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1

Abundance and Run Timing of Adult Pacific Salmon in the East Fork Audreafsky River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2003. Alaska Fisheries Data Series Number 2005-10.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A resistance board weir was used to collect abundance, run timing, and biological data from salmon returning to the East Fork Andreafsky River, a tributary to the lower Yukon River, between June 19 and September 15, 2003. In 2003, an estimated total of 4,...

C. S. Gewin G. K. VanHatten

2005-01-01

2

Hydraulic geometry and sediment data for the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho, 1985-86  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic geometry, suspended-sediment, and bedload samples were collected at three sites in the upper reach of the South Fork Salmon River drainage basin from April 1985 to June 1986. Sites selected were South Fork Salmon River near Krassel Ranger Station, Buckhorn Creek, and North Fork Lick Creek. Results of the data collection are presented in this report.

Williams, Rhea P.; O'Dell, Ivalou; Megahan, Walter F.

1989-01-01

3

STREAM CHANNEL SEDIMENT CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTH FORK SALMON RIVER, IDAHO, PROGRESS REPORT IV, JUNE 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the South Fork Salmon River (17060208) studies is to determine the condition of the aquatic environment and provide measures needed to maintain or enhance this environment. Prior to 1965, the South Fork Salmon River steadily degraded in quality, due to acceleratio...

4

76 FR 29721 - Lost River and Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon-Challis National Forest; ID; Lost...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon- Challis National Forest; ID; Lost...National Forest System lands managed by the Salmon-Challis National Forest. This project...Lands Center, 1206 S. Challis Street, Salmon, ID 83467; telephone:...

2011-05-23

5

South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The v...

M. D. Reaney

2009-01-01

6

Bank stability and channel width adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. Bank stability, and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width, in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill. -from Author

Andrews, E. D.

1982-01-01

7

South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment activities that move toward road decommissioning to reduce sediment delivery to spawning gravels and rearing habitats by reducing sedimentation from road related, man-made sources. For FY08, the project included the design and implementation of two fish barrier replacement structures mentioned above, the Salt and Profile Creek Bridges. These work elements were to be implemented on Valley County easements within the Payette National Forest. The existing culverts are full or partial barriers to most aquatic life species and all juvenile anadromous and resident fish species. Implementation will reconnect 9.34 miles of habitat, and provide natural stream channels to facilitate complete passage for all aquatic life forms. All designs were completed and a construction subcontract was awarded to construct free span, pre-cast concrete bridges. For 2008, the project statement of work also included all the necessary work elements to manage, coordinate, plan, and develop continuing strategies for restoration and protection activities.

Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

2009-04-15

8

Bank Stability and Channel Width Adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. The accumulation and depletion of sand-sized bed material in a cross section was concentrated in the near-bank parts of the stream channel and thus significantly influenced bank stability and retreat. In those cross sections that scour at discharges greater than bankfull, the basal bank material is eroded and the banks become undercut and unstable. Conversely, in those cross sections that fill at discharges greater than bankfull, the basal bank material is covered by the accumulated sand-size material and is not eroded. Streambanks in these cross sections are moderately inclined and stable. A resurvey in the summer of 1980 of the cross sections located in straight reaches showed that those cross sections which scoured at discharges greater than bankfull had become 2-4 feet wider, whereas those cross sections which filled at discharges greater than bankfull were unchanged. Thus bank stability and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill.

Andrews, E. D.

1982-08-01

9

77 FR 64125 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Notification of a Public Meeting for the East Fork...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a Public Meeting for the East Fork Elk Winter Range; WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...mining laws, to protect the East Fork Elk Winter Range and elk natural feeding grounds...mining laws, to protect the East Fork Elk Winter Range and elk natural feeding...

2012-10-18

10

Anadronous Fish Habitat Enhancement for the Middle Fork and Upper Salmon River, 1988 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The wild and natural salmon and steelhead populations in the Middle Fork and Upper Salmon River are at a critical low. Habitat enhancement through decreasing sediment loads, increasing vegetative cover, removing passage barriers, and providing habitat diversity is imperative to the survival of these specially adapted fish, until passage problems over the Columbia River dams are solved. Personnel from the Boise and Sawtooth National Forests completed all construction work planned for 1988. In Bear Valley, 1573 feet of juniper revetment was constructed at eleven sites, cattle were excluded from 1291 feet of streambanks to prevent bank breakdown, and a small ephemeral gully was filled with juniper trees. Work in the Upper Salmon Drainage consisted of constructing nine rock sills/weirs, two rock deflectors, placing riprap along forty feet of streambank, construction of 2.1 miles of fence on private lands, and opening up the original Valley Creek channel to provide spring chinook passage to the upper watershed. A detailed stream survey of anadromous fish habitat covering 72.0 miles of streams in the Middle Fork Sub-basin was completed.

Andrews, John ( US Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Boise, ID)

1990-01-01

11

BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

1997-10-24

12

BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

ADAMS, S.M.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.

1998-09-09

13

Ecological condition of the East Fork of the Gila River and selected tributaries: Gila National Forest, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological condition of riparian habitats along the East Fork of the Gila River, Main Diamond Creek, lower South Diamond Creek, and Black Canyon Creek are all in very heavily degraded condition. Channel cross- sections show extensive entrenchment, high width-to-depth ratios, and numer- ous reaches where banks are sloughing into the stream, especially on the East Fork of the Gila River.

Robert D. Ohmart

14

Investigation of Shallow Ground-Water Quality Near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alluvial soils and fill materials in and near the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with various trace metals (primarily mercury), organic compounds, and radionuclides that were lost to the stream as a result ...

J. K. Carmichael

1989-01-01

15

Predicted climate change effects on streambed scour and risks to Chinook salmon survival in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to recent climate warming trends in the Pacific Northwest, the frequency and magnitude of winter floods is expected to increase in some areas where rain-on-snow events occur. Eggs of fall spawning salmonids are incubating in the streambed at this time of year and may be at risk if streambed scour exceeds typical egg burial depths. We investigated how projected trends in streamflow associated with climate change may alter the probability of streambed scour below documented egg burial depths (15-50 cm) for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), central Idaho. Predictions are made for the magnitude and timing of current and future bankfull flows (approximated by the 2-year flood, Q2) at the basin scale by coupling digital elevation models with empirical predictions of grain size and bankfull shear stress, determined from field surveys of 120 channel reaches distributed throughout the basin. Historic and future values of Q2 were derived from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model at the scale of 1/16th degree cells. Future predictions of Q2 were derived from the VIC model using output from an ensemble of Global Climate Models under an A1B emissons scenario for the 2040s and 2080s. Predicted changes in both bankfull flow and the probability of scour to egg burial depths were examined at recent spawning sites (1995-2004 surveys) to assess ecological risk. We found that in the low gradient reaches (Slope <3%) where most spawning occurs, the probability of critical scour was consistently <0.1 under the historic scenario. Future scenarios indicated only a small increase in the length of streams subject to scour in the MFSR, and suggested that this high-elevation system could be largely resistant to climate-driven changes in flow, except under extreme warming scenarios. We are currently extending these analyses to lower elevation basins in rain-dominated and transitional (rain and snow) hydroclimates to assess relative scour sensitivities over a wider range of environmental conditions across the Pacific Northwest.

Goode, J.; Buffington, J. M.; Tonina, D.; Isaak, D.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Wenger, S.; Thurow, R.; Nagel, D.; Luce, C.

2011-12-01

16

Time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River, November 1975; and Elm Fork Trinity River, December 1975; Trinity River Basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In Texas, the time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River and the Elm Fork Trinity River was determined in 1975 by injecting a fluorescent dye (Rhodamine WT, 20-percent solution) that could be detected by fluorometric analysis of water samples collected at selected downstream sites. Plots of dye concentration versus time were made for each injection and sampling site. The graphs were then used to determine arrival times of the leading edge, the peak, and the trailing edge of the dye cloud. The study in November 1975 was conducted on the East Fork Trinity River from just below the Rockwall-Forney Dam at Lake Ray Hubbard to the confluence with the Trinity River, a distance of 27.0 miles. The study in December 1975 was conducted on the Elm Fork Trinity River from just below the dam at Lewisville Lake to the Spur 482 crossing, a distance of 25.7 miles. (Woodard-USGS)

Myers, Dennis R.; Slade, R. M., Jr.

1976-01-01

17

76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project Environmental Impact Statement...integrated hazardous fuels and forest restoration project in the Upper North Fork drainage...environmental analysis under the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. A...

2011-08-03

18

CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION AT THE EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK SITE, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic accidental release of mercury-contaminated material associated with nuclear weapons production at East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulted in stream and floodplain contamination. he EFPC is designated as an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) operable unit under the Comprehensive ...

19

A PRELIMINARY APPRAISAL OF THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF THE EAST FORK WHITE LICK CREEK IN THE WEST FORK WHITE RIVER WATERSHED USING FISH COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological community assessment conducted during July 1997 in response to requests by IDEM's Permits and Modeling Sections in the Office of Water Management to assess potential or existing impacts that may have occurred or may now be occurring in the East Fork White Lick Creek Basin due to run-off of deicing agents used at the Indianapolis International Airport (IIAP).

James R. Stahl; Thomas P. Simon; Eric O. Edberg

1997-01-01

20

Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon?s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

21

Habitat Selection Influences Sex Distribution, Morphology, Tissue Biochemistry, and Parasite Load of Juvenile Coho Salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon's West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals were to compare the body morphology, tissue biochemistry, genetics, and parasite load and determine whether sex,

Kenneth J. Rodnick; Sophie St.-Hilaire; Pavan K. Battiprolu; Steven M. Seiler; Michael L. Kent; Madison S. Powell; Joseph L. Ebersole

2008-01-01

22

Abundance and Run Timing of Adult Salmon in the South Fork Koyukuk River, Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1997. Alaska Fisheries Data Series Number 98-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A resistance board weir was installed on the South Fork Koyukuk River about 32 km above the confluence of the mainstem Koyukuk River and 2 km above Fish Creek. This was the second year of a multiyear salmon escapement study. The weir was in operation from...

D. W. Wiswar

1998-01-01

23

An identification of the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The work in this report was conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, during the period November 1991 through July 1992. The purpose of this study is to identify the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain. This information is required as part of the remedial action plans for removal or containment of contamination within the EFPC floodplain. EFPC and a portion of its floodplain have been contaminated as a result of operations and accidental releases at the Department of Energy`s Y-12 Plant. Mercury is the major contaminant found in EFPC and its floodplain.

NONE

1992-12-01

24

An investigation of shallow ground-water quality near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radio-nuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the U.S. Department of Energy 's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. (USGS)

Carmichael, J. K.

1989-01-01

25

Interaction between hatchery and wild Pacific salmon in the Far East of Russia: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review studies of interactions between hatchery and wild Pacific salmon in the Russian Far East. This includes the role of hatchery practices that result in premature migration to the sea and increased mortality, and data on feeding and territorial competition between juveniles of hatchery and wild origin. In the course of downstream migration many juvenile hatchery salmon are eliminated

O. M. Zaporozhets; G. V. Zaporozhets

2004-01-01

26

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part IV, bed elevation, 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bed elevations were measured every 1 to 5 days during 10 consecutive weeks which included the peak snowmelt runoff, at 43 cross sections in a 1.83-kilometer reach of the East Fork River, Wyoming. Considerable scour and fill were recorded at many of the cross sections. (USGS)

Meade, R. H.; Myrick, R. M.; Emmett, W. W.

1982-01-01

27

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part II, Bed elevations, 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At 39 cross sections in a 3.3-kilometer reach of East Fork River Wyo., bed elevations were measured daily during a month-long period that included the peak snowmelt runoff. Elevations were measured at less frequent intervals for a week before and several weeks after peak runoff. Considerable scour and fill was recorded at many of the cross sections. (USGS)

Meade, Robert H.; Myrick, Robert M.; Emmett, William W.

1980-01-01

28

Waste management plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Plant Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain. The waste management plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the LEFPC remedial action. Most of the solid wastes will be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y- 12 facilities. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, along with possible low-level or mixed wastes (> 35 pCi/g). Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary and capable of being disposed of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant, except sanitary sewage.

NONE

1996-04-01

29

Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices, Volume 4, Appendix V-C  

SciTech Connect

This is the the final verification run data package for pilot scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are data on volatiles, semivolatiles, and TCLP volatiles.

NONE

1994-09-01

30

Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the organization, strategy, and procedures to be used to confirm that mercury concentrations in soils in the remediated areas are statistically less than, or equal to, the cleanup standard of 400 ppm. It focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of the Lower East Fork Popular Creed flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its associated flood plain.

NONE

1996-12-01

31

Waste Management Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain upon completion of remediation activities. This effort will be conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for LEFPC as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) action. The Waste Management Plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the remedial action for the LEFPC Project Most of the solid wastes will be considered to be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y-12 facilities for those types of waste. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, and the possibility of low- level or mixed waste exists (greater than 35 pCi/g), although these are not expected. Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary in nature and which will be capable of being disposed 0214 of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant.

NONE

1996-08-01

32

Quarterly Progress Report on the Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program ( BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.

1996-12-30

33

Data for calibrating unsteady-flow sediment-transport models, East Fork River, Wyoming, 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1975, data to calibrate a one-dimensional unsteady-flow and sediment-transport routing model were collected on a reach of the East Fork River of western Wyoming. The reach, 3.1 miles in length, was immediately upstream from a previously established bedload sampling station. Nineteen channel cross sections were sounded at regular intervals during the spring-runoff period. Four stage recorders provided continuous records of water-surface elevations. Samples of bed material at most of the cross sections were obtaind prior to high water. Streamflow and sediment-discharge measurements were collected at four of the sections. The physiography and hydrology of the contributing watershed, the study reach, and the equipment and techniques used in data collection are described. The bulk of the report is a presentation of data for late May to early June 1975, for which concurrent water discharge data, bedload transport and size data, and cross-section depth measurements were collected. In addition, some data collected in 1973 and 1974 and before and after the calibration period in 1975 are included. (Woodard-USGS)

Mahoney, Holly A.; Andrews, E. D.; Emmett, W. W.; Leopold, L. B.; Meade, R. W.; Myrick, R. M.; Nordin, C. F.

1976-01-01

34

Remedial design work plan for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This remedial action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing contaminated floodplain soil. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (1992). In accordance with the FFA, a remedial investigation (RI) (DOE 1994a) and a feasibility study (DOE 1994b) were conducted to assess contamination of the Lower EFPC and propose remediation alternatives. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative by the feasibility study was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Following the remedial investigation/feasibility study, and also in accordance with the FFA, a proposed plan was prepared to more fully describe the proposed remedy.

NONE

1995-10-01

35

Climate-driven changes in scour regime and potential risks to salmonid survival in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing and magnitude of streamflow in the Pacific Northwest show measurable changes to twentieth century climate change. How the physical characteristics of fluvial systems in this region will respond, and how such changes will affect salmonid species remain unresolved questions. Flow and sediment transport conditions during the spawning and incubation periods are of particular concern. To enhance survival, the depth of egg burial must exceed the depth to which the bed scours during flows within the incubation period. Here, we investigate whether climate-driven shifts in the timing and depth of bed scour will impact salmonid spawning success in the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), Idaho. The MFSR is a snowmelt-dominated system that supports federally listed salmonids, and is the largest unregulated basin in the conterminous US. As a first-order analysis, we ask whether changes in the magnitude and timing of the typical annual flood (i.e., bankfull) will affect scour risk for incubating salmonids. The spatial distribution of critical scour (that which exceeds egg burial depths for different salmonid populations of interest) is predicted at basin scales using current bed material grain size and bankfull shear stress. Grain size and bankfull shear stress are predicted from empirical functions of drainage area and slope determined from field surveys of 121 channel reaches, coupled with digital elevation models to extrapolate these relationships across the landscape. The spatial distribution of critical scour for predicted changes in bankfull flow (altered magnitude and timing) are compared to known salmonid spawning sites within the basin to assess location of scour risk. Future work will examine predicted changes in the magnitude and variability of flows during the incubation period, as well as differences in predicted impacts across a range of hydroclimates (snowmelt- vs. rainfall-dominated basins) in the western US and Europe.

Goode, J.; Buffington, J. M.; Isaak, D.; Tonina, D.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Tockner, K.; Thurow, R.; McKean, J. A.; Luce, C.; Wenger, S.; Nagel, D.

2010-12-01

36

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-07-18

37

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-10-18

38

3. SOUTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SOUTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH FLUME AT THE NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK CROSSING SHOWING ORIGINAL DIMENSIONAL STONE PIER ON WEST BANK AT PHOTO CENTER, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL EAST BANK DIMENSIONAL STONE PIER AT PHOTO LEFT BELOW NEW (ca. 1931) EAST BANK PIER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

39

Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of post-breach reservoir erosion and of geomorphic recovery from the disturbances produced by dam removal has been rapid, far exceeding pre-breach predictions.Table 1: Comparison of Milltown and Condit Dam removals

Wilcox, A. C.

2012-12-01

40

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

2001-01-19

41

Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site (1) is intended as an educational resource, but is also fit for a general audience as it introduces salmon, their habitat, the need for conservation, and salmon fisheries. The next site is from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Fish FAQs (2) and has several pages of salmon FAQs, all of which can be found by using the next button. The third resource from an Anthropology course at Oregon State University (3) gives an account of the changing Columbia River Basin and the status of commercial fisheries in the region. The King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Web site (4) has information on salmon conservation and recovery efforts in King County. Research papers on salmon and other Pacific Northwest fishes are provided on this Northwest Fisheries Science Center page (5). The Web site for the organization Wild Olympic Salmon (6) celebrates the successful recovery of summer chum salmon to Chimacum Creek. The Wild Salmon Center (7), a nonprofit organization formed to protect salmon and their habitat, provides numerous links to salmon conservation information. Some interesting video clips of salmon runs were caught on tape by the King County Salmon Cam (8).

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

42

Quality Assurance Plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This quality assurance plan summarizes requirements for conducting work on the Upper East 9 Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA). The reader is referred to the Expanded Task Work Agreement for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for details regarding the activities, roles, and responsibilities summarized here. UEFPC is designated a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site and thus requires a remedial investigation (RI) and a feasibility study (FS). The RI objectives are to evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminates, to provide data to perform baseline ecological and human health risk assessments, and to support development and evaluation of remedial alternatives for the FS,. Existing data will be used as much as possible. Additional sampling may be required to fill data gaps. The goal of the RI is to prioritize the major sources of contaminants to exit pathways and to understand their characteristics for risk characterization and development of remedial alternatives. The FS objectives are to investigate technologies and develop and evaluate alternatives based on 2031 CERCLA guidance.

NONE

1996-12-01

43

Challenges and opportunities of mercury remediation in East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the release of a large quantity of mercury (Hg) in the 1950s and early 1960s resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in source areas, as well as in water and streambed of the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Remedial actions at Y-12 NSC have reduced Hg inputs into EFPC by >90% since the early 1980s, but the site and EFPC remain contaminated with inorganic Hg and methylmercury, leading to an elevated Hg in biota. The spatial distribution, speciation, and the extent of Hg contamination in the subsurface of the source zone remain poorly understood. Our research aims to both delineate mercury subsurface distribution and mercury transformation at the water-sediment interface where steep biogeochemical gradients are present. We report initial research results on field coring/characterization, where large amounts of Hg were present as elemental Hg beads near the source area. Hg speciation analysis and chemical reduction to decrease Hg from the headwaters of EFPC were also studied. Our work shows the importance of kinetic controls in this system that receives a constant source of inorganic mercury which becomes increasingly complexed with natural dissolved organic matter (DOM, at <3 mg/L) along its flow path. The formation of strong Hg-DOM complexes prevents Hg(II) from being reduced by stannous chloride (SnCl2), and the magnitude of the effect increases with distance downstream. Therefore, field manipulative tests were conducted at the headwater to evaluate chemical reduction using Sn(II) to convert dissolved Hg(II), to dissolved gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0). Our results show that, when Na2S2O3 was used as dechlorinating agent and SnCl2 as the chemical reductant, approximately 35% of the total Hg in the headwater was converted to Hg(0). Additional Hg was mobilized in the drainage pipe by complexation with the added S2O32-. Using ascorbic acid as a dechlorinating agent, however, resulted an effective removal of residue chlorine and also a conversion of ~15% of the Hg(II) to Hg(0). Addition of Sn(II) following dechlorination achieved an overall conversion of Hg(II) to Hg(0) of 92% in the headwater. The fate of residue Hg varies, but often results in methylmercury formation in natural waters. The biogeochemical factors are found to closely link to the type of the bacteria, as shown by the correlation of methylmercury and a sulfate reducer Desulfobulbus spp in EFPC. Efforts continue to seek a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern Hg transformation and behavior, which may provide technology solutions to mitigate the adverse impact on the environment.

Liang, L.; Gu, B.; Brooks, S. C.; Miller, C. L.; He, F.; Elias, D.; Watson, D. B.; Peterson, M. J.

2010-12-01

44

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part III, river hydraulics and sediment transport, 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frequent measurements of river stage, water discharge, sediment-transport rate and particle-size gradation, and river slope were made at 44 cross sections along a 1.83-kilometer reach of East Fork River, Wyoming, during the spring 1980 snowmelt runoff. Data are tabulated and explanatory text facilitates its use for description of river hydraulics and sediment transport. (USGS)

Emmett, W. W.; Myrick, R. M.; Meade, R. H.

1982-01-01

45

Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 5. Appendix V-D  

SciTech Connect

This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 5, Appendix V - D. This appendix includes the final verification run data package (PAH, TCLP herbicides, TCLP pesticides).

NONE

1994-09-01

46

Late Cretaceous Middle Fork caldera and its resurgent granite porphyry intrusion, east-central Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Named for the Middle Fork of the North Fork of the Fortymile River, the Middle Fork caldera encompasses a 10 x 20 km area of rhyolite welded tuff and granite porphyry ~100 km west of the Yukon border. Intracaldera tuff has ?4 mm quartz and feldspar phenocrysts and cm-sized fiamme; its maximum exposed thickness is 850 m. Less densely welded tuff near the caldera margins locally contains 1-2 cm K-feldspar megacrysts and pumice clasts to 6 cm. Zircon from intracaldera tuff yields a SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age of 68.7 ± 1.1 Ma (all ages 95% confidence). Granite porphyry occupies much of an 8 x 12 km area having 650 m of relief within the western part of the caldera fill. Zircon from the porphyry gives a SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age of 68.4 ± 1.0 Ma. These ages agree with a previous 40Ar/39Ar biotite age of 69.1 ± 0.5 Ma for proximal outflow tuff. The crystal-rich intracaldera tuff contains embayed quartz, plagioclase>K-feldspar, biotite, and Fe-Ti oxide phenocrysts in a very fine-grained crystalline groundmass. The porphyry carries 40-50% of larger phenocrysts of the same phases (skeletal quartz to 1 cm; K-feldspar to 2 cm, rarely to 4 cm) in a fine-grained groundmass characterized by abundant 50-100 ?m quartz. Compositions of 3 tuff and 3 porphyry samples overlap, form a limited differentiation series at 69-72% SiO2, have arc geochemical signatures, and yield subparallel chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns with light REE enrichment, concave-upward heavy REE, and small negative Eu anomalies. Although their phenocrysts differ in size (owing to fragmentation of crystals in the tuff) and abundance, the similar mineralogy, composition (in spite of crystal concentration in the tuff), and indistinguishable ages of the tuff and porphyry indicate that the magmas were closely related. A rare magmatic enclave (54% SiO2, arc geochemical signature) in the porphyry may be similar to parental magma and provides evidence of mafic magma and thermal input. The porphyry is interpreted to have been exposed by erosion of thick intracaldera tuff from an asymmetric resurgent dome. The Middle Fork of the North Fork of the Fortymile River cuts an arcuate valley into and around the caldera on the west and north, and may have cut down from an original caldera moat. Proximal outflow tuff, and thus the 69 Ma land surface, remains at the west margin of the caldera structure. The Middle Fork caldera lies within a region of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesozoic plutons bounded by northeast-trending faults. To the northwest, Cretaceous plutonic rocks are widely exposed, indicating greater exhumation. The Middle Fork is a relatively well preserved caldera within a broad region of Alaska and adjacent Yukon that contains Late Cretaceous plutons and, in the less deeply exhumed blocks, silicic volcanic rocks.

Bacon, C. R.; Dusel-Bacon, C.; Aleinikoff, J. N.; Slack, J. F.

2012-12-01

47

Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere.

NONE

1994-09-01

48

Phase 2 confirmatory sampling data report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A Remedial Investigation of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) concluded that mercury is the principal contaminant of concern in the EFPC floodplain. The highest concentrations of mercury were found to be in a visually distinct black layer of soil that typically lies 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in.) below the surface. Mercury contamination was found to be situated in distinct areas along the floodplain, and generally at depths > 20 cm (8 in.) below the surface. In accordance with Comprehensive, Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a feasibility study was prepared to assess alternatives for remediation, and a proposed plan was issued to the public in which a preferred alternative was identified. In response to public input, the plan was modified and US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Record of Decision in 1995 committing to excavating all soil in the EFPC floodplain exceeding a concentration of 400 parts per million (ppm) of mercury. The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) remedial action (RA) focuses on the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the city of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its associated floodplain. Specific areas were identified that required remediation at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Site along Illinois Avenue and at the Bruner Site along the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The RA was conducted in two separate phases. Phase 2, conducted from February to October 1997, completed the remediation efforts at the NOAA facility and fully remediated the Bruner Site. During both phases, data were collected to show that the remedial efforts performed at the NOAA and Bruner sites were successful in implementing the Record of Decision and had no adverse impact on the creek water quality or the city of Oak Ridge publicly owned treatment works.

NONE

1998-01-01

49

Population structure of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta in the Russian Far East, as revealed by microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chum salmon populations in the Russian Far East have a complex multi-level genetic structure. A total of 53 samples (2446\\u000a fish) were grouped into five major regional clusters: the southern Kurils, eastern Sakhalin, southwestern Sakhalin, the Amur\\u000a River, and a northern cluster. The northern cluster consists of chum salmon populations from a vast geographical region, including\\u000a Chukotka, Kamchatka, and the

K. I. Afanas’ev; G. A. Rubtsova; M. V. Shitova; T. V. Malinina; T. A. Rakitskaya; V. D. Prokhorovskaya; E. A. Shevlyakov; L. O. Zavarina; L. T. Bachevskaya; I. A. Chereshnev; V. A. Brykov; M. Yu. Kovalev; V. A. Shevlyakov; S. V. Sidorova; S. I. Borzov; V. P. Pogodin; L. K. Fedorova; L. A. Zhivotovsky

2011-01-01

50

Long-Term Water-Quality Changes in East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee: Background, Trends, and Potential Biological Consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review long-term changes that have occurred in factors affecting water quality in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC; in East Tennessee) over a nearly 25-year monitoring period. Historically, the stream has received wastewaters and pollutants from a major United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility on the headwaters of the stream. Early in the monitoring program, EFPC was perturbed chemically, especially within its headwaters; evidence of this perturbation extended downstream for many kilometers. The magnitude of this perturbation, and the concentrations of many biologically significant water-quality factors, has lessened substantially through time. The changes in water-quality factors resulted from a large number of operational changes and remedial actions implemented at the DOE facility. Chief among these were consolidation and elimination of many effluents, elimination of an unlined settling/flow equalization basin, reduction in amount of blow-down from cooling tower operations, dechlorination of effluents, and implementation of flow augmentation. Although many water-quality characteristics in upper EFPC have become more similar to those of reference streams, conditions remain far from pristine. Nutrient enrichment may be one of the more challenging problems remaining before further biological improvements occur.

Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.; Loar, James M.

2011-06-01

51

Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated

John G Smith; Arthur J Stewart; James M Loar

2011-01-01

52

Investigation of Increased Mercury Levels in the Fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting Oak Ridge's remediation efforts by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of dissolved and colloidal forms of elemental mercury (Hg deg.A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC; MeHg production by these bio-films under anoxic versus oxic conditions was the critical measurement taken. The bench-scale testing for Phase I was completed November 2005. The final reporting and the planning for Phase II testing are in progress. (authors)

Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., (United States); Southworth, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Simms, L. [Bechtel Jacobs Company (United States)

2006-07-01

53

Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

NONE

1994-09-01

54

Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fish kill for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the monitoring of fish kills in upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) from July 1990 to June 1993. Since the opening of Lake Reality (LR) in 1988, total numbers of fish inhabiting upper EFPC have increased. However, species diversity has remained poor. Water quality data have been collected in upper EFPC during the time period covered in this report. Total residual chlorine (TRC) levels have exceeded federal and state water quality criteria over the years. However, with the installation of two dechlorination systems in late 1992, TRC levels have been substantially lowered in most portions of upper EFPC. By June 1993, concentrations of TRC were 0.04 to 0.06 mg/L at the north-south pipes (NSP) and below detection limits at sampling station AS-8 and were 0 to 0.01 mg/L at the inlet and outlet of LR. The daily chronic fish mortality in upper EFPC has been attributed to background stress resulting from the continuous discharge of chlorine into upper EFPC. Mean daily mortality rates for 22 acute fish kills were three fold or more above background and usually exceeded ten fish per day. Total number of dead fish collected per acute kill event ranged from 30 to over 1,000 fish; predominant species killed were central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus). Spills or elevated releases of toxic chemicals, such as acids, organophosphates, aluminum nitrate, ammonia, or chlorine, were identified as possible causative agents; however, a definitive cause-effect relationship was rarely established for any acute kills. Ambient toxicity testing, in situ chemical monitoring, and streamside experiments were used to examine TRC dynamics and ambient toxicity in EFPC.

Etnier, E.L.; Opresko, D.M.; Talmage, S.S. [eds.

1994-08-01

55

Geographic variation and temporal population differentiation of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from some regions of the Russian Far East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme variation of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta was examined in the populations from nine rivers of the Russian Far East. A total of 12 loci were tested, and eight of these\\u000a were shown to be polymorphic. The greatest contribution to the samples differentiation was made by the EST-D1* and sIDHP-2* loci. Most of the allele diversity was distributed among the

E. V. Ivankova; V. V. Efremov

2009-01-01

56

Data that describe at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload; East Fork River, Wyoming, and Fall River, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data from the East Fork River, Wyoming, and the Fall River, Colorado, that document at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload, associated with the downstream migration of dunes, are presented. Bedload sampling was undertaken, using a 76.2 x 76.2 mm Helley-Smith sampler, on three separate occasions at each site in June 1988. In each instance, the sampling time was 30 seconds and the sampling intervals 5 minutes. The sampling period ranged from 4.92 to 8.25 hours. Water stage did not vary appreciably during any of the sampling periods. (USGS)

Gomez, Basil; Emmett, W. W.

1990-01-01

57

Twenty-five years of ecological recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: review of environmental problems and remedial actions.  

PubMed

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects. PMID:21384273

Loar, James M; Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G

2011-06-01

58

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

2011-06-01

59

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy s Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated oncethrough cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody s biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Smith, John G [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL

2011-01-01

60

Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation Wd Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the PCP defines the RCRA post-closure corrective action monitoring requirements for the portion of the groundwater contaminant plume that has migrated into the East Fork Regime ftom the S-3 Ponds, a closed RCW-regulated former surface impoundment located in Bear Creek Valley near the west end of the Y-12 Plant. In addition to the RCIL4 post-closure corrective action monitoring results, this report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 to fulfill requirements of DOE Order 5400.1.

Jones, S.B.

1998-02-01

61

Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several waste-management facilities and a petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) site at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites lie within the boundaries of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to ensure protection of local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy.

NONE

1995-10-01

62

Influence of redox processes and organic carbon on mercury and methylmercury cycling in East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) between 1950- 1963 resulted in contamination of the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) ecosystems. Hg continues to be released into EFPC creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within the Y-12 NSC and outside the facility boundary. In general, methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases. Therefore, our study focuses on ecosystem processes, such as redox driven elemental cycles, sediment characteristics and organic matter quality that favor the production, as well as degradation, of MeHg in the EFPC. Detailed geochemical characterization of the surface water, interstitial pore water, and creek sediments were performed during quarterly sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011 at two locations in EFPC to examine temporal changes in Hg and MeHg concentrations. A longitudinal study of a 20 km portion of the creek and adjacent floodplain was also conducted to examine relationships between Hg, MeHg and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In general, the concentration of Hg decreases downstream as you move away from a know point source of Hg in the system while MeHg concentrations increase in this same reach. Changes in total Hg, both filtered (0.2 ?m) and unfiltered, are not correlated with the concentration or composition of DOM in the system. Significant correlations are observed between dissolved MeHg and absorbent light measurements which reflect the quality of the DOM. The two intensively studied sites in EFPC were located 3.7 km (NOAA) and 20 km (NH) downstream of the headwaters. Vertical profiles of interstitial water collected from fine-grained deposits at the creek margin showed decreases in nitrate, sulfate, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) with depth as well as increases in dissolved manganese, iron, and sulfide. The results indicate the progression of terminal electron accepting processes with depth in the upper 30 cm of these fine grained sediments. Interstitial MeHg concentration also increased with depth suggesting these areas served as a potential source of MeHg to the surface water and biota. In contrast, interstitial water collected from the center channel of the creek did not exhibit these redox gradients. The observed constant or decreasing MeHg concentrations with depth suggest that the interstitial water in the fast flowing sections of the creek is rapidly exchanging with the surface water and these sections do not serve as MeHg sources. Sediment cores were also collected to examine spatial and temporal changes in total Hg and MeHg and ancillary measurements, such as organic carbon, ferrous iron, and sulfide, were performed to examine their correlation with Hg and MeHg in sediments. Large intra- and inter-site variability of Hg distribution in these samples is partly attributed to the very heterogeneous sediment texture that ranged from clay to coarse sand particles. Methylation and demethylation potentials are also being examined using intact sediment cores and enriched stable isotopes to quantify zones of net MeHg production.

Miller, C.; Brooks, S. C.; Kocman, D.; Yin, X.; Bogle, M.

2011-12-01

63

SEDIMENT PARTICLE SIZES USED BY SALMON FOR SPAWNING WITH METHODS FOR EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Size composition of substrates used by chinook salmon for spawning in the South Fork Salmon River, the main Salmon River and tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River, ID was determined. Substrates used by resident trout were analyzed for streams in the Boise and Payette River ...

64

Post-closure permit application for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime at the Y-12 Plant: New Hope Pond and Eastern S-3 ponds plume. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this Post-Closure, Permit Application (PCPA) is to satisfy the post-closure permitting requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-11. This application is for the entire Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV). This PCPA has been prepared to include the entire East Fork Regime because, although there are numerous contaminant sources within the regime, the contaminant plumes throughout the East Fork Regime have coalesced and can no longer be distinguished as separate plumes. This PCPA focuses on two recognized Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units: New Hope Pond (NHP) and the eastern S-3 Ponds plume. This PCPA presents data from groundwater assessment monitoring throughout the regime, performed since 1986. Using this data, this PCPA demonstrates that NHP is not a statistically discernible source of groundwater contaminants and that sites upgradient of NHP are the likely sources of groundwater contamination seen in the NHP vicinity. As such, this PCPA proposes a detection monitoring program to replace the current assessment monitoring program for NHP.

NONE

1995-02-01

65

Phase I remedial design report and remedial action work plan for the lower East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I Remedial Design Report and Remedial Action Work Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been prepared in response to direction from the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. This Phase I action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing portions of the contaminated floodplain soil at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration site (NOAA) site located along EFPC. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant Facility Agreement (1992) by requiring excavation of soils with 400 parts per million (ppm) mercury contaminants.

NONE

1996-03-01

66

Physical Characteristics of Stream Subbasins in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, Southern Minnesota and Northern Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, located in southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

Sanocki, Christopher A.

2000-01-01

67

An archaeological reconnaissance of a 14 mile section of the East Fork Poplar Creek for the Environmental Restoration Project, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, Nashville, Tennessee, an archaeological reconnaissance of the potential impact areas of the Environmental Restoration Project (ERP) along the East Fork Poplar Creek was conducted during the period December 16, 1991, and March 3, 1992. The reconnaissance was conducted in response to environmental evaluations as a result of the accidental spillage of approximately 293,000 pounds of mercury, radionuclides, heavy metals and other compounds. The reconnaissance to assess adverse impacts to cultural resources located within the boundaries of Federally-licensed, permitted, funded or assisted projects was conducted in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and Executive Order 11593.

DuVall, G.D. [DuVall and Associates, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

1993-01-01

68

12. PLANK BRIDGE ON OLD ROAD NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. PLANK BRIDGE ON OLD ROAD NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING EAST - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

69

[Geographic variation and temporal population differentiation of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from some regions of the Russian Far East].  

PubMed

Allozyme variation of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta was examined in the populations from nine rivers of the Russian Far East. A total of 12 loci were tested, and eight of these were shown to be polymorphic. The greatest contribution to the samples differentiation was made by the EST-D1* and sIDHP-2* loci. Most of the allele diversity was distributed among the individuals within the samples. The among-sample differences within races were statistically significant and accounted for slightly more than 7% of total variation. The differences between the races constituted 0.1% and were statistically nonsignificant. Genetic similarity of seasonal races within single locality allowed suggestion on their secondary formation after settling of founder population into a certain region. PMID:19639873

Ivankova, E V; Efremov, V V

2009-06-01

70

Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications  

SciTech Connect

This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites lie within the boundaries of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to ensure protection of local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part I consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part I GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1995 Part I GWQR for the East Fork Regime to the TDEC in February 1996. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality.

NONE

1996-08-01

71

Evaluation of Calendar Year 1997 Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data For The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

1 1.0 INTRODUCTION This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater quality monitoring data reported in: Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwatw Monitoring Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologtc Rep-meat the US. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (AJA Technical Services, Inc. 1998), which is hereafter referenced as the Annual Monitoring Report. Section 2.0 presents background information for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) that is relevant to data evaluation, including brief descriptions of the geology, the groundwater flow system, the contaminant source areas, and the extent of groundwater contamination in the regime. Section 3.0 provides an overview of the groundwater sampling and analysis activities petiormed during calendar year (CY) 1997, including monitoring well locations, sampling frequency and methods, and laboratory analyses. Evaluation and interpretation of the monitoring da% described in Section 4.0, is generally focused on an overview of data quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), long-term concentration trends for selected inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants, and consistency with applicable site-specific conceptual contaminant transport models described in: Report on the Remedial Investigation of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (U.S. Department of Energy 1998), which is referenced hereafter as the Remedial Investigation @I) Report. Findings of the data evaluations are summarized :in Section 5.0 and a list of technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed irdormation (Section 6.0) concludes the report. All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in the text are presented in Appendm A and Appendix B, respectively. Appendix C provides a summary of the analytical results that meet applicable data quality objectives (DQOS) of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program.

Jones, S.B.

1998-09-01

72

Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several waste-management facilities and a petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) site associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The East Fork Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant, encompasses the Y-12 Plant. The regime extends west from a surface water and shallow groundwater divide located near the west end of the plant to Scarboro Road (directions in this report are in reference to the Y-12 Plant grid system unless otherwise noted). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy.

NONE

1995-02-01

73

Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

None

1999-09-01

74

Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the East Fork Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

Not Available

1994-02-01

75

Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors.

Not Available

1992-02-01

76

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part I, River hydraulics and sediment transport, 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bed-material gradation and water-surface slope were determined for a 3.3-kilometer reach of East Fork River, Wyo. During peak snowmelt runoff, frequent measurements of water discharge and sediment-transport rate provided data describing the inflow and outflow of water and sediment. In spring 1979, bankfull stage was exceeded on 8 days. Maximum discharge was about 32 cubic meters per second, which has a recurrence interval of about 2 years. The median particle size of bed material is 1.28 millimeters; the 35 and 65 percentiles are represented by diameters of 0.50 and 2.88 millimeters, respectively. The average water-surface slope in the reach is 0.0007 and varies little with river stage. Bedload-transport rates ranged from a little less than 0.001 to a little more than 0.1 kilograms per meter of channel width per second. Median bedload grain size, with several exceptions, ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 millimeters. Gravel-size particles generally constituted 10 to 40% of the bedload. Suspended-sediment concentrations ranged from 6 to 95 milligrams per liter. Suspended sediment smaller than sand constited about half the measured suspended sediment, ranging from 17 to 81%. (USGS)

Emmett, William W.; Myrick, Robert M.; Meade, Robert H.

1980-01-01

77

Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

Not Available

1993-08-01

78

Final report of the Oak Ridge Task Force concerning public health impacts of the off-site contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek and other area streams  

SciTech Connect

As a result of operations associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a nearby creek, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), became contaminated with mercury and trace levels of other metals, organics and radionuclides. An interagency task force, identified as the Oak Ridge Task Force (ORTF) was organized to investigate the extent of off-site environmental contamination of EFPC and other area streams related to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and to determine if any immediate public health impacts might result from such contamination. Four study groups were established by the ORTF to supervise investigations of fisheries, groundwater, soils, surface water, sediment, and floodplains. A fifth study group was established to perform an evaluation of possible public health impacts. The DOE also authorized several organizations to collect and analyze samples and make field measurements needed by the Task Force. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was authorized to perform an instream contaminant study to determine the extent of contamination of surface water, sediment, fish, and floodplains. The US Geological Survey (USGS) was authorized to determine the extent of groundwater contaminant. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) was charged with determining the extent of contamination of the terrestrial foodchain which might be consumed by humans. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested to provide assistance in health impact assessments. 19 refs., 12 tabs.

Travis, C.C.; Blaylock, B.G.; Daniels, K.L.; Gist, C.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; McElhaney, R.J.; Weber, C.W.

1989-08-01

79

Evaluation of fish kills during November 1986 and July 1987 in upper East Fork Poplar Creek near the Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) investigated two fish kills that occurred on November 21, 1986, and July 9, 1987, in upper East Fork Poplar Creek at the outfall of New Hope Pond (NHP) below the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Investigative procedures included sampling of water at the inlet and outfall of NHP for water quality, examination of operating procedures at the Y-12 Plant and in the biomonitoring program that may have adversely affected the fish populations, review of results of concurrent ambient toxicity tests of the inlet and outfall water of NHP, autopsy investigations of the cause of death of the stonerollers, and laboratory experimentation to evaluate potential causes. The investigations revealed that the cause of death was bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a stress-mediated disease. The specific stressor responsible for the outbreak of the disease was not identified. Several possible stresses were indicated, including elevated concentrations of mercury and chlorine, excessive electroshocking activity, and elevated levels of the pathogen. Cumulative stress due to the combination of several factors was also suggested. Elevated temperatures and overcrowding may have enhanced the spread of the epizootic but were not the primary causes. The impact on the stoneroller population below NHP was not ecologically significant. 23 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Ryon, M.G.; Loar, J.M.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.

1990-09-01

80

Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

NONE

1996-08-01

81

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and survival ranged from 0% to 96%, although there was evidence that some eggs had died after reaching the eyed stage. Six redds were capped in an attempt to document fry emergence, but none were collected. A final hydraulic sampling of the capped redds yielded nothing from five of the six, but 75 dead eggs and one dead fry were found in the sixth. Smothering by fine sediment is the suspected cause of the observed mortality between the eyed stage and fry emergence.

Venditti, David A.

2002-04-01

82

Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications  

SciTech Connect

This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year.

NONE

1994-10-01

83

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

84

Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Smith, John G [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL

2011-01-01

85

Saving the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Students participate in the Salmon in the Schools Program, sponsored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine. Through this collaborative effort, students raise 300 river-specific, wild Atlantic salmon and then release them into the East Machias River at the culminating annual Salmon Release Day Field Trip. In addition to releasing salmon fry into the headwaters of the river, students perform physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the river.

Sprangers, Donald

2004-05-01

86

Two Forks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You, the reader, are a medical investigator on vacation in Two Forks, Idaho. You are called in to investigate an outbreak of salmonellosis, an infectious disease, caused by the Salmonella paratyphi, a bacterium, typically spread from human to human by contaminated water or food. You interview people known to have had contact with the victims, and determine the identity of the disease carrier by deductive reasoning. The story has two layers of built-in interactive hint structures. First, after you do your research, you have an option to solve the mystery or continue for a further hint. If you choose the hint, the story progresses a bit further, you receive a helpful hint, and you again have the option to "solve" or "continue for second hint." If you choose to continue, the story progresses yet further and you receive another hint. Once again you choose to solve or to continue. If you continue, the story progresses and gives you a third (and very useful) hint.

Ken Eklund (WriterGuy REV)

2002-02-18

87

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood floor; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

88

Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents proposed modifications to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). The modifications are proposed to: (1) revise the current text for two of the Permit Conditions included in Permit Section II - General Facility Conditions, and (2) update the PCP with revised versions of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) technical field procedures included in several of the Permit Attachments. The updated field procedures and editorial revisions are Class 1 permit modifications, as specified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) {section}270.42; Appendix I - Classification of Permit Modifications. These modifications are summarized below.

NONE

1997-05-01

89

Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, Basin-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were gathered from May through September 2002 at 76 randomly selected sites in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). Basin characteristics (land use and drainage area) and biolog-ical-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the basin of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Compo-nents Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related using Spearman's rho to the seasonal algal-biomass, basin-charac-teristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, and biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score was not significantly related to the nine habitat or 12 nutrient variables examined. One land-use variable, drainage area, was negatively related to the periphyton PC1. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the periphyton PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent) and one metric score (car-nivore percent metric score). It was positively related to three fish-community attributes (headwater percent, pioneer percent, and simple lithophil percent). The periphyton PC1 was not statistically related to any of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes or metric scores examined. Of the 12 nutrient variables examined two were nega-tively related to the seston PC1 site score in two seasons: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July and September), and TP (May and September). There were no statistically significant relations between the seston PC1 and the five basin-characteristics or nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the seston PC1 was positively related to one attribute (headwater percent) and negatively related to one metric score (large-river percent metric score) . Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metrics exam-ined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one metric score (number of individuals metric score). To understand how the choice of sampling sites might have affected the results, an analysis of the drainage area and land use was done. The sites selected in the Whitewater River Basin were generally small drainage basins; compared to Whitewater River Basin sites, the sites selected in the East Fork White River Basin were generally larger drainage basins. Although both basins were dominated by agricultural land use the Whitewater River Basin sites had more land in agriculture than the East Fork White River Basin sites. The values for nutrients (nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) and chlorophyll a (per-iphyton and seston) were compared to published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) values for Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregions VI and IX and USEPA Level III Ecore-gions 55 and 71. Several nutrient values were greater than the 25th percentile of published USEPA values. Chlorophyll a (periphyton and seston) values were either greater than the 25thpercentile of published USEPA values or they extended data ranges in the Aggregate Nutrient and Level III Ecore-gions. If the values for the 25th percentile as proposes by the USEPA were adopted as nutrient water-quality criteria, many samples in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins would have exceeded the criteria.

Caskey, Brian J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Lowe, B. Scott

2007-01-01

90

2. View to east. Oblique view of downstream side of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View to east. Oblique view of downstream side of bridge and east pier. (135mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

91

BALD ROCK AND MIDDLE FORK FEATHER RIVER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bald Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Areas in California indicate several areas within the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area that have probable mineral-resource potential. A probable potential for placer gold exists at various localities, both in areas covered by Tertiary volcanic rocks and in small streams that drain into the Middle Fork of the Feather River. A probable potential for small deposits of chromite exists in tracts underlain by ultramafic rocks in the Melones fault zone. A probable potential for lead-silver deposits is recognized at the east end of the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area.

Sorensen, Martin, L.; Buehler, Alan, R.

1984-01-01

92

76 FR 29707 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery (Reduction Fishery). The fee...NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Rulemaking, 1315 East-West...

2011-05-23

93

76 FR 61985 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery (Reduction Fishery). The fee...NMFS, Attn.: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Rulemaking, 1315 East-West...

2011-10-06

94

Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum-based flocculent used in the lower reservoir. Suspended-sediment concentrations and turbidity measurements were largest at the site downstream from the lower reservoir. This is because of the large amounts of debris deposited in the lower reservoir from the breach, which in turn were redeposited into the East Fork Black River during releases. When these constituents were plotted over time, the concentrations decreased and were similar to the other two sites in the study. Trend analyses were studied at one site with historical data. No major trends were discovered for streamflow, turbidity, suspended-sediment concentrations, or suspended-sediment discharges before or after the event. Although long-term effects of the elevated turbidity, major trace metals, and suspended sediments in the study area as a result of the reservoir embankment breach are not expected, there could possibly be other effects not measured during this study that could potentially affect the surface-water quality, such as loss of riparian habitat, changes in biological ecosystems, and large-scale reworking of sediments.

Barr, Miya N.

2009-01-01

95

Drosophila forked locus.  

PubMed Central

A 40-kilobase-pair region of the Drosophila X chromosome from band 15F was cloned, and DNA insertions were indentified for the forked alleles f1, f3, f3n, f5, f36a, fs, and fx. The positions of these insertions are consistent with the organization of the two pseudoallelic series present at the forked locus. Three RNAs of 0.8, 2.6, and 3.3 kilobases are transcribed from this chromosomal region. The 0.8-kilobase transcript(s), present at the larval and adult stages, and the 3.3-kilobase transcript, present at each developmental stage, are unaffected by the forked mutations examined. Only the 2.6-kilobase RNA, present exclusively at the pupal stage, was observed to be less abundant in each of the forked mutants analyzed, consistent with this transcript being the product of the forked gene. Images

McLachlan, A

1986-01-01

96

Salmon Patch  

MedlinePLUS

... the head. Salmon patches are different from port-wine stains (discussed as a separate topic) in that ... difference between a salmon patch and a port-wine stain. In the past, port-wine stains and ...

97

1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH FLUME AND CONCRETE DIVERSION DAM SPILLING WATER. CONCRETE ABUTMENTS OF THE ORIGINAL HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE OVER THE NORTH FORK ARE VISIBLE ON EITHER SIDE OF THE DAM. NEW HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE IS VISIBLE ACROSS TOP OF PHOTO. VIEW TO NORTH. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

98

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

99

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

100

LIFE HISTORY MONITORING OF SALMONIDS IN THE WEST FORK SMITH RIVER, UMPQUA BASIN, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

As a life-cycle monitoring basin for the Oregon Salmon Plan, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife has estimated adult returns, distribution and smolt outmigration of coho, chinook and winter steelhead in the West Fork Smith River since 1998. In 2001/2002, the Environmenta...

101

Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

2006-02-01

102

9. OVERVIEW OF THE TOWNSITE, LOOKING EAST Photographic copy of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. OVERVIEW OF THE TOWNSITE, LOOKING EAST Photographic copy of historic photograph. Taken prior to 1929. Original print is located in Lemhi County Historical Museum, Salmon, Idaho. Photographer is unknown. - Leesburg Townsite, Napias Creek, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

103

Martins Fork Lake, Cumberland River Basin, Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dam for Martins Fork Project would be located at mile 15.6 on Martins Fork, a tributary to Clover Fork which, with Poor Fork, forms the beginning of the Cumberland River just below the town of Harlan, Kentucky. The project includes the construction of...

1971-01-01

104

77 FR 19004 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...referendum for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery. DATES: Comments must be submitted...NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway,...

2012-03-29

105

77 FR 41754 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...program in the Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery. NMFS conducted a referendum...NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway,...

2012-07-16

106

Tuning Forks and Monitor Screens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the vibrations of a tuning fork against a computer monitor screen as a pattern that can illustrate or explain physical concepts like wave vibrations, wave forms, and phase differences. Presents background information and demonstrates the experiment. (Author/YDS)

Harrison, M. A. T.

2000-01-01

107

Salmon's Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

Shannon, Thomas A.

1994-01-01

108

11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost span. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

109

12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach from the north road. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

110

Chinook Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can painted wooden fish on a schoolyard fence change human behavior and help clean up the ocean for the real salmon? Stream of Dreams in British Columbia thinks so, and a lot of wooden fish and some 100,000 school kids later, they have some intriguing results to show for their effort. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

111

Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

Devaney, Laurel

112

Dna2 offers support for stalled forks.  

PubMed

The ATR and ATM checkpoint kinases preserve the integrity of replicating chromosomes by preventing the reversal of stalled and terminal replication forks. Hu et al. now show that the ATR pathway targets the Dna2 nuclease to process stalled forks and counteract fork reversal. PMID:22682239

Lai, Mong Sing; Foiani, Marco

2012-06-01

113

The importance of repairing stalled replication forks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial SOS response to unusual levels of DNA damage has been recognized and studied for several decades. Pathways for re-establishing inactivated replication forks under normal growth conditions have received far less attention. In bacteria growing aerobically in the absence of SOS-inducing conditions, many replication forks encounter DNA damage, leading to inactivation. The pathways for fork reactivation involve the homologous

Michael M. Cox; Kenneth N. Kreuzer; David J. Sherratt; Steven J. Sandler; Kenneth J. Marians; Myron F. Goodman

2000-01-01

114

Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

None

2010-01-04

115

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assemblage of fossil sockeye salmon was discovered in Pleistocene lake sediments along the South Fork Skokomish River, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The fossils were abundant near the head of a former glacial lake at 115 m elevation. Large adult salmon are concentrated in a sequence of death assemblages that include individuals with enlarged breeding teeth and worn caudal fins indicating migration, nest digging, and spawning prior to death. The specimens were 4 yr old and 45-70 cm in total length, similar in size to modern sockeye salmon, not landlocked kokanee. The fossils possess most of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O. gorbuscha. This suggests the degree of divergence of these species at about 1 million yr ago, when geological evidence indicates the salmon were deposited at the head of a proglacial lake impounded by the Salmon Springs advance of the Puget lobe ice sheet. Surficial geology and topography record a complicated history of glacial damming and river diversion that implies incision of the modern gorge of the South Fork Skokomish River after deposition of the fossil-bearing sediments.

Smith, Gerald R.; Montgomery, David R.; Peterson, N. Phil; Crowley, Bruce

2007-09-01

116

Salmon Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students infer numbers of a virtual population illustrated within a rectangular sampling grid. They observe the accuracy of the technique in relation to the sample size upon which the estimate is based. This activity offers students an introduction to population sampling, an application of sampling technique, and an opportunity to relate sample size to estimate accuracy. Students learn that much of what is known about salmon and tuna populations is based upon population sampling, and that the assumption that a random sample is representative of the population's overall concentration is key to this strategy.

117

6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located on the pipe floor between Unit 3 and Unit 4, the high pressure CO2 tanks are connected to the generator barrel of all four units. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

118

9. VIEW EAST, STORAGE BUILDING PIERS Imperial Carbon Black ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW EAST, STORAGE BUILDING PIERS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

119

20. General east to west elevated view of Moody Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. General east to west elevated view of Moody Bridge placing it within and in relation to the surrounding rural environment. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

120

Calcitonin Salmon Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

121

Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

122

Salmon Homing Instincts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon Homing Instincts is an activity that enables learners to experience what it is like to be a returning salmon attempting to find its home by smell. Scientific research suggests that salmon use the smell of water to find their home stream; even after being out in the open ocean as many as six years. The activity allows the entire class to participate in the life cycle of the Pacific salmon and the hazards (i.e. pollution) of their journey.

Werner, Deborah

1998-01-01

123

Avoiding chromosome pathology when replication forks collide  

PubMed Central

Chromosome duplication normally initiates via the assembly of replication fork complexes at defined origins1,2. DNA synthesis by any one fork is thought to cease when it meets another travelling in the opposite direction, at which stage the replication machinery may simply dissociate before the nascent strands are finally ligated. But what actually happens is not clear. Here we present evidence consistent with the idea that every fork collision has the potential to threaten genomic integrity. In Escherichia coli this threat is kept at bay by RecG DNA translocase3 and by single-strand DNA exonucleases. Without RecG, replication initiates where forks meet via a replisome assembly mechanism normally associated with fork repair, replication restart and recombination4,5, establishing new forks with the potential to sustain cell growth and division without an active origin. This potential is realised when roadblocks to fork progression are reduced or eliminated. It relies on the chromosome being circular, reinforcing the idea that replication initiation is triggered repeatedly by fork collision. The results reported raise the question of whether replication fork collisions have pathogenic potential for organisms that exploit multiple origins to replicate each chromosome.

Rudolph, Christian J.; Upton, Amy L.; Stockum, Anna; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Lloyd, Robert G.

2013-01-01

124

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

125

Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a baseline release of 1,300 cfs to a maximum release of 25,530 cfs with an overall temperature depression in the lower Clearwater River exceeding 10 C. With continued Dworshak Dam operations as those documented in 1994, there is potential risk to the continued existence of the endangered fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. Additional data and conclusions will be contained in successive years` annual reports.

Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

1995-08-01

126

Migration timing of female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka: diel patterns and effects of maturation state.  

PubMed

Diel patterns of migration and migration speed were compared between reproductive timing phenotypes in female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Females of varying degrees of reproductive maturation were captured on their migration route to the Meadow Creek Spawning Channel (British Columbia, Canada), were tagged with passive-integrated transponders (PIT tags) and were subsequently monitored with stationary receivers. Females showed crepuscular migration timing, with approximately equal detections at dawn and dusk. In particular, peaks of movement were associated with the appearance of the sun over the mountains in the east and the disappearance of the sun over the mountains in the west. Over 25 m, migration speed was 1·0 body lengths (measured as fork length; L(F)) s(-1) and did not depend on maturation state. Over 3 km, migration speed was much slower (0·2-0·3 L(F) s(-1)) than over the short distance, with less mature females migrating more slowly than more mature females. Less mature females appeared to be in less of a hurry to reach breeding areas compared with more mature females. PMID:22957867

Warren, M A; Morbey, Y E

2012-09-01

127

Microsatellite Variation in Populations of Atlantic Salmon from North Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to investigate the level of genetic differentiation in northern European populations of Atlantic salmon, to establish\\u000a the genetic relationship among major salmon populations in Russia and North Norway, and to compare these to populations from\\u000a the western Atlantic lineage. Samples were collected along an east—west axis, from Pechora River in Russia to Restigouche\\u000a River in Quebec, Canada.

Vidar Wennevik; Øystein Skaala; Sergej F. Titov; Igor Studyonov; Gunnar Nævdal

2004-01-01

128

Tuning Fork AFM with Conductive Cantilever  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a self-actuating and self-sensing probe, with an electrically connected, monolithic tip for dynamic AFM. It is based on a quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever. The tuning fork - cantilever assembly opens a new avenue for electrically contacting the tip in a reproducible way. Such a probe can be used for scanned gate microscopy and for atomic

Kaspar Suter; Terunobu Akiyama; Nicolaas F. de Rooij; Andreas Baumgartner; Thomas Ihn; Klaus Ensslin; Urs Staufer

2003-01-01

129

Fifth-wheel fork truck adapter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standard fifth wheel mounted on a rectangular steel structure adapted for use with a fork lift truck provides a fast, safe, and economical way of maneuvering semitrailers in close quarters at plants and warehouses. One operator can move and locate a semitrailer without dismounting from a fork lift truck.

Smith, P. L.

1969-01-01

130

Geometry of forking in simple theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the geometry of forking for U- rank 2 elements in supersimple !-categorical theories and prove stable forking and some structural properties for such elements. We extend this analysis to the case of U-rank 3 elements. Simple theories were defined and initially investigated in 1980 by Shelah ((S2)). In the 90s Kim (and Pillay), inspired by the work of

Assaf Peretz

2006-01-01

131

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume VI : Evaluation of the 2000 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin, and Combined Wild Hatchery Salminids Migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams using Program RealTime.  

SciTech Connect

Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2000 in season outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from nineteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Camas Creek (new), Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek (new), Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, East Fork Salmon River (new), South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for two stocks of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon, from Redfish Lake and Alturas Lake (new); for a subpopulation of the PIT-tagged wild Snake River fall subyearling chinook salmon; for all wild Snake River PIT-tagged spring/summer yearling chinook salmon (new) and steelhead trout (new)detected at Lower Granite Dam during the 2000 outmigration. The 2000 RealTime project began making forecasts for combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams on the mid-Columbia River and the mainstem Columbia River. Due to the new (in 1999-2000) Snake River basin hatchery protocol of releasing unmarked hatchery-reared fish, the RealTime forecasting project no longer makes run-timing forecasts for wild Snake River runs-at-large using FPC passage indices, as it has done for the previous three years (1997-1999). The season-wide measure of Program RealTime performance, the mean absolute difference (MAD) between in-season predictions and true (observed) passage percentiles, improved relative to previous years for nearly all stocks. The average season-wide MAD of all (nineteen) spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs dropped from 5.7% in 1999 to 4.5% in 2000. The 2000 MAD for the hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon ESU was the lowest recorded, at 6.0%, down from 6.7% in 1999. The MAD for the PIT-tagged ESU of wild Snake River fall sub-yearling chinook salmon, after its second season of run-timing forecasting, was 4.7% in 2000 compared to 5.5% in 1999. The high accuracy of season-wide performance in 2000 was largely due to exceptional Program RealTime performance in the last half of the season. Passage predictions from fifteen of the sixteen spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs available for comparison improved in 2000 compared to 1999. The last-half average MAD over all the yearling chinook salmon ESUs was 4.3% in 2000, compared to 6.5% in 1999. Program RealTime 2000 first-half forecasting performance was slightly worse than that of 1999 (MAD = 4.5%), but still comparable to previous years with a MAD equal to 5.1%. Three yearling chinook ESUs showed moderately large (> 10%) MADs. These stocks had larger-than-average recapture percentages in 2000, producing over-predictions early in the season, in a dynamic reminiscent of migration year 1998 (Burgess et al., 1999). The passage distribution of the new stock of hatchery-reared sockeye salmon from Alturas Lake was well-predicted by Program RealTime, based on only two years of historical data (whole-season MAD = 4.3%). The two new run-of-the-river PIT-tagged stocks of wild yearling chinook salmon and steelhead trout were predicted with very good accuracy (whole-season MADs were 4.8% for steelhead trout and 1.7% for yearling chinook salmon), particularly during the last half of the outmigration. First-half steelhead predictions were among the season's worst (MAD = 10.8%), with over-predictions attributable to the largest passage on record of wild PIT-tagged steelhead trout to Lower Granite Dam. The results of RealTime predictions of passage percentiles of combined wild and hatchery-reared salmonids to Rock Island and McNary were mixed. Some of these passage-indexed runs-at-large were predicted with exceptional accuracy (whole-season MADs for coho salmon outmigrating to Rock Island Dam and McNary Dam were, respectively, 0.58% and 1.24%; for yearling chinook to McN

Burgess, Caitlin

1998-07-01

132

Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

2013-01-01

133

South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring  

SciTech Connect

There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

1990-06-01

134

Salmon Population Depleted  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon populations face several serious threats, including pollution, habitat destruction, overfishing, and climate change. In this publication, the reason for the downward spiral of salmon populations is discussed. This video segment features Elders discussing the decline in the local population of salmon, which are at the heart of the cultural identity of the Native American Lummi Nation of Washington State. Fish were very abundant a few decades ago, but now even the fishermen have to buy fish. The background essay explains the many threats that the salmon population faces. There is also a brief description of the salmon lifecycle. The four discussion questions asks the reasons why the salmon population is depleting, and what people can do to help. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

135

13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where strioed traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

136

14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach from the south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

137

World Salmon Ranching  

Microsoft Academic Search

World production of salmon has been increasing steadily in the last decade and has exceeded historic high levels in some geographic areas due to ranching. Ranched salmon currently contribute more than 20 percent of the world supply. Japan has the largest salmon ranching industry, and the U.S.S.R. is close behind. The Soviets plan a five-fold increase in their industry by

W. McNeil

1983-01-01

138

Phenotypic Forking GA with Moving Windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotypic forking GA (p-fGA) which divides the whole search space into sub-spaces using the information of the convergence status of the population and the solutions obtained so far had already been developed. In that work, a neighborhood hypercube was defined around the best individual at the time of forking in the phenotypic feature space with the best solution as

Shigeyoshi Tsutsui; Ashish Ghosh; Masato Takiguchi

1996-01-01

139

Replication forks and replication checkpoints in repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells replicate their DNA and coordinate their response to DNA damage and replication\\u000a blocks by activating appropriate repair processes, regulating recombination, chromatin assembly and\\u000a chromosome partitioning. Replication forks stall at specific problematic genomic regions, and forks\\u000a collapse unless protected by replication checkpoint proteins. These events have been associated with\\u000a recombination and chromosomal rearrangements that lead to genomic instability and

Dana Branzei; Marco Foiani

140

Saving the Salmon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

Sprangers, Donald

2004-01-01

141

Salmon on the Columbia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit explores aspects of the history of salmon in the Columbia Basin. The materials provided for this unit are primarily social studies related, but include topics in both math and science and. Students have the opportunity to explore data using GIS mapping technology. The learning goals include: understanding the historical, cultural, and economic importance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin to both native and European immigrant populations; identifying technological, economic, and environmental factors that contributed to the decline in salmon populations in the Columbia Basin; use GIS and graphing software to analyze and interpret factors related to changes in the Columbia River salmon population over the last century and describe these phenomena in narrative, graphical or mathematical terms as appropriate; and evaluate the effectiveness of recent actions in helping to restore Columbia Basin salmon populations.

Thomas, Rick

142

10. A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE FIRST PIER ON THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE FIRST PIER ON THE EAST END OF THE BRIDGE (NORTH ELEVATION). IT SUPPORTS A SOLID, SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH. CONSIDERABLE SOIL HAS WASHED IN UNDER THE BRIDGE FROM THE BANKS OF THE RAVINE. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Richmond, Wayne County, IN

143

Kingman-Ash Fork Highway, Ash Fork Interstate Freeway in Yavapai County, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is located one-half mile south of the Town of Ash Fork, Arizona. It begins at approximate Milepost 144+ on present U.S. Interstate and Defense Highway 40 and 66 one mile west of Ash Fork and extends easterly 3.41 miles. Construction consists o...

1974-01-01

144

Replication fork inhibition in seqA mutants of Escherichia coli triggers replication fork breakage.  

PubMed

SeqA protein negatively regulates replication initiation in Escherichia coli and is also proposed to organize maturation and segregation of the newly replicated DNA. The seqA mutants suffer from chromosomal fragmentation; since this fragmentation is attributed to defective segregation or nucleoid compaction, two-ended breaks are expected. Instead, we show that, in SeqA's absence, chromosomes mostly suffer one-ended DNA breaks, indicating disintegration of replication forks. We further show that replication forks are unexpectedly slow in seqA mutants. Quantitative kinetics of origin and terminus replication from aligned chromosomes not only confirm origin overinitiation in seqA mutants, but also reveal terminus under-replication, indicating inhibition of replication forks. Pre-/post-labelling studies of the chromosomal fragmentation in seqA mutants suggest events involving single forks, rather than pairs of forks from consecutive rounds rear-ending into each other. We suggest that, in the absence of SeqA, the sister-chromatid cohesion 'safety spacer' is destabilized and completely disappears if the replication fork is inhibited, leading to the segregation fork running into the inhibited replication fork and snapping the latter at single-stranded DNA regions. PMID:24806348

Rotman, Ella; Khan, Sharik R; Kouzminova, Elena; Kuzminov, Andrei

2014-07-01

145

Pacific Salmon Information Via the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Marine Fisheries Service maintains this Pacific Salmon metasite, which covers the life history, habitat, and economic status of salmon, the role of US state fisheries and Canadian agencies in managing salmon stocks, and additional salmon information. From the University of Washington's concise and informative "Salmon Life History" page, to the Pacific Salmon Alliance's proud "Stand up for Canada: Save our Salmon" page, interested users will find much information on the ecology and politics of Salmon.

146

76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is recognized that Eagle Creek stream gage includes flow contributions from the South Fork tributary. For consistency...water use within the North or South Fork drainages. The South Fork and North Fork stream gages would also continue...

2011-02-03

147

15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING RIGHT FORK WITH GATE IN PLACE AND A FEW NEEDLES IN PLACE - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

148

13. ORIGINAL NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. ORIGINAL NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

149

11. OLD BRIDGE AND ROADBED NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. OLD BRIDGE AND ROADBED NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING NORTH - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

150

UHV-Compatible Electrostatically-Driven Tuning Fork Chopper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed an electrostatically driven tuning fork chopper which is compatible with an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. Constructed with a commercially available tuning fork using stainless steel and alumina parts, the chopper is capable of oper...

P. L. Kebabian S. Kallelis D. D. Nelson A. Freedman

1992-01-01

151

Salmon's Atlantic struggle  

SciTech Connect

The combination of acid rain and overexploitation is seriously reducing the population numbers of Atlantic salmon. Efforts have been made to restore salmon populations in tributaries of the ocean. These programs have been successful, but more work is needed to ensure that catches satisfy global demands. Acid rain must be controlled at its source, primarily industrial emissions of sulfur dioxide, and fishing quotas should be implemented. (13 photos)

Deis, R.

1981-02-01

152

Tuning Fork AFM with Conductive Cantilever  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a self-actuating and self-sensing probe, with an electrically connected, monolithic tip for dynamic AFM. It is based on a quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever. The tuning fork - cantilever assembly opens a new avenue for electrically contacting the tip in a reproducible way. Such a probe can be used for scanned gate microscopy and for atomic force probers. Since the probe is self-sensing, the probe can be used in environments where optical readout is not possible. Our probes allows for batch fabrication and assembly.

Suter, Kaspar; Akiyama, Terunobu; de Rooij, Nicolaas F.; Baumgartner, Andreas; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus; Staufer, Urs

2003-12-01

153

State of the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon, like many other species of fish, know no political boundaries. In effect, this makes it hard for humans to craft detailed and meaningful policies for the survival and health of these important creatures. The State of the Salmon is an international consortium that is "dedicated to improving understanding of salmon status and trends across the North Pacific--and building a knowledge network that can inform salmon conservation and management decisions in the future." Given this broad range of cooperation, visitors will not be surprised to find that much of the material featured on the site is available in Russian, English, and Chinese. The materials on the site are divided into several sections, including "Monitoring", "Data & Maps", "Status & Trends", and "Collaborate". The "Data & Maps" area is quite useful, and it features a variety of interactive maps that document existing salmon populations and their movements. Moving on, the "Status & Trends" area provides updates on salmon population trends in Canada, Japan, Russia, and the United States. The site is rounded out by a glossary and information about the organization's basic operating principles.

154

CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING INCLINED STAY CABLES EXTENDING FROM TOP OF TOWER TO DECK. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

155

Using commercially available cantilevers with tuning forks SPM studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and operation of a home-made Atomic Force Microscope(AFM) that uses a tuning fork oscillator as a force detector in noncontact scanning force microscopy mode. In this talk we describe simple method of tip fabrication for the tuning fork that allows us to use a large variation of commercially available tips and apply the tuning fork in

Sergey Rozhok; Venkat Chandrasekhar

2001-01-01

156

George River Salmon Studies, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The George River is a major tributary of the Kuskokwim River and produces Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, chum O. keta, sockeye O. nerka, and coho salmon O. kisutch which contribute to subsistence and commercial salmon fisheries of the Kuskokwim River. ...

C. A. Sheldon J. Clark J. M. Thalhauser

2010-01-01

157

Maintaining genome stability at the replication fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant DNA replication is a major source of the mutations and chromosome rearrangements that are associated with pathological disorders. When replication is compromised, DNA becomes more prone to breakage. Secondary structures, highly transcribed DNA sequences and damaged DNA stall replication forks, which then require checkpoint factors and specialized enzymatic activities for their stabilization and subsequent advance. These mechanisms ensure that

Dana Branzei; Marco Foiani

2010-01-01

158

Homologous Recombination as a Replication Fork Escort: Fork-Protection and Recovery  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows DNA repair and ensures the efficiency of DNA replication. The substrate initiating the process of homologous recombination is a single-stranded DNA that promotes a strand exchange reaction resulting in a genetic exchange that promotes genetic diversity and DNA repair. The molecular mechanisms by which homologous recombination repairs a double-strand break have been extensively studied and are now well characterized. However, the mechanisms by which homologous recombination contribute to DNA replication in eukaryotes remains poorly understood. Studies in bacteria have identified multiple roles for the machinery of homologous recombination at replication forks. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular pathways involving the homologous recombination machinery to support the robustness of DNA replication. In addition to its role in fork-recovery and in rebuilding a functional replication fork apparatus, homologous recombination may also act as a fork-protection mechanism. We discuss that some of the fork-escort functions of homologous recombination might be achieved by loading of the recombination machinery at inactivated forks without a need for a strand exchange step; as well as the consequence of such a model for the stability of eukaryotic genomes.

Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A. E.

2012-01-01

159

Salmon Falls Creek Fish Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Salmon Falls Creek fisheries and instream habitat was investigated between Lily Grade and Salmon Falls Creek Dam in 1994. This reach of Salmon Falls Creek is within a remote, narrow steep canyon with limited access. The source of most of the water within ...

C. D. Warren F. E. Partridge

1995-01-01

160

Effects of Surgically and Gastrically Implanted Radio Transmitters on Growth and Feeding Behavior of Juvenile Chinook Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters (representing 2.3–5.5% of body weight) on the growth and feeding behavior of 192 juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (114–159 mm in fork length). Throughout the 54-d study, the 48 fish with transmitters in their stomachs (gastric fish) consistently grew more slowly than fish with surgically implanted transmitters (surgery fish),

Noah S. Adams; Dennis W. Rondorf; Scott D. Evans; Joseph E. Kelly

1998-01-01

161

Growth and physiological responses to surgical and gastric radio transmitter implantation techniques in subyearling chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of surgical and gastric transmitter implantation techniques on the growth, general physiology and\\u000a behavior of 230 subyearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Walbaum) (100 mm–154 mm fork length). The transmitter weighed 1.3 g in air (0.9 g in water) and comprised, on average, 6%\\u000a of the body weight of the fish (in air). Individuals were randomly assigned

T. L. Martinelli; H. C. Hansel; R. S. Shively

1998-01-01

162

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability.

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

163

The Effects of Chilean Coho Salmon and Rainbow Trout Aquaculture on Markets for Alaskan Sockeye Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simultaneous-equation equilibrium model of international salmonid markets is used to examine the combined effect of variability in the landings of Alaska's sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and increases in the production of Chile's Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon O. kisutch, and rainbow trout O. mykiss on Alaska's sockeye salmon exvessel prices and revenues. While Atlantic salmon, coho salmon, and

Abby Williams; Mark Herrmann; Keith R. Criddle

2009-01-01

164

A 400CPS Tuning Fork Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tuning fork filter as a new circuit component offers certain advantages in terms of frequency stability and large values of Q. An eleven-element comb filter is described in which each filter element has a bandwidth of 0.5 cps or a Q of 800, a 26-db insertion loss, and a 40-db rejection ratio. The frequency is constant to within 0.01

John O'Connor

1960-01-01

165

Nonlinear dynamics of MEMS turning fork gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy improvement of MEMS gyros requires not only microelectronic development but also the investigations of the mathematical\\u000a model of sensitive element dynamics. In the present paper, we study the errors of the vibrating microgyroscope which arise\\u000a because of nonlinear dynamics of a sensitive element. A MEMS tuning fork gyroscope with elastic rods is considered. Nonlinear\\u000a differential equations of bending vibrations

Yu. G. Martynenko; I. V. Merkuryev; V. V. Podalkov

2011-01-01

166

The forked flap repair for hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The “Forked-Flap” repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip–flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit's prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

Chadha, Anil; Singh, Amitabh

2012-01-01

167

Impacts of multispecies parasitism on juvenile Oregon coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We are studying the impacts of parasites on threatened stocks of Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In our previous studies, we have found high infections of digeneans and myxozoans in coho salmon parr from the lower main stem of West Fork Smith River (WFSR), Oregon. In contrast parr from tributaries of this river, and outmigrating smolts, harbor considerably less parasites. Thus, we have hypothesized that heavy parasite burdens in parr from this river are associated with poor overwintering survival. The objective of the current study was to ascertain the possible effects these parasites have on smolt fitness. We captured parr from the lower main stem and tributaries of WFSR and held them in the laboratory to evaluate performance endpoints of smolts with varying degrees of infection by three digeneans (Nanophyetus salmincola, Apophallus sp., and neascus) and one myxozoan (Myxobolus insidiosus). The parameters we assessed were weight, fork length, growth, swimming stamina, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. We repeated our study on the subsequent year class and with hatchery reared coho salmon experimentally infected with N. salmincola. The most significant associations between parasites and these performance or fitness endpoints were observed in the heavily infected groups from both years. We found that all parasite species, except neascus, were negatively associated with fish fitness. This was corroborated for N. salmincola causing reduced growth with our experimental infection study. Parasites were most negatively associated with growth and size, and these parameters likely influenced the secondary findings with swimming stamina and ATPase activity levels.

Ferguson, Jayde A.; Romer, Jeremy; Sifneos, Jean C.; Madsen, Lisa; Schreck, Carl B.; Glynn, Michael; Kent, Michael L.

2011-01-01

168

Pink and Chum Salmon Prediction Studies, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue consists of the following reports: Puget Sound Pink Salmon forecast for 1971, hydraulic sampling technique; Puget Sound Chum Salmon forecast for 1972, hydraulic sampling technique; Puget Sound Pink Salmon forecast for 1971, juvenile abusdance te...

R. C. Johnson D. W. Heiser R. J. Gerke S. B. Mathews

1972-01-01

169

Saving Coho Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how they’re looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call “the vortex of extinction.

Kqed

2012-08-08

170

Ocean Salmon Fishery Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

California ocean salmon fisheries are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) under the federal Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. This chapter describes the ocean fisheries impacting California Central Valley (CV) chinook stocks, the federal regulatory process that is followed in managing these ocean fisheries, and discusses alternative management mea- sures for protecting valuable natural resources. The CV

L. B. Boydstun

171

7. A DETAIL, TAKEN FROM THE EAST END OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. A DETAIL, TAKEN FROM THE EAST END OF THE BRIDGE. THIS IMAGE SHOWS THE MODERN, EDGE-LAID 2" X 4" DIMENSIONED LUMBER AS DECKING. - Freedom Bridge, Spanning West Fork of White River at County Road 590 South, Freedom, Owen County, IN

172

Oblique perspective, due east by 70 degrees. Note concrete pier, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique perspective, due east by 70 degrees. Note concrete pier, added CA. 1930's. Other piers and abutments are heavily mortared rubble stone. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

173

The Fight Over Pacific Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

174

Senataxin Associates with Replication Forks to Protect Fork Integrity across RNA-Polymerase-II-Transcribed Genes  

PubMed Central

Summary Transcription hinders replication fork progression and stability. The ATR checkpoint and specialized DNA helicases assist DNA synthesis across transcription units to protect genome integrity. Combining genomic and genetic approaches together with the analysis of replication intermediates, we searched for factors coordinating replication with transcription. We show that the Sen1/Senataxin DNA/RNA helicase associates with forks, promoting their progression across RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-transcribed genes. sen1 mutants accumulate aberrant DNA structures and DNA-RNA hybrids while forks clash head-on with RNAPII transcription units. These replication defects correlate with hyperrecombination and checkpoint activation in sen1 mutants. The Sen1 function at the forks is separable from its role in RNA processing. Our data, besides unmasking a key role for Senataxin in coordinating replication with transcription, provide a framework for understanding the pathological mechanisms caused by Senataxin deficiencies and leading to the severe neurodegenerative diseases ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4.

Alzu, Amaya; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Begnis, Martina; Lucca, Chiara; Piccini, Daniele; Carotenuto, Walter; Saponaro, Marco; Brambati, Alessandra; Cocito, Andrea; Foiani, Marco; Liberi, Giordano

2012-01-01

175

[Seasonal and interannual variations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) microsatellite DNA in two Kamchatka lake-river systems].  

PubMed

Seasonal and interannual variations in the sockeye salmon populations from two lake-river systems of the East and West Kamchatka were studied. Stability of allele and genotypic frequencies of six microsatellite DNA loci in the adjacent generations and spawning populations of the sockeye salmon of the Bol'shaya River was confirmed experimentally. The pairwise intersample differentiation (F(st)) of the local sockeye salmon populations from the southwestern Kamchatka coast (Ozernaya and Bol'shaya Rivers)was almost 7 times higher than the corresponding values for the spawning populations of the Bol'shaya River sockeye salmon of the adjacent years; 15 times, for the adjacent Bol'shaya River sockeye salmon generations; and four times, for the seasonal races within the Kamchatka River. PMID:18767543

Khrustaleva, A M; Zelenina, D A

2008-07-01

176

Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

Rolland, J. B.; Winton, J. R.

2003-01-01

177

Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the efficacy of using an acoustic camera to count adult migrant Chinook salmon as they make their way to the spawning grounds on the Secesh River and Lake Creek. A phased approach to applying the acoustic camera was proposed, starting with testing and evaluation in spring 2003, followed by a full implementation in 2004 and 2005. The goal of this effort is to better assess the early run components when water clarity and night visibility preclude the use of optical techniques. A single acoustic camera was used to test the technology for enumerating adult salmon passage at the Secesh River. The acoustic camera was deployed on the Secesh at a site engineered with an artificial substrate to control the river bottom morphometry and the passage channel. The primary goal of the analysis for this first year of deployment was to validate counts of migrant salmon. The validation plan involved covering the area with optical video cameras so that both optical and acoustic camera images of the same viewing region could be acquired simultaneously. A secondary test was contrived after the fish passage was complete using a controlled setting at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, in which we tested the detectability as a function of turbidity levels. Optical and acoustic camera multiplexed video recordings of adult Chinook salmon were made at the Secesh River fish counting station from August 20 through August 29, 2003. The acoustic camera performed as well as or better than the optical camera at detecting adult Chinook salmon over the 10-day test period. However, the acoustic camera was not perfect; the data reflected adult Chinook salmon detections made by the optical camera that were missed by the acoustic camera. The conditions for counting using the optical camera were near ideal, with shallow clear water and good light penetration. The relative performance of the acoustic camera is expected to be even better than the optical camera in early spring when water clarity and light penetration are limited. Results of the laboratory tests at the Pacific North

Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

2004-01-01

178

Development of a freeride mountain bike suspension fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the benefit of engineers working outside the bicycle industry, this paper describes some engineering considerations related to the development of a new model full suspension bicycle fork. The impact of market forces on the development process is considered, and a description of various design tools currently in use is provided. A detailed model of a new fork travel adjustment

Jeff Baltes; Cory Sutela; Rob Redfield

2008-01-01

179

33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

2010-07-01

180

33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

2013-07-01

181

33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

2009-07-01

182

9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF LAKE FORK CANAL, UINTAH PROJECT. TWO SLUICEWAYS TWENTY FEET WIDE HAVE BEEN LEFT IN THE DAM TO PASS BOULDERS DURING HIGH WATER. THESE SLUICEWAYS ARE CLOSED BY LOGS AND HAY DURING LOW WATER.' Date unknown - Irrigation Canals in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne, Duchesne County, UT

183

14. NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE DECK UNDER RECONSTRUCTION. REINFORCING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE DECK UNDER RECONSTRUCTION. REINFORCING ROD IN PLACE. PHOTO BY CARL E. JEPSON, 29 JANUARY 1960. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

184

UHV-compatible electrostatically driven tuning fork chopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an electrostatically driven tuning fork chopper which is compatible with an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. Constructed with a commercially available tuning fork using stainless steel and alumina parts, the chopper is capable of operating while exposed to high temperature samples and corrosive gases. Operation in an UHV environment while modulating both optical and molecular beams is demonstrated.

Paul L. Kebabian; Spiros Kallelis; David D. Nelson Jr.; Andrew Freedman

1993-01-01

185

UHV-compatible electrostatically-driven tuning fork chopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an electrostatically driven tuning fork chopper which is compatible with an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. Constructed with a commercially available tuning fork using stainless steel and alumina parts, the chopper is capable of operating while exposed to high temperature samples and corrosive gases. Operation in a UHV environment while modulating both optical and molecular beams is demonstrated.

Paul L. Kebabian; Spiros Kallelis; David D. Nelson Jr.; Andrew Freedman

1992-01-01

186

UHV-compatible electrostatically-driven tuning fork chopper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an electrostatically driven tuning fork chopper which is compatible with an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. Constructed with a commercially available tuning fork using stainless steel and alumina parts, the chopper is capable of operating while exposed to high temperature samples and corrosive gases. Operation in a UHV environment while modulating both optical and molecular beams is demonstrated.

Kebabian, Paul L.; Kallelis, Spiros; Nelson, David D., Jr.; Freedman, Andrew

1992-09-01

187

Fracture analysis of forks of a heavy duty lift truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture of the two forks of a heavy duty lift truck in operation at a harbour is described and discussed. The failure analysis included: mechanical tests for characterisation of the material, including tensile and Charpy tests; the study of a previous repair by welding carried out in one of the forks and the identification of consequential weld defects; the

M. V Figueiredo; F. M. F Oliveira; J. P. M Gonçalves; P. M. S. T de Castro; A. A Fernandes

2001-01-01

188

Replisome assembly and the direct restart of stalled replication forks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure to reactivate either stalled or collapsed replication forks is a source of genomic instability in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, dedicated fork repair systems that involve both recombination and replication proteins have been identified genetically and characterized biochemically. Replication conflicts are solved through several pathways, some of which require recombination and some of which operate directly at the

Ryan C. Heller; Kenneth J. Marians

2006-01-01

189

Fin development in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To determine the effect of development and environment on fin growth, we measured fin lengths of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from two hatcheries (August, October and April-May), stream-reared fish (July and October) stocked as fry into two tributaries, and smelts from the main stem of the Connecticut River (May). For stream-reared parr, there was a linear relationship between the dorsal, caudal and anal fins with fork length, while the pectoral, pelvic and adipose fins exhibited a curvilinear relationship with fork length. Parr from a high gradient stream had larger caudal fins than fish from a low gradient stream, but other fins did not differ. Regression lines for the fins of stream-reared smelts were all linear when fin length was regressed against fork length. Stream-reared parr had larger pectoral, pelvic and anal fins than smolts of similar size while dorsal and caudal fin lengths did not differ. Regression equations formulated using the fins of stream-reared parr were used to calculate the percent difference (100 x observed fin length/expected) in fin lengths between stream- and hatchery-reared parr. The pelvic, adipose, caudal and anal fins of hatchery-reared parr showed no signs of degeneration by the first sampling period 7 months after hatching, whereas degeneration in the pectoral (13-20%) and dorsal (15-18%) fins was evident at this time. By the end of the study, degeneration was present in every fin except the adipose, with the pectoral (35-65%) and dorsal (32-58%) fins exhibiting the greatest amount of fin loss. All fins of hatchery-reared parr became shorter with time. There were minor differences in fin degeneration among parr from the two hatcheries, but the overall pattern of decreasing fin size was similar, indicating a common cause of fin degeneration. Comparison of stream- and hatchery-reared fish is a valuable means of determining the impact of captive environments on fin growth.

Pelis, R. M.; McCormick, S. D.

2003-01-01

190

Seasonal and interannual variations of sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) microsatellite DNA in two Kamchatka lake-river systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal and interannual variations in the sockeye salmon populations from two lake-river systems of the East and West Kamchatka\\u000a were studied. Stability of allele and genotypic frequencies of six microsatellite DNA loci in the adjacent generations and\\u000a spawning populations of the sockeye salmon of the Bol’shaya River was confirmed experimentally. The pairwise intersample differentiation\\u000a (F\\u000a st) of the local sockeye

A. M. Khrustaleva; D. A. Zelenina

2008-01-01

191

Wild and hatchery reproduction of pink and chum salmon and their catches in the Sakhalin-Kuril region, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Sakhalin-Kuril region hatchery culture of pink and chum salmon is of great importance compared to other regions of\\u000a the Russian Far East. During the last 30 years the number of hatcheries increased two-fold, and significant advances were\\u000a made in hatchery technologies. As a result, chum salmon capture in regions where hatcheries operate (southwestern and eastern\\u000a Sakhalin coasts, and Iturup

Alexander M. Kaev

192

Using commercially available cantilevers with tuning forks SPM studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and operation of a home-made Atomic Force Microscope(AFM) that uses a tuning fork oscillator as a force detector in noncontact scanning force microscopy mode. In this talk we describe simple method of tip fabrication for the tuning fork that allows us to use a large variation of commercially available tips and apply the tuning fork in different SPM applications like AFM, MFM, and STM. Due to the high performance of commercial tips and identical characteristics (at least within one package) we achieve high reproducibility of microscopy results. The quality factor Q of the tuning fork with mounted tip remains as high as the initial Q of bare tuning fork. Here, the resonant frequency is reduced only at 20 Hz.

Rozhok, Sergey; Chandrasekhar, Venkat

2001-03-01

193

WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

194

Fanconi anemia proteins stabilize replication forks  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to crosslinking agents that has been attributed to defects in DNA repair and/or replication. FANCD2 and the FA core complex bind to chromatin during DNA replication; however, the role of FA proteins during replication is unknown. Using Xenopus cell-free extracts, we show that FANCL depletion results in defective DNA replication restart following treatment with camptothecin, a drug that results in DSBs during DNA replication. This defect is more pronounced following treatment with mitomycin C, presumably because of an additional role of the FA pathway in DNA crosslink repair. Moreover, we show that binding of FA core complex proteins during DNA replication follows origin assembly and origin firing and is dependent on the binding of RPA to ssDNA while FANCD2 additionally requires ATR, consistent with FA proteins acting at replication forks. Together, our data suggest that FA proteins play a role in replication restart at collapsed replication forks.

Chien Wang, Lily; Stone, Stacie; Hoatlin, Maureen Elizabeth; Gautier, Jean

2008-01-01

195

MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL  

EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

196

78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...

2013-10-22

197

25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. The ARU130HK50 battery charger is visible in left foreground of photograph, with the A-40 backup battery charger visible adjacent to and beyond the ARU130HK50. The racks of 60 KCU-7 lead calcium batteries manufactured by C&D Batteries are visible in the center of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

198

ATR phosphorylates SMARCAL1 to prevent replication fork collapse  

PubMed Central

The DNA damage response kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) coordinates much of the cellular response to replication stress. The exact mechanisms by which ATR regulates DNA synthesis in conditions of replication stress are largely unknown, but this activity is critical for the viability and proliferation of cancer cells, making ATR a potential therapeutic target. Here we use selective ATR inhibitors to demonstrate that acute inhibition of ATR kinase activity yields rapid cell lethality, disrupts the timing of replication initiation, slows replication elongation, and induces fork collapse. We define the mechanism of this fork collapse, which includes SLX4-dependent cleavage yielding double-strand breaks and CtIP-dependent resection generating excess single-stranded template and nascent DNA strands. Our data suggest that the DNA substrates of these nucleases are generated at least in part by the SMARCAL1 DNA translocase. Properly regulated SMARCAL1 promotes stalled fork repair and restart; however, unregulated SMARCAL1 contributes to fork collapse when ATR is inactivated in both mammalian and Xenopus systems. ATR phosphorylates SMARCAL1 on S652, thereby limiting its fork regression activities and preventing aberrant fork processing. Thus, phosphorylation of SMARCAL1 is one mechanism by which ATR prevents fork collapse, promotes the completion of DNA replication, and maintains genome integrity.

Couch, Frank B.; Bansbach, Carol E.; Driscoll, Robert; Luzwick, Jessica W.; Glick, Gloria G.; Betous, Remy; Carroll, Clinton M.; Jung, Sung Yun; Qin, Jun; Cimprich, Karlene A.; Cortez, David

2013-01-01

199

Wireless tuning fork gyroscope for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a Bluetooth enabled wireless tuning fork gyroscope for the biomedical applications, including gait phase detection system, human motion analysis and physical therapy. This gyroscope is capable of measuring rotation rates between -90 and 90 and it can read the rotation information using a computer. Currently, the information from a gyroscope can trigger automobile airbag deployment during rollover, improve the accuracy and reliability of GPS navigation systems and stabilize moving platforms such as automobiles, airplanes, robots, antennas, and industrial equipment. Adding wireless capability to the existing gyroscope could help to expand its applications in many areas particularly in biomedical applications, where a continuous patient monitoring is quite difficult. This wireless system provides information on several aspects of activities of patients for real-time monitoring in hospitals.

Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

2003-07-01

200

XRCC3 and Rad51 Modulate Replication Fork Progression on Damaged Vertebrate Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which the progression of eukaryotic replication forks is controlled after DNA damage are unclear. We have found that fork progression is slowed by cisplatin or UV treatment in intact vertebrate cells and in replication assays in vitro. Fork slowing is reduced or absent in irs1SF CHO cells and XRCC3?\\/? chicken DT40 cells, indicating that fork slowing is

Judith Henry-Mowatt; Dean Jackson; Jean-Yves Masson; Penny A Johnson; Paula M Clements; Fiona E Benson; Larry H Thompson; Shunichi Takeda; Stephen C West; Keith W Caldecott

2003-01-01

201

New histone supply regulates replication fork speed and PCNA unloading  

PubMed Central

Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show that replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and efficient nucleosome assembly. Inhibition of canonical histone biosynthesis impaired replication fork progression and reduced nucleosome occupancy on newly synthesized DNA. Replication forks initially remained stable without activation of conventional checkpoints, although prolonged histone deficiency generated DNA damage. PCNA accumulated on newly synthesized DNA in cells lacking new histones, possibly to maintain opportunity for CAF-1 recruitment and nucleosome assembly. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that PCNA unloading is delayed in the absence of nucleosome assembly. We propose that coupling of fork speed and PCNA unloading to nucleosome assembly provides a simple mechanism to adjust DNA replication and maintain chromatin integrity during transient histone shortage.

Mejlvang, Jakob; Feng, Yunpeng; Alabert, Constance; Neelsen, Kai J.; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Zhao, Xiaobei; Lees, Michael; Sandelin, Albin; Pasero, Philippe; Lopes, Massimo

2014-01-01

202

33 CFR 117.315 - New River, South Fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.315 New River, South Fork. (a) The draw of the Davie Boulevard (SW. Twelfth Street) bridge,...

2013-07-01

203

33 CFR 117.307 - Miami River, North Fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.307 Miami River, North Fork. The draw of the FDOT Railroad Bridge, mile 5.3 at Miami, shall open...

2013-07-01

204

Mechanisms of replication fork restart in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Replication of the genome is crucial for the accurate transmission of genetic information. It has become clear over the last decade that the orderly progression of replication forks in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is disrupted with high frequency by encounters with various obstacles either on or in the template strands. Survival of the organism then becomes dependent on both removal of the obstruction and resumption of replication. This latter point is particularly important in bacteria, where the number of replication forks per genome is nominally only two. Replication restart in Escherichia coli is accomplished by the action of the restart primosomal proteins, which use both recombination intermediates and stalled replication forks as substrates for loading new replication forks. These reactions have been reconstituted with purified recombination and replication proteins.

Marians, Kenneth J

2004-01-01

205

MUS81-EME2 Promotes Replication Fork Restart.  

PubMed

Replication forks frequently stall at regions of the genome that are difficult to replicate or contain lesions that cause replication blockage. An important mechanism for the restart of a stalled fork involves endonucleolytic cleavage that can lead to fork restoration and replication progression. Here, we show that the structure-selective endonuclease MUS81-EME2 is responsible for fork cleavage and restart in human cells. The MUS81-EME2 protein, whose actions are restricted to S phase, is also responsible for telomere maintenance in telomerase-negative ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres) cells. In contrast, the G2/M functions of MUS81, such as the cleavage of recombination intermediates and fragile site expression, are promoted by MUS81-EME1. These results define distinct and temporal roles for MUS81-EME1 and MUS81-EME2 in the maintenance of genome stability. PMID:24813886

Pepe, Alessandra; West, Stephen C

2014-05-22

206

Salmon Move into Deeper Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For generations, Native Americans have depended on their observations of nature for their survival. In this video segment adapted from Northwest Indian College, an Elder recalls how fishermen suspected the water was warming after observing salmon retreating to deeper waters.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-03-31

207

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.

Wgbh; Domain, Teachers'

208

DNA Polymerases at the Eukaryotic Fork - 20 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Function of the eukaryotic genome depends on efficient and accurate replication of anti-parallel DNA strands. Eukaryotic DNA polymerases have different properties adapted to perform a wide spectrum of DNA transactions. Here we focus on major players in the bulk replication, DNA polymerases of the B-family. We review the organization of the replication fork in eukaryotes in a historical perspective, analyze contemporary models and propose a new integrative model of the fork.

Pavlov, Youri I.; Shcherbakova, Polina V.

2009-01-01

209

A micromachined comb-drive tuning fork rate gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of single-crystal and polysilicon tuning fork gyroscopes of very small size and low cost using microfabrication technology is reported. These tuning fork gyroscopes are extremely rugged, inherently balanced, and easy to fabricate. For a 1-mm gyroscope, projected performance is 10 to 100°\\/hr for bias stability and for resolution in a 60-Hz bandwidth. To date, 5000°\\/hr in a 60

J. Bernstein; S. Cho; A. T. King; A. Kourepenis; P. Maciel; M. Weinberg

1993-01-01

210

Dynamic behavior of the tuning fork AFM probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently introduced a new self-actuating and self-sensing atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-fabricated cantilever. This system has two degrees of freedom, associated with its two components. We developed a model for describing how the sample-tip interaction is transduced to the tuning fork. It is based on two coupled spring-mass systems. In

Dara Bayat; Terunobu Akiyama; Nicolaas F. de Rooij; Urs Staufer

2008-01-01

211

Scanning Probe Microscopy of DNA with a Quartz Tuning Fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quartz tuning-forks have recently been put to use as highly sensitive force detectors in atomic force microscopy (AFM).(F.J.Giessibl et al.), Science 289, 422 (2000). In this study we have applied a home-built, tuning-fork based AFM to the investigation of single and double stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA). We operate the microscope in the non-contact mode (typical tip amplitude ~1 nm)

G. M. King; G. Nunes Jr.

2001-01-01

212

Novel Distribution of Influenza Vaccine in Grand Forks, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISSUE: In 2001, only 56.2% of Grand Forks (GF) County residents >65 years of age received influenza vaccination (Medicare data).PROJECT: Vaccine availability, parking, appointments, waiting, and weather are barriers to influenza vaccination. For 2 years, the Greater Grand Forks Immunization Coalition has collaborated with its partners, including GF Public Health and Altru Health System, to sponsor Drive-Through Flu Shot Clinics.

K. Dunn

2004-01-01

213

Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C. R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J. E.

2000-01-01

214

Stock Origins of Chinook Salmon in the Area of the Japanese Mothership Salmon Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The record catch of 704,000 chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by the Japanese mothership salmon fishery in 1980 intensified concern about the effect of high seas interceptions of salmon reared in North America. The goal of this study was to update and refine estimates of the relative proportions of Asian and North American chinook salmon stocks in the mothership fishery area

Katherine W. Myers; Colin K. Harris; Curtis M. Knudsen; Robert V. Walker; Nancy D. Davis; Donald E. Rogers

1987-01-01

215

Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

2013-12-01

216

Growth of Premigratory Chinook Salmon in Seawater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potential demand exists in sea farming for premigratory juvenile Pacific salmon that have been acclimated to seawater. This paper reports experiments on growth of premigratory chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acclimated to water of 33% salinity...

B. M. Kepshire W. J. McNeil

1971-01-01

217

John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1999-2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest populations of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the entire Columbia River basin. Spring chinook salmon in this basin are therefore, used as an important index stock to measure the effects of future management actions on other salmon stocks in the Columbia basin. To meet the data requirements as an index stock, we estimated annual spawner escapement, age-structure, and smolt-to-adult survival. This information will allow us to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. To estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates, 1,852 chinook smolts were tagged with PIT tags from 3 March to 5 May, 2000. Length of captured smolts varied, ranging from 80 to 147 mm fork length (mean = 113 mm). These fish will be monitored for PIT tags as returning adults at dams and during future spawning ground surveys. During spawning ground surveys, a total of 351.3 km of stream were surveyed resulting in the observation of 478 redds. When expanded, we estimated total number of redds at 481 and total number of spawners at 1,583 fish in the John Day River basin. We estimated that 13% of the redds were in the mainstem John Day, 27% in the Middle Fork, 34% in the North Fork, and 26% were in the Granite Creek basin. Sampled carcasses had a sex ratio comprised of 53% females and 47% males with an age structure comprised of 0.5% age-2, 6.3% age-3, 88.7% age-4, and 4.5% age-5 fish. Five of the 405 carcasses examined had fin clips suggesting they were of hatchery origin. The 1999 index redd count total for the North Fork, Mainstem, and Granite Creek was lower than the 1999 average (535) but well within the range of annual redd counts during this period. The index redd count for the Middle Fork was higher than the 1990's average (92) but considerably lower than the average from 1978-1985 (401). Although quite variable over the past 40 years, the number of redds in the John Day River basin during 1999 was well within the range of redd counts since they were initiated in 1959.

Ruzycki, James R.; Wilson, Wayne H.; Carmichael, Richard W.

2002-01-01

218

Salmon lice increase the age of returning Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

The global increase in the production of domestic farmed fish in open net pens has created concerns about the resilience of wild populations owing to shifts in host-parasite systems in coastal ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of increased parasite abundance on life-history traits in wild fish populations. Here, we report the results of two separate studies in which 379 779 hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts were treated (or not) against salmon lice, marked and released. Adults were later recaptured, and we specifically tested whether the age distribution of the returning spawners was affected by the treatment. The estimates of parasite-induced mortality were 31.9% and 0.6% in the River Vosso and River Dale stock experiments, respectively. Age of returning salmon was on average higher in untreated [corrected] versus untreated fish. The percentages of fish returning after one winter at sea were 37.5% and 29.9% for the treated and untreated groups, respectively. We conclude that salmon lice increase the age of returning salmon, either by affecting their age at maturity or by disproportionately increasing mortality in fish that mature early. PMID:24478199

Vollset, Knut Wiik; Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir; Skoglund, Helge; Normann, Eirik Straume; Skilbrei, Ove Tommy

2014-01-01

219

76 FR 35009 - Draft Oil and Gas Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Big South Fork National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Big South Fork National River and Recreation...Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Big South Fork National River and Recreation...statement (OGMP/DEIS) for the proposed Big South Fork National River and...

2011-06-15

220

Red Fork sandstone of Oklahoma: depositional history and reservoir distribution  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian Red Fork sandstone formed as a result of progradation across eastern Kansas and most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork is one of several transgressive-regressive sequences (cyclothems) developed within the Desmoinesian Cherokee Group. Sea level changes, together with varying subsidence, were dominant factors controlling the general stratigraphic (correlative) characteristics of the Red Fork interval. Progradation was episodic, with sand deposition in the more active part of the basin during lower sea level stands and valley-fill deposition in the more stable areas during sea level rises. A map of Red Fork sand trends reveals an alluvial-deltaic complex covering most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork consists primarily of alluvial-valley and plain (fluvial) bodies in the northernmost part of northeastern Oklahoma, alluvial-deltaic bodies in most of the remaining parts of the shelf area, and off-shelf submarine-fan and slope basinal-floor complexes within the deeper part of the Anadarko basin. Determination of reservoir trend and genesis requires integration of rock and log data. Logs need to be calibrated to cores in order to estimate depositional environments accurately and to make a reasonable assessment of diagenetic overprints. Much of the oil and gas has been trapped in stratigraphic traps, and a significant amount of oil is in channel sandstones with trends at high angles to the structural grain. In some areas, secondary clay, in particular chloritic clay, has resulted in microporosity, high water saturation, and correspondingly low resistivities in oil reserves.

Shelton, J.W.; Fritz, R.D.; Johnson, C.

1989-03-01

221

Mortality of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Hooked on Flies and Worms in a River Nursery Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate mortality of landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caught on flies and worms in a typical river nursery area, a study was carried out at the East Outlet of Moosehead Lake, Maine, in June 1975-1977. Of 177 fish caught in the 3 yr, 22% died after hooking. All of the 74 control fish caught in a fishway trap survived.

Kendall Warner; Paul R. Johnson

1978-01-01

222

Salmon Move into Deeper Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, learn about subsistence fishing and harvesting. Hear from an Elder who speaks about how he used to go trolling (fishing) for salmon with his father, uncles, and cousins when he was young. He recalls that they noticed that the salmon were moving farther offshore, into deeper water. They suspected it was because the water was warming. The video segment was adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham, Washington. The background essay explains the huge significance of climate change for people who rely on the earth so much, and the correlation between the temperature of water and the abundance of salmon is further explained. The Discussion questions will help kids think about the issues,and therefore understand them in a better way. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

223

Metabolism of DNA secondary structures at the eukaryotic replication fork.  

PubMed

DNA secondary structures are largely advantageous for numerous cellular processes but can pose specific threats to the progression of the replication machinery and therefore genome duplication and cell division. A number of specialized enzymes dismantle these structures to allow replication fork progression to proceed faithfully. In this review, we discuss the in vitro and in vivo data that has lead to the identification of these enzymes in eukaryotes, and the evidence that suggests that they act specifically at replication forks to resolve secondary structures. We focus on the role of helicases, which catalyze the dissociation of nucleotide complexes, and on the role of nucleases, which cleave secondary structures to allow replication fork progression at the expense of local rearrangements. Finally, we discuss outstanding questions in terms of dismantling DNA secondary structures, as well as the interplay between diverse enzymes that act upon specific types of structures. PMID:24815912

León-Ortiz, Ana María; Svendsen, Jennifer; Boulton, Simon J

2014-07-01

224

A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope  

PubMed Central

A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s.

Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

2013-01-01

225

A multi-fork z-axis quartz micromachined gyroscope.  

PubMed

A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s. PMID:24048339

Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

2013-01-01

226

77 FR 55796 - Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest, KY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forest Service Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest...SUMMARY: The Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project involves activities to improve...wells, removing abandoned flow lines, restoration of stream channels and associated...

2012-09-11

227

Soil Development and Glacial History, West Fork of Beaver Creek, Uinta Mountains, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant mechanisms of soil formation on a sequence of Smiths Fork, Blacks Fork, and Pre-Blacks Fork moraines in West Fork of Beaver Creek, Uinta Mountains, Utah, (equivalent to Pinedale, Bull Lake, and Pre-Bull Lake moraines of the Wind River Range, respectively) are clay translocation (argilluviation), increasing soil redness (rubification), and the accumulation of organic matter (melanization) and silt-sized particles.

Daniel C. Douglass; David M. Mickelson

2007-01-01

228

Signal electronics for an atomic force microscope equipped with a double quartz tuning fork sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal electronics equipped with a bandpass filter phase detector for noncontact atomic force microscopy (ncAFM) has been developed. A double quartz tuning fork assembly is used as a force sensor, where one fork serves as a dither tuning fork, while the other is used as a measuring tuning fork. An electrically conductive Pt90Ir10 tip enables the sensor to work in

H.-P. Rust; M. Heyde; H.-J. Freund

2006-01-01

229

A model of contact mechanism for a quartz-crystal tuning-fork tactile sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the contact mechanism for a quartz-crystal tuning-fork tactile sensor theoretically. On the assumption that the right half of a quartz-crystal tuning fork as an L-shaped bar, in which the bars acting as the base and the arm undergo bending vibration, we analyzed the frequency of a tuning-fork tactile sensor by considering the base of the tuning fork on

Hideaki Itoh; Kiyoshi Ishikawa; Yasunobu Fujiwara; Takamitsu Mizushima

2003-01-01

230

Functional Analysis of DNA Replication Fork Reversal Catalyzed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis RuvAB Proteins*  

PubMed Central

Initially discovered in Escherichia coli, RuvAB proteins are ubiquitous in bacteria and play a dual role as molecular motor proteins responsible for branch migration of the Holliday junction(s) and reversal of stalled replication forks. Despite mounting genetic evidence for a crucial role of RuvA and RuvB proteins in reversal of stalled replication forks, the mechanistic aspects of this process are still not fully understood. Here, we elucidate the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RuvAB (MtRuvAB) complex to catalyze the reversal of replication forks using a range of DNA replication fork substrates. Our studies show that MtRuvAB, unlike E. coli RuvAB, is able to drive replication fork reversal via the formation of Holliday junction intermediates, suggesting that RuvAB-catalyzed fork reversal involves concerted unwinding and annealing of nascent leading and lagging strands. We also demonstrate the reversal of replication forks carrying hemi-replicated DNA, indicating that MtRuvAB complex-catalyzed fork reversal is independent of symmetry at the fork junction. The fork reversal reaction catalyzed by MtRuvAB is coupled to ATP hydrolysis, is processive, and culminates in the formation of an extended reverse DNA arm. Notably, we found that sequence heterology failed to impede the fork reversal activity of MtRuvAB. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of recognition and processing of varied types of replication fork structures by RuvAB proteins.

Khanduja, Jasbeer Singh; Muniyappa, K.

2012-01-01

231

Recovery of Arrested Replication Forks by Homologous Recombination Is Error-Prone  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology) indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination.

Pietrobon, Violena; Freon, Karine; Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A. E.

2012-01-01

232

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2011-07-01

233

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2012-07-01

234

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2010-07-01

235

75 FR 78929 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 300 RIN 0648-XZ20 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The orders...

2010-12-17

236

75 FR 14135 - Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-ZC16 Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund AGENCY: National Marine...announces the availability of Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Funding (PCSRF), as authorized...restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and their...

2010-03-24

237

77 FR 60631 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 0648-XC222 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2012-10-04

238

78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...action establishes Class E airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance...Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of...

2013-11-01

239

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

240

76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead...

2011-01-03

241

The carpenter fork bed, a new - and older - Black-shale unit at the base of the New Albany shale in central Kentucky: Characterization and significance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black shales previously interpreted to be Late Devonian cave-fill or slide deposits are shown to be much older Middle Devonian black shales only preserved locally in Middle Devonian grabens and structural lows in central Kentucky. This newly recognized - and older -black-shale unit occurs at the base of the New Albany Shale and is named the Carpenter Fork Bed of the Portwood Member of the New Albany Shale after its only known exposure on Carpenter Fork in Boyle County, central Kentucky; two other occurrences are known from core holes in east-central Kentucky. Based on stratigraphic position and conodont biostratigraphy, the unit is Middle Devonian (Givetian: probably Middle to Upper P. varcus Zone) in age and occurs at a position represented by an unconformity atop the Middle Devonian Boyle Dolostone and its equivalents elsewhere on the outcrop belt. Based on its presence as isolated clasts in the overlying Duffin Bed of the Portwood Member, the former distribution of the unit was probably much more widespread - perhaps occurring throughout western parts of the Rome trough. Carpenter Fork black shales apparently represent an episode of subsidence or sea-level rise coincident with inception of the third tectophase of the Acadian orogeny. Deposition, however, was soon interrupted by reactivation of several fault zones in central Kentucky, perhaps in response to bulge migration accompanying start of the tectophase. As a result, much of central Kentucky was uplifted and tilted, and the Carpenter Fork Bed was largely eroded from the top of the Boyle, except in a few structural lows like the Carpenter Fork graben where a nearly complete record of Middle to early Late Devonian deposition is preserved.

Barnett, S. F.; Ettensohn, F. R.; Norby, R. D.

1996-01-01

242

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

2013-10-01

243

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2013-02-14

244

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2012-12-19

245

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2013-10-01

246

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

2012-10-01

247

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

2011-10-01

248

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2012-10-01

249

27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the North Fork of Roanoke viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. Virginia, 7.5 minute series maps. They are: (1) McDonalds Mill Quadrangle, 1965; (2) Glenvar Quadrangle, 1965; (3) Elliston Quadrangle, 1965; (4) Ironto...

2009-04-01

250

27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the North Fork of Roanoke viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. Virginia, 7.5 minute series maps. They are: (1) McDonalds Mill Quadrangle, 1965; (2) Glenvar Quadrangle, 1965; (3) Elliston Quadrangle, 1965; (4) Ironto...

2010-04-01

251

Noncontact friction force microscopy based on quartz tuning fork sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noncontact friction force microscopy (NC-FFM) measures the damping of the resonant oscillation of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip that vibrates parallel to the sample surface at a controlled distance. By exploiting the two fundamental orthogonal vibration modes of a quartz tuning fork, such technique can be realized by all-piezoelectric sensing by simultaneously employing an AFM noncontact mode for distance

M. Labardi; M. Allegrini

2006-01-01

252

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

253

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

254

Note: A transimpedance amplifier for remotely located quartz tuning forks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cable capacitance in cryogenic and high vacuum applications of quartz tuning forks imposes severe constraints on the bandwidth and noise performance of the measurement. We present a single stage low noise transimpedance amplifier with a bandwidth exceeding 1 MHz and provide an in-depth analysis of the dependence of the amplifier parameters on the cable capacitance.

Kleinbaum, Ethan; Csáthy, Gábor A.

2012-12-01

255

Note: a transimpedance amplifier for remotely located quartz tuning forks.  

PubMed

The cable capacitance in cryogenic and high vacuum applications of quartz tuning forks imposes severe constraints on the bandwidth and noise performance of the measurement. We present a single stage low noise transimpedance amplifier with a bandwidth exceeding 1 MHz and provide an in-depth analysis of the dependence of the amplifier parameters on the cable capacitance. PMID:23278030

Kleinbaum, Ethan; Csáthy, Gábor A

2012-12-01

256

DNA Polymerases that Propagate the Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three DNA polymerases are thought to function at the eukaryotic DNA replication fork. Currently, a coherent model has been derived for the composition and activities of the lagging strand machinery. RNA-DNA primers are initiated by DNA polymerase ?-primase. Loading of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA, dissociates DNA polymerase ? and recruits DNA poly- merase ? and the flap endonuclease

Parie Garg; Peter M. J. Burgers

2005-01-01

257

Environmental Assessment: Demolish 934 of Grand Forks Air Force Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Air Force (USAF) proposes to demolish building 934 belonging to Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB), North Dakota. The purpose of the proposed action is to demolish 608 square feet of excess facility space in building 934, known as the boos...

W. A. Koop

2006-01-01

258

Far East  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum activity throughout the Far East region was on the upswing during 1980. In spite of increased interest in many parts of the Far East, no major new discoveries were reported. From India to Indonesia, old fields are being rehabilitated and previously uneconomic areas are being looked at again. Indonesia set a new record in 1980 for the number of exploratory wells drilled. Peninsular Malaysia set a record for oil production. Overall, however, 1980 was a banner year for petroleum exploration in the Far East. Sri Lanka saw its first foreign contractor interest in several years. India made major moves toward increasing exploration by offering offshore and onshore blocks to foreign contractors . Bangladesh and even Burma signed exploitation contracts with Japanese investors in order to increase production. Malaysia offered new acreage blocks for the first time in several years. Indonesia and the Philippines also actively encouraged exploration by offering new contract areas. One country in the Far East that did not participate in the 1980 oil boom was China. Taiwan also carried on, as in previous years with the Chinese Petroleum Corporation as the only operator. Japanese and South Korean activities were at approximately the same level as in previous years, although drilling did start in the joint development zone. Total production of the Far East reporting region declined slightly. One significant aspect of 1980 petroleum activities throughout the Far East region is the growing acceptance by various Far East countries of Asian investment for developing and exploring for hydrocarbons. Japan is the major investor, but South Korean interests and the Chinese Petroleum Corporation also began to invest in petroleum rights in other Asian countries. The main area for investment continued to be Indonesia. 39 figures, 9 tables.

Fletcher, G.L.

1981-10-01

259

Mechanisms of dissipation of an oscillating quartz tuning fork immersed in He II at high pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissipative processes that occur with immersing a vibrating tuning fork in superfluid helium are investigated. The tuning forks resonance width ?f of frequencies from 32 to 97 kHz was measured in the temperature range from 0.2 to 2.5 K and He II pressure from SVP to 24.9 atm. Some of the tuning forks were in the original can (closed tuning fork), and for some tuning forks the can was either completely or partially removed (opened fork). We found that for the open tuning forks two dissipation mechanisms are clearly revealed in the temperature dependence of ?f, namely, acoustic radiation and scattering of ballistic thermal excitations at low temperatures, and viscous friction at high temperatures. At low temperatures (below ~ 0.8 K) acoustic dissipation dominates, and the model of quadrupole oscillator for a tuning fork can be applied. We found that acoustic radiation for closed tuning forks is less effective and appears at lower temperatures. The first experimental data on dissipative processes in the quartz tuning fork-He II system at increased liquid pressures are obtained. It is shown that, for high frequency tuning forks the resonance bandwidth decreases with increasing pressure, i.e., with increasing wavelength of sound ?, according to the law ?-5. At low frequencies and low temperatures, with increasing mean free path of thermal excitations the resonance bandwidth is well described by the model of ballistic scattering.

Gritsenko, I. A.; Zadorozhko, A. A.; Sheshin, G. A.

2012-12-01

260

Depositional environments, reservoir trends, and diagenesis of Red Fork sandstones in parts of Blaine, Caddo, and Custer counties, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Fork sandstone was divided into the upper and lower Red Fork which are separated by a consistent marker bed. The Red Fork interval thickens markedly across the study area from 250 ft (75 m) in the northeast to over 1300 ft (400 m) in the southwest. Most of the thickening is within the lower Red Fork. The lower

Christopher L. Johnson

1984-01-01

261

HOWARD FORK ACID ROCK DRAINAGE SOURCE INTERCEPTION STUDY; HOWARD FORK OF THE SAN MIGUEL RIVER NEAR OPHIR, COLORADO  

EPA Science Inventory

This project proposes to analyze regional hydrogeology as it relates to mine workings which discharge significant heavy metals into the Howard Fork of the San Miguel River and recommend strategies to intercept and divert water away from mineralized zones. The study also includes...

262

The spatial and temporal variation of the distribution and prevalence of Atlantic salmon reovirus (TSRV) infection in Tasmania, Australia.  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon reovirus (TSRV) has been consistently isolated from Atlantic salmon in Tasmania, since first identification in 1990 under the Tasmanian Salmonid Health Surveillance Program (TSHSP). The distribution and prevalence of TSRV was identified using TSHSP data. A data set of 730 fish submissions tested over a period of 15 years was reviewed and analysed to describe the spatial and temporal variation of TSRV in Tasmanian salmonid aquaculture production units. The virus was present throughout Tasmania with the highest reported prevalence of the virus in the south-east region of Tasmania. PMID:25049086

Carlile, G; East, I J; McColl, K A; Ellard, K; Browning, G F; Crane, M St J

2014-09-01

263

Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interim report from the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine is a prepublication of the March 2002 report provided by National Academy Press. The once abundant populations of Atlantic Salmon in Maine have declined in recent years, now listed as endangered. The NRC Committee believes that "understanding the genetic makeup of Maine's salmon is important for recovery efforts." This 48-page report includes information on the salmon's biology, evolution, genetics, its current state, and the committee's conclusions. It can be viewed online or downloaded for printing.

Maine., National R.

2002-01-01

264

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment features Native American Elders discussing the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world. A Native educator describes having taken students to a river's headwaters to watch salmon spawn, only to observe the deadly effects of water temperature rise on the fish eggs. She explains that even a small change in temperature can result in a population decline that could threaten Native peoples and their way of life. Included is a background essay explaining how important the fishing is to certain parts of the world, and how the warming waters are negatively affecting the fish and people. There is a helpful section that shows you the standards for your state ranging from grades K-12, as well as links to related resources.

2010-01-01

265

Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

2000-01-01

266

76 FR 54216 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY: National...Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) Salmon Subcommittee, and Model...

2011-08-31

267

Hydrologic modeling of flood conveyance and impacts of historic overbank sedimentation on West Fork Black's Fork, Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses historic overbank alluvial sedimentation along a low-gradient reach of West Fork Black's Fork in the northern Uinta Mountains, Utah. In this previously glaciated setting, an alluvial floodplain that is approximately 400 m wide by 1500 m long has been modified by the combined effects of valley morphometry and the recent history of clear-cut logging during the late

Eric C. Carson

2006-01-01

268

2005 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During mid-1990s, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) identified several populations of salmon spawning approximately three miles downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. These populations are exposed to rapidly changing flow regimes associated with Bonneville Dam's operation. This study investigated the relationship between changing water levels and stranding or entrapment of juvenile salmon in the Ives Island area. Walking surveys of the Ives Island and Pierce Island shorelines were conducted every one to three days throughout the juvenile emigration period. The nearby shorelines of the Washington and Oregon mainland were also surveyed. Between January and June of 2005, surveyors examined 21 substantial entrapments and 20 stranding sites. A total of 14,337 salmonids, made up of three species, were found either entrapped or stranded. Nearly 92% of the salmonids were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), 4.5% were federally listed chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), and 3.8% were coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). When compared to the 2004 study year, 2005 showed an 83% increase in the overall number of observed entrapped or stranded juvenile salmon. Much of this increase can be attributed to one entrapment found along the north shore of Pierce Island (identified as E501). E501 has historically been known to contain relatively large numbers of entrapped salmon. Even so, the number of entrapped salmon observed during 2005 was a 732% increase (5926) over any prior study years. Over 83% of all chum, 63.1% of all chinook, and 63.2% of all coho sampled during 2005 were retrieved from entrapments that were likely to have formed when Bonneville Dam tailwater levels dropped to elevations between 11.5 and 12.9 feet. Peak numbers of chum and chinook were sampled in mid-April when tailwater levels ranged between 11.6ft and 15.6ft. Peak numbers of coho were sampled during the last week of February, mid-March, and mid-April when tailwater level ranged between 11.4 and 14.3 feet, 11.5 and 15.3 ft, and 11.6 and 15.6 feet, respectively. The fork length data indicate that the majority of the entrapped and stranded salmon are in the 35-50 mm range. Stranded members of all three salmon species had mean fork lengths that were 8% to 30% shorter than those of their entrapped counterparts. The locations and habitat attributes of entrapments containing the majority of the observed juvenile salmon remain fairly constant from year to year. Changes in entrapment rankings appear to be more reflective of changes in prevailing tailwater levels than they are of changes in geography, vegetation, or fish behavior. Data collected over the past six study years indicates that there are entrapments that are capable of entrapping large numbers of salmon as various tailwater levels. Avoiding specific tailwater ranges may not minimize the impact of juvenile stranding. The only way to substantially minimize the impact of stranding is to allow no tailwater fluctuations or to only allow a steady increase of the tailwater level throughout the juvenile emigration period.

Wilson, Jeremy; Duston, Reed A. (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

2006-01-01

269

Global Assessment of Organic Contaminants in Farmed Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual global production of farmed salmon has increased by a factor of 40 during the past two decades. Salmon from farms in northern Europe, North America, and Chile are now available widely year-round at relatively low prices. Salmon farms have been criticized for their ecological effects, but the potential human health risks of farmed salmon consumption have not been

Ronald A. Hites; Jeffery A. Foran; David O. Carpenter; M. Coreen Hamilton; Barbara A. Knuth; Steven J. Schwager

2004-01-01

270

Purification and characterization of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) fibrinogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes a purification protocol of salmon fibrinogen that gives a consumable and highly clottable fibrinogen. Some characteristics of salmon and human fibrinogen are compared. Fibrinogen was purified from barium sulphate adsorbed plasma of Atlantic salmon, using two steps of 25% ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The clottability of the purified salmon fibrinogen was 91%. The A? chains

Even Manseth; Per O Skjervold; Svein O Fjæra; Frank R Brosstad; Stine Bjørnson; Ragnar Flengsrud

2004-01-01

271

THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

272

Scanning Probe Microscopy of DNA with a Quartz Tuning Fork  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz tuning-forks have recently been put to use as highly sensitive force detectors in atomic force microscopy (AFM).(F.J.Giessibl et al.), Science 289, 422 (2000). In this study we have applied a home-built, tuning-fork based AFM to the investigation of single and double stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA). We operate the microscope in the non-contact mode (typical tip amplitude ~1 nm) with a variety of tips (e.g. Si, Si_3N_4, W). Here we report on recent results showing that the apparent height of plasmid dsDNA on mica substrates depends on both the tip material and imaging frequency shift. This talk will also review our efforts to probe ssDNA with a chemically functionalized tip. Current and future prospects for this dynamic-mode, chemically-sensitive force microscopy technique will be discussed.

King, G. M.; Nunes, G., Jr.

2001-03-01

273

Low temperature apertureless NSOM using quartz crystal tuning forks.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-temperature apertureless near field scanning optical microscope (LT-ANSOM) utilizing a modulated self-sensing piezoelectric quartz tuning fork has been built. This instrument can be used in ANSOM, AFM or STM mode. ANSOM will be used for spectroscopy of individual Ge/Si quantum dots. Ge/Si quantum dots are illuminated from a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator. Photoluminescence from individual Ge quantum dots, scattered from the modulated AFM/STM tip, is analyzed using an imaging spectrometer and InGaAs array. A cryogenic preamplifier is used to amplify the piezoelectric signal from the quartz tuning fork, resulting in thermal noise-limited performance at T=4K. We gratefully acknowledge NSF (DMR-9701725, IMR-9802784) and DARPA (DAAD-16-99-C1036) for financial support of this work.

Patil, N. G.; Zhu, Henry; Levy, Jeremy

2001-03-01

274

Developmentally regulated Drosophila gene family encoding the fork head domain.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated seven Drosophila genes by means of low-stringency hybridization to a DNA probe containing the coding sequence for the protein domain shared by the rodent hepatocyte-enriched nuclear transcription factor HNF3A (alpha) and the product of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene fork head (fkh). The previously unreported genes encode a 110-amino acid conserved sequence, which we call the fork head (fkh) domain. Two of these fkh-domain-encoding genes ("FD genes") map to the sloppy paired locus (slp), which exerts segmentation gene function. The expression patterns of the other FD genes suggest that their protein products are likely to be involved in gut formation, mesoderm specification, and some specific aspects of neural development. The FD gene products presumably represent a family of transcription factors that, like the previously identified DNA-binding proteins, contribute to early developmental decisions in cell fates during embryogenesis. Images

Hacker, U; Grossniklaus, U; Gehring, W J; Jackle, H

1992-01-01

275

Spinal deformities in farmed Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Spinal deformities in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are often observed in intensive farming systems and result in production losses. Many putative factors have been implicated with the formation of spinal deformities in larger salmon. This condition has been described as broken back syndrome, curvy back disease, and short tails.

Silverstone, Andrew M.; Hammell, Larry

2002-01-01

276

Chinook Salmon Recovery in the Stillaguamish Watershed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show explores the threats to the Chinook salmon population in the Stillaguamish River watershed of Snohomish County, Washington. Topics include the status of the present population, factors contributing to the decline of the population, habitat needs for healthy salmon, and steps that are necessary for the recovery of the population.

2003-07-10

277

THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

278

Estimated Fall Chinook Salmon Survival to Emergence in Dewatered Redds in a Shallow Side Channel of the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) often spawn in the tailraces of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Redds built in shallow habitats downstream of these dams may be periodically dewatered due to hydropower operations prior to the emergence of fry. To determine whether fall Chinook salmon redds were successful in a shallow area subjected to periodic dewatering downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River, we installed 7 redd caps and monitored fry emergence. Large numbers of live fry were captured from the redds between March 9 and May 18, 2003. Estimated survival from egg to fry for these redds, which were all subjected to some degree of dewatering during the incubation and post-hatch intragravel rearing period, ranged from 16.1 to 63.2 percent and averaged 27.8 percent (assuming 4,500 eggs/redd). The peak emergence date ranged from April 1 to 29, with the average peak about April 14, 2003. Mean fork length of fall Chinook salmon emerging from individual redds ranged from 38.3 to 41.2 mm, and lengths of fish emerging from individual redds increased throughout the emergence period.

McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; James, B B.; Lukas, Joe

2005-08-01

279

Forking Genetic Algorithms: GAs with Search Space Division Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we propose a new type of genetic algorithm (GA), the forking GA (fGA), which divides the whole search space into subspaces, depending on the convergence status of the population and the solutions obtained so far. The fGA is intended to deal with multimodal problems that are difficult to solve using conventional GAs. We use a multi-population scheme

Shigeyoshi Tsutsui; Yoshiji Fujimoto; Ashish Ghosh

1997-01-01

280

A tuning fork gyroscope with compensated imbalance signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is presenting a robust gyroscope sensor with an electrical and mechanical self-test option and the ability to suppress the quadrature error. The presented sensor is based on a tuning-fork working principle. The mechanical part is assembled in bulk-technology produced with a wet etching process. The two detection elements are manufactured with a standard CMOS-process and the material of

E. Arnold; F. Nuscheler

2007-01-01

281

Compensation methods for a silicon tuning fork gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents compensation methods for a robust gyroscope sensor with an electrical and mechanical self-test option and\\u000a the ability to suppress the quadrature error. The presented sensor is based on a tuning-fork working principle. The mechanical\\u000a part is assembled in bulk-technology produced with a wet etching process. The two detection elements are manufactured with\\u000a a standard CMOS-process and the

Eik Arnold; Franz Nuscheler

2008-01-01

282

Low temperature apertureless NSOM using quartz crystal tuning forks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-temperature apertureless near field scanning optical microscope (LT-ANSOM) utilizing a modulated self-sensing piezoelectric quartz tuning fork has been built. This instrument can be used in ANSOM, AFM or STM mode. ANSOM will be used for spectroscopy of individual Ge\\/Si quantum dots. Ge\\/Si quantum dots are illuminated from a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator. Photoluminescence from individual Ge quantum dots, scattered

N. G. Patil; Henry Zhu; Jeremy Levy

2001-01-01

283

Synthetic Lethality of Cohesins with PARPs and Replication Fork Mediators  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethality has been proposed as a way to leverage the genetic differences found in tumor cells to affect their selective killing. Cohesins, which tether sister chromatids together until anaphase onset, are mutated in a variety of tumor types. The elucidation of synthetic lethal interactions with cohesin mutants therefore identifies potential therapeutic targets. We used a cross-species approach to identify robust negative genetic interactions with cohesin mutants. Utilizing essential and non-essential mutant synthetic genetic arrays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we screened genome-wide for genetic interactions with hypomorphic mutations in cohesin genes. A somatic cell proliferation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that the majority of interactions were conserved. Analysis of the interactions found that cohesin mutants require the function of genes that mediate replication fork progression. Conservation of these interactions between replication fork mediators and cohesin in both yeast and C. elegans prompted us to test whether other replication fork mediators not found in the yeast were required for viability in cohesin mutants. PARP1 has roles in the DNA damage response but also in the restart of stalled replication forks. We found that a hypomorphic allele of the C. elegans SMC1 orthologue, him-1(e879), genetically interacted with mutations in the orthologues of PAR metabolism genes resulting in a reduced brood size and somatic cell defects. We then demonstrated that this interaction is conserved in human cells by showing that PARP inhibitors reduce the viability of cultured human cells depleted for cohesin components. This work demonstrates that large-scale genetic interaction screening in yeast can identify clinically relevant genetic interactions and suggests that PARP inhibitors, which are currently undergoing clinical trials as a treatment of homologous recombination-deficient cancers, may be effective in treating cancers that harbor cohesin mutations.

Barrett, Irene; Ferree, Elizabeth; van Pel, Derek M.; Ushey, Kevin; Sipahimalani, Payal; Bryan, Jennifer; Rose, Ann M.; Hieter, Philip

2012-01-01

284

Stable sinusoidal driver circuit for tuning fork choppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circuit is presented which can drive tuning fork choppers, such as the Bulova L40 and L2 series. The advantages of this circuit over the factory-supplied 5A-type driver are better drive-amplitude stability, freedom from drift due to line-voltage variations, and a cleaner, transient-free sinusoidal reference signal. Test results indicate an improvement in long-term stability by as much as a factor

James Podolske

1979-01-01

285

NORTH FORK OF THE AMERICAN RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mineral-resource surveys of the North Fork of the American River Wilderness study area, California have identified a zone of substantiated resource potential for gold and silver. Zones of probable gold and silver potential occur in the eastern part of the area between the Wubbena and La Trinidad mines and locally around the Marrs mine. A zone with probable chromium potential occurs in the serpentinite belt along the western border of the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

Harwood, David, S.; Federspiel, Francis, E.

1984-01-01

286

Replication Fork Reversal after Replication-Transcription Collision  

PubMed Central

Replication fork arrest is a recognized source of genetic instability, and transcription is one of the most prominent causes of replication impediment. We analyze here the requirement for recombination proteins in Escherichia coli when replication–transcription head-on collisions are induced at a specific site by the inversion of a highly expressed ribosomal operon (rrn). RecBC is the only recombination protein required for cell viability under these conditions of increased replication-transcription collisions. In its absence, fork breakage occurs at the site of collision, and the resulting linear DNA is not repaired and is slowly degraded by the RecJ exonuclease. Lethal fork breakage is also observed in cells that lack RecA and RecD, i.e. when both homologous recombination and the potent exonuclease V activity of the RecBCD complex are inactivated, with a slow degradation of the resulting linear DNA by the combined action of the RecBC helicase and the RecJ exonuclease. The sizes of the major linear fragments indicate that DNA degradation is slowed down by the encounter with another rrn operon. The amount of linear DNA decreases nearly two-fold when the Holliday junction resolvase RuvABC is inactivated in recB, as well as in recA recD mutants, indicating that part of the linear DNA is formed by resolution of a Holliday junction. Our results suggest that replication fork reversal occurs after replication–transcription head-on collision, and we propose that it promotes the action of the accessory replicative helicases that dislodge the obstacle.

De Septenville, Anne L.; Michel, Benedicte

2012-01-01

287

Timing, Coordination, and Rhythm: Acrobatics at the DNA Replication Fork*  

PubMed Central

In DNA replication, the antiparallel nature of the parental duplex imposes certain constraints on the activity of the DNA polymerases that synthesize new DNA. The leading-strand polymerase advances in a continuous fashion, but the lagging-strand polymerase is forced to restart at short intervals. In several prokaryotic systems studied so far, this problem is solved by the formation of a loop in the lagging strand of the replication fork to reorient the lagging-strand DNA polymerase so that it advances in parallel with the leading-strand polymerase. The replication loop grows and shrinks during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The timing of Okazaki fragment synthesis and loop formation is determined by a subtle interplay of enzymatic activities at the fork. Recent developments in single-molecule techniques have enabled the direct observation of these processes and have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the replication fork. Here, we will review recent experimental advances, present the current models, and discuss some of the exciting developments in the field.

Hamdan, Samir M.; van Oijen, Antoine M.

2010-01-01

288

Do replication forks control late origin firing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of eukaryotic DNA replication timing profiles suggest that the time-dependent rate of origin firing, I(t), has a universal shape, which ensures a reproducible replication completion time. However, measurements of I(t) are based on population averages, which may bias the shape of the I(t) because of imperfect cell synchrony and cell-to-cell variability. Here, we measure the population-averaged I(t) profile from synchronized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using DNA combing and we extract the single-cell I(t) profile using numerical deconvolution. The single cell I(t) and the population-averaged I(t) extracted from DNA combing and replication timing profiles are similar, indicating a genome scale invariance of the replication process, and excluding cell-to-cell variability in replication time as an explanation for the shape of I(t). The single cell I(t) correlates with fork density in wild-type cells, which is specifically loosened in late S phase in the clb5? mutant. A previously proposed numerical model that reproduces the wild-type I(t) profile, could also describe the clb5? mutant I(t) once modified to incorporate the decline in CDK activity and the looser dependency of initiation on fork density in the absence of Clb5p. Overall, these results suggest that the replication forks emanating from early fired origins facilitate origin firing in later-replicating regions.

Ma, Emilie; Hyrien, Olivier; Goldar, Arach

2012-01-01

289

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in off- shore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth

G. T. Ruggerone; M. Zimmermann; K. W. Myers; J. L. Nielsen; D. E. Rogers

2003-01-01

290

Value engineering study report on Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project. Alternative No. 3  

SciTech Connect

The project under study is Alternative No. 3 as identified in the Feasibility Study dated August 1994. This alternative is identified as Excavation and Disposal of Commercial/DOE, Other, and Residential Remedial Unit Soil. The assumptions used for generating baseline costs are discussed in site associated costs. It is further described as follows: Soils with mercury concentrations greater than 200 ppM in the Commercial/DOE and Other Remedial Units and greater than 180 ppM in the Residential Remedial Unit [41,300m{sup 3} (54,000yd{sup 3} a volume equivalent to approximately 6,750 dump truck loads)] would be excavated and disposed of in an approved, lined landfill at Y-12 with leachate collection and possible pretreatment of the leachate before discharge. Because 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) of wetland would be destroyed, wetlands banking would occur, whereby a 1.8-ha (4.5-acre) wetland would be constructed on DOE-owned land near K-25. Borrow soil would be obtained from the Y-12 West End Borrow Area or from excess soil located at Y-12 landfills to fill the excavation. It is estimated that 7.3 ha (18.2 acres, and area about the size of 17 football fields) of habitat would be adversely affected. This alternative would use BMPs to minimize any adverse affects and to comply substantively with regulatory requirements.

NONE

1995-08-01

291

East Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

292

Middle East  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

Hemer, D.O. (Mobil Oil Corp., New York, NY); Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

1981-10-01

293

PARP is activated at stalled forks to mediate Mre11-dependent replication restart and recombination  

PubMed Central

If replication forks are perturbed, a multifaceted response including several DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways is activated to ensure faithful DNA replication. Here, we show that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) binds to and is activated by stalled replication forks that contain small gaps. PARP1 collaborates with Mre11 to promote replication fork restart after release from replication blocks, most likely by recruiting Mre11 to the replication fork to promote resection of DNA. Both PARP1 and PARP2 are required for hydroxyurea-induced homologous recombination to promote cell survival after replication blocks. Together, our data suggest that PARP1 and PARP2 detect disrupted replication forks and attract Mre11 for end processing that is required for subsequent recombination repair and restart of replication forks.

Bryant, Helen E; Petermann, Eva; Schultz, Niklas; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Issaeva, Natalia; Johansson, Fredrik; Fernandez, Serena; McGlynn, Peter; Helleday, Thomas

2009-01-01

294

Coordinated protein and DNA remodeling by human HLTF on stalled replication fork.  

PubMed

Human helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) exhibits ubiquitin ligase activity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) polyubiquitylation as well as double-stranded DNA translocase activity for remodeling stalled replication fork by fork reversal, which can support damage bypass by template switching. However, a stalled replication fork is surrounded by various DNA-binding proteins which can inhibit the access of damage bypass players, and it is unknown how these proteins become displaced. Here we reveal that HLTF has an ATP hydrolysis-dependent protein remodeling activity, by which it can remove proteins bound to the replication fork. Moreover, we demonstrate that HLTF can displace a broad spectrum of proteins such as replication protein A (RPA), PCNA, and replication factor C (RFC), thereby providing the first example for a protein clearing activity at the stalled replication fork. Our findings clarify how remodeling of a stalled replication fork can occur if it is engaged in interactions with masses of proteins. PMID:21795603

Achar, Yathish Jagadheesh; Balogh, David; Haracska, Lajos

2011-08-23

295

Replication fork barriers: pausing for a break or stalling for time?  

PubMed Central

Defects in chromosome replication can lead to translocations that are thought to result from recombination events at stalled DNA replication forks. The progression of forks is controlled by an essential DNA helicase, which unwinds the parental duplex and can stall on encountering tight protein–DNA complexes. Such pause sites are hotspots for recombination and it has been proposed that stalled replisomes disassemble, leading to fork collapse. However, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes it now seems that paused forks are surprisingly stable, so that DNA synthesis can resume without recombination if the barrier protein is removed. Recombination at stalled forks might require other events that occur after pausing, or might be dependent on features of the surrounding DNA sequence. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the regulation of genome stability in eukaryotic cells, in which pausing of forks is mediated by specific proteins that are associated with the replicative helicase.

Labib, Karim; Hodgson, Ben

2007-01-01

296

The level of origin firing inversely affects the rate of replication fork progression  

PubMed Central

DNA damage slows DNA synthesis at replication forks; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Cdc7 kinase is required for replication origin activation, is a target of the intra-S checkpoint, and is implicated in the response to replication fork stress. Remarkably, we found that replication forks proceed more rapidly in cells lacking Cdc7 function than in wild-type cells. We traced this effect to reduced origin firing, which results in fewer replication forks and a consequent decrease in Rad53 checkpoint signaling. Depletion of Orc1, which acts in origin firing differently than Cdc7, had similar effects as Cdc7 depletion, consistent with decreased origin firing being the source of these defects. In contrast, mec1-100 cells, which initiate excess origins and also are deficient in checkpoint activation, showed slower fork progression, suggesting the number of active forks influences their rate, perhaps as a result of competition for limiting factors.

Zhong, Yuan; Nellimoottil, Tittu; Peace, Jared M.; Knott, Simon R.V.; Villwock, Sandra K.; Yee, Janis M.; Jancuska, Jeffrey M.; Rege, Sanket; Tecklenburg, Marianne; Sclafani, Robert A.; Tavare, Simon

2013-01-01

297

Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time component also was a statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating chloride. The regression equations for chloride at the Red River at Fargo provided a fair relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.66 and the equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a relatively good relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.77. Turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and turbidity was the only statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively poor relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations, turbidity, and streamflow, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.46. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a fair relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations and turbidity, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.73. Some of the variability that was not explained by the equations might be attributed to different sources contributing nitrates to the stream at different times. Turbidity, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating total phosphorus at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively fair relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.74. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a good relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.87. For the Red River at Fargo, turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimatin

Galloway, Joel M.

2014-01-01

298

Development of Self-Vibration and Detection AFM Probe by using Quartz Tuning Fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a novel type of quartz tuning-fork probe that vibrates and detects its own probe deformation, for application to atomic force microscopy (AFM). This tuning-fork probe improves the AFM image resolution because of its high Q (quality) factor value. The tuning-fork probe has a sharp tip that was fabricated using anisotropic wet etching and a focused ion beam system.

H. Hida; M. Shikida; K. Fukuzawa; A. Ono; K. Sato; K. Asaumi; Y. Iriye; T. Muramatsu; Y. Horikawa

2007-01-01

299

Fabrication of a quartz tuning-fork probe with a sharp tip for AFM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quartz tuning-fork probe can oscillate and can be used to detect an atomic force between the tip and the sample surface due to the piezoelectric property of quartz. We have designed a tuning-fork structure with a large spring constant of 50N\\/m to prevent probe adsorption to the sample surface. We developed a fabrication process to integrate the tuning-fork probe

H. Hida; M. Shikida; K. Fukuzawa; S. Murakami; Ke. Sato; K. Asaumi; Y. Iriye; Ka. Sato

2008-01-01

300

Model of Contact Mechanism for Quartz-Crystal Tuning-Fork Tactile Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contact mechanism for a quartz-crystal tuning-fork tactile sensor has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. We assume that the L-shaped right half of a quartz-crystal tuning fork is described by Sezawa's model and the torsion spring model. The frequency of the tuning-fork tactile sensor is analyzed by considering the lateral clamping force of an acrylic resin case and Winkler's

Hideaki Itoh; Masataka Yamatani; Shinobu Yoshida; Yasunobu Fujiwara; Kiyoshi Ishikawa

2004-01-01

301

Recovery of arrested replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology) indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination. PMID:23093942

Iraqui, Ismail; Chekkal, Yasmina; Jmari, Nada; Pietrobon, Violena; Fréon, Karine; Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A E

2012-01-01

302

Calibrating a tuning fork for use as a scanning probe microscope force sensor  

SciTech Connect

Quartz tuning forks mounted with sharp tips provide an alternate method to silicon microcantilevers for probing the tip-substrate interaction in scanning probe microscopy. The high quality factor and stable resonant frequency of the tuning fork allow accurate measurements of small shifts in the resonant frequency as the tip approaches the substrate. To permit an accurate measure of surface interaction forces, the electrical and piezoelectromechanical properties of a tuning fork have been characterized using a fiber optical interferometer.

Qin Yexian; Reifenberger, R. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana 47907 (United States)

2007-06-15

303

Calibrating acoustic acceleration transmitters for estimating energy use by wild adult Pacific salmon.  

PubMed

This study is the first to calibrate acceleration transmitters with energy expenditure using a vertebrate model species. We quantified the relationship between acoustic accelerometer output and oxygen consumption across a range of swim speeds and water temperatures for Harrison River adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). First, we verified that acceleration transmitters with a sampling frequency of 10 Hz could be used as a proxy for movement in sockeye salmon. Using a mixed effects model, we determined that tailbeat frequency and acceleration were positively correlated (p<0.0001), independent of tag ID. Acceleration (p<0.0001) was positively related to swim speed while fork length (p=0.051) was negatively related to swim speed. Oxygen consumption and accelerometer output (p<0.0001) had a positive linear relationship and were temperature dependent (p<0.0001). There were no differences in swim performance (F(2,12)=1.023, p=0.820) or oxygen consumption (F(1,12)=0.054, p=0.332) between tagged and untagged individuals. Five tagged fish were released into the Fraser River estuary and manually tracked. Of the five fish, three were successfully tracked for 1h. The above relationships were used to determine that the average swim speed was 1.25±0.03 body lengths s(-1) and cost of transport was 3.39±0.17 mg O(2) kg(-1)min(-1), averaged across the three detected fish. Acceleration transmitters can be effectively used to remotely evaluate fine-scale behavior and estimate energy consumption of adult Pacific salmon throughout their homeward spawning migration. PMID:23247092

Wilson, S M; Hinch, S G; Eliason, E J; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J

2013-03-01

304

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2013-10-01

305

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2010-10-01

306

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2009-10-01

307

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2012-10-01

308

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2011-10-01

309

Two-dimensional resistivity investigation along West Fork Trinity River, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, October 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitutes a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and manufacturing processes. Ground water flows from west to east toward the West Fork Trinity River. During October 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity investigation at a site along the West Fork Trinity River at the eastern boundary of NAS-JRB to characterize the distribution of subsurface resistivity. Five 2D resistivity profiles were collected, which ranged from 500 to 750 feet long and extended to a depth of 25 feet. The Goodland Limestone and the underlying Walnut Formation form a confining unit that underlies the alluvial aquifer. The top of this confining unit is the top of bedrock at NAS-JRB. The bedrock confining unit is the zone of interest because of the potential for contaminated ground water to enter the West Fork Trinity River through saturated bedrock. The study involved a capacitively-coupled resistivity survey and inverse modeling to obtain true or actual resistivity from apparent resistivity. The apparent resistivity was processed using an inverse modeling software program. The results of this program were used to generate distributions (images) of actual resistivity referred to as inverted sections or profiles. The images along the five profiles show a wide range of resistivity values. The two profiles nearest the West Fork Trinity River generally showed less resistivity than the three other profiles.

Shah, Sachin D.; Stanton, Gregory P.

2006-01-01

310

Rock fall simulation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rock fall from limestone cliffs at Timpanogos Cave National Monument in American Fork Canyon east of Provo, Utah, is a common occurrence. The cave is located in limestone cliffs high on the southern side of the canyon. One fatality in 1933 led to the construction of rock fall shelters at the cave entrance and exit in 1976. Numerous rock fall incidents, including a near miss in 2000 in the vicinity of the trail below the cave exit, have led to a decision to extend the shelter at the cave exit to protect visitors from these ongoing rock fall events initiating from cliffs immediately above the cave exit. Three-dimensional rock fall simulations from sources at the top of these cliffs have provided data from which to assess the spatial frequencies and velocities of rock falls from the cliffs and to constrain the design of protective measures to reduce the rock fall hazard. Results from the rock fall simulations are consistent with the spatial patterns of rock fall impacts that have been observed at the cave exit site.

Harp, Edwin L.; Dart, Richard L.; Reichenbach, Paola

2011-01-01

311

Wild chinook salmon survive better than hatchery salmon in a period of poor production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Cowichan River on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada are used by the Pacific Salmon Commission as an index\\u000a of the general state of chinook salmon coast wide. In recent years the production declined to very low levels despite the\\u000a use of a hatchery that was intended to increase production by

R. J. Beamish; R. M. Sweeting; C. M. Neville; K. L. Lange; T. D. Beacham; D. Preikshot

312

Spawning migration and intraspecies differentiation of pink salmon from northwestern Sakhalin waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon fishery near the northwestern Sakhalin coast is based on fish spawning both in the island and continental rivers. Salmon fishery near the Sakhalin coast of Amur Estuary has significantly lost contact with the main salmon rivers of the region. Pink salmon is the most abundant salmon species of the region rivers. Biology of the northwestern Sakhalin pink salmon

Alexander N. Ivanov; Alexej Shershnev; Nina P. Kaplanova; Konstantin L. Pusankov; Lubov V. Ivanova; Ekaterina N. Pusankova

2002-01-01

313

BRCA1 controls homologous recombination at Tus/Ter-stalled mammalian replication forks.  

PubMed

Replication fork stalling can promote genomic instability, predisposing to cancer and other diseases. Stalled replication forks may be processed by sister chromatid recombination (SCR), generating error-free or error-prone homologous recombination (HR) outcomes. In mammalian cells, a long-standing hypothesis proposes that the major hereditary breast/ovarian cancer predisposition gene products, BRCA1 and BRCA2, control HR/SCR at stalled replication forks. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 affect replication fork processing, direct evidence that BRCA gene products regulate homologous recombination at stalled chromosomal replication forks is lacking, due to a dearth of tools for studying this process. Here we report that the Escherichia coli Tus/Ter complex can be engineered to induce site-specific replication fork stalling and chromosomal HR/SCR in mouse cells. Tus/Ter-induced homologous recombination entails processing of bidirectionally arrested forks. We find that the Brca1 carboxy (C)-terminal tandem BRCT repeat and regions of Brca1 encoded by exon 11-two Brca1 elements implicated in tumour suppression-control Tus/Ter-induced homologous recombination. Inactivation of either Brca1 or Brca2 increases the absolute frequency of 'long-tract' gene conversions at Tus/Ter-stalled forks, an outcome not observed in response to a site-specific endonuclease-mediated chromosomal double-strand break. Therefore, homologous recombination at stalled forks is regulated differently from homologous recombination at double-strand breaks arising independently of a replication fork. We propose that aberrant long-tract homologous recombination at stalled replication forks contributes to genomic instability and breast/ovarian cancer predisposition in BRCA mutant cells. PMID:24776801

Willis, Nicholas A; Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Huang, Bin; Kwok, Amy; Follonier, Cindy; Deng, Chuxia; Scully, Ralph

2014-06-26

314

A novel device for endoscopic submucosal dissection, the Fork knife  

PubMed Central

AIM: To introduce and evaluate the efficacy and technical aspects of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using a novel device, the Fork knife. METHODS: From March 2004 to April 2008, ESD was performed on 265 gastric lesions using a Fork knife (Endo FS®) (group A) and on 72 gastric lesions using a Flexknife (group B) at a single tertiary referral center. We retrospectively compared the endoscopic characteristics of the tumors, pathological findings, and sizes of the resected specimens. We also compared the en bloc resection rate, complete resection rate, complications, and procedure time between the two groups. RESULTS: The mean size of the resected specimens was 4.27 ± 1.26 cm in group A and 4.29 ± 1.48 cm in group B. The en bloc resection rate was 95.8% (254/265 lesions) in group A and 93.1% (67/72) in group B. Complete ESD without tumor cell invasion of the resected margin was obtained in 81.1% (215/265) of group A and in 73.6% (53/72) of group B. The perforation rate was 0.8% (2/265) in group A and 1.4% (1/72) in group B. The mean procedure time was 59.63 ± 56.12 min in group A and 76.65 ± 70.75 min in group B (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The Fork knife (Endo FS®) is useful for clinical practice and has the advantage of reducing the procedure time.

Kim, Hyun Gun; Cho, Joo Young; Bok, Gene Hyun; Cho, Won Young; Kim, Wan Jung; Hong, Su Jin; Ko, Bong Min; Kim, Jin Oh; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Moon Sung; Shim, Chan Sup

2008-01-01

315

Middle East food safety perspectives.  

PubMed

Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24415527

Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

2014-08-01

316

Noncontact friction force microscopy based on quartz tuning fork sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noncontact friction force microscopy (NC-FFM) measures the damping of the resonant oscillation of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip that vibrates parallel to the sample surface at a controlled distance. By exploiting the two fundamental orthogonal vibration modes of a quartz tuning fork, such technique can be realized by all-piezoelectric sensing by simultaneously employing an AFM noncontact mode for distance control. The low noncontact-mode vibration amplitude used increases the effective interaction time for shear measurement. Application to polymeric samples shows that the dissipation contrast of NC-FFM is higher than that of the corresponding noncontact-mode phase imaging.

Labardi, M.; Allegrini, M.

2006-10-01

317

BLACK FORK MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, ARAKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black Fork Mountain Roadless Area covers about 21 sq mi in the Ouachita National Forest in Polk County, Arkansas and LeFlore County, Oklahoma. On the basis of a mineral survey the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Stone and sand and gravel suitable for construction purposes occur in the Jackfork Sandstone and the Stanley Shale which also occur outside the roadless area. Although the potential for gas and oil is unknown and no resource potential was identified, some investigators believe that there is a possibility for the occurrence of gas and oil in the roadless area.

Miller, Mary, H.

1984-01-01

318

Acoustic Resonances in Helium Fluids Excited by Quartz Tuning Forks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinary quartz tuning fork resonators, operated at about 30 or 200 kHz frequency, couple to acoustic first and second sound resonances in helium fluids under certain conditions. We have studied acoustic resonances in supercritical 4He, normal and superfluid 4He, and in isotopic mixtures of helium. Suggestive temperature, pressure, and concentration dependences are given. Furthermore, we propose a thermometric reference point device based on second sound resonances in helium mixtures, and indicate possible differences in the nature of second sound resonances in superfluid 4He and helium mixtures.

Salmela, A.; Tuoriniemi, J.; Rysti, J.

2011-03-01

319

WATER QUALITY TREND MONITORING FROM 1979-1985 IN THE STIBNITE MONITORING DISTRICT, VALLEY COUNTY, IDAHO  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stibnite Mining District (17060208) is located in the drainage of the East Fork South Fork Salmon River. The monitoring program was established to document any changes in water quality associated with the initiation of a large scale open pit mine and cyanide leaching plant. ...

320

Eco-evolutionary dynamics in Pacific salmon  

PubMed Central

Increasing acceptance of the idea that evolution can proceed rapidly has generated considerable interest in understanding the consequences of ongoing evolutionary change for populations, communities and ecosystems. The nascent field of ‘eco-evolutionary dynamics' considers these interactions, including reciprocal feedbacks between evolution and ecology. Empirical support for eco-evolutionary dynamics has emerged from several model systems, and we here present some possibilities for diverse and strong effects in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We specifically focus on the consequences that natural selection on body size can have for salmon population dynamics, community (bear-salmon) interactions and ecosystem process (fluxes of salmon biomass between habitats). For example, we find that shifts in body size because of selection can alter fluxes across habitats by up to 11% compared with ecological (that is, numerical) effects. More generally, we show that selection within a generation can have large effects on ecological dynamics and so should be included within a complete eco-evolutionary framework.

Carlson, S M; Quinn, T P; Hendry, A P

2011-01-01

321

Classroom-Community Salmon Enhancement Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program in the Bellevue (Washington) public schools in which elementary and middle school teachers and students raise coho and Chinook salmon in the classroom and later release them into a nearby stream. (TW)

Hubbard-Gray, Sarah

1988-01-01

322

SALMON SPAWNING & REARING HABITAT IN OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Spawning & rearing, rearing only, and essential habitat identified by Oregon Dept. Fish & Wildlife for chum, coho, fall chinook, and spring chinook salmon in Oregon. Each of the species workspaces contains coverages specific to individual USGS hydrologic cataloging unit; each co...

323

Oxygen Transport in Salmon Spawning Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transport of sufficient oxygen to the salmon egg capsule to sustain its metabolic growth is critical to fish egg survival. In this study. measurements were confined to collecting data relating to interstitial flows, which related to both hydraulic head lo...

R. A. Johnson R. F. Carlson

1980-01-01

324

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a...

2013-07-01

325

Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. Junior Web Ranger Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet (or "Junior Ranger Handbook") was designed to help children 4 to 12 years of age learn about the National Park Service and the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (Tennessee). The booklet offers activities and questions about the park; answers may be found by using the Big South Fork Web site (http://www.nps.gov/biso/).…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

326

Substrate-selective repair and restart of replication forks by DNA translocases  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Stalled replication forks are sources of genetic instability. Multiple fork remodeling enzymes are recruited to stalled forks, but how they work to promote fork restart is poorly understood. By combining ensemble biochemical assays and single molecule studies with magnetic tweezers, we show that SMARCAL1 branch migration and DNA annealing activities are directed by the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA to selectively regress stalled replication forks caused by blockage to the leading-strand polymerase and to restore normal replication forks with a lagging-strand gap. We unveil the molecular mechanisms by which RPA enforces SMARCAL1 substrate preference. E. coli RecG acts similarly to SMARCAL1 in the presence of E. coli SSB, whereas the highly related human protein ZRANB3 has different substrate preferences. Our findings identify the important substrates of SMARCAL1 in fork repair, suggest that RecG and SMARCAL1 are functional orthologues, and provide a comprehensive model of fork repair by these DNA translocases.

Betous, Remy; Couch, Frank. B.; Mason, Aaron C.; Eichman, Brandt F.

2013-01-01

327

Mutual interactions of oscillating quartz tuning forks in superfluid 4He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quartz tuning fork has recently become a popular experimental tool for investigations of both classical and quantum turbulence in cryogenic helium. Its increased use in low-temperature experiments and a number of puzzling results obtained in the past have led to many questions concerning the interaction of multiple tuning forks or the interaction of tuning forks with other oscillators. We report measurements performed in He II at low temperatures around 360 mK, on the mutual interaction of tuning forks placed in the same volume of fluid, and examine the responsible mechanisms in an effort to discriminate between acoustic coupling and interaction via quantized vortices. To this end, the interaction of two tuning forks is investigated by analyzing their recorded resonance curves, looking for any nonelectrical crosstalk. Further, the force-velocity characteristics of a detector tuning fork are measured for different operating velocities of a generator tuning fork. As a complementary measurement, the intensity of sound waves is recorded using a set of miniature receivers. We confirm the current knowledge on acoustic emission by tuning forks in He II and verify properties of their radiation patterns. We conclude that in our experiment the interaction is almost entirely mediated by sound waves.

Sheshin, G.; Gritsenko, I.; Schmoranzer, D.; Skrbek, L.

2013-10-01

328

Fabrication and characterization of AFM probe with crystal-quartz tuning fork structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new type of crystal quartz probe structure for application to the atomic force microscopy (AFM) system. Using quartz micromachining technology and a focused-ion-beam system, we fabricated a device in which we integrate tuning fork structure and a probe tip. We evaluated the vibration characteristic of the fabricated tuning fork by measuring its frequency response. From these

Hirotaka Hida; Mitsuhiro Shikida; Kenji Fukuzawa; Atsushi Ono; Kenji Sato; Kazuo Asaumi; Yasuroh Iriye; Di Cheng

2005-01-01

329

Noncontact scanning force microscopy based on a modified tuning fork sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distance control using a tuning fork setup for the detection of shear forces is a standard configuration in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Based on this concept, a modified sensor was developed, where a standard silicon tip for atomic force microscopy (AFM) is attached to the front end of one prong of a 100 kHz quartz tuning fork oscillator. Comparison

Hagen Göttlich; Robert W. Stark; Johannes D. Pedarnig; Wolfgang M. Heckl

2000-01-01

330

Angled long tip to tuning fork probes for atomic force microscopy in various environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We expand the range of applications of a tuning fork probe (TFP) in frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) by attaching a long metal tip at a certain angle. By the combined flexure of the metal tip and the tuning fork prong, this TFP can change the direction of the detectable force by switching the resonance frequency, which has not been

Seiji Higuchi; Hiromi Kuramochi; Osamu Kubo; Shintaro Masuda; Yoshitaka Shingaya; Masakazu Aono; Tomonobu Nakayama

2011-01-01

331

Proposal of new type of micro-machined quartz tuning fork AFM probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quartz probe structure with a monolithically integrated tuning fork with a sharp tip at the end has been developed for application to noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) systems. The structure is fabricated using quartz micromachining technologies. Evaluation of the properties of a fabricated quartz tuning fork showed that it had a Q-factor of 2348, a resonant frequency of 39.92

H. Hida; K. Fukuzawa; Di Cheng; K. Sato; M. Shikida; A. Ono; K. Asaumi; Y. Iriye

2005-01-01

332

Symmetrically arranged quartz tuning fork with soft cantilever for intermittent contact mode atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-sensing and -actuating probe for dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) based on a commercial quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever is presented. The U-shaped cantilever, exhibiting a sharp tip, is combined with the tuning fork in a symmetrical arrangement, such that each of the two legs of the cantilever is fixed to one of the prongs of

T. Akiyama; U. Staufer; N. F. de Rooij; P. Frederix; A. Engel

2003-01-01

333

A Wideband DVB Forked Shape Monopole Antenna With Coupling Effect for USB Dongle Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel wide-band printed antenna, named forked shape monopole antenna (FSMA), is proposed. The forked shape line structure is introduced to create a capacitive coupling effect to reduce the antenna size and enhance the impedance bandwidth. The proposed antenna is to be applied in a compact USB dongle. And it is designed for the reception of the digital video broadcasting

Cho-Kang Hsu; Shyh-Jong Chung

2010-01-01

334

Noncontact tuning fork position sensing for hollow-pyramid near-field cantilevered probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that tuning fork sensing provides a stable, noncontact mode of operation when applied to near-field optical microscopy employing cantilevered probes. Detrimental damping effects that have so far limited the practical use of these otherwise very advantageous probes are totally overcome. We validate our tuning fork setup featuring hollow-pyramid probes by an optical nanolithography application.

A. Ambrosio; E. Cefalì; S. Spadaro; S. Patanè; M. Allegrini; D. Albert; E. Oesterschulze

2006-01-01

335

Flood Obelisk, Red River of the North, Grand Forks, North Dakota  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flood obelisk marking the greatest floods from 1882-1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota. This has become a famous landmark to compare current conditions to past events. This picture was taken on March 15, 2010, just before the Red River began to flood at Grand Forks....

2010-03-19

336

Substrate-selective repair and restart of replication forks by DNA translocases.  

PubMed

Stalled replication forks are sources of genetic instability. Multiple fork-remodeling enzymes are recruited to stalled forks, but how they work to promote fork restart is poorly understood. By combining ensemble biochemical assays and single-molecule studies with magnetic tweezers, we show that SMARCAL1 branch migration and DNA-annealing activities are directed by the single-stranded DNA-binding protein RPA to selectively regress stalled replication forks caused by blockage to the leading-strand polymerase and to restore normal replication forks with a lagging-strand gap. We unveil the molecular mechanisms by which RPA enforces SMARCAL1 substrate preference. E. coli RecG acts similarly to SMARCAL1 in the presence of E. coli SSB, whereas the highly related human protein ZRANB3 has different substrate preferences. Our findings identify the important substrates of SMARCAL1 in fork repair, suggest that RecG and SMARCAL1 are functional orthologs, and provide a comprehensive model of fork repair by these DNA translocases. PMID:23746452

Bétous, Rémy; Couch, Frank B; Mason, Aaron C; Eichman, Brandt F; Manosas, Maria; Cortez, David

2013-06-27

337

Antigen forks: bispecific reagents that inhibit cell growth by binding selected pairs of tumor antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bispecific antibodies of a new category, termed “antigen forks”, were constructed by crosslinking antibodies that recognized pairs of distinct tumor cell surface antigens. At concentrations of 1–100 nM, several such forks inhibited the growth of human tumor cell lines bearing both relevant antigens. The same cells were not inhibited by unconjugated component antibodies, and the active conjugates did not inhibit

David B. Ring; Sylvia T. Hsieh-Ma; Tim Shi; John Reeder

1994-01-01

338

Characterization of ecological risks at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive field and laboratory approach to the ecological risk assessment for the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Site, a Superfund site in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been described in the preceding reports of this series. The risk assessment addresses concerns over the ecological impacts of upstream releases of mining wastes to fisheries of the upper Clark Fork

Gary A. Pascoe; Richard J. Blanchet; Greg Linder; Don Palawski; William G. Brumbaugh; Tim J. Canfield; Nile E. Kemble; Chris G. Ingersoll; Aïda Farag; Julie A. DalSoglio

1994-01-01

339

The intra-S phase checkpoint targets Dna2 to prevent stalled replication forks from reversing.  

PubMed

When replication forks stall at damaged bases or upon nucleotide depletion, the intra-S phase checkpoint ensures they are stabilized and can restart. In intra-S checkpoint-deficient budding yeast, stalling forks collapse, and ?10% form pathogenic chicken foot structures, contributing to incomplete replication and cell death (Lopes et al., 2001; Sogo et al., 2002; Tercero and Diffley, 2001). Using fission yeast, we report that the Cds1(Chk2) effector kinase targets Dna2 on S220 to regulate, both in vivo and in vitro, Dna2 association with stalled replication forks in chromatin. We demonstrate that Dna2-S220 phosphorylation and the nuclease activity of Dna2 are required to prevent fork reversal. Consistent with this, Dna2 can efficiently cleave obligate precursors of fork regression-regressed leading or lagging strands-on model replication forks. We propose that Dna2 cleavage of regressed nascent strands prevents fork reversal and thus stabilizes stalled forks to maintain genome stability during replication stress. PMID:22682245

Hu, Jiazhi; Sun, Lei; Shen, Fenfen; Chen, Yufei; Hua, Yu; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Mian; Hu, Yiren; Wang, Qingsong; Xu, Wei; Sun, Fei; Ji, Jianguo; Murray, Johanne M; Carr, Antony M; Kong, Daochun

2012-06-01

340

Trident-type tuning fork silicon gyroscope by the phase difference detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trident-type tuning fork silicon gyroscope was designed and fabricated. The trident-type tuning fork structure and vacuum packaging has a Q value higher than 15000. A new detection principle which is based on the phase difference detection is proposed and is confirmed using the fabricated gyroscope. By this detecting method, it is possible to detect the angular rate without control

Munemitsu Abe; Eiji Shinohara; Kazuo Hasegawa; Shinji Murata; Masayoshi Esashi

2000-01-01

341

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2013-07-01

342

Salmon fibrin glue in rats: antibody studies.  

PubMed

Fibrin sealants and topical thrombin preparations are often used for haemostatic and sealing applications in clinical practice. Some of these preparations contain coagulation factors from bovine sources. To minimize the risk of infection and immunogenicity connected with mammalian blood products, proteins derived from the plasma of farmed Atlantic salmon have been considered as an alternative to these mammalian sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize the immunogenicity of salmon fibrin glue in an animal model focusing on crossreactivity of IgG antibodies to host endogenous counterparts. After two immunizations with salmon fibrin glue, rats developed antibodies of IgG and IgM type to both fibrin glue components. Weak crossreactivity to endogenous fibrinogen and thrombin was seen in a subset of rats after the second application of salmon proteins. Coagulation tests showed that salmon fibrin application has no effect on coagulation profiles in mammalian hosts, consistent with previous reports that found no evidence of significant crossreactivity with host proteins. These studies support the potential suitability of salmon fibrin glue for the development of preparations with clinical impact. Before human use can be considered, however, additional data about safety of this preparation in other animal models, including large animal studies, should be obtained. PMID:22245545

Laidmäe, Ivo; Belozjorova, Jevgenia; Sawyer, Evelyn S; Janmey, Paul A; Uibo, Raivo

2012-01-01

343

Mus81-mediated DNA cleavage resolves replication forks stalled by topoisomerase I-DNA complexes.  

PubMed

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) topoisomerases are essential for removing the supercoiling that normally builds up ahead of replication forks. The camptothecin (CPT) Top1 (topoisomerase I) inhibitors exert their anticancer activity by reversibly trapping Top1-DNA cleavage complexes (Top1cc's) and inducing replication-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this paper, we propose a new mechanism by which cells avoid Top1-induced replication-dependent DNA damage. We show that the structure-specific endonuclease Mus81-Eme1 is responsible for generating DSBs in response to Top1 inhibition and for allowing cell survival. We provide evidence that Mus81 cleaves replication forks rather than excises Top1cc's. DNA combing demonstrated that Mus81 also allows efficient replication fork progression after CPT treatment. We propose that Mus81 cleaves stalled replication forks, which allows dissipation of the excessive supercoiling resulting from Top1 inhibition, spontaneous reversal of Top1cc, and replication fork progression. PMID:22123861

Regairaz, Marie; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Fu, Haiqing; Agama, Keli K; Tata, Nalini; Agrawal, Surbhi; Aladjem, Mirit I; Pommier, Yves

2011-11-28

344

RAD51- and MRE11-dependent reassembly of uncoupled CMG helicase complex at collapsed replication forks.  

PubMed

In higher eukaryotes, the dynamics of replisome components during fork collapse and restart are poorly understood. Here we have reconstituted replication fork collapse and restart by inducing single-strand DNA lesions that create a double-strand break in one of the replicated sister chromatids after fork passage. We found that, upon fork collapse, the active CDC45-MCM-GINS (CMG) helicase complex loses its GINS subunit. A functional replisome is restored by the reloading of GINS and polymerase ? onto DNA in a fashion that is dependent on RAD51 and MRE11 but independent of replication origin assembly and firing. PCNA mutant alleles defective in break-induced replication (BIR) are unable to support restoration of replisome integrity. These results show that, in higher eukaryotes, replisomes are partially dismantled after fork collapse and fully re-established by a recombination-mediated process. PMID:22139015

Hashimoto, Yoshitami; Puddu, Fabio; Costanzo, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

345

Growth promotion of red sea bream, Pagrosomus major, by oral administration of recombinant eel and salmon growth hormone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGH and rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer matrix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containing reGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium alginate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulate fish growth.

Xu, Bin; Mai, Kang-Sen; Xu, Ying-Li; Miao, Hong-Zhi; Liu, Zhen-Hui; Dong, Yong; Lan, Shan; Wang, Rao; Zhang, Pei-Jun

2001-06-01

346

Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

2004-12-01

347

On Catching Humpback Salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta of Rare Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on catching humpback salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha at the age of 0?+ and chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta at the age of 1+ in the Ilyushina River (Kunashir Island) in the period of spawning migration are given. The sex of fish, the body length, the stage of gonad maturity, and the number and width of sclerites on scales are indicated.

A. M. Kaev

2002-01-01

348

Salmon Farming and Salmon People: Identity and Environment in the Leggatt Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon

Schreiber, Dorothee

2003-01-01

349

Infectious salmon anaemia virus infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, infects and causes disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Previous studies have shown Atlantic salmon endothelial cells to be the primary targets of ISAV infection. However, it is not known if cells other than endothelial cells play a role in ISAV tropism. To further assess cell tropism, we examined ISAV infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ISAV infection. On comparison of primary gill epithelial cell cultures with ISAV permissive fish cell cultures, we found the virus yield in primary gill epithelial cells to be comparable with that of salmon head kidney (SHK)-1 cells, but lower than TO or Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK)-II cells. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the primary gill cells possessed characteristics consistent with epithelial cells. Virus histochemistry showed that gill epithelial cells expressed 4-O-acetylated sialic acid which is recognized as the ISAV receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ISAV infection in Atlantic salmon primary gill epithelial cells. This study thus broadens our understanding of cell tropism and transmission of ISAV in Atlantic salmon.

2013-01-01

350

PREFERENCES FOR HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ATTRIBUTES OF FARMED SALMON AMONGST SOUTHERN ONTARIO SALMON CONSUMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research was to shed light on the trade-offs that salmon consumers make between five types of production and health attributes of farmed salmon. In Canada, the major southern Ontario market cleaved into five distinct consumer segments that varied according to age and income, ‘tastes’, and threat perceptions. There was strong consumer aversion to increased levels of

Murray A. Rudd; Nathan Pelletier; Peter Tyedmers

2011-01-01

351

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon  

PubMed Central

The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect wild salmon populations and habitats in several countries. In Canada, much attention has focused on outbreaks of parasitic copepods, sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), on farmed and wild salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Several recent studies have reached contradictory conclusions on whether the spread of lice from salmon farms affects the productivity of sympatric wild salmon populations. We analyzed recently available sea lice data on farms and spawner–recruit data for pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago and nearby regions where farms are not present. Our results show that sea lice abundance on farms is negatively associated with productivity of both pink and coho salmon in the Broughton Archipelago. These results reconcile the contradictory findings of previous studies and suggest that management and policy measures designed to protect wild salmon from sea lice should yield conservation and fishery benefits.

Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M.; Morton, Alexandra; Lewis, Mark A.; Dill, Lawrence M.; Hilborn, Ray

2011-01-01

352

77 FR 66865 - Record of Decision for the Oil and Gas Management Plan, Big South Fork National River and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Decision for the Oil and Gas Management Plan, Big South Fork National River and Recreation...Oil and Gas Management Plan (Plan) for Big South Fork National River and Recreation...plan will guide oil and gas management in Big South Fork National River and...

2012-11-07

353

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River... § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River...Forked River in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Generation Station, bounded by a line beginning at...

2009-07-01

354

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River... § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River...Forked River in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Generation Station, bounded by a line beginning at...

2010-07-01

355

69 FR 44613 - United States Army Danger Zone; Salt River, Rolling Fork River, and Otter Creek; U.S. Army...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...portions of the Salt River and the Rolling Fork River and the non-navigable...per year in this area. The Rolling Fork River passes through the...INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Alan Miller, Headquarters Regulatory Branch...portions of Salt River and Rolling Fork River, and non-...

2004-07-27

356

A single S phase double-strand break influences replicon dynamics and triggers a Mre11-Tel1/ATM-mediated mechanism controlling terminal fork integrity  

PubMed Central

Summary In response to replication stress, the Mec1/ATR and SUMO pathways control the stalled and damaged fork stability. We investigated the S phase response at forks encountering a broken template (termed terminal fork). We show that double strand break (DSB) formation can locally trigger dormant origin firing. Irreversible fork resolution at the break does not impede progression of the other fork in the same replicon (termed sister fork). The Mre11-Tel1/ATM response acts at terminal forks preventing accumulation of cruciform DNA intermediates that tether sister chromatids and can undergo nucleolytic processing. We conclude that sister forks can be uncoupled during replication and that, following DSB-induced fork termination, replication is rescued by dormant origin firing or adjacent replicons. We have uncovered a Tel1/ATM and Mre11-dependent response controlling terminal fork integrity. Our findings have implications for those genome instability syndromes that accumulate DNA breaks during S phase and for forks encountering eroding telomeres.

Doksani, Ylli; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Fiorani, Simona; Haber, James E.; Foiani, Marco

2009-01-01

357

CtIP mediates replication fork recovery in a FANCD2-regulated manner.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosome instability syndrome characterized by increased cancer predisposition. Within the FA pathway, an upstream FA core complex mediates monoubiquitination and recruitment of the central FANCD2 protein to sites of stalled replication forks. Once recruited, FANCD2 fulfills a dual role towards replication fork recovery: (i) it cooperates with BRCA2 and RAD51 to protect forks from nucleolytic degradation and (ii) it recruits the BLM helicase to promote replication fork restart while suppressing new origin firing. Intriguingly, FANCD2 and its interaction partners are also involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks, hinting that FANCD2 utilizes HR proteins to mediate replication fork recovery. One such candidate is CtIP (CtBP-interacting protein), a key HR repair factor that functions in complex with BRCA1 and MRE11, but has not been investigated as putative player in the replication stress response. Here, we identify CtIP as a novel interaction partner of FANCD2. CtIP binds and stabilizes FANCD2 in a DNA damage- and FA core complex-independent manner, suggesting that FANCD2 monoubiquitination is dispensable for its interaction with CtIP. Following cellular treatment with a replication inhibitor, aphidicolin, FANCD2 recruits CtIP to transiently stalled, as well as collapsed, replication forks on chromatin. At stalled forks, CtIP cooperates with FANCD2 to promote fork restart and the suppression of new origin firing. Both functions are dependent on BRCA1 that controls the step-wise recruitment of MRE11, FANCD2 and finally CtIP to stalled replication forks, followed by their concerted actions to promote fork recovery. PMID:24556218

Yeo, Jung Eun; Lee, Eu Han; Hendrickson, Eric A; Sobeck, Alexandra

2014-07-15

358

Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

Rajasingh, Hannah; ?yehaug, Leiv; Vage, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

2006-01-01

359

University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections: Salmon Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Washington presents the Salmon Collection, an online digital collection of "documents, photographs, and other original material describing the roots of the salmon crisis in the Pacific Northwest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries." Users may search for items by keyword or browse the entire collection, organized into the following categories: Native Americans, Traps and Fishwheels, Salmon Industry in Washington, Salmon on the Columbia River, Fish Drying, Salmon Industry in Alaska, Salmon Canneries, and Salmon Hatcheries. For a brief overview of the salmon crisis in the Pacific Northwest, click on About this Site (also provides technical information about the collection and its content). The photographs are particularly compelling. The entire collection should appeal to ecologists and history buffs alike.

360

Culture of Atlantic Salmon, 'Salmo salar', in Puget Sound.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, stocks are extremely low in New England Streams. A pilot study conducted in Puget Sound, WA., showed that Atlantic salmon brood stock could be reared successfully by combining special techniques of fry rearing and saltwater p...

J. L. Mighell

1981-01-01

361

Sequencing the genome of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

The International Collaboration to Sequence the Atlantic Salmon Genome (ICSASG) will produce a genome sequence that identifies and physically maps all genes in the Atlantic salmon genome and acts as a reference sequence for other salmonids.

2010-01-01

362

Lactate Dehydrogenase Polymorphism of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of sockeye salmon from the Naknek River system, Alaska, exhibited marked heterogeneity in LDH phenotype. Similar, though less marked, heterogeneity is apparent in sockeye salmon samples from other Bristol Bay area rivers. The B allele was almost e...

H. O. Hodgins F. M. Utter

1971-01-01

363

Japanese Studies on the Early Ocean Life of Juvenile Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all the salmon resources in Japan have been supported by artificial enhance- ment, and because of the success of this program the population size of chum salmon (Oncorhyn- chus keta) has increased dramatically since the early 1970s. About 90% of Japan's salmon catch is chum; 5-10% is pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) and 0.5% masu (O. masou). Therefore, biological research

Hiroshi Mayama; Yukimasa Ishida

364

Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

2009-10-01

365

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2013-10-01

366

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2010-10-01

367

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2011-10-01

368

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2012-10-01

369

Stratigraphic sequence of transgressive barrier bar complex and model for hydrocarbon exploration, Red Fork sandstone, Wakita trend, Grant County, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Desmoinesian Red Fork sandstone (Boggy Formation, Krebs Group), on the northern shelf of the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma, represents a transgressive barrier bar system. The base of the Red Fork interval is marked by the Inola Limestone (Boggy Formation); the top is marked by the Tiawah (Pink) Limestone (Senora Formation, Cabaniss Group). Upper shoreface and foreshore deposits, in which porosity and permeability range from 8 to 18% and 0.03 to 9.7 md, respectively, produce significant amounts of oil and natural gas along the east-west Wakita trend. Effective porosity (mainly secondary dissolution porosity) is well developed in these deposits. Successful hydrocarbon exploration requires a solid understanding of the stratigraphic sequences and depositional environments within the barrier system. Cored sequences, from bottom to top, include: (1) Inola biomicrite, containing brachiopod, trilobite, and echinoderm fragments, and worm tubes (shallow marine); (2) black fossiliferous shale and nonfossiliferous variegated claystone (lagoonal. open marine); (3) coarsening upward sequences of fine to medium-grained sandstone showing low-angle (< 15/sup 0/) bidirectional cross-stratification and flat laminae (shoreface to foreshore); and, locally, (4) very fine-grained sandstone showing flaser and current-ripple laminae (sand flats). Enclosed in the inferred shoreface or foreshore deposits is a local, 1-ft-thick, flat-laminated, very fine-grained sandstone that may represent washover deposits. Lateral facies equivalents of the shoreface and foreshore deposits include ripple-laminated, very fine-grained sandstone, some of which is overlain by glauconitic siltstone and shale (back barrier or lower shoreface.).

O'Reilly, K.L.; Franks, P.C.

1986-05-01

370

Fundamental Limits to Force Detection using Quartz Tuning Forks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the fundamental limits of the use of quartz tuning forks as force detectors in scanned probe microscopy. It is demonstrated that at room temperature, pressure, and atmosphere these force sensors have a noise floor of 0.4pN/?Hz and exhibit a root mean square Brownian motion of only 0.2 pm. When operated as a shear force sensor both dissipative and reactive forces are detected on approach to the sample. These forces are sufficient to reduce the amplitude of motion of the probe nearly to zero without physically contacting the surface. It is also demonstrated that conventional proportional-integral feedback control yields closed loop responses at least 40 times faster than their open loop response. This result indicates that the mechanical Q of the resonator should always be maximized to obtain the highest force sensitivity and that this does not degrade the response of the measurement system.

Schuck, P. James; Grober, Robert; Karrai, Khaled

2000-03-01

371

Geomorphic Characterization of the Middle Fork Saline River: Garland, Perry, and Saline Counties, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report was prepared to help address concerns raised by local residents, State, and Federal agencies about the current geomorphic conditions of the Middle Fork Saline River. Over the past 30 years the Middle Fork Saline River Basin has experienced a marked increase in urbanization. The report summarizes the Middle Fork?s current (2003) channel characteristics at nine stream reaches in the upper 91 square miles of the basin. Assessments at each study reach included comparing measured stream geometry dimensions (cross-sectional area, top width, and mean depth) at bankfull stage to regional hydraulic geometry curves for the Ouachita Mountains Physiographic Province of Arkansas and Oklahoma, evaluations of streambed materials and sinuosity, and classification of individual stream reach types. When compared to the Ouachita Mountains? regional hydraulic geometry curves for natural, stable, stream reaches, five of the nine study reaches had slightly smaller crosssectional areas, longer top widths, and shallower depths. Streambed material analysis indicates that the Middle Fork is a bedrock influenced, gravel dominated stream with lesser amounts of sand and cobbles. Slight increases in sinuosity from 1992 to 2002 at seven of the nine study reaches indicate a slight decrease in stream channel slope. Analyses of the Middle Fork?s hydraulic geometry and sinuosity indicate that the Middle Fork is currently overly wide and shallow, but is slowly adjusting towards a deeper, narrower hydraulic geometry. Using the Rosgen system of channel classification, the two upstream study reaches classified as B4c/1 stream types; which were moderately entrenched, riffle dominated channels, with infrequently spaced pools. The downstream seven study reaches classified as C4/1 stream types; which were slightly entrenched, meandering, gravel-dominated, riffle/ pool channels with well developed flood plains. Analyses of stream reach types suggest that the downstream reaches of the Middle Fork are more vulnerable to streambank failure than the upstream reaches of the stream.

Pugh, Aaron L.; Garday, Thomas J.; Redman, Ronald

2008-01-01

372

Comparison of migration rate and survival between radio-tagged and PIT-tagged migrant yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to compare the travel times, detection probabilities, and survival of migrant hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha tagged with either gastrically or surgically implanted sham radio tags (with an imbedded passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag) with those of their cohorts tagged only with PIT tags in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Juvenile chinook salmon with gastrically implanted radio tags migrated significantly faster than either surgically radio-tagged or PIT-tagged fish, while migration rates were similar among surgically radio-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. The probabilities of PIT tag detection at downstream dams varied by less than 5% and were not significantly different among the three groups. Survival was similar among treatments for median travel times of less than approximately 6 d (migration distance of 106 km). However, for both gastrically and surgically radio-tagged fish, survival was significantly less than for PIT-tagged fish, for which median travel times exceeded approximately 10 d (migration distance of 225 km). The results of this study support the use of radio tags to estimate the survival of juvenile chinook salmon having a median fork length of approximately 150 mm (range, 127-285 mm) and a median travel time of migration of less than approximately 6 d.

Hockersmith, E. E.; Muir, W. D.; Smith, S. G.; Sandford, B. P.; Perry, R. W.; Adams, N. S.; Rondorf, D. W.

2003-01-01

373

Self-sensing and self-actuating probe based on quartz tuning fork combined with microfabricated cantilever for dynamic mode atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel probe based on a commercial quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever is presented. The U-shaped cantilever with a monolithic tip is combined with the tuning fork in a symmetrical arrangement, such that each of the two legs of the cantilever is fixed to one of the prongs of the tuning fork. The tuning fork is used as

T. Akiyama; U Staufer; N. F de Rooij

2003-01-01

374

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Fisheries 7 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2009-10-01

375

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2010-10-01

376

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) migratory energetics: response to migratory difficulty and comparisons with sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) are generally considered weak upriver migrants relative to sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), though this assertion is largely anecdotal. To assess energy-use patterns during migra - tion, we collected pink salmon from two major Fraser River stocks (Weaver and Seton in British Columbia, Canada) in 1999 at three times and locations: (1) at the start of

G. T. Crossin; S. G. Hinch; A. P. Farrell; M. P. Whelly; M. C. Healey

2004-01-01

377

A tuning fork gyroscope with compensated imbalance signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is presenting a robust gyroscope sensor with an electrical and mechanical self-test option and the ability to suppress the quadrature error. The presented sensor is based on a tuning-fork working principle. The mechanical part is assembled in bulk-technology produced with a wet etching process. The two detection elements are manufactured with a standard CMOS-process and the material of the two thin-film actuators is AlN (aluminium-nitrid). The two actuators can be controlled independently from each other. Two electronic PCB's were developed for actuating and measurement. One is including the analogue signal path; the second PCB is the digital electronics consisting of a FPGA and other peripherals. The tuning fork is actuated in a primary oscillation mode also called drive mode. For keeping the oscillation in resonance, a digital PLL is used in a forced feedback loop. To have a constant energy in the drive mode an Amplitude-Gain-Control (AGC) is implemented. An appearing angular rate causes the corriolis-force which is actuating secondary oscillation, also called detection mode. The amplitude of this oscillation is proportional to the angular rate. The signal has a component resulting from the mechanical imbalance. To separate these two signal parts from each other a synchronous demodulator followed by a digital filter chain has been developed. To achieve the maximum suppression of the imbalance signal a control-loop is used to shift the phases of the two actuation signals. This creates an additional force that compensates the movement as a result of the mechanical imbalance. With the implementation of this control loop the performance of the sensor was increased. An enhanced temperature stability over operation was achieved with the means of this compensation.

Arnold, E.; Nuscheler, F.

2007-06-01

378

History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

Parsons, John W.

1973-01-01

379

Short fiber probe scheme for tapping-mode tuning fork near-field scanning optical microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction of a tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fiber probe as the force sensing element for near-field scanning optical microscopy is reported. This type of near-field scanning optical microscopy provides stable and high Q factor at the tapping frequency of the tuning fork, and thus gives high quality NSOM and AFM images of samples. We present results obtained by using the short tip tapping-mode tuning fork near-field scanning optical microscopy measurements performed on a single mode telecommunication optical fiber and a silica based buried channel waveguide.

Huang, Chien W.; Lu, Nien H.; Chen, Chih Y.; Yu, Cheng Feng; Kao, Tsung S.; Tsai, Din Ping; Wang, Pei

2002-09-01

380

Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon  

PubMed Central

Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species.

Nelson, Michelle C.; Reynolds, John D.

2014-01-01

381

Time-delayed subsidies: interspecies population effects in salmon.  

PubMed

Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species. PMID:24911974

Nelson, Michelle C; Reynolds, John D

2014-01-01

382

HEALTHY STOCKS OF NW SALMON FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Geographic distribution of eight species/races of Pacific salmon and steelhead (spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, summer steelhead and winter steelhead. The data are based upon the Oregon Trout report Healthy Native Stock...

383

Mixed-Stock Analysis of Yukon River Chum Salmon: Application and Validation in a Complex Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yukon River chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta are managed under the Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST), which requires conservation and equitable sharing of this fishery resource by the USA and Canada. Fall chum salmon are of special concern because they spawn in both the United States and Canada, and the focus of the PST is on Canadian-origin salmon. Yukon River chum salmon

Blair G. Flannery; Terry D. Beacham; John R. Candy; Russell R. Holder; Gerald F. Maschmann; Eric J. Kretschmer; John K. Wenburg

2010-01-01

384

Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In general, upriver brights differ from tules by at least one locus. Steelhead stocks can be divided into two main groups: (1) those stocks found east of the Cascades; and (2) those stocks found west of the Cascade Mountains. Steelhead from west of the Cascades are divisable into three subgroups of closely related stocks: (1) a group comprised mainly of wild winter steelhead from the lower Columbia River; (2) Willamette River hatchery and wild winter steelhead; and (3) summer and winter hatchery steelhead stocks from both the lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers. Steelhead from east of the Cascades are separable into three subgroups of closely related stocks: (1) wild summer steelhead; (2) a group comprised mainly of hatchery summer steelhead stocks; and (3) other hatchery and wild steelhead from Idaho. Streams east and west of the Cascades can be differentiated using characters including precipitation, elevation, distance from the mouth of the Columbia, number of frost-free days and minimum annual air temperature. There are significant differences among the stocks of chinook salmon and steelhead trout for each of the meristic and body shape characters. Between year variation does not account for differences among the stocks for the meristic and body shape characters with the exception of pelvic fin ray number in steelhead trout. Characters based on body shape are important for discriminating between the groups of hatchery and wild steelhead stocks. We could not determine whether the basis for the differences were genetic or environmental. The reason for the variation of the characters among stocks is as yet unclear. Neutrality or adaptiveness has not been firmly demonstrated.

Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

1986-08-01

385

Electroshocking and PIT tagging of juvenile Atlantic salmon: Are there interactive effects on growth and survival?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electroshocking and tagging of fish with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are two commonly used methods for conducting mark-recapture studies in freshwater environments and are frequently used in combination. We conducted an experiment to test for the effects of electroshocking, tagging, and a combination of electroshocking plus tagging on the growth and survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr. We used five treatments that included the presence or absence of PIT tags and electroshocking at 300 or 500 V plus a control group. Fish were measured, weighed, and electroshocked on four occasions separated by approximately 2-month intervals. The average (??1 SD) fork length was 62.1 ?? 1.9 mm and the average weight was 2.5 ?? 0.3 g at the start of the experiment; at the end of the experiment, length averaged 120.5 ?? 11.6 mm and weight averaged 20.9 ?? 6.1 g. We did not detect any significant effects of electroshocking on growth or survival over the course of the experiment. However, there was evidence that tagging negatively influenced survival over the first interval after initial tagging and that survival was positively correlated with fish size. In addition, tagged fish seemed to suffer a minor depression in growth over the first interval, although differences in size among tagged and untagged fish were nonsignificant throughout the course of the experiment. We suggest that the size at tagging may have a greater effect on survival and growth of small (<80-mm) Atlantic salmon parr than the amount of exposure to electroshocking. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Sigourney, D. B.; Horton, G. E.; Dubreuil, T. L.; Varaday, A. M.; Letcher, B. H.

2005-01-01

386

Establishment, maintenance and modifications of the lower jaw dentition of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) throughout its life cycle  

PubMed Central

In this paper we elucidate the pattern of initiation of the first teeth and the pattern of tooth replacement on the dentary of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), throughout nearly all stages of its life cycle, using serially sectioned heads and jaws, cleared and stained animals, and X-rays. The dentary teeth are set in one row. Tooth germs appear around hatching, first in odd positions, followed by even positions. From position 8 further backwards, teeth are added in adjacent positions. The first replacement teeth appear in animals of about 30 mm fork length. On the dentary of early life stages (alevins and fry), every position in the tooth row holds a functional (i.e. attached and erupted) tooth and a replacement tooth. The alternating pattern set up anteriorly in the dentary by the first-generation teeth changes in juveniles (parr) whereby teeth are in a similar functional (for the erupted teeth) or developmental stage (for the replacement teeth) every three positions. This pattern is also observed in marine animals during their marine life phase and in both sexes of adult animals prior to spawning (grilse and salmon), but every position now holds either a functional tooth or a mineralised replacement tooth. This is likely due to the fact that replacement tooth germs have to grow to a larger size before mineralisation starts. In the following spring, the dentary tooth pattern of animals that have survived spawning (kelts) is highly variable. The abundance of functional teeth in post-spawning animals nevertheless indicates that teeth are not lost over winter. We confirm the earlier reported lack of evidence for the existence of an edentulous life phase, preceding the appearance of so-called breeding teeth during upstream migration to the spawning grounds, and consider breeding teeth to be just another tooth generation in a regularly replacing dentition. This study shows how Atlantic salmon maintains a functional adaptive dentition throughout its complex life cycle.

Huysseune, Ann; Hall, Brian K; Witten, P Eckhard

2007-01-01

387

The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability  

PubMed Central

Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA–protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA–protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability.

Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

388

Ecology and Management of the South Fork Snake River Cottonwood Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes an investigation of the cottonwood ecosystem along with the South Fork Snake River from Palisades Dam to Heise, Idaho. Vegetation dynamics in time and space, with an emphasis on the cottonwood component, was the primary focus. Becau...

M. F. Merigliano

1996-01-01

389

77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Public Meetings a. Date and Time...written comments on the draft environmental impact statement for the Middle Fork American...

2012-08-07

390

75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Hazard Reduction Project AGENCY: USDA Forest Service...environmental impact statement for the Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Reduction Project (Salt Project). A supplemental...

2010-05-07

391

Hysteresis, Switching and Anomalous Behaviour of a Quartz Tuning Fork in Superfluid 4He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying the behaviour of commercial quartz tuning forks immersed in superfluid 4He and driven at resonance. For one of the forks we have observed hysteresis and switching between linear and non-linear damping regimes at temperatures below 10 mK. We associate linear damping with pure potential flow around the prongs of the fork, and non-linear damping with the production of vortex lines in a turbulent regime. At appropriate prong velocities, we have observed metastability of both the linear and the turbulent flow states, and a region of intermittency where the flow switched back and forth between each state. For the same fork, we have also observed anomalous behaviour in the linear regime, with large excursions in both damping, resonant frequency, and the tip velocity as a function of driving force.

Bradley, D. I.; Fear, M. J.; Fisher, S. N.; Guénault, A. M.; Haley, R. P.; Lawson, C. R.; Pickett, G. R.; Schanen, R.; Tsepelin, V.; Wheatland, L. A.

2014-04-01

392

Signal electronics for an atomic force microscope equipped with a double quartz tuning fork sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signal electronics equipped with a bandpass filter phase detector for noncontact atomic force microscopy (ncAFM) has been developed. A double quartz tuning fork assembly is used as a force sensor, where one fork serves as a dither tuning fork, while the other is used as a measuring tuning fork. An electrically conductive Pt90Ir10 tip enables the sensor to work in both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and AFM modes. Electronic circuits for self-oscillation control and for frequency detection are given in detail. Atomically resolved STM and ncAFM images of a thin alumina film on NiAl(110) are shown with the microscope cooled down to 4.5 K by liquid helium.

Rust, H.-P.; Heyde, M.; Freund, H.-J.

2006-04-01

393

Characterization and Optimization of Quartz Tuning Fork-Based Force Sensors for Combined STM/AFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter will be divided in two main parts. In the first one, we will show a detailed analysis of the dynamics of quartz tuning fork resonators which are being increasingly used in scanning probe microscopy as force sensors. We will also show that a coupled harmonic oscillators model, which includes a finite coupling between the prongs, is in remarkable agreement with the observed motion of the tuning forks. Relevant parameters for the tuning fork performance such as the effective spring constant can be obtained from our analysis. In the second one, we will present an implementation of a quartz tuning fork supplemented with optimized tips based on carbon fibers. The remarkable electrical and mechanical properties of carbon fiber make these tips more suitable for combined and/or simultaneous STM and AFM than conventional metallic tips. The fabrication and the characterization of these carbon fiber tips as well as their performance in STM/AFM will be detailed.

Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Agraït, Nicolás; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino

394

75 FR 47621 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the North Fork Rancheria's Proposed 305-Acre Trust...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...with the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians (Tribe), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Madera Irrigation District, City of Madera, National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

2010-08-06

395

Local and global functions of Timeless and Tipin in replication fork protection  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic cell replicates its chromosomal DNA with almost absolute fidelity in the course of every cell cycle. This accomplishment is remarkable considering that the conditions for DNA replication are rarely ideal. The replication machinery encounters a variety of obstacles on the chromosome, including damaged template DNA. In addition, a number of chromosome regions are considered to be difficult to replicate owing to DNA secondary structures and DNA binding proteins required for various transactions on the chromosome. Under these conditions, replication forks stall or break, posing grave threats to genomic integrity. How does the cell combat such stressful conditions during DNA replication? The replication fork protection complex (FPC) may help answer this question. Recent studies have demonstrated that the FPC is required for the smooth passage of replication forks at difficult-to-replicate genomic regions and plays a critical role in coordinating multiple genome maintenance processes at the replication fork.

Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Eishi

2012-01-01

396

HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

397

Evaluation and Comparison of Red Fork Sand Waterflood Projects in Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on oil and water production, volume of water injected, core analyses, and well completion data was collected on 28 Red Fork sand waterflood projects for comparison and evaluation of results. An average water injection efficiency of 35 percent,...

K. H. Johnston

1970-01-01

398

Scanning optical homodyne detection of high-frequency picoscale resonances in cantilever and tuning fork sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid high-frequency sensors represent the next generation of scanned probe technology. In this work, higher harmonic modes in nanoscale silicon cantilevers and microscale quartz tuning forks are detected and characterized using a custom scanning optical homodyne interferometer. Capable of both mass and force sensing, these resonators exhibit high-frequency harmonic motion content with picometer-scale amplitudes detected in a 2.5 MHz bandwidth, driven by ambient thermal radiation. Quartz tuning forks additionally display both in-plane and out-of-plane harmonics. The first six electronically detected resonances are matched to optically detected and mapped fork eigenmodes. Mass sensing experiments utilizing higher tuning fork modes indicate greater than six times sensitivity enhancement over fundamental mode operation. (This work supported by NSF and ONR).

Randel, J. C.; Zeltzer, G.; Gupta, A. K.; Bashir, R.; Song, S.-H.; Manoharan, H. C.

2008-03-01

399

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon. Annual Report 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs wer...

D. A. Venditti C. Willard C. Looney P. Sline

2002-01-01

400

Salmon Camp 1999, A Century Bygone: A Fresh Start for Salmon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Promoting educational programs that emphasize the importance, problems, and continuing efforts to restore the salmon fishery is an aspect that the Klamath River Basin Tribes consider necessary for the recovery of fishery resources. The Hoopa Valley, Yurok...

2001-01-01

401

CAN WE SUSTAIN WILD SALMON THROUGH 2100? THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

abstract for presentation Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appe...

402

Adaptation of a commercial UHV SPM system for use with a quartz tuning fork sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic force microscopy using a quartz tuning fork sensor offers many advantages over cantilever AFM, particularly for use in a UHV environment. One key advantage is the stability against jump to contact allowed by the high stiffness (k˜1800 N\\/m) of the tuning fork. This allows complementary NC-AFM and STM, without a compromise in STM performance due to cantilever deflection. Here,

Jacob Tosado; William G. Cullen; Ellen D. Williams

2010-01-01

403

Spring constant of a tuning-fork sensor for dynamic force microscopy  

PubMed Central

Summary We present an overview of experimental and numerical methods to determine the spring constant of a quartz tuning fork in qPlus configuration. The simple calculation for a rectangular cantilever is compared to the values obtained by the analysis of the thermal excitation and by the direct mechanical measurement of the force versus displacement. To elucidate the difference, numerical simulations were performed taking account of the real geometry including the glue that is used to mount the tuning fork.

Lange, Manfred; Schmuck, Merlin; Schmidt, Nico; Moller, Rolf

2012-01-01

404

Atomic steps with tuning-fork-based noncontact atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuning forks as tip-sample distance detectors are a promising and versatile alternative to conventional cantilevers with optical beam deflection in noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both theory and experiments are presented to make a comparison between conventional and tuning-fork-based AFM. Measurements made on a Si(111) sample show that both techniques are capable of detecting monatomic steps. The measured step height

W. H. J. Rensen; N. F. van Hulst; A. G. T. Ruiter; P. E. West

1999-01-01

405

Fast, high-resolution atomic force microscopy using a quartz tuning fork as actuator and sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new method of achieving tip–sample distance regulation in an atomic force microscope (AFM). A piezoelectric quartz tuning fork serves as both actuator and sensor of tip–sample interactions, allowing tip–sample distance regulation without the use of a diode laser or dither piezo. Such a tuning fork has a high spring constant so a dither amplitude of only 0.1

Hal Edwards; Larry Taylor; Walter Duncan; Allan J. Melmed

1997-01-01

406

Short fiber probe scheme for tapping-mode tuning fork near-field scanning optical microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of a tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fiber probe as the force sensing element for near-field scanning optical microscopy is reported. This type of near-field scanning optical microscopy provides stable and high Q factor at the tapping frequency of the tuning fork, and thus gives high quality NSOM and AFM images of samples. We present results obtained by

Chien W. Huang; Nien H. Lu; Chih Y. Chen; Cheng Feng Yu; Tsung S. Kao; Din Ping Tsai; Pei Wang

2002-01-01

407

Atomic steps with tuning-fork-based noncontact atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuning forks as tip–sample distance detectors are a promising and versatile alternative to conventional cantilevers with optical beam deflection in noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both theory and experiments are presented to make a comparison between conventional and tuning-fork-based AFM. Measurements made on a Si(111) sample show that both techniques are capable of detecting monatomic steps. The measured step height

W. H. J. Rensen; N. F. van Hulst; A. G. T. Ruiter; P. E. West

1999-01-01

408

ANSYS simulation of the capacitance coupling of quartz tuning fork gyroscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling error is one of the main error sources of the quartz tuning fork gyroscope. The mechanism of capacitance coupling error is analyzed in this article. Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to simulate the structure of the quartz tuning fork by ANSYS software. The voltage output induced by the capacitance coupling is simulated with the harmonic analysis and characteristics of electrical and mechanical parameters influenced by the capacitance coupling between drive electrodes and sense electrodes are discussed with the transient analysis.

Zhang, Qing; Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Cui, Fang; Sun, Yu-nan

2013-12-01

409

Acute toxicity of boron, molybdenum, and selenium to fry of chinook salmon and coho salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicities of boron, molybdenum, and various forms of selenium, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to swim-up and advanced fry of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) were determined in site-specific fresh and brackish waters. Boron and molybdenum were relatively non-toxic (96-hr LC50s > 100 mg\\/L) to both life stages of both species. Selenite was

Steven J. Hamilton; Kevin J. Buhl

1990-01-01

410

A Comparison of Atlantic Salmon Embryo and Fry Stocking in the Salmon River, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the feasibility of restoring an extirpated species, it is crucial to identify the method of reintroduction that optimizes juvenile survival and growth so that adequate adult populations may be established. Because Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry are relatively expensive to rear, we compared the efficacies of two embryo-stocking methods and one fry-stocking method in producing age-0 Atlantic salmon

Stephen M. Coghlan Jr; Neil H. Ringler

2004-01-01

411

Basis of acoustic discrimination of Chinook salmon from other salmons by echolocating Orcinus orca.  

PubMed

The "resident" ecotype of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the waters of British Columbia and Washington State have a strong preference for Chinook salmon even in months when Chinook comprise less than about 10% of the salmon population. The foraging behavior of killer whales suggests that they depend on echolocation to detect and recognize their prey. In order to determine possible cues in echoes from salmon species, a series of backscatter measurements were made at the Applied Physics Laboratory (Univ. of Wash.) Facility on Lake Union, on three different salmon species using simulated killer whale echolocation signals. The fish were attached to a monofilament net panel and rotated while echoes were collected, digitized and stored on a laptop computer. Three transducer depths were used; same depth, 22° and 45° above the horizontal plane of the fish. Echoes were collected from five Chinook, three coho and one sockeye salmon. Radiograph images of all specimens were obtained to examine the swimbladder shape and orientation. The results show that echo structure from similar length but different species of salmon were different and probably recognizable by foraging killer whales. PMID:20968392

Au, Whitlow W L; Horne, John K; Jones, Christopher

2010-10-01

412

SMARCAL1 catalyzes fork regression and Holliday junction migration to maintain genome stability during DNA replication  

PubMed Central

SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like1) maintains genome integrity during DNA replication. Here we investigated its mechanism of action. We found that SMARCAL1 travels with elongating replication forks, and its absence leads to MUS81-dependent double-strand break formation. Binding to specific nucleic acid substrates activates SMARCAL1 activity in a reaction that requires its HARP2 (Hep-A-related protein 2) domain. Homology modeling indicates that the HARP domain is similar in structure to the DNA-binding domain of the PUR proteins. Limited proteolysis, small-angle X-ray scattering, and functional assays indicate that the core enzymatic unit consists of the HARP2 and ATPase domains that fold into a stable structure. Surprisingly, SMARCAL1 is capable of binding three-way and four-way Holliday junctions and model replication forks that lack a designed ssDNA region. Furthermore, SMARCAL1 remodels these DNA substrates by promoting branch migration and fork regression. SMARCAL1 mutations that cause Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia or that inactivate the HARP2 domain abrogate these activities. These results suggest that SMARCAL1 continuously surveys replication forks for damage. If damage is present, it remodels the fork to promote repair and restart. Failures in the process lead to activation of an alternative repair mechanism that depends on MUS81-catalyzed cleavage of the damaged fork.

Betous, Remy; Mason, Aaron C.; Rambo, Robert P.; Bansbach, Carol E.; Badu-Nkansah, Akosua; Sirbu, Bianca M.; Eichman, Brandt F.; Cortez, David

2012-01-01

413

Symmetrically arranged quartz tuning fork with soft cantilever for intermittent contact mode atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-sensing and -actuating probe for dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) based on a commercial quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever is presented. The U-shaped cantilever, exhibiting a sharp tip, is combined with the tuning fork in a symmetrical arrangement, such that each of the two legs of the cantilever is fixed to one of the prongs of the tuning fork. The tuning fork is used as an oscillatory force sensor. Its frequency and amplitude govern that of the tip vibration, while the cantilever determines the spring constant of the whole probe. The frequency of the tip vibration for AFM operations can be much higher than the resonance frequency of the cantilever. A probe comprising a silicon nitride cantilever (0.1 N/m) is used to image monoatomic terraces of graphite in the intermittent contact mode. A much softer cantilever (0.01 N/m) is used to analyze the topography of a microelectronic chip in the same mode. Moreover, a bacterial surface layer hexagonally packed intermediate layer of Deinococcus radiodurans is imaged in a buffer solution. The tip vibration was again generated by the tuning fork while the sample interaction was measured using the standard optical detection scheme in this experiment. These probes are suited for batch fabrication and assembly and, therefore, enlarge the applications for the tuning fork based AFM.

Akiyama, T.; Staufer, U.; de Rooij, N. F.; Frederix, P.; Engel, A.

2003-01-01

414

Replication fork arrest and termination of chromosome replication in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis provided the first evidence for the presence of sequence-specific replication fork arrest (Ter) sites in the terminus region of the bacterial chromosome. These sites, when complexed with the replication terminator protein (RTP), block movement of a replication fork in a polar manner. The Ter sites are organized into two opposed groups which force the approaching forks to meet and fuse within a restricted terminus region. While the precise advantage provided to the cell through the presence of the so-called replication fork trap is not patently obvious, the same situation appears to have evolved independently in Escherichia coli. The molecular mechanism by which the RTP-Ter complex of B. subtilis (or the analogous but apparently unrelated complex in E. coli) functions is currently unresolved and subject to intense investigation. Replication fork arrest in B. subtilis, requiring RTP, also occurs under conditions of the stringent response at so-called STer sites that lie close to and on both sides of oriC. These sites are yet to be identified and characterized. How they are induced to function under stringent conditions is of considerable interest, and could provide vital clues about the mechanism of fork arrest by RTP-terminator complexes in general. PMID:9271849

Wake, R G

1997-08-15

415

Human Timeless and Tipin stabilize replication forks and facilitate sister-chromatid cohesion  

PubMed Central

The Timeless-Tipin protein complex has been reported to be important for replication checkpoint and normal DNA replication processes. However, the precise mechanisms by which Timeless-Tipin preserves genomic integrity are largely unclear. Here, we describe the roles of Timeless-Tipin in replication fork stabilization and sister chromatid cohesion. We show in human cells that Timeless is recruited to replication origin regions and dissociate from them as replication proceeds. Cdc45, which is known to be required for replication fork progression, shows similar patterns of origin association to those of Timeless. Depletion of Timeless-Tipin causes chromosome fragmentation and defects in damage repair in response to fork collapse, suggesting that it is required for replication fork maintenance under stress. We also demonstrate that depletion of Timeless-Tipin impairs sister chromatid cohesion and causes a defect in mitotic progression. Consistently, Timeless-Tipin co-purifies with cohesin subunits and is required for their stable association with chromatin during S phase. Timeless associates with the cohesion-promoting DNA helicase ChlR1, which, when overexpressed, partially alleviates the cohesion defect of cells depleted of Timeless-Tipin. These results suggest that Timeless-Tipin functions as a replication fork stabilizer that couples DNA replication with sister chromatid cohesion established at replication forks.

Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Chiaki; Lee, Candice Y.; Noguchi, Eishi

2010-01-01

416

SMARCAL1 catalyzes fork regression and Holliday junction migration to maintain genome stability during DNA replication.  

PubMed

SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like1) maintains genome integrity during DNA replication. Here we investigated its mechanism of action. We found that SMARCAL1 travels with elongating replication forks, and its absence leads to MUS81-dependent double-strand break formation. Binding to specific nucleic acid substrates activates SMARCAL1 activity in a reaction that requires its HARP2 (Hep-A-related protein 2) domain. Homology modeling indicates that the HARP domain is similar in structure to the DNA-binding domain of the PUR proteins. Limited proteolysis, small-angle X-ray scattering, and functional assays indicate that the core enzymatic unit consists of the HARP2 and ATPase domains that fold into a stable structure. Surprisingly, SMARCAL1 is capable of binding three-way and four-way Holliday junctions and model replication forks that lack a designed ssDNA region. Furthermore, SMARCAL1 remodels these DNA substrates by promoting branch migration and fork regression. SMARCAL1 mutations that cause Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia or that inactivate the HARP2 domain abrogate these activities. These results suggest that SMARCAL1 continuously surveys replication forks for damage. If damage is present, it remodels the fork to promote repair and restart. Failures in the process lead to activation of an alternative repair mechanism that depends on MUS81-catalyzed cleavage of the damaged fork. PMID:22279047

Bétous, Rémy; Mason, Aaron C; Rambo, Robert P; Bansbach, Carol E; Badu-Nkansah, Akosua; Sirbu, Bianca M; Eichman, Brandt F; Cortez, David

2012-01-15

417

RNF4 and PLK1 are required for replication fork collapse in ATR-deficient cells  

PubMed Central

The ATR–CHK1 axis stabilizes stalled replication forks and prevents their collapse into DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that fork collapse in Atr-deleted cells is mediated through the combined effects the sumo targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase RNF4 and activation of the AURKA–PLK1 pathway. As indicated previously, Atr-deleted cells exhibited a decreased ability to restart DNA replication following fork stalling in comparison with control cells. However, suppression of RNF4, AURKA, or PLK1 returned the reinitiation of replication in Atr-deleted cells to near wild-type levels. In RNF4-depleted cells, this rescue directly correlated with the persistence of sumoylation of chromatin-bound factors. Notably, RNF4 repression substantially suppressed the accumulation of DSBs in ATR-deficient cells, and this decrease in breaks was enhanced by concomitant inhibition of PLK1. DSBs resulting from ATR inhibition were also observed to be dependent on the endonuclease scaffold protein SLX4, suggesting that RNF4 and PLK1 either help activate the SLX4 complex or make DNA replication fork structures accessible for subsequent SLX4-dependent cleavage. Thus, replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition is a multistep process that disrupts replisome function and permits cleavage of the replication fork.

Ragland, Ryan L.; Patel, Sima; Rivard, Rebecca S.; Smith, Kevin; Peters, Ashley A.; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Brown, Eric J.

2013-01-01

418

Ribosomal DNA Replication Fork Barrier and HOT1 Recombination Hot Spot: Shared Sequences but Independent Activities  

PubMed Central

In the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sequences in the nontranscribed spacer 3? of the 35S ribosomal RNA gene are important to the polar arrest of replication forks at a site called the replication fork barrier (RFB) and also to the cis-acting, mitotic hyperrecombination site called HOT1. We have found that the RFB and HOT1 activity share some but not all of their essential sequences. Many of the mutations that reduce HOT1 recombination also decrease or eliminate fork arrest at one of two closely spaced RFB sites, RFB1 and RFB2. A simple model for the juxtaposition of RFB and HOT1 sequences is that the breakage of strands in replication forks arrested at RFB stimulates recombination. Contrary to this model, we show here that HOT1-stimulated recombination does not require the arrest of forks at the RFB. Therefore, while HOT1 activity is independent of replication fork arrest, HOT1 and RFB require some common sequences, suggesting the existence of a common trans-acting factor(s).

Ward, Teresa R.; Hoang, Margaret L.; Prusty, Reeta; Lau, Corine K.; Keil, Ralph L.; Fangman, Walton L.; Brewer, Bonita J.

2000-01-01

419

East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and east yard office at left background. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

420

78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY...announces one inseason action in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-05-23

421

77 FR 58526 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY: National...Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) Salmon Subcommittee, and Model...

2012-09-21

422

77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...12 to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of...Management Council's (Council's) salmon management policy and to comply with...

2012-04-11

423

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

424

75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard...as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the...

2010-01-05

425

78 FR 39282 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Willingness to Pay Survey for Salmon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Willingness to Pay Survey for Salmon Recovery in the Willamette Watershed...Willingness to Pay Survey for Salmon Recovery in the Willamette Watershed...investigating public values for Chinook salmon and Winter steelhead recovery in the...

2013-07-01

426

40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160...SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

427

78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through...announces six inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-08-19

428

75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures...management measures for the 2010 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2011 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2010-05-05

429

77 FR 25915 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures...management measures for the 2012 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2013 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2012-05-02

430

77 FR 13072 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, Butte, Custer and Lemhi Counties, ID, Supplemental Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Salmon-Challis National Forest, Butte, Custer...Environmental Impact Statement to the 2009 Salmon- Challis National Forest Travel Planning...SUMMARY: The Salmon-Challis National Forest announces...

2012-03-05

431

77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...CONTACT: Peggy Mundy, Northwest Region Salmon Management Division, NMFS, 206-526-4323...regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of...

2012-09-25

432

76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2011-06-07

433

76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2011-05-04

434

78 FR 25865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures...management measures for the 2013 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2014 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2013-05-03

435

40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160...SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

436

76 FR 43650 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon Anemia; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY...payment of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia. DATES: We will consider all...payment of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia, contact Dr. William G....

2011-07-21

437

40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

438

76 FR 57945 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...submitted Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2011-09-19

439

78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-06-12

440

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

441

40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

442

77 FR 12800 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-403-801, C-403-802] Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing...CVD'') orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon (``salmon'') from Norway would not be likely to lead to...

2012-03-02

443

77 FR 67327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...transmitted Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2012-11-09

444

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

445

78 FR 25434 - Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Transfer of Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...Associates, Inc. and Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...from licensing for the Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730,...

2013-05-01

446

40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160...SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

447

40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160...SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

448

40 CFR 408.160 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.160...SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.160...description of the Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

449

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

450

40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

451

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

452

40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

453

40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

454

Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our…

Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

455

Prioritizing Pacific Salmon Stocks for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 300 native stocks of Pacific salmon, steelhead, and coastal cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus spp.) are at risk of extinction in the Pacific Northwest. With only limited resources available for conservation and recovery, prioritization of these stocks may become necessary if meaningful measures are to be imple- mented. We propose criteria by which prioritization may be guided. First, we rank

FRED W. ALLENDORF; DAVID BAYLES; DANIEL L. BOTTOM; KENNETH P. CURRENS; CHRISTOPHER A. FRISSELL; DAVID HANKIN; JAMES A. LICHATOWICH; WILLA NEHLSEN; PATRICK C. TROTTER; THOMAS H. WILLIAMS

1997-01-01

456

SALMON AND NATIVE FISH HABITAT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The research described in this project deals with the influence of human activities on aquatic and aquatic-dependent biota at landscape, watershed, and regional scales. Specifically, it will examine watershed and landscape scale habitat issues affecting salmon and native fishes i...

457

Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be

Naoki Arizono; Minoru Yamada; Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama; Kenji Ohnishi

2009-01-01

458

CALCULATION OF SHRINKAGE OF THE SALMON CAVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cavity produced by the Salmon undergr. ound nuclear explosion in a salt dome (October 22, 1964) apparently shrank about 20% in radius in the first six months after the shot. The initial cavity radius was determined by Perret [1968] to be 22.3 meters (--12%), on the basis of residual displacements of the surrounding rock measured a few seconds after

W. M. Wells

1969-01-01

459

SALMON RECOVERY: CATEGORIZING AGENTS, DRIVERS, AND DELUSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the downward trajectory for wild sal...

460

SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

461

SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

462

Transferrin Polymorphism in Coho Salmon ('Oncorhynchus Kisutch').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six transferrin phenotypes observed in sera of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were interpreted as a reflection of three alleles--TfA, TfB, and TfC--at a single locus. The distribution of these alleles differed significantly among samples collected fro...

F. M. Utter W. E. Ames H. O. Hodgins

1970-01-01

463

Assessment of juvenile coho salmon movement and behavior in relation to rehabilitation efforts in the Trinity River, California, using PIT tags and radiotelemetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast (SONCC) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) is federally listed as a threatened species. The Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) is rehabilitating the Trinity River to restore coho salmon (coho) and other salmonid populations. In order to evaluate the program’s actions, several studies of movements and behavior of coho in the Trinity River were conducted from 2006 to 2009, including snorkel surveys and mark-recapture techniques based on Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, elastomer tags, and radio transmitters. Catch, recapture, and condition of natural sub-yearlings, along with site fidelity and emigration of hatchery-reared yearlings in rehabilitated and reference habitats, were studied. Location was important because coho were absent from the lower controlled and rehabilitated sites most of the time. However, rehabilitation did not have a significant effect on natural coho salmon at the site level. Apparent survival of radio-tagged, hatchery-reared yearling coho released downstream from Lewiston Dam was much lower in the first 10 km downstream from the release site than in other areas between Lewiston Dam and the Klamath River estuary. Estimated survival of yearling hatchery coho salmon per 100 km down to Blake’s Riffle was estimated at 64 % over the distance of the 239 km study area. Migration primarily occurred at night in the upper Trinity River; however, as yearlings moved through the lower Trinity River towards the Klamath River, estuary nocturnal migration became less. Apparent survival was generally lowest in areas upstream from the North Fork of the Trinity River.

Chase, Robert; Hemphill, Nina; Beeman, John; Juhnke, Steve; Hannon, John; Jenkins, Amy M.

2013-01-01

464

Transcendence East and West  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twain have long since met, with and without apocalypse, but a more insidious stereotype still infects Kipling's blithe verse: the assumption that East is East, i.e., that we can make useful generalizations about the East. However difficult it may be to characterize the West, it is far more difficult to make an observation valid from Sakhalin to Saudi Arabia.

David Loy

1993-01-01

465

Mucous lysozyme levels in hatchery coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) and spring chinook salmon ( O. tshawytscha) early in the parr–smolt transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucous lysozyme concentrations were determined in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) to establish reference levels during the time associated with the parr–smolt transformation. The first reported naris and vent mucous lysozyme levels are provided for spring chinook salmon and coho salmon. Naris mucous lysozyme levels ranged between 300 and 700 ?g ml?1, vent mucous

Robin M Schrock; Stanley D Smith; Alec G Maule; Speros K Doulos; James J Rockowski

2001-01-01

466

Astaxanthin binding protein in Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

The rubicund pigmentation in salmon and trout flesh is unique and is due to the deposition of dietary carotenoids, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in the muscle. The present study was undertaken to determine which protein was responsible for pigment binding. Salmon muscle proteins were solubilized by sequential extractions with non-denaturing, low ionic strength aqueous solutions and segregated as such into six different fractions. Approximately 91% of the salmon myofibrillar proteins were solubilized under non-denaturing conditions using a protocol modified from a method described by Krishnamurthy et al. [Krishnamurthy, G., Chang, H.S., Hultin, H.O., Feng, Y., Srinivasan, S., Kelleher. S.D., 1996. Solubility of chicken breast muscle proteins in solutions of low ionic strength. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44: 408-415.] for the dissolution of avian muscle. To our knowledge, this is the first time this solubilization approach has been applied to the study of molecular interactions in myofibrillar proteins. Astaxanthin binding in each fraction was determined using an in vitro binding assay. In addition, SDS-PAGE and quantitative densitometry were used to separate and determine the relative amounts of each of the proteins in the six fractions. The results showed that alpha-actinin was the only myofibrillar protein correlating significantly (P<0.05) with astaxanthin binding. Alpha-actinin was positively identified using electrophoretic techniques and confirmed by tandem mass spectroscopy. Purified salmon alpha-actinin bound synthetic astaxanthin in a molar ratio of 1.11:1.00. The study was repeated using halibut alpha-actinin, which was found to have a molar binding ratio of astaxanthin to alpha-actinin of 0.893:1. These results suggest that the difference in pigmentation between white fish and Atlantic salmon is not due to binding capacity in the muscle, but rather differences in the metabolism or transport of pigment. PMID:16644255

Matthews, Sarah J; Ross, Neil W; Lall, Santosh P; Gill, Tom A

2006-06-01

467

Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats  

SciTech Connect

Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

Hertzler, D.R. (State Univ. of New York, Oswego (USA))

1990-03-01

468

BLM SUMOylation regulates ssDNA accumulation at stalled replication forks  

PubMed Central

Polymerase stalling results in uncoupling of DNA polymerase and the replicative helicase, which generates single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). After stalling, RAD51 accumulates at stalled replication forks to stabilize the fork and to repair by homologous recombination (HR) double-strand breaks (DSBs) that accumulate there. We showed recently that SUMO modification of the BLM helicase is required in order for RAD51 to accumulate at stalled forks. In order to investigate how BLM SUMOylation controls RAD51 accumulation, we characterized the function of HR proteins and ssDNA-binding protein RPA in cells that stably expressed either normal BLM (BLM+) or SUMO-mutant BLM (SM-BLM). In HU-treated SM-BLM cells, mediators BRCA2 and RAD52, which normally substitute RAD51 for RPA on ssDNA, failed to accumulate normally at stalled forks; instead, excess RPA accumulated. SM-BLM cells also exhibited higher levels of HU-induced chromatin-bound RPA than BLM+ cells did. The excess RPA did not result from excessive intrinsic BLM helicase activity, because in vitro SUMOylated BLM unwound similar amounts of replication-fork substrate as unSUMOylated BLM. Nor did BLM SUMOylation inhibit binding of RPA to BLM in vitro; however, in immunoprecipitation experiments, more BLM-RPA complex formed in HU-treated SM-BLM cells, indicating that BLM SUMOylation controls the amount of BLM-RPA complex normally formed at stalled forks. Together, these results showed that BLM SUMOylation regulates the amount of ssDNA that accumulates during polymerase stalling. We conclude that BLM SUMOylation functions as a licensing mechanism that permits and regulates HR at damaged replication forks.

Ouyang, Karen J.; Yagle, Mary K.; Matunis, Michael J.; Ellis, Nathan A.

2013-01-01

469

Replication fork arrest at relocated replication terminators on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.  

PubMed

The replication terminus region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome, comprising TerI and TerII plus the rtp gene (referred to as the terC region) was relocated to serC (257 degrees) and cym (10 degrees) on the anticlockwise- and clockwise-replicating segments of the chromosome, respectively. In both cases, it was found that only the orientation of the terC region that placed TerI in opposition to the approaching replication fork was functional in fork arrest. When TerII was opposed to the approaching fork, it was nonfunctional. These findings confirm and extend earlier work which involv