancer cohorts consistently showed inverse associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and patient age (≤35 y vs. 36-50 y vs. >50 y: 29% vs. 22% vs. 15%, P = 0.006 in the consecutive cohort, and 40% vs. 23% vs. 13%, P = 0.023 in the metastatic cohort). In healthy volunteers, the frequencies of the BIM deletion polymorphism were similar (13%-14%) in all age groups. Further analyses indicated that the BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with specific clinicopathologic features, but it was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71) in the consecutive cohort. Conclusions BIM deletion polymorphism may be involved in the tumorigenesis of the early-onset breast cancer among East Asians. PMID:25909194

  5. International Radical Cystectomy Consortium: A way forward

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Syed Johar; Field, Erinn; Kibel, Adam S.; Mottrie, Alex; Weizer, Alon Z.; Wagner, Andrew; Hemal, Ashok K.; Scherr, Douglas S.; Schanne, Francis; Gaboardi, Franco; Wu, Guan; Peabody, James O.; Koauk, Jihad; Redorta, Joan Palou; Pattaras, John G.; Rha, Koon-Ho; Richstone, Lee; Balbay, M. Derya; Menon, Mani; Hayn, Mathew; Stoeckle, Micheal; Wiklund, Peter; Dasgupta, Prokar; Pruthi, Raj; Ghavamian, Reza; Khan, Shamim; Siemer, Stephan; Maatman, Thomas; Wilson, Timothy; Poulakis, Vassilis; Wilding, Greg; Guru, Khurshid A.

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is an emerging operative alternative to open surgery for the management of invasive bladder cancer. Studies from single institutions provide limited data due to the small number of patients. In order to better understand the related outcomes, a world-wide consortium was established in 2006 of patients undergoing RARC, called the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium (IRCC). Thus far, the IRCC has reported its findings on various areas of operative interest and continues to expand its capacity to include other operative modalities and transform it into the International Radical Cystectomy Consortium. This article summarizes the findings of the IRCC and highlights the future direction of the consortium. PMID:25097319

  6. Saracatinib as a Metastasis Inhibitor in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A University of Chicago Phase 2 Consortium and DOD/PCF Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Posadas, Edwin M.; Ahmed, Rafi S.; Karrison, Theodore; Szmulewitz, Russell Z.; O’Donnell, Peter H.; Wade, James L.; Shen, James; Gururajan, Murali; Sievert, Margarit; Stadler, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fyn is a kinase that is upregulated in a subset of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Saracatinib potently inhibits Fyn activation. We have noted a relationship between Fyn expression and directional motility, a cellular process related to metastasis. As such we hypothesized that treatment with saracatinib would increase the time required to develop new metastatic lesions. METHODS Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that had progressed after docetaxel were eligible for enrollment. This study was executed as a randomized discontinuation trial. During a lead-in phase of two 28-Day cycles, all patients received saracatinib. Afterward, patients with radiographically stable disease were randomized to either saracatinib or placebo. Patients continued treatment until evidence of new metastasis. RESULTS Thirty-one patients were treated. Only 26% of patients had stable disease after 8 weeks and thus proceeded to randomization. This required early termination of the study for futility. The 70% of patients who progressed after the lead-in phase exhibited expansion of existing lesions or decompensation due to clinical progression without new metastatic lesions. Fatigue was reported in more than 25% of patients (all grades) with only two patients experiencing grade 3 toxicity. Other grade 3 adverse events included dehydration, thrombocytopenia, and weakness. CONCLUSIONS This study was unable to determine if saracatinib had potential as metastasis inhibitor. Metastasis inhibition by saracatinib may still be viable in an earlier time in the disease history. PMID:26493492

  7. The Present and Future Opportunities of the Rare Cancer Network: An International Consortium for Advancement of Oncologic Care

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To date, the Rare Cancer Network (RCN) has initiated more than 90 studies and 54 peer-reviewed publications were produced as a result. The Second International Symposium of the Rare Cancer Network recently took place in Istanbul, Turkey on April 17-18, 2015, and update was given on multiple currently ongoing projects, while also giving room for new proposals which will shape the direction of future studies for the group. This companion issue of the RCN Proceedings summarized the findings of this meeting, while also serving as a call for fresh projects and papers which will continue to energize the group and advance the oncologic science. A brief introduction to the principles, history, and vision of the RCN was also included. To review, the academic year of 2014-15 marked an enormous success for the international members of the RCN, with the generation of 8 fully published papers and more than 12 newly proposed topics. By the collective efforts of all RCN members, in the future, we look forward to the upcoming opportunities in continuing to advance the standard of chemo- and radiotherapeutic oncologic care for selected rare tumor topics. The studies of these rare cancers often do not allow the design and execution of prospectively enrolled trials; however, these uncommon malignancies do impact the humankind and add to its suffering globally in significant ways. PMID:26500735

  8. Phase II Trial of Gemcitabine and Tanespimycin (17AAG) in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: A Mayo Clinic Phase II Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Katrina S.; Kim, George P.; Foster, Nathan R.; Wang-Gillam, Andrea; Erlichman, Charles; McWilliams, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that stabilizes many oncogenic proteins. HSP90 inhibitors may sensitize tumors to cytotoxic agents by causing client protein degradation. Gemcitabine, which has modest activity in pancreas cancer, activates Chk1, a client protein of HSP90. This phase II trial was designed to determine whether 17AAG could enhance the clinical activity of gemcitabine through degradation of Chk1 in patients with stage IV pancreatic cancer. Methods A multicenter, prospective study combining gemcitabine and 17AAG enrolled patients with stage IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma, adequate liver and kidney function, ECOG performance status 0-2, and no prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. The primary goal was to achieve a 60% overall survival at six months. Sixty-six patients were planned for accrual, with an interim analysis after 25 patients enrolled. Results: After a futility analysis to achieve the endpoint, accrual was halted with 21 patients enrolled. No complete or partial responses were seen. 40% of patients were alive at 6 months. Median overall survival was 5.4 months. Tolerability was moderate, with 65% of patients having ≥ grade 3 adverse events (AE), and 15% having grade 4 events. Conclusions The lack of clinical activity suggests that targeting Chk1 by inhibiting HSP90 is not important in pancreatic cancer sensitivity to gemcitabine alone. Further studies of HSP90 targeted agents with gemcitabine alone are not warranted. PMID:25952464

  9. GROWTH PLATE ABNORMALITIES IN PEDIATRIC CANCER PATIENTS UNDERGOING PHASE 1 ANTI-ANGIOGENIC THERAPY: A REPORT FROM THE CHILDREN’S ONCOLOGY GROUP PHASE I CONSORTIUM

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Stephan D.; Glade-Bender, Julia; Spunt, Sheri L.; DuBois, Steven G.; Widemann, Brigitte C.; Park, Julie R.; Leary, Sarah E. S.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Adamson, Peter C.; Blaney, Susan M.; Weigel, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pre-clinical studies suggest that anti-angiogenic agents may be toxic to the developing growth plate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of growth plate abnormalities in children with refractory cancer undergoing anti-angiogenic therapy. Materials and methods Targeted radiographic studies from 53 subjects enrolled on six separate Children’s Oncology Group Phase 1 and Pilot Consortium clinical trials evaluating new anti-cancer agents agents interfering with angiogenesis were reviewed. Subjects received tyrosine kinase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic effects (n=35), monoclonal antibodies targeting VEGF (n=13), or angiopoietin (n=5). Radiographs of their distal femur/proximal tibia were obtained at baseline. Follow-up radiographs were obtained after odd-numbered treatment cycles in patients with open growth plates who did not experience disease progression prior to cycle 3. Results Baseline and follow-up growth plate radiographs were acquired in 48/53 (90%) of patients. Five patients (9.4%), all of whom received a specific VEGF/VEGFR blocking agent [sunitinib (n=1) or pazopanib (n=4)], had growth plate abnormalities. Four patients had growth plate widening that was apparent on at least two successive radiographs, but was not confirmed by MRI. The fifth patient had progressive growth plate widening and evidence of physeal cartilage hypertrophy on MRI. Subsequent off treatment radiographs showed that the growth plate changes were reversible. Conclusion Growth plate abnormalities occur in a small, but relevant number of patients undergoing anti-angiogenic therapy. These results support the need for growth plate monitoring in children with open growth plates who are receiving anti-angiogenic therapy, and for improved methods to assess toxicity of anti-angiogenic agents to the developing skeleton. PMID:25257751

  10. Risk factors for head and neck cancer in young adults: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Znaor, Ariana; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Vilensky, Marta; Vaughan, Thomas; Thomson, Peter; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Ramroth, Heribert; Purdue, Mark P; Olshan, Andrew F; Eluf-Neto, José; Muscat, Joshua; Moyses, Raquel Ajub; Morgenstern, Hal; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mates, Dana; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; Vecchia, Carlo La; Lagiou, Pagona; Koifman, Sergio; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kelsey, Karl; Holcatova, Ivana; Herrero, Rolando; Healy, Claire; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; Maso, Luigino Dal; Curado, Maria Paula; Conway, David I; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; Canova, Cristina; Cadoni, Gabriella; Brennan, Paul; Boccia, Stefania; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Agudo, Antonio; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Filho, Victor Wünsch

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) in young adults has been reported. We aimed to compare the role of major risk factors and family history of cancer in HNC in young adults and older patients. Methods: We pooled data from 25 case-control studies and conducted separate analyses for adults ≤45 years old (‘young adults’, 2010 cases and 4042 controls) and >45 years old (‘older adults’, 17 700 cases and 22 704 controls). Using logistic regression with studies treated as random effects, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The young group of cases had a higher proportion of oral tongue cancer (16.0% in women; 11.0% in men) and unspecified oral cavity / oropharynx cancer (16.2%; 11.1%) and a lower proportion of larynx cancer (12.1%; 16.6%) than older adult cases. The proportions of never smokers or never drinkers among female cases were higher than among male cases in both age groups. Positive associations with HNC and duration or pack-years of smoking and drinking were similar across age groups. However, the attributable fractions (AFs) for smoking and drinking were lower in young when compared with older adults (AFs for smoking in young women, older women, young men and older men, respectively, = 19.9% (95% CI = 9.8%, 27.9%), 48.9% (46.6%, 50.8%), 46.2% (38.5%, 52.5%), 64.3% (62.2%, 66.4%); AFs for drinking = 5.3% (−11.2%, 18.0%), 20.0% (14.5%, 25.0%), 21.5% (5.0%, 34.9%) and 50.4% (46.1%, 54.3%). A family history of early-onset cancer was associated with HNC risk in the young [OR = 2.27 (95% CI = 1.26, 4.10)], but not in the older adults [OR = 1.10 (0.91, 1.31)]. The attributable fraction for family history of early-onset cancer was 23.2% (8.60% to 31.4%) in young compared with 2.20% (−2.41%, 5.80%) in older adults. Conclusions: Differences in HNC aetiology according to age group may exist. The lower AF of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in young

  11. Serum Cadmium Levels in Pancreatic Cancer Patients from the East Nile Delta Region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Alison M.; Soliman, Amr S.; Zhang, Qing; El-Ghawalby, Nabih; Ezzat, Farouk; Soultan, Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Fathy, Omar; Ebidi, Gamal; Bassiouni, Nadia; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Blake, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    The northeast Nile Delta region exhibits a high incidence of early-onset pancreatic cancer. It is well documented that this region has one of the highest levels of pollution in Egypt. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that cadmium, a prevalent pollutant in the northeast Nile Delta region, plays a role in the development of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We aimed to assess serum cadmium levels as markers of exposure in pancreatic cancer patients and noncancer comparison subjects from the same region in Egypt. Design and Participants: We assessed serum cadmium levels of 31 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 52 hospital comparison subjects from Mansoura, Egypt. Evaluation/Measurements: Serum cadmium levels were measured using a novel immunoassay procedure. Results: We found a significant difference between the mean serum cadmium levels in patients versus comparison subjects (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 7.7 ng/mL vs. 7.1 ± 5.0 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.012) but not in age, sex, residence, occupation, or smoking status. The odds ratio (OR) for pancreatic cancer risk was significant for serum cadmium level [OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.23; p = 0.0089] and farming (OR = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.03–11.64; p = 0.0475) but not for age, sex, residence, or smoking status. Conclusions: The results from this pilot study suggest that pancreatic cancer in the East Nile Delta region is significantly associated with high levels of serum cadmium and farming. Relevance to Clinical Practice/Public Health: Future studies should further investigate the etiologic relationship between cadmium exposure and pancreatic carcinogenesis in cadmium-exposed populations. PMID:16393667

  12. Targeting tumour hypoxia to prevent cancer metastasis. From biology, biosensing and technology to drug development: the METOXIA consortium.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Erik O; Ebbesen, Peter; Gieling, Roben G; Williams, Kaye J; Dubois, Ludwig; Lambin, Philippe; Ward, Carol; Meehan, James; Kunkler, Ian H; Langdon, Simon P; Ree, Anne H; Flatmark, Kjersti; Lyng, Heidi; Calzada, Maria J; Peso, Luis Del; Landazuri, Manuel O; Görlach, Agnes; Flamm, Hubert; Kieninger, Jochen; Urban, Gerald; Weltin, Andreas; Singleton, Dean C; Haider, Syed; Buffa, Francesca M; Harris, Adrian L; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Moser, Isabella; Jobst, Gerhard; Busk, Morten; Toustrup, Kasper; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan; Pouyssegur, Jacques; Chiche, Johanna; Mazure, Nathalie; Marchiq, Ibtissam; Parks, Scott; Ahmed, Afshan; Ashcroft, Margaret; Pastorekova, Silvia; Cao, Yihai; Rouschop, Kasper M; Wouters, Brad G; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Mujcic, Hilda; Cojocari, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The hypoxic areas of solid cancers represent a negative prognostic factor irrespective of which treatment modality is chosen for the patient. Still, after almost 80 years of focus on the problems created by hypoxia in solid tumours, we still largely lack methods to deal efficiently with these treatment-resistant cells. The consequences of this lack may be serious for many patients: Not only is there a negative correlation between the hypoxic fraction in tumours and the outcome of radiotherapy as well as many types of chemotherapy, a correlation has been shown between the hypoxic fraction in tumours and cancer metastasis. Thus, on a fundamental basis the great variety of problems related to hypoxia in cancer treatment has to do with the broad range of functions oxygen (and lack of oxygen) have in cells and tissues. Therefore, activation-deactivation of oxygen-regulated cascades related to metabolism or external signalling are important areas for the identification of mechanisms as potential targets for hypoxia-specific treatment. Also the chemistry related to reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) and the biological handling of ROS are part of the problem complex. The problem is further complicated by the great variety in oxygen concentrations found in tissues. For tumour hypoxia to be used as a marker for individualisation of treatment there is a need for non-invasive methods to measure oxygen routinely in patient tumours. A large-scale collaborative EU-financed project 2009-2014 denoted METOXIA has studied all the mentioned aspects of hypoxia with the aim of selecting potential targets for new hypoxia-specific therapy and develop the first stage of tests for this therapy. A new non-invasive PET-imaging method based on the 2-nitroimidazole [(18)F]-HX4 was found to be promising in a clinical trial on NSCLC patients. New preclinical models for testing of the metastatic potential of cells were developed, both in vitro (2D as well as 3D models) and in mice (orthotopic grafting

  13. Serum Helicobacter pylori CagA antibody as a biomarker for gastric cancer in east-Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Matsunari, Osamu; Watada, Masahide; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Aims In east-Asian countries, while almost all Helicobacter pylori strains possess the cytotokine-associated gene A (CagA) gene, serum CagA antibody is not detected in some infected subjects. We aimed to clarify the association between anti-CagA antibody and gastric cancer in east-Asian countries. Materials & methods We performed a meta-analysis of case–control studies with age- and sex-matched controls, which provided raw data in east-Asian countries. Results Ten studies with a total of 4325 patients were identified in the search. Some reports from Japan, Korea and China showed a positive association between the presence of anti-CagA antibody and gastric cancer; however, the results differed in their various backgrounds. The disparate findings appeared to result from the use of different methods or from variations in the antigens used to detect the anti-CagA antibody. CagA seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. Conclusion Anti-CagA antibody can be used as a biomarker for gastric cancer even in east-Asian countries. PMID:21155667

  14. Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Humphreys, Manjeet; Platte, Radka; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Hammet, Fleur; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Van't Veer, Laura J; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Strick, Reiner; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Bojesen, Stig; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benítez, Javier; Milne, Roger L; Ignacio Arias, Jose; Zamora, M Pilar; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuri I; Karstens, Johann Hinrich; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Gantcev, Shamil Hanafievich; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betül T; Chrisiaens, Marie-Rose; Peeters, Stephanie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus; Lee, Adam M; Diasio, Robert; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Maclean, Catriona; Offit, Ken; Robson, Mark; Joseph, Vijai; Gaudet, Mia; John, Esther M; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene; Knight, Julia A; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P; Brinton, Louise A; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W M; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Collée, J Margriet; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm W R; Cross, Simon S; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Ding, Shian-ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen; Newcomb, Polly; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Easton, Doug; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2011-12-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r(2)= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10-1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98-1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10(-5)]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10(-3)) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:21852249

  15. Vitamin-D associated genetic variation and risk of breast cancer in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    PubMed Central

    Mondul, Alison M.; Shui, Irene M.; Yu, Kai; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Joshi, Amit D.; Agudo, Antonio; Berg, Christine D.; Black, Amanda; Buring, Julie E.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Haiman, Christopher; Hankinson, Susan E.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Kvaskoff, Marina; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H.; Riboli, Elio; Ridker, Paul M; Stram, Daniel O.; Sund, Malin; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Willett, Walter; Kraft, Peter; Ziegler, Regina G.; Albanes, Demetrius

    2015-01-01

    Background Two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified SNPs related to circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration in or near four genes. To examine the hypothesized inverse relationship between vitamin D status and breast cancer, we studied the associations between SNPs in these genes and breast cancer risk in a large pooled study of 9,456 cases and 10,816 controls from six cohorts. Methods SNP markers localized to each of four genes (GC, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, and DHCR7) previously associated with 25(OH)D were genotyped and examined both individually and as a 4-SNP polygenic score. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the genetic variants and risk of breast cancer. Results We found no association between any of the four SNPs or their polygenic score and breast cancer risk. Conclusions Our findings do not support an association between vitamin D status, as reflected by 25(OH)D-related genotypes, and breast cancer risk. Impact These findings may contribute to future meta-analyses and scientific review articles, and provide new data about the association between vitamin D-related genes and breast cancer. PMID:25542828

  16. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  17. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  18. COFFEE AND TEA INTAKE AND RISK OF HEAD AND NECK CANCER: POOLED ANALYSIS IN THE INTERNATIONAL HEAD AND NECK CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    PubMed Central

    Galeone, Carlotta; Tavani, Alessandra; Pelucchi, Claudio; Turati, Federica; Winn, Deborah M.; Levi, Fabio; Yu, Guo-Pei; Morgenstern, Hal; Kelsey, Karl; Maso, Luigino Dal; Purdue, Mark P.; McClean, Michael; Talamini, Renato; Hayes, Richard B.; Franceschi, Silvia; Schantz, Stimson; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Ferro, Gilles; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Hashibe, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Background Only a few studies have explored the relation between coffee and tea intake and head and neck (HN) cancers, with inconsistent results. Methods We pooled individual-level data from nine case-control studies of HN cancers, including 5139 cases and 9028 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for potential confounders. Results Caffeinated coffee intake was inversely related with the risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (OP): the ORs were 0.96 (95% CI 0.94–0.98) for an increment of one cup per day and 0.61 (95% CI 0.47–0.80) in drinkers of >4 cups per day vs. non-drinkers. This latter estimate was consistent for different anatomical sites (ORs were 0.46, 95%CI 0.30–0.71 for oral cavity, 0.58, 95% CI 0.41–0.82 for oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal and 0.61, 95% CI 0.37–1.01 for OP not otherwise specified), and across strata of selected covariates. No association of caffeinated coffee drinking was found with laryngeal cancer (OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.64–1.45 in drinkers of >4 cups per day vs. non-drinkers). Data on decaffeinated coffee were too sparse for detailed analysis, but indicated no increased risk. Tea intake was not associated with HN cancer risk (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.89–1.11 for drinkers vs. non-drinkers). Conclusions This pooled-analysis of case-control studies support the hypothesis of an inverse association between caffeinated coffee drinking and OP cancer risk. Impact Given widespread use of coffee and the relatively high incidence and low survival of HN cancers, the observed inverse association may have appreciable public health relevance. PMID:20570908

  19. A large-scale assessment of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility using 46,450 cases and 42,461 controls from the breast cancer association consortium.

    PubMed

    Milne, Roger L; Herranz, Jesús; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Zamora, M Pilar; Arias-Perez, José Ignacio; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke, Christina A; Hopper, John L; Dite, Gillian S; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Collée, J Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm W R; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Fasching, Peter A; Häberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Mariani, Paolo; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federik; Burwinkel, Barbara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Rutgers, Emiel J; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Couch, Fergus J; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Benítez, Javier; Malats, Núria; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-04-01

    Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70,917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46,450 breast cancer cases and 42,461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P < 0.01) of a per-allele main effect, and all two-way combinations of those were evaluated by a per-allele (1 d.f.) test for interaction using logistic regression. Second, all 2.5 billion possible two-SNP combinations were evaluated using Boolean operation-based screening and testing, and SNP pairs with the strongest evidence of interaction (P < 10(-4)) were selected for more careful assessment by logistic regression. Under the first approach, 3277 SNPs were preselected, but an evaluation of all possible two-SNP combinations (1 d.f.) identified no interactions at P < 10(-8). Results from the second analytic approach were consistent with those from the first (P > 10(-10)). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome. PMID:24242184

  20. A large-scale assessment of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility using 46 450 cases and 42 461 controls from the breast cancer association consortium

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Roger L.; Herranz, Jesús; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias-Perez, José Ignacio; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke, Christina A.; Hopper, John L.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Collée, J. Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Fasching, Peter A.; Häberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Mariani, Paolo; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federik; Burwinkel, Barbara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Benítez, Javier; Malats, Núria; Easton, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70 917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P < 0.01) of a per-allele main effect, and all two-way combinations of those were evaluated by a per-allele (1 d.f.) test for interaction using logistic regression. Second, all 2.5 billion possible two-SNP combinations were evaluated using Boolean operation-based screening and testing, and SNP pairs with the strongest evidence of interaction (P < 10−4) were selected for more careful assessment by logistic regression. Under the first approach, 3277 SNPs were preselected, but an evaluation of all possible two-SNP combinations (1 d.f.) identified no interactions at P < 10−8. Results from the second analytic approach were consistent with those from the first (P > 10−10). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome. PMID:24242184

  1. Performance of automated scoring of ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR in breast cancer tissue microarrays in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Howat, William J; Blows, Fiona M; Provenzano, Elena; Brook, Mark N; Morris, Lorna; Gazinska, Patrycja; Johnson, Nicola; McDuffus, Leigh‐Anne; Miller, Jodi; Sawyer, Elinor J; Pinder, Sarah; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Jones, Louise; Sironen, Reijo; Visscher, Daniel; Caldas, Carlos; Daley, Frances; Coulson, Penny; Broeks, Annegien; Sanders, Joyce; Wesseling, Jelle; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Blomqvist, Carl; Heikkilä, Päivi; Ali, H Raza; Dawson, Sarah‐Jane; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli‐Matti; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Devillee, Peter; Mesker, Wilma E; Seyaneve, Caroline M; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Benitez, Javier; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Bolla, Manjeet K; Easton, Douglas F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Pharoah, Paul D; Sherman, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer risk factors and clinical outcomes vary by tumour marker expression. However, individual studies often lack the power required to assess these relationships, and large‐scale analyses are limited by the need for high throughput, standardized scoring methods. To address these limitations, we assessed whether automated image analysis of immunohistochemically stained tissue microarrays can permit rapid, standardized scoring of tumour markers from multiple studies. Tissue microarray sections prepared in nine studies containing 20 263 cores from 8267 breast cancers stained for two nuclear (oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor), two membranous (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor) and one cytoplasmic (cytokeratin 5/6) marker were scanned as digital images. Automated algorithms were used to score markers in tumour cells using the Ariol system. We compared automated scores against visual reads, and their associations with breast cancer survival. Approximately 65–70% of tissue microarray cores were satisfactory for scoring. Among satisfactory cores, agreement between dichotomous automated and visual scores was highest for oestrogen receptor (Kappa = 0.76), followed by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Kappa = 0.69) and progesterone receptor (Kappa = 0.67). Automated quantitative scores for these markers were associated with hazard ratios for breast cancer mortality in a dose‐response manner. Considering visual scores of epidermal growth factor receptor or cytokeratin 5/6 as the reference, automated scoring achieved excellent negative predictive value (96–98%), but yielded many false positives (positive predictive value = 30–32%). For all markers, we observed substantial heterogeneity in automated scoring performance across tissue microarrays. Automated analysis is a potentially useful tool for large‐scale, quantitative scoring of immunohistochemically stained tissue

  2. Oesophageal cancer treatment in North East Thames region, 1981: medical audit using Hospital Activity Analysis data.

    PubMed Central

    Earlam, R

    1984-01-01

    Figures from the Hospital Activity Analysis in the North East Thames region in 1981 were used to perform a medical audit on oesophageal cancer treatment. Four hundred and forty four patients were admitted with this diagnosis; 80 had been intubated without a thoracotomy or laparotomy, and 73 had had surgery (two thirds radical and one third palliative) with an overall operative mortality of 33%. Fifty five patients had had radiotherapy and 179 patients had no recorded operation or investigation. One hundred and seventy seven different consultants had looked after all these inpatients, most being general surgeons. Only five consultants had looked after 10 or more patients each year. From a calculated estimate of a total 286 patients in the region, 28% had palliative intubation and 25% had surgery; 20% of all the patients had radiotherapy either as a radical or palliative treatment, the remainder having no recorded therapeutic procedure. One hundred and eighty seven patients (66% of the calculated total) died in hospital. Investigation and treatment do not seem to be limited by lack of money, but money is being wasted by admitting patients for terminal care into acute hospital beds. It would be more humane for these patients to die at home or in a hospice if they wished. PMID:6203599

  3. Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435

  4. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  5. Real-Life Use and Effectiveness of Adjuvant Trastuzumab in Early Breast Cancer Patients: A Study of the Southeast Netherlands Breast Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Seferina, Shanly C.; Lobbezoo, Dorien J.A.; de Boer, Maaike; Dercksen, M. Wouter; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; van Kampen, Roel J.W.; van de Wouw, Agnès J.; de Vries, Bart; Joore, Manuela A.; Peer, Petronella G.M.; Voogd, Adri C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The impact of drug prescriptions in real life as opposed to strict clinical trial prescription is only rarely assessed, although it is well recognized that incorrect use may harm patients and may have a significant impact on health care resources. We investigated the use and effectiveness of adjuvant trastuzumab in daily practice compared with the effectiveness in clinical trials. Methods. We included all patients with stage I–III invasive breast cancer, irrespective of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, diagnosed in five hospitals in the southeast of The Netherlands in 2005–2007. We aimed to assess the actual use of adjuvant trastuzumab in early HER2-positive breast and its efficacy in daily practice. Results. Of 2,684 patients included, 476 (17.7%) had a HER2-positive tumor. Of these, 251 (52.7%) patients had an indication for trastuzumab treatment of which 196 (78.1%) patients actually received it. Of the 225 patients without an indication, 34 (15.1%) received trastuzumab. Five-year disease-free survival was 80.7% for (n = 230) patients treated with versus 68.2% for (n = 246) patients not treated with trastuzumab (p = .0023), and 5-year overall survival rates were 90.7% and 77.4%, respectively (p = .0002). The hazard ratio for disease recurrence was 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.37–1.06) for trastuzumab when adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion. This study shows that in real life, patients treated with trastuzumab in early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer had a 5-year disease-free and overall survival comparable to prior randomized trials. For informative decision making, real-life data are of additional value, providing insight on outcome of patients considered ineligible for treatment. PMID:26099745

  6. The Idaho Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaird, James H.

    The Idaho Consortium was established by the state board of education to remedy perceived needs involving insufficient certificated teachers, excessive teacher mobility, shortage of teacher candidates, inadequate inservice training, a low level of administrative leadership, and a lack of programs in special education, early childhood education,…

  7. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, A; Milne, R L; Pita, G; Peterlongo, P; Heikkinen, T; Simard, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; Spurdle, A B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Healey, S; Neuhausen, S L; Ding, Y C; Couch, F J; Wang, X; Lindor, N; Manoukian, S; Barile, M; Viel, A; Tizzoni, L; Szabo, C I; Foretova, L; Zikan, M; Claes, K; Greene, M H; Mai, P; Rennert, G; Lejbkowicz, F; Barnett-Griness, O; Andrulis, I L; Ozcelik, H; Weerasooriya, N; Gerdes, A-M; Thomassen, M; Cruger, D G; Caligo, M A; Friedman, E; Kaufman, B; Laitman, Y; Cohen, S; Kontorovich, T; Gershoni-Baruch, R; Dagan, E; Jernström, H; Askmalm, M S; Arver, B; Malmer, B; Domchek, S M; Nathanson, K L; Brunet, J; Ramón y Cajal, T; Yannoukakos, D; Hamann, U; Hogervorst, F B L; Verhoef, S; García, EB Gómez; Wijnen, J T; van den Ouweland, A; Easton, D F; Peock, S; Cook, M; Oliver, C T; Frost, D; Luccarini, C; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Pichert, G; Cook, J; Hodgson, S; Morrison, P J; Douglas, F; Godwin, A K; Sinilnikova, O M; Barjhoux, L; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Moncoutier, V; Giraud, S; Cassini, C; Olivier-Faivre, L; Révillion, F; Peyrat, J-P; Muller, D; Fricker, J-P; Lynch, H T; John, E M; Buys, S; Daly, M; Hopper, J L; Terry, M B; Miron, A; Yassin, Y; Goldgar, D; Singer, C F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D; Pfeiler, G; Spiess, A-C; Hansen, Thomas v O; Johannsson, O T; Kirchhoff, T; Offit, K; Kosarin, K; Piedmonte, M; Rodriguez, G C; Wakeley, K; Boggess, J F; Basil, J; Schwartz, P E; Blank, S V; Toland, A E; Montagna, M; Casella, C; Imyanitov, E N; Allavena, A; Schmutzler, R K; Versmold, B; Engel, C; Meindl, A; Ditsch, N; Arnold, N; Niederacher, D; Deißler, H; Fiebig, B; Varon-Mateeva, R; Schaefer, D; Froster, U G; Caldes, T; de la Hoya, M; McGuffog, L; Antoniou, A C; Nevanlinna, H; Radice, P; Benítez, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods: We have genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. Results: We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93–1.04, P=0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.06, P=0.5) mutation carriers. Conclusion: This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out. PMID:19920816

  8. Investigation of mortality from cancer and other causes of death among workers employed at an east Texas chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.H.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Halperin, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    A historical prospective mortality study of chemical workers was conducted. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a suspected increase in deaths due to brain cancer and multiple myeloma. The cohort consisted of 2510 males who worked for at least 1 day at a chemical factory in East Texas between January 1, 1952 and December 31, 1977. The facility's major product was tetraethyllead. The cohort was traced through company, union, Social Security Administration, Internal Revenue Service, and state records. Death certificates were obtained from state vital statistics offices. The observed mortality was compared with predicted rates for all United States males. The authors conclude that no statistically significant increase in site specific mortality from cancer occurred. The small excess observed for brain and other cancers may have been due to chance associations.

  9. Advanced Separation Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was formed in 2001 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to conduct fundamental research in advanced separation and to develop technologies that can be used to produce coal and minerals in an efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The CAST consortium consists of seven universities - Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, Montana Tech, University of Utah, University of Nevada-Reno, and New Mexico Tech. The consortium brings together a broad range of expertise to solve problems facing the US coal industry and the mining sector in general. At present, a total of 60 research projects are under way. The article outlines some of these, on topics including innovative dewatering technologies, removal of mercury and other impurities, and modelling of the flotation process. 1 photo.

  10. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenbacher, Don

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  11. Assessing risk of breast cancer in an ethnically South-East Asia population (results of a multiple ethnic groups study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gail and others developed a model (GAIL) using age-at-menarche, age-at-birth of first live child, number of previous benign breast biopsy examinations, and number of first-degree-relatives with breast cancer as well as baseline age-specific breast cancer risks for predicting the 5-year risk of invasive breast cancer for Caucasian women. However, the validity of the model for projecting risk in South-East Asian women is uncertain. We evaluated GAIL and attempted to improve its performance for Singapore women of Chinese, Malay and Indian origins. Methods Data from the Singapore Breast Screening Programme (SBSP) are used. Motivated by lower breast cancer incidence in many Asian countries, we utilised race-specific invasive breast cancer and other cause mortality rates for Singapore women to produce GAIL-SBSP. By using risk factor information from a nested case-control study within SBSP, alternative models incorporating fewer then additional risk factors were determined. Their accuracy was assessed by comparing the expected cases (E) with the observed (O) by the ratio (E/O) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and the respective concordance statistics estimated. Results From 28,883 women, GAIL-SBSP predicted 241.83 cases during the 5-year follow-up while 241 were reported (E/O=1.00, CI=0.88 to 1.14). Except for women who had two or more first-degree-relatives with breast cancer, satisfactory prediction was present in almost all risk categories. This agreement was reflected in Chinese and Malay, but not in Indian women. We also found that a simplified model (S-GAIL-SBSP) including only age-at-menarche, age-at-birth of first live child and number of first-degree-relatives performed similarly with associated concordance statistics of 0.5997. Taking account of body mass index and parity did not improve the calibration of S-GAIL-SBSP. Conclusions GAIL can be refined by using national race-specific invasive breast cancer rates and mortality rates for causes other than

  12. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLGOY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-23

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for

  13. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for

  14. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Liedl, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Midwest Superconductivity Consortium's, MISCON, mission is to advance the science and understanding of high {Tc} superconductivity. Programmatic research focuses upon key materials-related problems: synthesis and processing; and limiting features in transport phenomena. During the past twenty-one projects produced over eighty-seven talks and seventy-two publications. Key achievements this past year expand our understanding of processing phenomena relating to crystallization and texture, metal superconductor composites, and modulated microstructures. Further noteworthy accomplishments include calculations on 2-D superconductor insulator transition, prediction of flux line lattice melting, and an expansion of our understanding and use of microwave phenomena as related to superconductors.

  15. Genomic standards consortium projects.

    PubMed

    Field, Dawn; Sterk, Peter; Kottmann, Renzo; De Smet, J Wim; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy; Cole, James R; Davies, Neil; Dawyndt, Peter; Garrity, George M; Gilbert, Jack A; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirschman, Lynette; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Knight, Rob; Kyrpides, Nikos; Meyer, Folker; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Morrison, Norman; Robbins, Robert; San Gil, Inigo; Sansone, Susanna; Schriml, Lynn; Tatusova, Tatiana; Ussery, Dave; Yilmaz, Pelin; White, Owen; Wooley, John; Caporaso, Gregory

    2014-06-15

    The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) is an open-membership community that was founded in 2005 to work towards the development, implementation and harmonization of standards in the field of genomics. Starting with the defined task of establishing a minimal set of descriptions the GSC has evolved into an active standards-setting body that currently has 18 ongoing projects, with additional projects regularly proposed from within and outside the GSC. Here we describe our recently enacted policy for proposing new activities that are intended to be taken on by the GSC, along with the template for proposing such new activities. PMID:25197446

  16. Portrait of a Consortium: ANKOS (Anatolian University Libraries Consortium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Phyllis; Karasozen, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    The Anatolian University Libraries Consortium (ANKOS) was created in 2001 with only a few members subscribed to nine e-journal collections and bibliographic databases. This Turkish library consortium had developed from one state and three private universities joining together for the purchase of two databases in 1999. Over time, the numbers of…

  17. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing

  18. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with

  19. Hawaii Space Grant Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Luke P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium is composed of ten institutions of higher learning including the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, the University of Guam, and seven Community Colleges spread over the 4 main Hawaiian islands. Geographic separation is not the only obstacle that we face as a Consortium. Hawai'i has been mired in an economic downturn due to a lack of tourism for almost all of the period (2001 - 2004) covered by this report, although hotel occupancy rates and real estate sales have sky-rocketed in the last year. Our challenges have been many including providing quality educational opportunities in the face of shrinking State and Federal budgets, encouraging science and technology course instruction at the K-12 level in a public school system that is becoming less focused on high technology and more focused on developing basic reading and math skills, and assembling community college programs with instructors who are expected to teach more classes for the same salary. Motivated people can overcome these problems. Fortunately, the Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium (HSGC) consists of a group of highly motivated and talented individuals who have not only overcome these obstacles, but have excelled with the Program. We fill a critical need within the State of Hawai'i to provide our children with opportunities to pursue their dreams of becoming the next generation of NASA astronauts, engineers, and explorers. Our strength lies not only in our diligent and creative HSGC advisory board, but also with Hawai'i's teachers, students, parents, and industry executives who are willing to invest their time, effort, and resources into Hawai'i's future. Our operational philosophy is to FACE the Future, meaning that we will facilitate, administer, catalyze, and educate in order to achieve our objective of creating a highly technically capable workforce both here in Hawai'i and for NASA. In addition to administering to programs and

  20. The Genomic Standards Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy; Cole, James R.; Dawyndt, Peter; Garrity, George M.; Gilbert, Jack; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirschman, Lynette; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Knight, Rob; Kottmann, Renzo; Kyrpides, Nikos; Meyer, Folker; San Gil, Inigo; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Schriml, Lynn M.; Sterk, Peter; Tatusova, Tatiana; Ussery, David W.; White, Owen; Wooley, John

    2011-01-01

    A vast and rich body of information has grown up as a result of the world's enthusiasm for 'omics technologies. Finding ways to describe and make available this information that maximise its usefulness has become a major effort across the 'omics world. At the heart of this effort is the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality and quantity of contextual information about our public collections of genomes, metagenomes, and marker gene sequences. PMID:21713030

  1. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  2. Intercountry prevalences and practices of betel-quid use in south, southeast and eastern Asia regions and associated oral preneoplastic disorders: an international collaborative study by Asian betel-quid consortium of south and east Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Yin, Bang-Liang; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Liu, Zhi-Wen; Li, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2011-10-01

    Health risks stemming from betel-quid (BQ) chewing are frequently overlooked by people. Updated epidemiological data on the increased BQ use among Asian populations using comparable data collection methods have not been widely available. To investigate the prevalence, patterns of practice and associated types of oral preneoplastic disorders, an intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (the ABC study) was conducted for Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. A random sample of 8,922 subjects was recruited, and the data were analyzed using survey-data modules adjusted for the complex survey design. Chewing rates among men (10.7-43.6%) were significantly higher than women (1.8-34.9%) in Taiwan, Mainland China, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while women's rates (29.5-46.8%) were higher than that for men (9.8-12.0%) in Malaysia and Indonesia. An emerging, higher proportion of new-users were identified for Hunan in Mainland China (11.1-24.7%), where Hunan chewers have the unique practice of using the dried husk of areca fruit rather than the solid nut universally used by others. Men in the Eastern and South Asian study communities were deemed likely to combine chewing with smoking and drinking (5.6-13.6%). Indonesian women who chewed BQ exhibited the highest prevalence of oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral leukoplakia (9.1-17.3%). Lower schooling, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were identified as being associated with BQ chewing. In conclusion, the ABC study reveals the significant cultural and demographic differences contributing to practice patterns of BQ usage and the great health risks that such practices pose in the Asian region. PMID:21128235

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  4. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  5. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-07-06

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer

  6. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  7. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  8. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  9. Burkitt lymphoma research in East Africa: highlights from the 9th African organization for research and training in cancer conference held in Durban, South Africa in 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A one-day workshop on Burkitt lymphoma (BL) was held at the 9th African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) conference in 2013 in Durban, South Africa. The workshop featured 15 plenary talks by delegates representing 13 institutions that either fund or implement research on BL targeting AORTIC delegates primarily interested in pediatric oncology. The main outcomes of the meeting were improved sharing of knowledge and experience about ongoing epidemiologic BL research, BL treatment in different settings, the role of cancer registries in cancer research, and opportunities for African scientists to publish in scientific journals. The idea of forming a consortium of BL to improve coordination, information sharing, accelerate discovery, dissemination, and translation of knowledge and to build capacity, while reducing redundant efforts was discussed. Here, we summarize the presentations and discussions from the workshop. PMID:25686906

  10. Reasons for Participation in Optional Pharmacokinetic Studies in Children with Cancer: A Children’s Oncology Group Phase 1 Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Stacey L.; Winick, Naomi; Ingle, Ashish Mark; Adamson, Peter C.; Blaney, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies provide critical information about the disposition of anticancer drugs in children. In the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Phase 1 Consortium, pharmacokinetic studies are usually optional. We surveyed the attitudes towards PK studies among subjects in phase 1 trials at COG institutions. Methods Subjects were eligible if they participated in a phase 1 anticancer drug study with optional PK studies within the 4 weeks, regardless of whether they agreed to participate in the PK studies. Staff provided demographics; subjects/parents completed a questionnaire. Results Fifty eligible subjects enrolled. Thirty-six (72%) of the 50 eligible subjects consented to participate in PK studies; 14 (25%) declined. The most common reasons for participating were “the results might help researchers learn more about the drug” and “results from the pharmacokinetic studies might help other children.” The most common reasons for not participating were “having the samples drawn would mean spending extra time in the hospital,” and “my child might have needed a separate IV catheter in order to participate.” Conclusions The majority of subjects identified altruistic motives for participation in PK studies. Subjects who did not participate in PK studies identified extra time and need for an extra IV as important concerns. Simple interventions like sending staff to the subjects’ home to draw PK samples or drawing samples from existing catheters could increase the number of subjects who are willing to participate in PK studies. PMID:20486176

  11. Rationale for an international consortium to study inherited genetic susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sherborne, Amy L.; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv; Bartram, Claus R.; Stanulla, Martin; Schrappe, Martin; Petridou, Eleni; Semsei, Ágnes F.; Szalai, Csaba; Sinnett, Daniel; Krajinovic, Maja; Healy, Jasmine; Lanciotti, Marina; Dufour, Carlo; Indaco, Stefania; El-Ghouroury, Eman A; Sawangpanich, Ruchchadol; Hongeng, Suradej; Pakakasama, Samart; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Ugarte, Evelia L.; Leal, Valeria P.; Espinoza, Juan P.M.; Kamel, Azza M.; Ebid, Gamal T.A.; Radwan, Eman R.; Yalin, Serap; Yalin, Erdinc; Berkoz, Mehmet; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve; Lightfoot, Tracy; Hosking, Fay J.; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Greaves, Mel; Houlston, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the major pediatric cancer in developed countries. To date most association studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been based on the candidate gene approach and have evaluated a restricted number of polymorphisms. Such studies have served to highlight difficulties in conducting statistically and methodologically rigorous investigations into acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Recent genome-wide association studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have provided robust evidence that common variation at four genetic loci confers a modest increase in risk. The accumulated experience to date and relative lack of success of initial efforts to identify novel acute lymphoblastic leukemia predisposition loci emphasize the need for alternative study designs and methods. The International Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Genetics Consortium includes 12 research groups in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Americas engaged in studying the genetics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The initial goal of this consortium is to identify and characterize low-penetrance susceptibility variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia through association-based analyses. Efforts to develop genome-wide association studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in terms of both sample size and single nucleotide polymorphism coverage, and to increase the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms taken forward to large-scale replication should lead to the identification of additional novel risk variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ethnic differences in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are well recognized and thus in assessing the interplay between inherited and non-genetic risk factors, analyses using different population cohorts with different incidence rates are likely to be highly informative. Given that the frequency of many acute lymphoblastic leukemia subgroups is small, identifying differential effects will realistically only be

  12. Prevention strategies for esophageal cancer: Perspectives of the East vs. West.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are the two major phenotypes in Western and Eastern countries, respectively. Because of different pathways in carcinogenesis, the risk factors and effective steps for prevention of esophageal cancer are different between EAC and ESCC. The carcinogenesis of EAC is initiated by the acid exposure of the esophageal mucosa from stomach while that of the ESCC are related to the chronic irritation of carcinogens mainly by the alcohol, cigarette, betel quid, and hot beverage. To eliminate the burden of esophageal cancer on the global health, the effective strategy should be composed of the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. In this article, we perform a systematic review of the preventive strategies for esophageal cancer with special emphasis on the differences from the perspectives of Western and Eastern countries. PMID:26651249

  13. Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries

    PubMed Central

    Conway, David I.; Brenner, Darren R.; McMahon, Alex D.; Macpherson, Lorna M.D.; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A.; Maso, Luigino Dal; Daudt, Alexander W.; de Gois Filho, José F.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B.; Healy, Claire M.; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F.; Purdue, Mark P.; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M.; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 – 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 – 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. PMID:24996155

  14. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology

  15. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host

  16. COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS)

    Cancer.gov

    The COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS) is an extramural-intramural partnership that promotes collaboration among prospective cohort studies that follow participants for a range of outcomes and perform metabolomic profiling of individuals.

  17. INTEGRATED PETROLEUM ENVIRONMENTAL CONSORTIUM (IPEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R827015
    Title: Integrated Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC)
    Investigator: Kerry L. Sublette
    Institution: University of Tulsa
    EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan
    Project Period: October 1, 19...

  18. Hickory Consortium 2001 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-02-01

    As with all Building America Program consortia, systems thinking is the key to understanding the processes that Hickory Consortium hopes to improve. The Hickory Consortium applies this thinking to more than the whole-building concept. Their systems thinking embraces the meta process of how housing construction takes place in America. By understanding the larger picture, they are able to identify areas where improvements can be made and how to implement them.

  19. The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Clavel, Jacqueline; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Petridou, Eleni; Taylor, Malcolm; Schüz, Joachim; Spector, Logan G.; Dockerty, John D.; Magnani, Corrado; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Sinnett, Daniel; Murphy, Michael; Roman, Eve; Monge, Patricia; Ezzat, Sameera; Mueller, Beth A.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Birch, Jill; Kaatsch, Peter; Koifman, Sergio; Lightfoot, Tracy; Bhatti, Parveen; Bondy, Melissa L.; Rudant, Jérémie; O’Neill, Kate; Miligi, Lucia; Dessypris, Nick; Kang, Alice Y.; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in children under 15 years of age; 80% are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 17% are acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Childhood leukemia shows further diversity based on cytogenetic and molecular characteristics, which may relate to distinct etiologies. Case–control studies conducted worldwide, particularly of ALL, have collected a wealth of data on potential risk factors and in some studies, biospecimens. There is growing evidence for the role of infectious/immunologic factors, fetal growth, and several environmental factors in the etiology of childhood ALL. The risk of childhood leukemia, like other complex diseases, is likely to be influenced both by independent and interactive effects of genes and environmental exposures. While some studies have analyzed the role of genetic variants, few have been sufficiently powered to investigate gene–environment interactions. Objectives The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC) was established in 2007 to promote investigations of rarer exposures, gene–environment interactions and subtype-specific associations through the pooling of data from independent studies. Methods By September 2012, CLIC included 22 studies (recruitment period: 1962–present) from 12 countries, totaling approximately 31 000 cases and 50 000 controls. Of these, 19 case–control studies have collected detailed epidemiologic data, and DNA samples have been collected from children and child–parent trios in 15 and 13 of these studies, respectively. Two registry-based studies and one study comprising hospital records routinely obtained at birth and/or diagnosis have limited interview data or biospecimens. Conclusions CLIC provides a unique opportunity to fill gaps in knowledge about the role of environmental and genetic risk factors, critical windows of exposure, the effects of gene–environment interactions and associations among specific leukemia subtypes in different ethnic

  20. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Cancer.gov

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  1. Investigation of mortality from cancer and other causes of death among workers employed at an east Texas chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.H.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Halperin, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The cause-specific mortality of 2,510 males employed at an east Texas chemical plant was examined in a historical prospective study to evaluate a suspected increase in deaths from multiple myeloma and brain cancer. Potential exposures from chemicals, either used in manufacturing processes or produced during the study period 1952-1977, included the fuel additive tetraethyl lead, ethylene dibromide and dichloride, inorganic lead, and vinyl chloride monomer. Overall mortality for all workers (156 observed vs. 211.14 expected) and for workers first employed between 1952 and 1959 (131 observed vs. 167.33 expected) when tetraethyl lead was the single major product was lower than expected when compared to the United States general population. There were no significant increases in mortality from malignancies or other causes of death. The deficits may be due to the small number of total deaths, and the low power for detecting excess risk of mortality from multiple myeloma (Z1-beta = 27, alpha = .05), brain cancer (Z1-beta = 31, alpha = .05), or other rare causes of death; lack of complete workplace exposure data for production workers; and the absence of historical measurements on the extent of environmental exposure to tetraethyl lead and other chemicals.

  2. California Space Grant Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, John; Berger, Wolfgang; Wiskerchen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The organizational and administrative structure of the CaSGC has the Consortium Headquarters Office (Principal Investigator - Dr. John Kosmatka, California Statewide Director - Dr. Michael Wiskerchen) at UC San Diego. Each affiliate member institution has a campus director and an scholarship/fellowship selection committee. Each affiliate campus director also serves on the CaSGC Advisory Council and coordinates CMIS data collection and submission. The CaSGC strives to maintain a balance between expanded affiliate membership and continued high quality in targeted program areas of aerospace research, education, workforce development, and public outreach. Associate members are encouraged to participate on a project-by-project basis that meets the needs of California and the goals and objectives of the CaSGC. Associate members have responsibilities relating only to the CaSGC projects they are directly engaged in. Each year, as part of the CaSGC Improvement Plan, the CaSGC Advisory Council evaluates the performance of the affiliate and associate membership in terms of contributions to the CaSGC Strategic Plan, These CaSGC membership evaluations provide a constructive means for elevating productive members and removing non-performing members. This Program Improvement and Results (PIR) report will document CaSGC program improvement results and impacts that directly respond to the specific needs of California in the area of aerospace-related education and human capital development and the Congressional mandate to "increase the understanding, assessment, development and utilization of space resources by promoting a strong education base, responsive research and training activities, and broad and prompt dissemination of knowledge and technology".

  3. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  4. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  5. Adult non Hodgkin's lymphoma patients: experience from a tertiary care cancer centre in north east India.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Munlima; Iqbal, Asif; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Bhuyan, Chidananda; Saikia, Bhargab Jyoti; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Das, Rashmi; Nandy, Pintu; Kataki, Amal Chandra

    2015-01-01

    There is paucity of data on non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) from our population in North-East India. In this retrospective study, patients were consecutively followed-up to see the clinic-pathological pattern of NHL, various responses, and pattern of relapses to first line treatment with chemotherapy. All patients in the present study received standard regimen of cyclophosphamde, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone (CHOP) with or without rituximab (R-CHOP) as per our institutional protocol as first line therapy. Our study has shown that, in our adult population, the majority of NHL cases present with stage II and stage III disease and extra nodal involvement, B-cell lymphomas and diffuse large cell lymphomas being the most common subtypes. International prognostic index was a significant factor for varied responses to treatment. The majority of relapses after complete remission occurred in the first year. PMID:25854376

  6. A combined blood based gene expression and plasma protein abundance signature for diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer - a study of the OVCAD consortium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The immune system is a key player in fighting cancer. Thus, we sought to identify a molecular ‘immune response signature’ indicating the presence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to combine this with a serum protein biomarker panel to increase the specificity and sensitivity for earlier detection of EOC. Methods Comparing the expression of 32,000 genes in a leukocytes fraction from 44 EOC patients and 19 controls, three uncorrelated shrunken centroid models were selected, comprised of 7, 14, and 6 genes. A second selection step using RT-qPCR data and significance analysis of microarrays yielded 13 genes (AP2A1, B4GALT1, C1orf63, CCR2, CFP, DIS3, NEAT1, NOXA1, OSM, PAPOLG, PRIC285, ZNF419, and BC037918) which were finally used in 343 samples (90 healthy, six cystadenoma, eight low malignant potential tumor, 19 FIGO I/II, and 220 FIGO III/IV EOC patients). Using new 65 controls and 224 EOC patients (thereof 14 FIGO I/II) the abundances of six plasma proteins (MIF, prolactin, CA125, leptin, osteopondin, and IGF2) was determined and used in combination with the expression values from the 13 genes for diagnosis of EOC. Results Combined diagnostic models using either each five gene expression and plasma protein abundance values or 13 gene expression and six plasma protein abundance values can discriminate controls from patients with EOC with Receiver Operator Characteristics Area Under the Curve values of 0.998 and bootstrap .632+ validated classification errors of 3.1% and 2.8%, respectively. The sensitivities were 97.8% and 95.6%, respectively, at a set specificity of 99.6%. Conclusions The combination of gene expression and plasma protein based blood derived biomarkers in one diagnostic model increases the sensitivity and the specificity significantly. Such a diagnostic test may allow earlier diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:23551967

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Consortium of Prospective Trials

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R.; Collins, Sean; Fuller, Donald; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael; Katz, Alan

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the early and late health-related quality of life (QOL) outcomes among prostate cancer patients following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Patient self-reported QOL was prospectively measured among 864 patients from phase 2 clinical trials of SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Data from the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) instrument were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals up to 6 years. SBRT delivered a median dose of 36.25 Gy in 4 or 5 fractions. A short course of androgen deprivation therapy was given to 14% of patients. Results: Median follow-up was 3 years and 194 patients remained evaluable at 5 years. A transient decline in the urinary and bowel domains was observed within the first 3 months after SBRT which returned to baseline status or better within 6 months and remained so beyond 5 years. The same pattern was observed among patients with good versus poor baseline function and was independent of the degree of early toxicities. Sexual QOL decline was predominantly observed within the first 9 months, a pattern not altered by the use of androgen deprivation therapy or patient age. Conclusion: Long-term outcome demonstrates that prostate SBRT is well tolerated and has little lasting impact on health-related QOL. A transient and modest decline in urinary and bowel QOL during the first few months after SBRT quickly recovers to baseline levels. With a large number of patients evaluable up to 5 years following SBRT, it is unlikely that unexpected late adverse effects will manifest themselves.

  8. Pathology of breast and ovarian cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA)

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Barrowdale, Daniel; Andrulis, Irene L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J.; Engel, Christoph; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; O’Malley, Frances; John, Esther M.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Hansen, Thomas v O; Nielsen, Finn C.; Osorio, Ana; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Benítez, Javier; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Barile, Monica; Volorio, Sara; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Putignano, Anna Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Brewer, Carole; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Houghton, Catherine; Weaver, JoEllen; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Doroteha; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Belotti, Muriel; Barjhoux, Laure; Isaacs, Claudine; Peshkin, Beth N.; Caldes, Trinidad; de al Hoya, Miguel; Cañadas, Carmen; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Arason, Adalgeir; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; D’Andrea, Emma; Yan, Max; Fox, Stephen; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Rubinstein, Wendy; Tung, Nadine; Garber, Judy E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia M.; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Rappaport, Christine; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Sokolenko, Anna; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Sweet, Kevin; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben; Caligo, Maria; Aretini, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeld, Anna; Henriksson, Karin; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nussbaum, Bob; Beattie, Mary; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston, Lara; Gayther, Simon A; Nathanson, Kate; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous small studies found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. Methods We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the pathology of invasive breast, ovarian and contralateral breast cancers. Results There was strong evidence that the proportion of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors decreased with age at diagnosis among BRCA1 (p-trend=1.2×10−5) but increased with age at diagnosis among BRCA2 carriers (p-trend=6.8×10−6). The proportion of triple negative tumors decreased with age at diagnosis in BRCA1 carriers but increased with age at diagnosis of BRCA2 carriers. In both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, ER-negative tumors were of higher histological grade than ER-positive tumors (Grade 3 vs. Grade 1, p=1.2×10−13 for BRCA1 and p=0.001 for BRCA2). ER and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were independently associated with mutation carrier status (ER-positive odds ratio (OR) for BRCA2=9.4, 95%CI:7.0-12.6 and PR-positive OR=1.7, 95%CI:1.3-2.3, under joint analysis). Lobular tumors were more likely to be BRCA2-related (OR for BRCA2=3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.4, p=4.4×10−14), and medullary tumors BRCA1-related (OR for BRCA2=0.25, 95%CI:0.18-0.35, p=2.3×10−15). ER-status of the first breast cancer was predictive of ER-status of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (p=0.0004 for BRCA1; p=0.002 for BRCA2). There were no significant differences in ovarian cancer morphology between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (serous:67%; mucinous:1%; endometriod:12%; clear-cell:2%). Conclusions/Impact Pathology characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumors may be useful for improving risk prediction algorithms and informing clinical strategies for screening and prophylaxis. PMID:22144499

  9. Time Trends in Radiologists’ Interpretive Performance at Screening Mammography from the Community-based Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, 1996–20041

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, William E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Geller, Berta M.; Brenner, R. James

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine time trends in radiologists’ interpretive performance at screening mammography between 1996 and 2004. Materials and Methods: All study procedures were institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Data were collected on subsequent screening mammograms obtained from 1996 to 2004 in women aged 40–79 years who were followed up for 1 year for breast cancer. Recall rate, sensitivity, and specificity were examined annually. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) and random-effects models were used to test for linear trend. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), tumor histologic findings, and size of the largest dimension or diameter of the tumor were also examined. Results: Data on 2 542 049 subsequent screening mammograms and 12 498 cancers diagnosed in the follow-up period were included in this study. Recall rate increased from 6.7% to 8.6%, sensitivity increased from 71.4% to 83.8%, and specificity decreased from 93.6% to 91.7%. In GEE models, adjusted odds ratios per calendar year were 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.05) for recall rate, 1.09 (95% CI: 1.07. 1.12) for sensitivity, and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98) for specificity (P < .001 for all). Random-effects model results were similar. The AUC increased over time: 0.869 (95% CI: 0.861, 0.877) for 1996–1998, 0.884 (95% CI: 0.879, 0.890) for 1999–2001, and 0.891 (95% CI: 0.885, 0.896) for 2002–2004 (P < .001). Tumor histologic findings and size remained constant. Conclusion: Recall rate and sensitivity for screening mammograms increased, whereas specificity decreased from 1996 to 2004 among women with a prior mammogram. This trend remained after accounting for risk factors. The net effect was an improvement in overall discrimination, a measure of the probability that a mammogram with cancer in the follow-up period has a higher Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System assessment category than does a mammogram without cancer in the

  10. Association of breast cancer progression with a vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism. South-East Sweden Breast Cancer Group.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A C; Söderkvist, P; Eriksson, B; Bergman-Jungeström, M; Wingren, S

    1999-05-15

    The vitamin D3 receptor gene (VDR) contains a TaqI RFLP that is associated with increased VDR mRNA stability, increased serum levels of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), and decreased risk for prostate cancer. Determination of the TaqI genotype, in a group of young women with breast cancer (n = 111; age, <37 years) and a control population (n = 130), revealed no overall association to risk for breast cancer. However, patients without TaqI site (TT genotype) showed a significantly increased risk for lymph node metastasis (relative risk, 1.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.6). Furthermore, a tendency toward an increased survival was found among estrogen receptor-positive, tamoxifen-treated patients who were homozygous for the TaqI site (P = 0.075). We conclude that polymorphism in the VDR gene may influence tumor progression and tamoxifen treatment response in early-onset breast carcinomas. PMID:10344739

  11. Prevalence of aging population in the Middle East and its implications on cancer incidence and care

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, R. R.; Atli, T.; Al-Mandhari, Z.; Oudrhiri, M.; Balducci, L.; Silbermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle Eastern population is aging rapidly, and as aging is the main risk factor for cancer, the incidence and prevalence of that disease are increasing among all the populations in the region. These developments represent huge challenges to national and community-based health services. At the current state of affairs, most Middle Eastern countries require the cooperation of international agencies in order to cope with such new challenges to their health systems. The focus and emphasis in facing these changing circumstances lie in the education and training of professionals, mainly physicians and nurses, at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health services. It is imperative that these training initiatives include clinical practice, with priority given to the creation of multidisciplinary teams both at the cancer centers and for home-based services. PMID:24001758

  12. Genetic variation in vitamin D-related genes and risk of breast cancer among women of European and East Asian descent.

    PubMed

    Shi, Joy; Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Burstyn, Igor; Schuetz, Johanna M; Lohrisch, Caroline A; SenGupta, Sandip K; Lai, Agnes S; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Spinelli, John J; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    Studies of vitamin D-related genetic variants and breast cancer have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of vitamin D-related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among European and East Asian women and potential interactions with menopausal status and breast tumour subtypes. Data from a case-control study of breast cancer (1037 cases and 1050 controls) were used to assess relationships between 21 polymorphisms in two vitamin D-related genes (GC and VDR) and breast cancer risk. Odds ratios were calculated in stratified analyses of European and East Asian women, using logistic regression in an additive genetic model. An interaction term was used to explore modification by menopausal status. Polytomous regression was used to assess heterogeneity by breast tumour subtype. False discovery rate adjustments were conducted to account for multiple testing. No association was observed between GC or VDR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Modification of these relationships by menopausal status was observed for select polymorphisms in both Europeans (VDR rs4328262 and rs11168292) and East Asians (GC rs7041 and VDR rs11168287). Heterogeneity by tumour subtype was seen for three VDR polymorphisms (rs1544410, rs7967152 and rs2239186) among Europeans, in which associations with ER-/PR-/HER2+ tumours, but not with other subtypes, were observed. In conclusion, associations between vitamin D-related genetic variants and breast cancer were not observed overall, although the relationships between vitamin D pathway polymorphisms and breast cancer may be modified by menopausal status and breast tumour subtype. PMID:26631034

  13. Colorectal cancer risk factors among the population of South-East Siberia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhivotovskiy, Alexey S; Kutikhin, Anton G; Azanov, Artur Z; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Magarill, Yuri A; Brusina, Elena B

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer remains one of the most widespread malignancies in the world. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies considering colorectal cancer risk factors among Russian populations, particularly in Siberia. The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact of various lifestyle, dietary, family, and socioeconomical factors on colorectal cancer risk in South-East Siberia. We recruited 185 Russian colorectal cancer cases and 210 gender-, age-, and ethnicity-matched asymptomatic controls with no history of any malignant tumor, using a specially designed questionnaire to obtain relevant information. After the statistical analysis, we defined several significant factors affecting colorectal cancer risk. Among these were smoking (OR=2.13, 95%CI=1.4- 3.24, P=0.0004), being overweight (BMI between 25-30, OR=2.45, 95%CI=1.49-4.03, P=0.0004), alcohol drinking (OR=8.73, 95%CI=5.49-13.87, P<0.0001), beer drinking (OR=9.24, 95%CI=5.14-16.61, P<0.0001), consumption of hard liquor (OR=9.37, 95%CI=5.92-14.82, P<0.0001), excessive red meat consumption (P<0.0001), excessive intake of red meat products (P<0.0001), excessive intake of dairy products (P<0.0001), excessive sour cream and cheese consumption (P<0.0001 and 0.0002, respectively), spicy food consumption (OR=2.87, 95%CI=1.9-4.33, P<0.0001), family history of gastrointestinal malignant tumors (OR=3.99, 95%CI=2.09-7.59, P<0.0001), and income exceeding twice the subsistence minimum (OR=5.34, 95%CI=3.35-8.53, P<0.0001). Certain factors, such as high concentration of salt in the food and precancerous colonic lesions, demonstrated borderline significance (OR=3.45, 95%CI=1.68-7.1, P=0.0008, and OR=5.25, 95%CI=1.94-14.22, P=0.001, respectively). Some factors were established as protective, like consumption of rye bread and both rye and wheat bread (OR=0.32, 95%CI=0.21-0.5, P<0,0001, and OR=0.07, 95%CI=0.02-0.21, P<0.0001, respectively), and also low concentration of salt in the food, although this was of

  14. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z.; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Cariou, Thierry; O’Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R.; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E.; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P.; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M.; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C.; Kandil, Mahrous M.; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L’Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M.; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A. Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J.; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S.; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M.; Collins, R. Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  15. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Cariou, Thierry; O'Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion Mf; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C; Kandil, Mahrous M; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L'Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N; Gasol, Josep M; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M; Collins, R Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Gilbert, Jack A; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits. PMID:26097697

  16. AGRICOH: A Consortium of Agricultural Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Maria E.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Douwes, Jeroen; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kromhout, Hans; Lebailly, Pierre; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Schenker, Marc; Schüz, Joachim; Waring, Stephen C.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Baldi, Isabelle; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Ferro, Giles; Fervers, Béatrice; Langseth, Hilde; London, Leslie; Lynch, Charles F.; McLaughlin, John; Merchant, James A.; Pahwa, Punam; Sigsgaard, Torben; Stayner, Leslie; Wesseling, Catharina; Yoo, Keun-Young; Zahm, Shelia H.; Straif, Kurt; Blair, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    AGRICOH is a recently formed consortium of agricultural cohort studies involving 22 cohorts from nine countries in five continents: South Africa (1), Canada (3), Costa Rica (2), USA (6), Republic of Korea (1), New Zealand (2), Denmark (1), France (3) and Norway (3). The aim of AGRICOH, initiated by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) and coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is to promote and sustain collaboration and pooling of data to investigate the association between a wide range of agricultural exposures and a wide range of health outcomes, with a particular focus on associations that cannot easily be addressed in individual studies because of rare exposures (e.g., use of infrequently applied chemicals) or relatively rare outcomes (e.g., certain types of cancer, neurologic and auto-immune diseases). To facilitate future projects the need for data harmonization of selected variables is required and is underway. Altogether, AGRICOH provides excellent opportunities for studying cancer, respiratory, neurologic, and auto-immune diseases as well as reproductive and allergic disorders, injuries and overall mortality in association with a wide array of exposures, prominent among these the application of pesticides. PMID:21655123

  17. Variation in management of small invasive breast cancers detected on screening in the former south east Thames region: observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, S.; Bates, T.; Henderson, S. M.; Humphreys, S.; Michell, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the variation in surgical and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer of known histology and detected on screening in a large cohort of patients treated by the surgeons of a health region. DESIGN: Part prospective, part retrospective observational study using the databases of a region's breast screening programme and of the cancer registry. SETTING: The former South East Thames region. SUBJECTS: 600 women aged 49-79 who presented during 1991-2 with invasive breast cancer up to 20 mm in diameter that had been detected on screening. These patients were treated by 35 surgeons. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mastectomy rate by surgeon and the use of adjuvant treatment (radiotherapy, tamoxifen, and chemotherapy) were compared with risk factors, tumour grade, resection margins, and axillary node status. RESULTS: The mastectomy rate varied between nil and 80%, although the numbers at these extremes were small (0/13 v 8/10). Surgeons operating on more than 20 such cases had a lower mastectomy rate (15%) than surgeons treating fewer cases (23%), but this difference was confounded by variation in casemix. There were also wide variations in mastectomy rates and in axillary sampling rates that were independent of casemix or caseload. There was broad agreement on the use of adjuvant tamoxifen (94%), but few patients received chemotherapy (2.5%). 78 patients (19%) did not receive radiotherapy, including 51 out of 317 patients with unfavourable tumours, and 26 patients did not receive tamoxifen. Whether the patient received adjuvant treatment was more dependent on referral by the surgeon than the risk factors for local recurrence and was independent of caseload. CONCLUSION: Mastectomy rates for similar tumours vary widely by surgeon independently of casemix or caseload, but surgeons with a higher caseload tend to have a lower mastectomy rate. Omission of postoperative radiotherapy or tamoxifen after conservative treatment is not related to risk factors for local

  18. Federal Laboratory Consortium Resource Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Laboratory Consortium, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist both the private and public sectors to locate and utilize technological expertise within the federal laboratories, this directory lists the federal laboratories and centers that are affiliated with the Federal Laboratory Consortium and describes the area of technological expertise they can make available to solve problems. This…

  19. Federal Laboratory Consortium Resource Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Laboratory Consortium, Washington, DC.

    Designed to bridge the communication gap between the Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) and public and private sectors of the country, this directory has been prepared as a compilation of scientific and technical research and development activities at federal laboratories, which are directing technology transfer efforts toward increasing the use…

  20. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  1. Planning and Developing a Regional Community College Allied Health Consortium: A Case Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tworek, Richard K.

    In an effort to reduce duplication of educational services and improve career opportunities, the East Central Illinois Community College Consortium (ECICCC) was created to provide cooperative allied health education programs. Four institutions, Danville Junior College, Lake Land College, Parkland College, and Richland Community College,…

  2. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; et al

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and theirmore » embedded functional traits.« less

  3. The AGTSR consortium: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, D.B.; Golan, L.P.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program is a collaborative University-Industry R&D Consortium that is managed and administered by the South Carolina Energy R&D Center. AGTSR is a nationwide consortium dedicated to advancing land-based gas turbine systems for improving future power generation capability. It directly supports the technology-research arm of the ATS program and targets industry-defined research needs in the areas of combustion, heat transfer, materials, aerodynamics, controls, alternative fuels, and advanced cycles. The consortium is organized to enhance U.S. competitiveness through close collaboration with universities, government, and industry at the R&D level. AGTSR is just finishing its third year of operation and is sponsored by the U.S. DOE - Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The program is scheduled to continue past the year 2000. At present, there are 78 performing member universities representing 36 states, and six cost-sharing U.S. gas turbine corporations. Three RFP`s have been announced and the fourth RFP is expected to be released in December, 1995. There are 31 research subcontracts underway at performing member universities. AGTSR has also organized three workshops, two in combustion and one in heat transfer. A materials workshop is in planning and is scheduled for February, 1996. An industrial internship program was initiated this past summer, with one intern positioned at each of the sponsoring companies. The AGTSR consortium nurtures close industry-university-government collaboration to enhance synergism and the transition of research results, accelerate and promote evolutionary-revolutionary R&D, and strives to keep a prominent U.S. industry strong and on top well into the 21st century. This paper will present the objectives and benefits of the AGTSR program, progress achieved to date, and future planned activity in fiscal year 1996.

  4. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    I want to discuss both the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium and the Human Genome Project. I am afraid most of my presentation will be thin on law and possibly too high on rhetoric. Having been engaged in a personal and direct way with these issues as a trained scientist, I find it quite difficult to be always as objective as I ought to be.

  5. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  6. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  7. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia: a report from the female lung cancer consortium in Asia.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-07-15

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by examining a panel of seven telomere-length associated genetic variants in a large study of 5,457 never-smoking female Asian lung cancer cases and 4,493 never-smoking female Asian controls using data from a previously reported genome-wide association study. Using a group of 1,536 individuals with phenotypically measured telomere length in WBCs in the prospective Shanghai Women's Health study, we demonstrated the utility of a genetic risk score (GRS) of seven telomere-length associated variants to predict telomere length in an Asian population. We then found that GRSs used as instrumental variables to predict longer telomere length were associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.34-1.69) for upper vs. lower quartile of the weighted GRS, p value = 4.54 × 10(-14) ) even after removing rs2736100 (p value = 4.81 × 10(-3) ), a SNP in the TERT locus robustly associated with lung cancer risk in prior association studies. Stratified analyses suggested the effect of the telomere-associated GRS is strongest among younger individuals. We found no difference in GRS effect between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell subtypes. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase lung cancer risk, which is consistent with earlier prospective studies relating longer telomere length with increased lung cancer risk. PMID:25516442

  8. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia: A report from the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by examining a panel of 7 telomere-length associated genetic variants in a large study of 5,457 never-smoking female Asian lung cancer cases and 4,493 never-smoking female Asian controls using data from a previously reported genome-wide association study. Using a group of 1,536 individuals with phenotypically measured telomere length in WBCs in the prospective Shanghai Women’s Health study, we demonstrated the utility of a genetic risk score (GRS) of 7 telomere-length associated variants to predict telomere length in an Asian population. We then found that GRSs used as instrumental variables to predict longer telomere length were associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.51 (95% CI=1.34–1.69) for upper vs. lower quartile of the weighted GRS, P-value=4.54×10−14) even after removing rs2736100 (P-value=4.81×10−3), a SNP in the TERT locus robustly associated with lung cancer risk in prior association studies. Stratified analyses suggested the effect of the telomere-associated GRS is strongest among younger individuals. We found no difference in GRS effect between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell subtypes. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase lung cancer risk, which is consistent with earlier prospective studies relating longer telomere length with increased lung cancer risk. PMID:25516442

  9. VAMDC Consortium: A Service to Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L Dubernet, M.; Moreau, N.; Zwoelf, C. M.; Ba, Y. A.

    2015-12-01

    The VAMDC Consortium is a worldwide consortium which federates Atomic and Molecular databases through an e-science infrastructure and a political organisation. About 90% of the inter-connected databases handle data that are used for the interpretation of spectra and for the modelisation of media of many fields of astrophysics. This paper presents how the VAMDC Consortium is organised in order to provide a ``service'' to the astrophysics community.

  10. Phytochemical analyses and activity of herbal medicinal plants of North- East India for anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-tuberculosis and their docking studies.

    PubMed

    Suhitha, Sivasubramanian; Devi, Seenivasan Karthiga; Gunasekaran, Krishnasamy; Pakyntein, H Carehome; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2015-01-01

    The traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of North-East India is documented here. The present study was carried out through the personal discussion with the president of the Jaintia Indigenous Herbal Medicine Association, Dr.H.Carehome Pakyntein from Jowai, Meghalaya. The plants being used generation after generation by his family of herbalists to cure ailments like tuberculosis, cancer and diabetes were selected for the present study. In order to scientifically validate the use of these selected plants for the cure of selected diseases, phytochemical analyses, characterization and molecular docking studies of some of the selected compounds from these plants have been carried out. The compounds 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy- Benzaldehyde from methanolic extract of Strophanthus Wallichii and DL tetrahydropalmatine from Stephania Hernandifolia have been confirmed after determining their molecular structures, justifying the activity of these two plants against TB and cancer, respectively. The present study covers the potentials of some of the medicinal plants of North east India in curing common diseases due to which millions of people suffer and die. The presence of certain compounds in these plants related to the cure of the diseases deserves further studies. PMID:25579573

  11. An outcome of Surgically Treated Head and Neck Cancer in one of the tertiary Referral Center in the East Coast of Malaysia: A 6-year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    ABDULLAH, Kahairi; RAJA LOPE AHMAD, Raja Ahmad; ASHA’ARI, Zamzil Amin; RAZALI, Mohd Sayuti; LEMAN, Wan Islah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgical management of head and neck cancer is undoubtedly challenging, and we would like to see the outcome of managing such cases at one of the tertiary referral center in the East Coast of Malaysia. Methods: A 6-year retrospective analysis of surgically treated head and neck cancer cases in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) Kuantan, Pahang was conducted. Results: The total number of patients reviewed was 55 and mean age of the patients was 59 years (SD 12). The larynx was the most common surgically treated site (29.1%), followed by the oral cavity (16.4%) and the paranasal sinuses (14.5%). Majority of the patients presented with stage III (32.8%) and stage IV (41.8%) cancer. Post-operative local complications (23.6%) and wound breakdown was identified as the most common cause (20%). Low hemoglobin level prior to surgery was associated with anemia after surgery (P = 0.007) and prolonged hospital stay (P = 0.030). Tumor recurrence was observed in 21.8% of the cases. Advanced stage tumor had more percentage of positive margin than early stage tumor i.e., 23% in early stage versus 58% in advanced stage (P = 0.050). Conclusion: Surgical management of head and neck cancer in this center has an acceptable outcome. PMID:25977619

  12. The Salix Consortium in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, T.; Jones, J.

    1998-09-28

    Energy crops for electrical production are being given a boost by the Salix Consortium, an association of 20 corporations and industrial, government, farming, and research organizations. The consortium supports commercial development of willows for generating electricity, which are being grown for utilities across the Northeast region of the U.S. for use in cofiring with coal in existing power plants.

  13. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  14. Increasing Sales by Developing Production Consortiums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; Russo, Robert

    Intended to help rehabilitation facility administrators increase organizational income from manufacturing and/or contracted service sources, this document provides a decision-making model for the development of a production consortium. The document consists of five chapters and two appendices. Chapter 1 defines the consortium concept, explains…

  15. Model-based impact and cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jane J; Sharma, Monisha; O'Shea, Meredith; Sweet, Steven; Diaz, Mireia; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    To date, no studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in countries in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. We synthesized population and epidemiologic data for 20 EMENA countries using a model-based approach to estimate averted cervical cancer cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost-effectiveness ratios (I$ [international dollars] per DALY averted) associated with HPV vaccination of pre-adolescent girls. We utilized additional epidemiologic data from Algeria, Lebanon, and Turkey to evaluate select cervical cancer screening strategies either alone or in combination with vaccination. Results showed that pre-adolescent vaccination of five consecutive birth cohorts at 70% coverage has the potential to prevent over 180,000 cervical cancer cases. Cases averted varied by country, largely due to differences in cancer burden and population size; 69% of cases averted occurred in the three GAVI-eligible countries in EMENA. Despite the low cervical cancer incidence in EMENA, we found that HPV vaccination was cost-effective using a threshold of each country's gross domestic product per capita (a common metric for evaluating cost-effectiveness) in all but five countries at a cost per vaccinated girl of I$25 ($5 per dose). However, cost-effectiveness diminished with increasing vaccine cost; at a cost of I$200 per vaccinated girl, HPV vaccination was cost-effective in only five countries. When the cost per vaccinated girl exceeded I$50 in Lebanon and Turkey and I$150 in Algeria, screening alone was most attractive. We identified opportunities to improve upon current national screening guidelines, involving less frequent screening every 3-5 years. While pre-adolescent HPV vaccination promises to be a cost-effective strategy in most EMENA countries at low costs, decision makers will need to consider many other factors, such as affordability, acceptability, feasibility, and competing health

  16. The AGTSR consortium: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, D.B.; Golan, L.P.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research program is a nationwide consortium dedicated to advancing land-based gas turbine systems for improving future power generation capability. It directly supports the technology-research arm of the ATS program and targets industry- defined research needs in the areas of combustion, heat transfer, materials, aerodynamics, controls, alternative fuels, and advanced cycles. It is organized to enhance U.S. competitiveness through close collaboration with universities, government, and industry at the R&D level. AGTSR is just finishing its third year of operation; it is scheduled to continue past the year 2000. This update reviews the AGTSR triad, which consists of university/industry R&D activities, technology transfer programs, and trial student programs.

  17. Study of Genes and Environment in Patients With Cancer in East Anglia, Trent, or West Midlands Regions of the United Kingdom

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-23

    Bladder Cancer; Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Esophageal Cancer; Intraocular Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Lymphoma; Melanoma (Skin); Pancreatic Cancer; Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter

  18. Alcohol and Tobacco Increases Risk of High Risk HPV Infection in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Study from North-East Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupesh; Rai, Avdhesh Kumar; Das, Debabrata; Das, Rajjyoti; Kumar, R. Suresh; Sarma, Anupam; Sharma, Shashi; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Ramteke, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) associated Head and Neck Cancers (HNCs) have generated significant amount of research interest in recent times. Due to high incidence of HNCs and lack of sufficient data on high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) infection from North -East region of India, this study was conceived to investigate hr-HPV infection, its types and its association with life style habits such as tobacco, alcohol consumption etc. Methods A total of one hundred and six primary HNC tumor biopsy specimens were collected. These samples were analyzed for hr-HPV DNA (13 HPV types) using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay and genotyping was done by E6 nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR). Results The presence of hr-HPV was confirmed in 31.13% (n = 33) and 24.52% (n = 26) of the HNC patients by nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR) and HC2 assay respectively. Among hr-HPV positive cases, out of thirteen hr- HPV types analyzed, only two prevalent genotypes, HPV-16 (81.81%) followed by HPV-18 (18.18%) were found. Significant association was observed between hr-HPV infection with alcohol consumption (p <0.001) and tobacco chewing (p = 0.02) in HNC cases. Compared to HPV-18 infection the HPV-16 was found to be significantly associated with tobacco chewing (p = 0.02) habit. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that tobacco chewing and alcohol consumption may act as risk factors for hr-HPV infection in HNCs from the North-East region of India. This was the first study from North-East India which also assessed the clinical applicability of HC2 assay in HNC patient specimens. We suggest that alcohol, tobacco and hr- HPV infection act synergistically or complement each other in the process of HNC development and progression in the present study population. PMID:26473489

  19. Building a local research consortium.

    PubMed

    Martin, P A

    1994-05-01

    Although state, regional, and national networking often are critical to the nurse researchers, local support that is broader than what is found in any single agency may be the foundation needed by clinicians who want "more" research than that prescribed by their current role. More formal consortiums have successfully implemented a variety of research projects and are another possibility to explore (Beaman & Strader, 1990; Bolton, 1991; Chenitz et al., 1990; Keefe et al., 1988; Thiele, 1989). Another option is some state nurses' associations that have formal research assemblies (eg., Ohio Nurses Association, Assembly of Nurse Researchers). However, forming a local, less formal group with a few expert advisors may supply the energy and momentum necessary for both using and conducting research at a grassroots level. The expert advisors should be research-trained nurses (almost always with a PhD or DNS) who are active group members. Although Fitzpatrick encouraged collaborative research and writing early in the history of Applied Nursing Research (Fitzpatrick, 1989), in 1993 approximately two thirds of the articles in Applied Nursing Research still were single authored. Nurses are not using collaboration to its fullest extent. An informal group in one community has been one way to release the scholarship that was latent in many nurses. PMID:8031105

  20. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. PMID:25428369

  1. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. PMID:25428369

  2. The bioleaching potential of a bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Mauricio; Cortés, María Paz; Travisany, Dante; Di Genova, Alex; Budinich, Marko; Reyes-Jara, Angélica; Hödar, Christian; González, Mauricio; Parada, Pilar; Bobadilla-Fazzini, Roberto A; Cambiazo, Verónica; Maass, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    This work presents the molecular foundation of a consortium of five efficient bacteria strains isolated from copper mines currently used in state of the art industrial-scale biotechnology. The strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Licanantay, Acidiphilium multivorum Yenapatur, Leptospirillum ferriphilum Pañiwe, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Wenelen and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Cutipay were selected for genome sequencing based on metal tolerance, oxidation activity and bioleaching of copper efficiency. An integrated model of metabolic pathways representing the bioleaching capability of this consortium was generated. Results revealed that greater efficiency in copper recovery may be explained by the higher functional potential of L. ferriphilum Pañiwe and At. thiooxidans Licanantay to oxidize iron and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. The consortium had a greater capacity to resist copper, arsenic and chloride ion compared to previously described biomining strains. Specialization and particular components in these bacteria provided the consortium a greater ability to bioleach copper sulfide ores. PMID:27416516

  3. WILLIAMSBURG BROOKLYN ASTHMA AND ENVIRONMENT CONSORTIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Consortium expects to develop a family health promotion model in which organized residents have access to easily understood, scientifically accurate, community-specific information about their health, their environment, and the relationship between the two,...

  4. International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) —

    Cancer.gov

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) comprises a group of major mouse genetics research institutions along with national funding organisations formed to address the challenge of developing an encyclopedia of mammalian gene function.

  5. CORAL DISEASE & HEALTH CONSORTIUM: FINDING SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Department of Interior (DOI) developed the framework for a Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC) for the United States Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) through an interag...

  6. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph)

    Cancer.gov

    A consortium designed to enhance collaboration among epidemiologists studying lymphoma, to provide a forum for the exchange of research ideas, and to create a framework for collaborating on analyses that pool data from multiple studies

  7. The LBNL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses the 11 year of accomplishments of the science consortium of minority graduates from Jackson State University and Ana G. Mendez University at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  8. Ovarian Cancer Proteomic, Phosphoproteomic, and Glycoproteomic Data Released - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have just released a comprehensive dataset of the proteomic analysis of high grade serous ovarian tumor samples,

  9. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia Liver cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer ... have any symptoms. In certain cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, symptoms often do not start until the disease ...

  10. East-West Community College Project Leadership Training Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Colleges for International Development, Inc.

    This document summarizes the history and planning efforts of the East-West Community Consortium for Community College Development in Thailand, a group of Thai and U.S. education officials charged with coordinating the establishment of ten community colleges in rural Thailand and Bangkok. This report outlines the timeline, content, format and…