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1

Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council gave the responsibility of developing this project to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. This Model Watershed Plan is intended to be a dynamic plan that helps address these two tasks. It is not intended to be the final say on either. It is also not meant to establish laws, policies, or regulations for the agencies, groups, or individuals who participated in the plan development.

Swift, Ralph

1995-11-01

2

5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River-southernmost span. 1900-era Northern Pacific Railway Bridge in background. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

3

Hydraulic geometry and sediment data for the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho, 1985-86  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic geometry, suspended-sediment, and bedload samples were collected at three sites in the upper reach of the South Fork Salmon River drainage basin from April 1985 to June 1986. Sites selected were South Fork Salmon River near Krassel Ranger Station, Buckhorn Creek, and North Fork Lick Creek. Results of the data collection are presented in this report.

Williams, Rhea P.; O'Dell, Ivalou; Megahan, Walter F.

1989-01-01

4

76 FR 29721 - Lost River and Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon-Challis National Forest; ID; Lost...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon- Challis National Forest; ID; Lost...National Forest System lands managed by the Salmon-Challis National Forest. This project...Lands Center, 1206 S. Challis Street, Salmon, ID 83467; telephone:...

2011-05-23

5

Bank stability and channel width adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. Bank stability, and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width, in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill. -from Author

Andrews, E.D.

1982-01-01

6

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan UPPER NORTH FORK LEWIS II, 12-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

salmon protection and restoration measures. Upper North Fork Lewis salmon and steelhead are affected, incidentally affect ESA-listed #12;DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan UPPER with the potential to both adversely affect wild salmon and steelhead populations and to assist in recovery efforts

7

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LOWER NORTH FORK LEWIS II, 11-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LOWER NORTH FORK LEWIS II, 11 of the subbasin is marked by Merwin Dam. The basin is part of WRIA 27. The Lower North Fork Lewis Basin will play a key role in the recovery of salmon and steelhead. The basin has historically supported populations

8

Wavelike movement of bedload sediment, East Fork River, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bedload is moved down the East Fork River in distinct wavelike pulses that have the form of composite dune fields The moving\\u000a material consists mostly of coarse sand and fine gravel The wavelengths of the pulses are about 500–600 m, a distance that\\u000a is predetermined by the pattern of stoage of bed sediment in the river during low water As

Robert H. Meade

1985-01-01

9

South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment activities that move toward road decommissioning to reduce sediment delivery to spawning gravels and rearing habitats by reducing sedimentation from road related, man-made sources. For FY08, the project included the design and implementation of two fish barrier replacement structures mentioned above, the Salt and Profile Creek Bridges. These work elements were to be implemented on Valley County easements within the Payette National Forest. The existing culverts are full or partial barriers to most aquatic life species and all juvenile anadromous and resident fish species. Implementation will reconnect 9.34 miles of habitat, and provide natural stream channels to facilitate complete passage for all aquatic life forms. All designs were completed and a construction subcontract was awarded to construct free span, pre-cast concrete bridges. For 2008, the project statement of work also included all the necessary work elements to manage, coordinate, plan, and develop continuing strategies for restoration and protection activities.

Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

2009-04-15

10

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

11

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

12

Fluvial Terraces along the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho, and their Relation to Glaciation, Landslide Dams, and Incision Rates: A Preliminary Analysis and River-mile Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Fork of the Salmon River drains a mountainous basin in central Idaho that has no major tectonic escarpments. Despite little overt evidence of late Cenozoic uplift, relief is high in this region, with glaciated highlands rising up to 7000 ft above narrow river valleys. The Middle Fork has cut a deep canyon into resistant granitic rocks and gneiss,

Grant A. Meyer; Matt E. Leidecker

13

Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit.

NONE

1996-04-01

14

Time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River, November 1975; and Elm Fork Trinity River, December 1975; Trinity River Basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In Texas, the time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River and the Elm Fork Trinity River was determined in 1975 by injecting a fluorescent dye (Rhodamine WT, 20-percent solution) that could be detected by fluorometric analysis of water samples collected at selected downstream sites. Plots of dye concentration versus time were made for each injection and sampling site. The graphs were then used to determine arrival times of the leading edge, the peak, and the trailing edge of the dye cloud. The study in November 1975 was conducted on the East Fork Trinity River from just below the Rockwall-Forney Dam at Lake Ray Hubbard to the confluence with the Trinity River, a distance of 27.0 miles. The study in December 1975 was conducted on the Elm Fork Trinity River from just below the dam at Lewisville Lake to the Spur 482 crossing, a distance of 25.7 miles. (Woodard-USGS)

Myers, Dennis R.; Slade, R.M., Jr.

1976-01-01

15

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1990 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

Rowe, Mike

1991-12-01

16

Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Energy conservation and recreation appendix, public involvement appendix. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Corps of Engineers Urban Study Program is to provide planning assistance to local interests in a variety of water resource areas. The St. Paul District conducted the Grand Forks-East Grand Forks (GF/EGF) Urban Water Resources Study which was a cooperative effort among local, state and federal agencies. Primary attention was given to flood control, water supply and wastewater management; supporting investigations addressed recreation and energy conservation. The recreation investigation consists of the leisure time analysis conducted in stage 2 of the urban study by the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Department of the Interior. The leisure time analysis compared the study area's recreational needs to the available and planned facilities and identified unsatisfied needs. The thermography investigation was conducted in spring 1978 in response to the public's growing awareness of energy conservation and the Corps' desire to make the public aware of the urban study in a meaningful, useful fashion. The investigation consisted of aerial infrared photography, public displays of photographs, and distribution of information on energy saving practices. This investigation was a one-time effort with no plans for follow-up.

Not Available

1981-07-01

17

Stream-Sediment Geochemistry in Mining-Impacted Drainages of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Custer County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This reconnaissance study was undertaken at the request of the USDA Forest Service, Region 4, to assess the geochemistry, in particular the mercury and selenium contents, of mining-impacted sediments in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River in Custer County Idaho. The Yankee Fork has been the site of hard-rock and placer mining, primarily for gold and silver, starting in the 1880s. Major dredge placer mining from the 1930s to 1950s in the Yankee Fork disturbed about a 10-kilometer reach. Mercury was commonly used in early hard-rock mining and placer operations for amalgamation and recovery of gold. During the late 1970s, feasibility studies were done on cyanide-heap leach recovery of gold from low-grade ores of the Sunbeam and related deposits. In the mid-1990s a major open-pit bulk-vat leach operation was started at the Grouse Creek Mine. This operation shut down when gold values proved to be lower than expected. Mercury in stream sediments in the Yankee Fork ranges from below 0.02 ppm to 7 ppm, with the highest values associated with old mill locations and lode and placer mines. Selenium ranges from below the detection limit for this study of 0.2 ppm to 4 ppm in Yankee Fork sediment samples. The generally elevated selenium content in the sediment samples reflect the generally high selenium contents in the volcanic rocks that underlie the Yankee Fork and the presence of gold and silver selenides in some of the veins that were exploited in the early phases of mining.

Frost, Thomas P.; Box, Stephen E.

2009-01-01

18

CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION AT THE EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK SITE, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic accidental release of mercury-contaminated material associated with nuclear weapons production at East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulted in stream and floodplain contamination. he EFPC is designated as an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) operable unit under the Comprehensive ...

19

Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon?s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

20

Habitat Selection Influences Sex Distribution, Morphology, Tissue Biochemistry, and Parasite Load of Juvenile Coho Salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon's West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals were to compare the body morphology, tissue biochemistry, genetics, and parasite load and determine whether sex,

Kenneth J. Rodnick; Sophie St.-Hilaire; Pavan K. Battiprolu; Steven M. Seiler; Michael L. Kent; Madison S. Powell; Joseph L. Ebersole

2008-01-01

21

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, SALMON RIVER, MAIN STEM (HEADWATERS TO BELOW MIDDLE FORK), IDAHO, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Fifteen water quality stations in the Salmon River Basin (17060201, 17060203) were sampled bi-weekly for a year. Eight of the stations were on the Main Salmon River and the remaining seven represented the major tributaries. This portion of the study extended from Stanley to bel...

22

An investigation of shallow ground-water quality near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radio-nuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the U.S. Department of Energy 's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. (USGS)

Carmichael, J.K.

1989-01-01

23

Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the organization, strategy, and procedures to be used to confirm that mercury concentrations in soils in the remediated areas are statistically less than, or equal to, the cleanup standard of 400 ppm. It focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of the Lower East Fork Popular Creed flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its associated flood plain.

NONE

1996-12-01

24

An inventory of wetlands in the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

An inventory of wetlands within the floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee was conducted during October, 1991 through May, 1992 for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District. About 15 miles of EFPC channel and 500 acres of its floodplain are contaminated with mercury and other contaminants released from the Y-12 Plant on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The wetland inventory will serve as baseline information for DOE`s remedial action planning and National Environmental Policy Act compliance efforts related to the contamination. In order to provide broad wetland determinations beyond which future wetland definitions are unlikely to expand, the 1989 Federal Manual for Identifying And Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands was utilized. Using the manual`s methodology in a contaminated system under the approved health and safety plan presented some unique problems, resulting in intrusive sampling for field indicators of hydric soils being accomplished separately from observation of other criteria. Beginning with wetland areas identified on National Wetland Inventory Maps, the entire floodplain was examined for presence of wetland criteria, and 17 wetlands were identified ranging from 0.01 to 2.81 acres in size. The majority of wetlands identified were sized under 1 acre. Some of the wetlands identified were not delineated on the National Wetland Inventory Maps, and much of the wetland area delineated on the maps did not meet the criteria under the 1989 manual.

NONE

1992-12-01

25

Data for calibrating unsteady-flow sediment-transport models, East Fork River, Wyoming, 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1975, data to calibrate a one-dimensional unsteady-flow and sediment-transport routing model were collected on a reach of the East Fork River of western Wyoming. The reach, 3.1 miles in length, was immediately upstream from a previously established bedload sampling station. Nineteen channel cross sections were sounded at regular intervals during the spring-runoff period. Four stage recorders provided continuous records of water-surface elevations. Samples of bed material at most of the cross sections were obtaind prior to high water. Streamflow and sediment-discharge measurements were collected at four of the sections. The physiography and hydrology of the contributing watershed, the study reach, and the equipment and techniques used in data collection are described. The bulk of the report is a presentation of data for late May to early June 1975, for which concurrent water discharge data, bedload transport and size data, and cross-section depth measurements were collected. In addition, some data collected in 1973 and 1974 and before and after the calibration period in 1975 are included. (Woodard-USGS)

Mahoney, Holly A.; Andrews, E.D.; Emmett, W.W.; Leopold, L.B.; Meade, R.W.; Myrick, R.M.; Nordin, C.F.

1976-01-01

26

Post construction report for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project, Phase 1, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Phase 1 Remedial Action (RA) effort was conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action. The LEFPC, Phase 1 RA removed approximately 5,560 yd{sup 3} of mercury-contaminated soils, {ge} 400 ppm, from selected portions of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) site LEFPC floodplain from July 8, 1996--September 14, 1996. During excavation activities, pockets of elevated radiologically contaminated soils (greater than 35 pCi/g) were located by the continuous monitoring of the excavation areas and contaminated soils with radiological monitoring instruments. Through characterization sampling it has been determined that {approximately} 90 yd{sup 3} are less than 35 pCi/g uranium contaminated and will be transported to the Y-12 Landfill V for disposal and the remaining {approximately}40 yd{sup 3} do not meet the WAC for radiological constituents included in the Special Waste Permit for Landfill V. The radiologically contaminated soil will be placed in 21st Century containers for storage at the K-25 site.

NONE

1996-11-01

27

Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of post-breach reservoir erosion and of geomorphic recovery from the disturbances produced by dam removal has been rapid, far exceeding pre-breach predictions.Table 1: Comparison of Milltown and Condit Dam removals

Wilcox, A. C.

2012-12-01

28

Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site (1) is intended as an educational resource, but is also fit for a general audience as it introduces salmon, their habitat, the need for conservation, and salmon fisheries. The next site is from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Fish FAQs (2) and has several pages of salmon FAQs, all of which can be found by using the next button. The third resource from an Anthropology course at Oregon State University (3) gives an account of the changing Columbia River Basin and the status of commercial fisheries in the region. The King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Web site (4) has information on salmon conservation and recovery efforts in King County. Research papers on salmon and other Pacific Northwest fishes are provided on this Northwest Fisheries Science Center page (5). The Web site for the organization Wild Olympic Salmon (6) celebrates the successful recovery of summer chum salmon to Chimacum Creek. The Wild Salmon Center (7), a nonprofit organization formed to protect salmon and their habitat, provides numerous links to salmon conservation information. Some interesting video clips of salmon runs were caught on tape by the King County Salmon Cam (8).

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

29

Salmon Patties Ingredients  

E-print Network

Salmon Patties Ingredients: 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 15 ounces salmon, canned 1 cup whole wheat to medium. 2. While skillet is heating, open can of salmon and add to bowl. Use a fork to remove skin to bowl with salmon. 5. Use hands to mix ingredients together and shape mixture into eight patties. 6. Add

Liskiewicz, Maciej

30

Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The East Fork Regime encompasses several confirmed and suspected sources of groundwater contamination within industrialized areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Groundwater and surface water monitoring in the East Fork Regime are performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the East Fork Regime issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) on August 30, 1996. The post-closure permit addresses post-closure monitoring requirements for two closed RCRA-regulated surface impoundments: the S-3 Ponds and New Hope Pond.

NONE

1997-02-01

31

Challenges and opportunities of mercury remediation in East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the release of a large quantity of mercury (Hg) in the 1950s and early 1960s resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in source areas, as well as in water and streambed of the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Remedial actions at Y-12 NSC have reduced Hg inputs into EFPC by >90% since the early 1980s, but the site and EFPC remain contaminated with inorganic Hg and methylmercury, leading to an elevated Hg in biota. The spatial distribution, speciation, and the extent of Hg contamination in the subsurface of the source zone remain poorly understood. Our research aims to both delineate mercury subsurface distribution and mercury transformation at the water-sediment interface where steep biogeochemical gradients are present. We report initial research results on field coring/characterization, where large amounts of Hg were present as elemental Hg beads near the source area. Hg speciation analysis and chemical reduction to decrease Hg from the headwaters of EFPC were also studied. Our work shows the importance of kinetic controls in this system that receives a constant source of inorganic mercury which becomes increasingly complexed with natural dissolved organic matter (DOM, at <3 mg/L) along its flow path. The formation of strong Hg-DOM complexes prevents Hg(II) from being reduced by stannous chloride (SnCl2), and the magnitude of the effect increases with distance downstream. Therefore, field manipulative tests were conducted at the headwater to evaluate chemical reduction using Sn(II) to convert dissolved Hg(II), to dissolved gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0). Our results show that, when Na2S2O3 was used as dechlorinating agent and SnCl2 as the chemical reductant, approximately 35% of the total Hg in the headwater was converted to Hg(0). Additional Hg was mobilized in the drainage pipe by complexation with the added S2O32-. Using ascorbic acid as a dechlorinating agent, however, resulted an effective removal of residue chlorine and also a conversion of ~15% of the Hg(II) to Hg(0). Addition of Sn(II) following dechlorination achieved an overall conversion of Hg(II) to Hg(0) of 92% in the headwater. The fate of residue Hg varies, but often results in methylmercury formation in natural waters. The biogeochemical factors are found to closely link to the type of the bacteria, as shown by the correlation of methylmercury and a sulfate reducer Desulfobulbus spp in EFPC. Efforts continue to seek a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern Hg transformation and behavior, which may provide technology solutions to mitigate the adverse impact on the environment.

Liang, L.; Gu, B.; Brooks, S. C.; Miller, C. L.; He, F.; Elias, D.; Watson, D. B.; Peterson, M. J.

2010-12-01

32

GENE EXPRESSION ALTERATIONS OBSERVED IN PRIMARY CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES AFTER TREATMENT WITH CHLORINATED OR CHLORINATED AND OZONATED DRINKING WATER FROM EAST FORK LAKE, OHIO  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water from East Fork Lake was spiked with iodide and bromide, disinfected with chlorine or ozone + chlorine, concentrated ~100-fold using reverse osmosis, and volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs) added back. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to full-strength, 1:10...

33

Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC Appendices, Volume 2, Appendix V-A  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information concerning validation of analytical data for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Floodplain soils located at the Y-12 Plant site. This volume is an appendix of compiled data from this validation process.

NONE

1994-09-01

34

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part III, river hydraulics and sediment transport, 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frequent measurements of river stage, water discharge, sediment-transport rate and particle-size gradation, and river slope were made at 44 cross sections along a 1.83-kilometer reach of East Fork River, Wyoming, during the spring 1980 snowmelt runoff. Data are tabulated and explanatory text facilitates its use for description of river hydraulics and sediment transport. (USGS)

Emmett, W.W.; Myrick, R.M.; Meade, R.H.

1982-01-01

35

Use of a rainfall-runoff model for simulating effects of forest management on streamflow in the east Fork Lobster Creek Basin, Oregon. Water resources investigation  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the results of model calibration and validation, and evaluates the extent to which runoff response to timber harvesting and increased road densities in East Fork Lobster Creek Basin can be simulated, using Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a deterministic, destributed-parameter-modeling system.

Nakama, L.Y.; Risley, J.C.

1993-12-31

36

Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

NONE

1996-04-01

37

Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 5. Appendix V-D  

SciTech Connect

This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 5, Appendix V - D. This appendix includes the final verification run data package (PAH, TCLP herbicides, TCLP pesticides).

NONE

1994-09-01

38

Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere.

NONE

1994-09-01

39

Mineral resources of the East Fork High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Washoe and Humboldt counties, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The part of the East Fork High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area (CA-020-914/NV-020-006A) included in this study encompasses 33,460 acres in the northwestern part of Nevada. Throughout this report, "wilderness study area" and "study area" refertothe 33,460 acres for which mineral surveys were requested. The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted geological, geophysical, and geochemical surveys to assess the mineral resources (known) and the mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the study area. Fieldwork for this report was carried out in 1985 and 1986. No mines, significant prospects, or mining claims are located inside the study area, and no identified resources were found. The wilderness study area has moderate mineral resource potential for gold, silver, and mercury and for zeolite minerals. A low potential also exists for geothermal energy resources, and potential for oil and gas is unknown.

Ach, Jay A.; Plouff, Donald; Turner, R.L.; Schmauch, S.W.

1987-01-01

40

Phase 2 confirmatory sampling data report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A Remedial Investigation of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) concluded that mercury is the principal contaminant of concern in the EFPC floodplain. The highest concentrations of mercury were found to be in a visually distinct black layer of soil that typically lies 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in.) below the surface. Mercury contamination was found to be situated in distinct areas along the floodplain, and generally at depths > 20 cm (8 in.) below the surface. In accordance with Comprehensive, Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a feasibility study was prepared to assess alternatives for remediation, and a proposed plan was issued to the public in which a preferred alternative was identified. In response to public input, the plan was modified and US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Record of Decision in 1995 committing to excavating all soil in the EFPC floodplain exceeding a concentration of 400 parts per million (ppm) of mercury. The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) remedial action (RA) focuses on the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the city of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its associated floodplain. Specific areas were identified that required remediation at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Site along Illinois Avenue and at the Bruner Site along the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The RA was conducted in two separate phases. Phase 2, conducted from February to October 1997, completed the remediation efforts at the NOAA facility and fully remediated the Bruner Site. During both phases, data were collected to show that the remedial efforts performed at the NOAA and Bruner sites were successful in implementing the Record of Decision and had no adverse impact on the creek water quality or the city of Oak Ridge publicly owned treatment works.

NONE

1998-01-01

41

Salmon Spread Ingredients  

E-print Network

Salmon Spread Ingredients: 15 ounces salmon, canned 1 small onion 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 salmon and place in a bowl. Use a fork to mash bones and remove skin. 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting

Liskiewicz, Maciej

42

An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

1989-04-01

43

Floods on North Toe River and Beaver, Grassy, and East Fork Grassy Creeks in the vicinity of Spruce Pine, North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

This flood hazard information report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of the North Toe River and Beaver, Grassy, and East Fork Grassy Creeks in the vicinity of Spruce Pine, North Carolina. It was prepared in response to a request by the town for up-to-date information regarding the flood potential along the studied stream reaches in order to better administer the local floodplain management program.

Not Available

1985-09-01

44

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for East Fork White River, Bartholomew County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in East Fork White River, Bartholomew County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that benthic-oxygen demand and the headwater concentrations of carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand, nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration of East Fork White River downstream from the Columbus wastewater-treatment facility. The effect of effluent from the facility on the water quality of East Fork White River was minimal. The model also indicates that, with a benthic-oxygen demand of approximately 0.65 gram per square meter per day, the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity during summer low flows. Regardless of the quality of the Columbus wastewater effluent, the minimum 24-hour average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams, would not be met. Ammonia toxicity is not a limiting water-quality criterion during summer and winter low flows. During winter low flows, the current carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Columbus wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard. (USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.; Crawford, Charles G.

1979-01-01

45

Postremediation monitoring program baseline assessment report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) and its floodplain are contaminated with mercury (Hg) from ongoing and historical releases from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A remedial investigation and feasibility study of LEFPC resulted in the signing of a Record of Decision (ROD) in August 1995. In response to the ROD, soil contaminated with mercury above 400 mg/kg was removed from two sites in LEFPC and the floodplain during a recently completed remedial action (RA). The Postremediation Monitoring Program (PMP) outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan was envisioned to occur in two phases: (1) a baseline assessment prior to remediation and (2) postremediation monitoring. The current report summarizes the results of the baseline assessment of soil, water, biota, and groundwater usage in LEFPC and its floodplain conducted in 1995 and 1996 by personnel of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). This report also includes some 1997 data from contaminated sites that did not undergo remediation during the RA (i.e., sites where mercury is greater than 200 mg/kg but less than 400 mg/kg). The baseline assessment described in this document is distinct and separate from both the remedial investigation/feasibility study the confirmatory sampling conducted by SAIC during the RA. The purpose of the current assessment was to provide preremediation baseline data for the LEFPC PMP outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan, using common approaches and techniques, as specified in that plan.

Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Ashwood, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Rash, C.D.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc. (United States)

1998-04-01

46

Investigation of increased mercury levels in the fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (Lefpc), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting remediation efforts on the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility and within downstream riparian zones. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of aqueous phase elemental mercury (Hg deg. A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC. Small (mg/L) quantities of un-sulphured molasses and peptone were added to some of the Hinds Creek samples to stimulate initial bacterial growth. Other Hinds Creek samples either were dosed with glutaraldehyde to preclude microbial growth, or were wrapped in aluminum foil to preclude Hg photochemical redox effects. The bench-scale testing for Phase II was completed August 2006. The final reporting and the planning for Phase III testing are in progress. (authors)

Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., 200 Technology Way, Butte, MT (United States); Southworth, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sims, L. [Bechtel Jacobs Company, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2007-07-01

47

Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The East Fork Regime encompasses several confirmed and suspected sources of groundwater contamination within industrialized areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 1996 groundwater and surface water monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, along with the required data evaluations specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the East Fork Regime. This report provides additional evaluation of the CY 1996 groundwater and surface water monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater contamination and long-term concentration trends for regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters.

NONE

1997-09-01

48

YOLLA BOLLY-MIDDLE EEL WILDERNESS AND BIG BUTTE-SHINBONE, EAST FORK, MURPHY GLADE, AND WILDERNESS CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral survey of the Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness, California identified a mine with inferred resources of manganese and an occurrence with inferred resources of nickel. The adjacent Big Butte-Shinbone Roadless Area to the west has an area of probable potential for the occurrence of chromium-nickel-cobalt resources and mines with demonstrated and inferred resources of manganese and chrome-nickel-cobalt. The known deposits are small and low grade. The East Fork, Murphy Glade, and Wilderness Contiguous Roadless Areas are considered to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

Blake, M.C., Jr.; Leszcykowski, A.M.

1984-01-01

49

Pesticides and pesticide degradates in the East Fork Little Miami River and William H. Harsha Lake, southwestern Ohio, 1999-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999 and 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program conducted a national pilot study of pesticides and degradates in drinking-water supplies, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). William H. Harsha Lake, which provides drinking water for several thousand people in southwestern Ohio, was selected as one of the drinking-water supplies for this study. East Fork Little Miami River is the main source of water to Harsha Lake and drains a predominantly agricultural basin. Samples were collected from the East Fork Little Miami River upstream from Harsha Lake, at the drinking-water intake at Harsha Lake, at the outfall just below Harsha Lake, and from treated water at the Bob McEwen Treatment Plant. These samples were analyzed using standardized methods developed for the NAWQA Program. In all, 42 pesticide compounds (24 herbicides, 4 insecticides, 1 fungicide, and 13 degradates) were detected at least once in samples collected during this study. No compound in the treated water samples exceeded any drinking-water standard, although atrazine concentrations in untreated water exceeded the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water (3 ?g/L) on four occasions. At least eight compounds were detected with greater than 60 percent frequency at each sampling location. Herbicides, such as atrazine, alachlor, acetochlor, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine, were detected most frequently. Rainfall affected the pesticide concentrations in surface waters of the East Fork Little Miami River Basin. Drought conditions from May through November 1999 led to lower streamflow and pesticide concentrations throughout southwestern Ohio. More normal climate conditions during 2000 resulted in higher streamflows and seasonally higher concentrations in the East Fork Little Miami River and Harsha Lake for some pesticides Comparison of pesticide concentrations in untreated lake water and treated drinking water supplied by the Bob McEwen Treatment Plant suggests that treatment processes employed by the plant (chlorination, activated carbon) reduced pesticide concentrations to levels well below USEPA drinking-water standards. In particular, the percentage of pesticides remaining in treated water samples decreased significantly for several frequently occurring pesticides when the plant replaced the use of powdered activated carbon with granular activated carbon in November 1999. For example, the median percentage of atrazine remaining after treatment that included powdered activated carbon was 63 percent, whereas the median percentage of atrazine remaining after the switch to granular activated carbon was 2.4 percent.

Funk, Jason M.; Reutter, David C.; Rowe, Gary L.

2003-01-01

50

Data that describe at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload; East Fork River, Wyoming, and Fall River, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data from the East Fork River, Wyoming, and the Fall River, Colorado, that document at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload, associated with the downstream migration of dunes, are presented. Bedload sampling was undertaken, using a 76.2 x 76.2 mm Helley-Smith sampler, on three separate occasions at each site in June 1988. In each instance, the sampling time was 30 seconds and the sampling intervals 5 minutes. The sampling period ranged from 4.92 to 8.25 hours. Water stage did not vary appreciably during any of the sampling periods. (USGS)

Gomez, Basil; Emmett, W.W.

1990-01-01

51

Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation Wd Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the PCP defines the RCRA post-closure corrective action monitoring requirements for the portion of the groundwater contaminant plume that has migrated into the East Fork Regime ftom the S-3 Ponds, a closed RCW-regulated former surface impoundment located in Bear Creek Valley near the west end of the Y-12 Plant. In addition to the RCIL4 post-closure corrective action monitoring results, this report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 to fulfill requirements of DOE Order 5400.1.

Jones, S.B.

1998-02-01

52

Twenty-five years of ecological recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: review of environmental problems and remedial actions.  

PubMed

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects. PMID:21384273

Loar, James M; Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G

2011-06-01

53

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

2011-06-01

54

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy s Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated oncethrough cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody s biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Smith, John G [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL

2011-01-01

55

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1 of 2, 1986 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, that will be used in conjunction with 1984 and 1985 fish and habitat pre-treatment (baseline) data to evaluate effects of habitat enhancement on the habitat and fish community in Bear Valley Creek overtime. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur in the upper-Salmon River basin. Subproject III involved fish inventories (pre-treatment) in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River, and habitat problem identification on Fivemile and Ramey Creek. Subproject IV involved baseline habitat and fish inventories on the East Fork of the Salmon River, Herd Creek and Big-Boulder Creek. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the four subproject reports. 20 refs., 37 figs., 22 tabs.

Richards, Carl

1987-03-01

56

Sources of Mercury to East Fork Poplar Creek Downstream from the Y-12 National Security Complex: Inventories and Export Rates  

SciTech Connect

East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been heavily contaminated with mercury (also referred to as Hg) since the 1950s as a result of historical activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and hereinafter referred to as Y-12). During the period from 1950 to 1963, spills and leaks of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) contaminated soil, building foundations, and subsurface drainage pathways at the site, while intentional discharges of mercury-laden wastewater added 100 metric tons of mercury directly to the creek (Turner and Southworth 1999). The inventory of mercury estimated to be lost to soil and rock within the facility was 194 metric tons, with another estimated 70 metric tons deposited in floodplain soils along the 25 km length of EFPC (Turner and Southworth 1999). Remedial actions within the facility reduced mercury concentrations in EFPC water at the Y-12 boundary from > 2500 ng/L to about 600 ng/L by 1999 (Southworth et al. 2000). Further actions have reduced average total mercury concentration at that site to {approx}300 ng/L (2009 RER). Additional source control measures planned for future implementation within the facility include sediment/soil removal, storm drain relining, and restriction of rainfall infiltration within mercury-contaminated areas. Recent plans to demolish contaminated buildings within the former mercury-use areas provide an opportunity to reconstruct the storm drain system to prevent the entry of mercury-contaminated water into the flow of EFPC. Such actions have the potential to reduce mercury inputs from the industrial complex by perhaps as much as another 80%. The transformation and bioaccumulation of mercury in the EFPC ecosystem has been a perplexing subject since intensive investigation of the issue began in the mid 1980s. Although EFPC was highly contaminated with mercury (waterborne mercury exceeded background levels by 1000-fold, mercury in sediments by more than 2000-fold) in the 1980s, mercury concentrations in EFPC fish exceeded those in fish from regional reference sites by only a little more than 10-fold. This apparent low bioavailability of mercury in EFPC, coupled with a downstream pattern of mercury in fish in which mercury decreased in proportion to dilution of the upstream source, lead to the assumption that mercury in fish would respond to decreased inputs of dissolved mercury to the stream's headwaters. However, during the past two decades when mercury inputs were decreasing, mercury concentrations in fish in Lower EFPC (LEFPC) downstream of Y-12 increased while those in Upper EFPC (UEFPC) decreased. The key assumption of the ongoing cleanup efforts, and concentration goal for waterborne mercury were both called into question by the long-term monitoring data. The large inventory of mercury within the watershed downstream presents a concern that the successful treatment of sources in the headwaters may not be sufficient to reduce mercury bioaccumulation within the system to desired levels. The relative importance of headwater versus floodplain mercury sources in contributing to mercury bioaccumulation in EFPC is unknown. A mercury transport study conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1984 estimated that floodplain sources contributed about 80% of the total annual mercury export from the EFPC system (ORTF 1985). Most of the floodplain inputs were associated with wet weather, high flow events, while much of the headwater flux occurred under baseflow conditions. Thus, day-to-day exposure of biota to waterborne mercury was assumed to be primarily determined by the Y-12 source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of recent studies and monitoring within the EFPC drainage with a focus on discerning the magnitude of floodplain mercury sources and how long these sources might continue to contaminate the system after headwater sources are eliminated or greatly reduced.

Southworth, George R [ORNL; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Floyd, Stephanie B [ORNL

2010-02-01

57

Post-closure permit application for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime at the Y-12 Plant: New Hope Pond and Eastern S-3 ponds plume. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this Post-Closure, Permit Application (PCPA) is to satisfy the post-closure permitting requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-11. This application is for the entire Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV). This PCPA has been prepared to include the entire East Fork Regime because, although there are numerous contaminant sources within the regime, the contaminant plumes throughout the East Fork Regime have coalesced and can no longer be distinguished as separate plumes. This PCPA focuses on two recognized Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units: New Hope Pond (NHP) and the eastern S-3 Ponds plume. This PCPA presents data from groundwater assessment monitoring throughout the regime, performed since 1986. Using this data, this PCPA demonstrates that NHP is not a statistically discernible source of groundwater contaminants and that sites upgradient of NHP are the likely sources of groundwater contamination seen in the NHP vicinity. As such, this PCPA proposes a detection monitoring program to replace the current assessment monitoring program for NHP.

NONE

1995-02-01

58

Physical Characteristics of Stream Subbasins in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, Southern Minnesota and Northern Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, located in southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

Sanocki, Christopher A.

2000-01-01

59

An archaeological reconnaissance of a 14 mile section of the East Fork Poplar Creek for the Environmental Restoration Project, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, Nashville, Tennessee, an archaeological reconnaissance of the potential impact areas of the Environmental Restoration Project (ERP) along the East Fork Poplar Creek was conducted during the period December 16, 1991, and March 3, 1992. The reconnaissance was conducted in response to environmental evaluations as a result of the accidental spillage of approximately 293,000 pounds of mercury, radionuclides, heavy metals and other compounds. The reconnaissance to assess adverse impacts to cultural resources located within the boundaries of Federally-licensed, permitted, funded or assisted projects was conducted in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and Executive Order 11593.

DuVall, G.D. [DuVall and Associates, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

1993-01-01

60

LAKE FORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...

61

Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the East Fork Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

Not Available

1994-02-01

62

Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several waste-management facilities and a petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) site associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The East Fork Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant, encompasses the Y-12 Plant. The regime extends west from a surface water and shallow groundwater divide located near the west end of the plant to Scarboro Road (directions in this report are in reference to the Y-12 Plant grid system unless otherwise noted). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy.

NONE

1995-02-01

63

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part I, River hydraulics and sediment transport, 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bed-material gradation and water-surface slope were determined for a 3.3-kilometer reach of East Fork River, Wyo. During peak snowmelt runoff, frequent measurements of water discharge and sediment-transport rate provided data describing the inflow and outflow of water and sediment. In spring 1979, bankfull stage was exceeded on 8 days. Maximum discharge was about 32 cubic meters per second, which has a recurrence interval of about 2 years. The median particle size of bed material is 1.28 millimeters; the 35 and 65 percentiles are represented by diameters of 0.50 and 2.88 millimeters, respectively. The average water-surface slope in the reach is 0.0007 and varies little with river stage. Bedload-transport rates ranged from a little less than 0.001 to a little more than 0.1 kilograms per meter of channel width per second. Median bedload grain size, with several exceptions, ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 millimeters. Gravel-size particles generally constituted 10 to 40% of the bedload. Suspended-sediment concentrations ranged from 6 to 95 milligrams per liter. Suspended sediment smaller than sand constited about half the measured suspended sediment, ranging from 17 to 81%. (USGS)

Emmett, William W.; Myrick, Robert M.; Meade, Robert H.

1980-01-01

64

Chemical characteristics, including stable-isotope ratios, of surface water and ground water from selected sources in and near East Fork Armells Creek basin, southeastern Montana, 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected from 29 sites to provide synoptic chemical data, including stable-isotope ratios, for an area of active surface coal mining and to explore the effectiveness of using the data to chemically distinguish water from different aquifers. Surface-water samples were collected from one spring, four sites on East Armells Creek, one site on Stocker Creek, and two fly-ash ponds. Streamflows in East Fork Armells Creek ranged from no flow in several upstream reaches to 2.11 cu ft/sec downstream from Colstrip, Montana. Only one tributary, Stocker Creek, was observed to contribute surface flow in the study area. Groundwater samples were collected from wells completed in Quaternary alluvium or mine spoils, Rosebud overburden, Rosebud coal bed, McKay coal bed, and sub-McKay deposits of the Tongue River Member, Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Dissolved-solids concentrations, in mg/L, were 840 at the spring, 3,100 to 5,000 in the streams, 13,000 to 22,000 in the ash ponds, and 690 to 4 ,100 in the aquifers. With few exceptions, water from the sampled spring, streams, and wells had similar concentrations of major constituents and trace elements and similar stable-isotope ratios. Water from the fly-ash ponds had larger concentrations of dissolved solids, boron, and manganese and were isotopically more enriched in deuterium and oxygen-18 than water from other sources. Water from individual aquifers could not be distinguished by either ion-composition diagrams or statistical cluster analyses. (USGS)

Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.; Davis, R.E.

1989-01-01

65

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and survival ranged from 0% to 96%, although there was evidence that some eggs had died after reaching the eyed stage. Six redds were capped in an attempt to document fry emergence, but none were collected. A final hydraulic sampling of the capped redds yielded nothing from five of the six, but 75 dead eggs and one dead fry were found in the sixth. Smothering by fine sediment is the suspected cause of the observed mortality between the eyed stage and fry emergence.

Venditti, David A.

2002-04-01

66

Work plan for support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek east end VOC plumes well installation project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 guidelines and requirements from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the Y-12 Plant initiated investigation and monitoring of various sites within its boundaries in the mid-1980s. The entire Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites within the ORR require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) or an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) of potential remedial actions. Data from monitoring wells at the east end of the Y-12 Plant have identified an area of groundwater contamination dominated by the volatile organic compound (VOC) carbon tetrachloride; other VOCs include chloroform, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene.

NONE

1998-03-01

67

Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications  

SciTech Connect

This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year.

NONE

1994-10-01

68

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

69

Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349  

SciTech Connect

In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)] [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

2013-07-01

70

Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Smith, John G [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL

2011-01-01

71

Saving the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Students participate in the Salmon in the Schools Program, sponsored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine. Through this collaborative effort, students raise 300 river-specific, wild Atlantic salmon and then release them into the East Machias River at the culminating annual Salmon Release Day Field Trip. In addition to releasing salmon fry into the headwaters of the river, students perform physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the river.

Sprangers, Donald

2004-05-01

72

THERMAL REFUGIA AND CHINOOK SALMON HABITAT IN OREGON: APPLICATIONS OF AIRBORNE THERMAL VIDEOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the use of thermal refugia by adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Middle Fork and North Fork of the John Day River in central Oregon by comparing fish distributions with remotely sensed image data and relating individual fish locations to thermal refugia and reach-scale isotherms. Distribution and holding behavior of chinook salmon were assessed using snorkel

C. E. Torgersen; H. W. Li; B. A. McIntosh

73

Two Forks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You, the reader, are a medical investigator on vacation in Two Forks, Idaho. You are called in to investigate an outbreak of salmonellosis, an infectious disease, caused by the Salmonella paratyphi, a bacterium, typically spread from human to human by contaminated water or food. You interview people known to have had contact with the victims, and determine the identity of the disease carrier by deductive reasoning. The story has two layers of built-in interactive hint structures. First, after you do your research, you have an option to solve the mystery or continue for a further hint. If you choose the hint, the story progresses a bit further, you receive a helpful hint, and you again have the option to "solve" or "continue for second hint." If you choose to continue, the story progresses yet further and you receive another hint. Once again you choose to solve or to continue. If you continue, the story progresses and gives you a third (and very useful) hint.

Ken Eklund (WriterGuy REV)

2002-02-18

74

Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents proposed modifications to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). The modifications are proposed to: (1) revise the current text for two of the Permit Conditions included in Permit Section II - General Facility Conditions, and (2) update the PCP with revised versions of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) technical field procedures included in several of the Permit Attachments. The updated field procedures and editorial revisions are Class 1 permit modifications, as specified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) {section}270.42; Appendix I - Classification of Permit Modifications. These modifications are summarized below.

NONE

1997-05-01

75

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

Venditti, David A.

2003-10-01

76

Chapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381  

E-print Network

and the island of Kyushu in the Sea of Japan. In the north they range east in the Arctic Ocean to the MackenzieChapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381 Final EIS ­ December 2009 6.0 CHUM their diet usually consists of zooplankton. By fall they move out into the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska

77

Salmon Patch  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Salmon Patch A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Salmon patches frequently occur at the center of the forehead. Overview Salmon patch is the name given to a very ...

78

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan  

E-print Network

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan May 2004 # # # # # # # # # # # LemhiRiverBig Creek PahsimeroiRiver PantherCreek LittleSalmonRiver RapidRiver E.Fk.SalmonRiver Chamberlain Creek N.Fk. SalmonRiver MidFkSalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver S.Fk.SalmonRiver Salmon River Salmon River IDAHO LEMHI CUSTER VALLEY

79

Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum-based flocculent used in the lower reservoir. Suspended-sediment concentrations and turbidity measurements were largest at the site downstream from the lower reservoir. This is because of the large amounts of debris deposited in the lower reservoir from the breach, which in turn were redeposited into the East Fork Black River during releases. When these constituents were plotted over time, the concentrations decreased and were similar to the other two sites in the study. Trend analyses were studied at one site with historical data. No major trends were discovered for streamflow, turbidity, suspended-sediment concentrations, or suspended-sediment discharges before or after the event. Although long-term effects of the elevated turbidity, major trace metals, and suspended sediments in the study area as a result of the reservoir embankment breach are not expected, there could possibly be other effects not measured during this study that could potentially affect the surface-water quality, such as loss of riparian habitat, changes in biological ecosystems, and large-scale reworking of sediments.

Barr, Miya N.

2009-01-01

80

Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring\\/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the

R. Johnson; C. McKinstry; R. Mueller

2004-01-01

81

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assemblage of fossil sockeye salmon was discovered in Pleistocene lake sediments along the South Fork Skokomish River, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The fossils were abundant near the head of a former glacial lake at 115 m elevation. Large adult salmon are concentrated in a sequence of death assemblages that include individuals with enlarged breeding teeth and worn caudal fins indicating migration,

Gerald R. Smith; David R. Montgomery; N. Phil Peterson; Bruce Crowley

2007-01-01

82

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

83

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND MISTAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

84

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

85

Some Effects of Mt. St. Helens Volcanic Ash on Juvenile Salmon Smolts  

E-print Network

East, Seattle, WA981l2. ABSTRA CT-Chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and sockeye, O. nerka, salmon. St. Helens occurred during the seaward migration of juvenile Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp obtained from the Little White Salmon NFH, Cook, Wash.; and wild stock sockeye salmon, O. nerka, smolts

86

LIFE HISTORY MONITORING OF SALMONIDS IN THE WEST FORK SMITH RIVER, UMPQUA BASIN, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

As a life-cycle monitoring basin for the Oregon Salmon Plan, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife has estimated adult returns, distribution and smolt outmigration of coho, chinook and winter steelhead in the West Fork Smith River since 1998. In 2001/2002, the Environmenta...

87

Multiscale thermal refugia and stream habitat associations of chinook salmon in northwestern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified distribution and behavior of adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) related to patterns of stream temperature and physical habitat at channel-unit, reach-, and section-level spatial scales in a wilderness stream and a disturbed stream in the John Day River basin in northeastern Oregon. We investigated the effectiveness of thermal remote sensing for analyzing spatial patterns of stream temperature and assessed habitat selection by spring chinook salmon, evaluating whether thermal refugia might be responsible for the persistence of these stocks in rivers where water temperatures frequently exceed their upper tolerance levels (25A?C) during spawning migration. By presenting stream temperature and the ecology of chinook salmon in a historical context, we could evaluate how changes in riverine habitat and thermal spatial structure, which can be caused by land-use practices, may influence distributional patterns of chinook salmon. Thermal remote sensing provided spatially continuous maps of stream temperature for reaches used by chinook salmon in the upper subbasins of the Middle Fork and North Fork John Day River. Electivity analysis and logistic regression were used to test for associations between the longitudinal distribution of salmon and cool-water areas and stream habitat characteristics. Chinook salmon were distributed nonuniformly in reaches throughout each stream. Salmon distribution and cool water temperature patterns were most strongly related at reach-level spatial scales in the warm stream, the Middle Fork (maximum likelihood ratio: P 0.30). Pools were preferred by adult chinook salmon in both subbasins (Bonferroni confidence interval: P a?? 0.05); however, riffles were used proportionately more frequently in the North Fork than in the Middle Fork. Our observations of thermal refugia and their use by chinook salmon at multiple spatial scales reveal that, although heterogeneity in the longitudinal stream temperature profile may be viewed as an ecological warning sign, thermal patchiness in streams also should be recognized for its biological potential to provide habitat for species existing at the margin of their environmental tolerances.

Torgersen, Christian E.; Price, David M.; Li, Hiram W.; McIntosh, B.A.

1999-01-01

88

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Twenty-six captive-reared females constructed 33 redds in the WFYF in 2002. Eighteen of these were hydraulically sampled, and eggs were collected from 17. The percentage of live eggs ranged from 0-100% and averaged 34.6%. No live eggs were found in redds spawned by brood year 1997 females. Expanding these results to the remaining redds gives an estimate of 22,900 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish in the WFYF. Additionally, 130 mature adults (including 41 precocial males) were released into the EFSR. Almost all of these fish moved out of the areas shoreline observers had access to, so no spawning behavior was observed. Radio-telemetry indicated that most of these fish initially moved downstream (although three females moved upstream as far as 7 km) and then held position.

Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

2003-11-01

89

PACIFIC COAST SALMON pacific Coast Salmon  

E-print Network

to spawn and complete their life cycle. Coho salmon and most southern U.S. runs of Chinook salmon tend181 PACIFIC COAST SALMON UNIT 12 pacific Coast Salmon Unit 12 ROBERT G. KOPE NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center Seattle Washington INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon support important commercial

90

AL ASK A SALMON alaska Salmon  

E-print Network

189 AL ASK A SALMON UNIT 13 alaska Salmon INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon have played an important and pivotal role in the history of Alaska. Salmon, along with mining, timber, and furs, were the keystone now, the abundant salmon resources of this region continue to shape much of the con- temporary lives

91

9. OVERVIEW OF THE TOWNSITE, LOOKING EAST Photographic copy of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. OVERVIEW OF THE TOWNSITE, LOOKING EAST Photographic copy of historic photograph. Taken prior to 1929. Original print is located in Lemhi County Historical Museum, Salmon, Idaho. Photographer is unknown. - Leesburg Townsite, Napias Creek, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

92

2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

93

4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shoreof Clark Fork River showing 4 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

94

7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

95

1. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Panorama ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Panorama showing the entire span of bridge from north shore of the Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

96

3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge from north shore of Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

97

77 FR 41754 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...program in the Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery. NMFS conducted a referendum...NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway,...

2012-07-16

98

Directions to the WSU Vancouver campus: 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue  

E-print Network

Directions to the WSU Vancouver campus: Address 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue Vancouver, Washington) and follow 134th Street as it turns into Salmon Creek Avenue. Follow the WSU Vancouver signs to the entrance Street exit. Turn left (east) onto 134th Street and follow as it turns into Salmon Creek Avenue. Follow

Collins, Gary S.

99

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to Eagle Fish Hatchery on September 14, 2004 and later incorporated into hatchery spawn matrices. Nine anadromous females, 102 captive females from brood year 2001, and one captive female from brood year 2000 broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2004. Spawn pairings produced approximately 140,823 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed stage of development averaging 72.8%. Eyed-eggs (49,134), presmolts (130,716), smolts (96), and adults (241) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 2004. Reintroduction strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, five broodstocks and five unique production groups were in culture at Idaho Department of Fish and Game (Eagle Fish Hatchery and Sawtooth Fish Hatchery) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (Oxbow Fish Hatchery) facilities. Two of the five broodstocks were incorporated into the 2004 spawning design.

Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

2006-05-01

100

Tuning Forks and Monitor Screens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the vibrations of a tuning fork against a computer monitor screen as a pattern that can illustrate or explain physical concepts like wave vibrations, wave forms, and phase differences. Presents background information and demonstrates the experiment. (Author/YDS)

Harrison, M. A. T.

2000-01-01

101

Salmon's Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

Shannon, Thomas A.

1994-01-01

102

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring\\/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1997 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1996, we PIT tagged and released 1,360 wild chinook salmon parr in the South Fork of the Salmon River and two of its tributaries in Idaho. During spring and summer 1997, the overall adjusted percentage of PIT-tagged fish from Idaho detected at six downstream dams averaged 18.3% (range 16.0 to 27.3% depending on stream of origin). Peak detections

Stephen Achord; M. Brad Eppard; Eric E. Hockersmith

1998-01-01

103

Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

1997-05-01

104

21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking at bridge deck, guard rail, juncture of two bridge spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

105

12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach from the north road. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

106

11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost span. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

107

19. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking at north abutment and underside of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

108

20. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up. Looking at understructure of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

109

22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing downwest side. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing down-west side. Looking at road deck and vertical laced channel. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

110

18. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking at north concrete abutment and timber stringers. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

111

8. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Looking at understructure of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

112

Chinook Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can painted wooden fish on a schoolyard fence change human behavior and help clean up the ocean for the real salmon? Stream of Dreams in British Columbia thinks so, and a lot of wooden fish and some 100,000 school kids later, they have some intriguing results to show for their effort. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

113

Assessment of Salmon Stocks  

E-print Network

Annual Assessment of Salmon Stocks and Fisheries in England and Wales 2009 #12;#12;SALMON STOCKS;Acknowledgement: This report has been compiled jointly by staff from the Cefas Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries and assessment of salmon stocks is funded by Defra. Both Cefas and the Environment Agency would like to extend

114

Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

None

2010-01-04

115

6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located on the pipe floor between Unit 3 and Unit 4, the high pressure CO2 tanks are connected to the generator barrel of all four units. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

116

Effects of Steelhead Density on Growth of Coho Salmon in a Small Coastal California Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight change in age-0 coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch at about natural density was negatively related to the density of juvenile steelhead (anadromous rainbow trout O. mykiss) in a 6-week experiment conducted in July-August 1993 in the north and south forks of Caspar Creek, California. The experiment used 12 enclosed stream sections, each containing a pool and a portion of upstream

BRET C. HARVEY; RODNEY J. NAKAMOTO

1996-01-01

117

Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

Devaney, Laurel

118

Salmon Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students infer numbers of a virtual population illustrated within a rectangular sampling grid. They observe the accuracy of the technique in relation to the sample size upon which the estimate is based. This activity offers students an introduction to population sampling, an application of sampling technique, and an opportunity to relate sample size to estimate accuracy. Students learn that much of what is known about salmon and tuna populations is based upon population sampling, and that the assumption that a random sample is representative of the population's overall concentration is key to this strategy.

119

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assemblage of fossil sockeye salmon was discovered in Pleistocene lake sediments along the South Fork Skokomish River, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The fossils were abundant near the head of a former glacial lake at 115 m elevation. Large adult salmon are concentrated in a sequence of death assemblages that include individuals with enlarged breeding teeth and worn caudal fins indicating migration, nest digging, and spawning prior to death. The specimens were 4 yr old and 45-70 cm in total length, similar in size to modern sockeye salmon, not landlocked kokanee. The fossils possess most of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O. gorbuscha. This suggests the degree of divergence of these species at about 1 million yr ago, when geological evidence indicates the salmon were deposited at the head of a proglacial lake impounded by the Salmon Springs advance of the Puget lobe ice sheet. Surficial geology and topography record a complicated history of glacial damming and river diversion that implies incision of the modern gorge of the South Fork Skokomish River after deposition of the fossil-bearing sediments.

Smith, Gerald R.; Montgomery, David R.; Peterson, N. Phil; Crowley, Bruce

2007-09-01

120

President's House Price's Fork Road  

E-print Network

President's House Price's Fork Road Inn at Virginia Tech and Skelton Conference Center HOKIE BIKE HUB Media Hall Cassell Coliseum Torgersen Hall Center For The Arts Dietrick Hall Rector Field House War Memorial Cowgill Hall Price Hall Life Sciences I Facility Hutcheson Hall Pritchard Hall Hancock Hall Lee Hall

Buehrer, R. Michael

121

12. Detail view (looking east) of riveted cconnection of top ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Detail view (looking east) of riveted cconnection of top chord and vertical members at the second panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

122

8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical member at the third panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

123

11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members between panels nine end ten of Moody Bridge - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

124

9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members at the fifth panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

125

Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

126

Calcitonin Salmon Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

127

Migration timing of female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka: diel patterns and effects of maturation state.  

PubMed

Diel patterns of migration and migration speed were compared between reproductive timing phenotypes in female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Females of varying degrees of reproductive maturation were captured on their migration route to the Meadow Creek Spawning Channel (British Columbia, Canada), were tagged with passive-integrated transponders (PIT tags) and were subsequently monitored with stationary receivers. Females showed crepuscular migration timing, with approximately equal detections at dawn and dusk. In particular, peaks of movement were associated with the appearance of the sun over the mountains in the east and the disappearance of the sun over the mountains in the west. Over 25 m, migration speed was 1·0 body lengths (measured as fork length; L(F)) s(-1) and did not depend on maturation state. Over 3 km, migration speed was much slower (0·2-0·3 L(F) s(-1)) than over the short distance, with less mature females migrating more slowly than more mature females. Less mature females appeared to be in less of a hurry to reach breeding areas compared with more mature females. PMID:22957867

Warren, M A; Morbey, Y E

2012-09-01

128

Salmon Homing Instincts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon Homing Instincts is an activity that enables learners to experience what it is like to be a returning salmon attempting to find its home by smell. Scientific research suggests that salmon use the smell of water to find their home stream; even after being out in the open ocean as many as six years. The activity allows the entire class to participate in the life cycle of the Pacific salmon and the hazards (i.e. pollution) of their journey.

Werner, Deborah

1998-01-01

129

Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a baseline release of 1,300 cfs to a maximum release of 25,530 cfs with an overall temperature depression in the lower Clearwater River exceeding 10 C. With continued Dworshak Dam operations as those documented in 1994, there is potential risk to the continued existence of the endangered fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. Additional data and conclusions will be contained in successive years` annual reports.

Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

1995-08-01

130

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

131

Two alternative juvenile life history types for fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Snake River basin were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1992. At the time of listing, it was assumed that fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the Snake River basin adhered strictly to an ocean-type life history characterized by saltwater entry at age 0 and first-year wintering in the ocean. Research showed, however, that some fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the Snake River basin spent their first winter in a reservoir and resumed seaward movement the following spring at age 1 (hereafter, reservoir-type juveniles). We collected wild and hatchery ocean-type fall Chinook salmon juveniles in 1997 and wild and hatchery reservoir-type juveniles in 1998 to assess the condition of the reservoir-type juveniles at the onset of seaward movement. The ocean-type juveniles averaged 112-139 mm fork length, and the reservoir-type juveniles averaged 222-224 mm fork length. The large size of the reservoir-type juveniles suggested a high potential for survival to salt water and subsequent return to freshwater. Scale pattern analyses of the fall Chinook salmon spawners we collected during 1998-2003 supported this point. Of the spawners sampled, an overall average of 41% of the wild fish and 51% of the hatchery fish had been reservoir-type juveniles. Males that had been reservoir-type juveniles often returned as small "minijacks" (wild, 16% of total; hatchery, 40% of total), but 84% of the wild males, 60% of the hatchery males, and 100% of the wild and hatchery females that had been reservoir-type juveniles returned at ages and fork lengths commonly observed in populations of Chinook salmon. We conclude that fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin exhibit two alternative juvenile life histories, namely ocean-type and reservoir-type. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Connor, W.P.; Sneva, J.G.; Tiffan, K.F.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Ross, D.

2005-01-01

132

Forecast and Production Dynamics of the Pink Salmon of Kamchatka  

E-print Network

The importance of pink salmon to the fishery of the Russian Far East can scarcely be exaggerated because this species determines the total catch of Pacific salmon in the region. Fishery science already has provided a wealth of biological data about density and stock abundance of pink salmon during different periods of the life cycle, but often we find ourselves running into something we cannot explain. For example, abrupt transformations in populations when seemingly there is nothing to indicate a forthcoming, and potentially striking, change. It is well known that pink salmon have the simplest lifecycle among Pacific salmon species, but forecasting the stock dynamics of this species is more complicated and results are more uncertain than with other species. For this study we used a cluster analysis to examine the basis of the dynamics of pink salmon escapement in different rivers of West and East Kamchatka. It has been demonstrated that the even- and odd-year lines of pink salmon in West Kamchatka have, at minimum, two well recognized population groups: the southern group that comprises populations from the Ozernaya River to the Kol River, and the northern group that includes populations from the Vorovskaya River to the Pyatibratka River (Fig. 1). In West Kamchatka the boundary between the two groups for both odd- and even-year brood lines is located along 55 ° N latitude. East Kamchatka pink salmon populations are poorly structured. Major pink salmon populations exist in the Karaginsky and Olutorisky Gulfs, and minor populations are located in the Karaginsky, Kronotsky and Avachinsky Gulfs.

Evgeny A. Shevlyakov; Maxim V. Koval

133

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245 Final EIS ­ December 2009 5.0 CHINOOK SALMON This chapter provides information on Chinook salmon biology, distribution, and current stock assessments. This chapter then analyzes the impacts of the alternatives on Chinook salmon

134

Detection of PIT-Tagged Subyearling Chinook Salmon at a Snake River Dam: Implications for Summer Flow Augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rearing subyearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (?60 mm in fork length) were captured in the Snake River and tagged with passive integrated transponders to provide an index of their survival to Lower Granite Dam, the first of eight dams encountered by seaward migrants. Water was released from reservoirs upstream of Lower Granite Dam to augment summer flows and thereby increase

William P. Connor; Howard L. Burge; David H. Bennett

1998-01-01

135

Cooking with Canned Salmon  

E-print Network

. New E-85 9/01 Salmon Loaf (makes 4 servings) What you need 14.75-ounce can salmon 1 /4 cup liquid from canned salmon 10 3 /4 ounce can cream of celery soup 1 cup dry bread crumbs 2 eggs, beaten... that might be in the canned salmon. 4. Mix the salmon, liquid, soup, bread crumbs, eggs, onion and lemon juice. 5. Press the mixture into a greased 9- by 5-inch loaf pan. 6. Bake at 375 degrees F for about 1 hour. Cool it for 10 minutes before removing...

Anding, Jenna

2001-09-10

136

EAST AFRICA EAST AFRICA  

E-print Network

EAST AFRICA #12;EAST AFRICA Investment Invested in research and student programs in East Africa $2.7+million SHARCNET Access granted to all partner universities in East Africa CIDA UPCD project, Rebuilding of The Africa Institute at The University of Western Ontario (2011) #12;EAST AFRICA Recruitment and Building

Denham, Graham

137

Independent Scientific Review Panel for the Northwest Power & Conservation Council  

E-print Network

-059-00). The Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, located in central Idaho in the Salmon-Challis National Forest east and year-round rearing habitat for juvenile Chinook salmon. According to the Bonneville Power Subject: Review of a revised proposal and supporting appendices for the Yankee Fork Salmon River

138

CHAPTER 15 History and effects of hatchery salmon in the Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a long history of production of hatchery salmon along the Pacific coast - from California's first efforts in the 1870s using eggs from chinook and rainbow trout to the recent large-scale production hatcheries for pink salmon in Japan and the Russian Far East. The rationale for this production has also varied from replacement of fish lost in

Jennifer Nielsen

139

Fifth-wheel fork truck adapter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standard fifth wheel mounted on a rectangular steel structure adapted for use with a fork lift truck provides a fast, safe, and economical way of maneuvering semitrailers in close quarters at plants and warehouses. One operator can move and locate a semitrailer without dismounting from a fork lift truck.

Smith, P. L.

1969-01-01

140

Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms  

E-print Network

Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms Brendan M of pathogen transmission from farmed fish on species interactions or other ecosystem components. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch smolts are susceptible hosts to the parasitic salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis as well

Dill, Lawrence M.

141

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

142

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

assessments for lower Columbia River chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmon, steelhead, bull trout, and cutthroat trout Vol. II Subbasins Fish populations and habitat conditions in each of 11 Washington lower

143

Salmon Population Depleted  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon populations face several serious threats, including pollution, habitat destruction, overfishing, and climate change. In this publication, the reason for the downward spiral of salmon populations is discussed. This video segment features Elders discussing the decline in the local population of salmon, which are at the heart of the cultural identity of the Native American Lummi Nation of Washington State. Fish were very abundant a few decades ago, but now even the fishermen have to buy fish. The background essay explains the many threats that the salmon population faces. There is also a brief description of the salmon lifecycle. The four discussion questions asks the reasons why the salmon population is depleting, and what people can do to help. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

144

Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

2013-01-01

145

14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach from the south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

146

13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where strioed traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

147

23. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing upwest side. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up-west side. Looking at structural connection of top chord, vertical laced channel and diagonal bars. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

148

24. View of one of the plaques from Clark Fork ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. View of one of the plaques from Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge. Presently located at the Bonner County Historical Museum in Sandpoint, Idaho. A plaque was attached at each end of the bridge. Only one remains. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

149

10. A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE FIRST PIER ON THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE FIRST PIER ON THE EAST END OF THE BRIDGE (NORTH ELEVATION). IT SUPPORTS A SOLID, SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH. CONSIDERABLE SOIL HAS WASHED IN UNDER THE BRIDGE FROM THE BANKS OF THE RAVINE. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Richmond, Wayne County, IN

150

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt August 1, 2006  

E-print Network

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt Les Hatton August 1, 2006 $Date: 2003/01/15 00:05:52 $ 1 pleasure to so many. 2 Exposition It starts quite innocently with a bottle of wine, a plate of salmon penne in a Stockholm restaurant and a copy of "The Salmon of Doubt" by Douglas Adams. Whilst eating the meal with my

Hatton, Les

151

USGS Releases Atlantic Salmon at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists (L to R) Ross Abbett and Rich Chiavelli watch as hundreds of salmon swim into troughs at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, e...

152

Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visit the Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this dim...

153

Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visit the Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminish...

154

Yearling Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecosystem and economy. To restore the population, young Atlantic salmon are reared at the USGS Tunison Laboratory of Aquaitic Science&nb...

155

Young Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These two-day old Atlantic salmon were hatched at the USGS Tunison Lab and will eventually be released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local...

156

Salmon-Filled Tanks  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Specialized tanks at the USGS Tunison Lab hold young Atlantic salmon until they are released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecosystem and ...

157

Young Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These two-day old Atlantic salmon were hatched at the USGS Tunison Lab and will eventually be released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecos...

158

Saving the Salmon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

Sprangers, Donald

2004-01-01

159

Salmon on the Columbia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit explores aspects of the history of salmon in the Columbia Basin. The materials provided for this unit are primarily social studies related, but include topics in both math and science and. Students have the opportunity to explore data using GIS mapping technology. The learning goals include: understanding the historical, cultural, and economic importance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin to both native and European immigrant populations; identifying technological, economic, and environmental factors that contributed to the decline in salmon populations in the Columbia Basin; use GIS and graphing software to analyze and interpret factors related to changes in the Columbia River salmon population over the last century and describe these phenomena in narrative, graphical or mathematical terms as appropriate; and evaluate the effectiveness of recent actions in helping to restore Columbia Basin salmon populations.

Rick Thomas

160

MFR PAPER 1222 Effects of Dams on Pacific Salmon  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 2725 Montlake Blvd. East, SealIIe, WA 98112. grounds. These fish "ladders The need for salmon, sea-run trout, and other anadromous fish to spawn in fresh water has made them in the environment of anadromous fish. Great dams barred passage to the sea; huge lakes replaced swift-flowing rivers

161

Preliminary examination of contaminant loadings in farmed salmon, wild salmon and commercial salmon feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study examined five commercial salmon feeds, four farmed salmon (one Atlantic, three chinooks) and four wild salmon (one chinook, one chum, two sockeyes) from the Pacific Coast for PCBs (112 congeners), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs – 41 congeners), 25 organochlorine pesticides (OPs), 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and methyl and inorganic mercury. The farmed salmon showed consistently higher levels

M. D. L. Easton; D. Luszniak; E. Von der Geest

2002-01-01

162

Pacific Salmon Information Via the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Marine Fisheries Service maintains this Pacific Salmon metasite, which covers the life history, habitat, and economic status of salmon, the role of US state fisheries and Canadian agencies in managing salmon stocks, and additional salmon information. From the University of Washington's concise and informative "Salmon Life History" page, to the Pacific Salmon Alliance's proud "Stand up for Canada: Save our Salmon" page, interested users will find much information on the ecology and politics of Salmon.

163

test groups of fall chinook salmon were transported directly from the Klickitat Hatchery.  

E-print Network

/ake Blvd. East SeaUle, WA 98112 STEVE L. LEEK Little White Salmon Laboratory U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service coast east to Kamchatka and south to northeastern Japan. The maximum life span of sablefish appears- fic species distributed along the North American coast from Mexico to the Bering Sea and on the Asian

164

Pacific Salmon in the North American Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

All five North American Pacific salmon species occur in small numbers in arctic waters, but only pink and chum salmon appear to have viable populations north of Point Hope, Alaska. Pink salmon are the most common species and constitute 85% of salmon caught in biological surveys. Pink salmon apparently have small runs in eight arctic drainages, while chum salmon may

PETER CRAIG; LEWIS HALDORSON

1986-01-01

165

3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and third stops - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

166

7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

167

1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

168

6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

169

2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

170

9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

171

5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

172

Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet Great Smoky ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

173

11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

174

12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand drips, view from road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

175

8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

176

Salmon Conservation in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroelectric power developments in Sweden are a menace to the populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Conservation measures, started as early as in the 1860's, now aim at the substituting of hatchery-reared 2-year-old smolt for the freshwater part of the life cycle of the salmon. The smolt plantings will soon reach 2 million annually, and the return now amounts

Arne Lindroth

1963-01-01

177

State of the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon, like many other species of fish, know no political boundaries. In effect, this makes it hard for humans to craft detailed and meaningful policies for the survival and health of these important creatures. The State of the Salmon is an international consortium that is "dedicated to improving understanding of salmon status and trends across the North Pacific--and building a knowledge network that can inform salmon conservation and management decisions in the future." Given this broad range of cooperation, visitors will not be surprised to find that much of the material featured on the site is available in Russian, English, and Chinese. The materials on the site are divided into several sections, including "Monitoring", "Data & Maps", "Status & Trends", and "Collaborate". The "Data & Maps" area is quite useful, and it features a variety of interactive maps that document existing salmon populations and their movements. Moving on, the "Status & Trends" area provides updates on salmon population trends in Canada, Japan, Russia, and the United States. The site is rounded out by a glossary and information about the organization's basic operating principles.

178

CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING INCLINED STAY CABLES EXTENDING FROM TOP OF TOWER TO DECK. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

179

PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

180

Statistical Explanation WESLEY C. SALMON  

E-print Network

Statistical Explanation WESLEY C. SALMON Indiana University EVER SINCE IUS CLASSIC PAPER with Paul Science Foundation for support of the sesearch contained in this paper. 29 30 : Wesley C. Salmon probabi

Fitelson, Branden

181

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD RECOVERY AND SUBBASIN PLAN Technical Foundation Executive Council MAY 28, 2004 DRAFT #12;Lower Columbia River Salmon Recovery Plan Technical Foundation Executive. This information provides a basis for an integrated Salmon Recovery and Subbasin Plan prepared by the Fish Recovery

182

a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^-'^ "^  

E-print Network

Take a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^·-'^ "^ #12;\\ V 4- #12;balmon has been nourishing the human race of the easy-to-store, easy-to- use can are two good reasons for cooking and serving salmon frequently. But there are even better reasons. The protein in salmon is a complete protein, in the same food group as meat

183

VOLUNTEER-BASED SALMON RIVER  

E-print Network

VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS Institute Environment Canada VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS STREAM ECOSYSTEM HEALTH #12;Volunteer-Based Monitoring Program for the Salmon River

184

Migratory Behavior and Forebay Delay of Radio-Tagged Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon in a Lower Snake River Impoundment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Jul and Aug 1995–1997, we used radiotelemetry to estimate the migration rate of 405 juvenile fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (mean fork length, 138–144 mm) through Little Goose Reservoir. Migration rates decreased significantly as fish approached the dam. Median migration rates in 1995 were 26.0 km\\/d through the 45.9-km reach immediately below Lower Granite Dam, 14.9 km\\/d through the

David A. Venditti; Dennis W. Rondorf; John M. Kraut

2000-01-01

185

Man-induced gradient adjustment of the South Fork Forked Deer River, west Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channel modifications from 1968 to 1969 on the South Fork Forked Deer River in western Tennessee have caused upstream degradation,\\u000a downstream aggradation, and bank failures along the altered channels, adjacent reaches, and tributaries. The result of these\\u000a adjustments is a general decrease in gradient as the channel attempts to absorb the imposed increase in energy conditions\\u000a created by channelization.\\u000a \\u000a Headward

Andrew Simon; Clarence H. Robbins

1987-01-01

186

Double-ended tuning fork quartz accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz accelerometers with frequency output have been designed and built using etched double-ended tuning fork technology. These devices consist of two tuning forks connected in a cantilever beam configuration with beryllium-copper spacers which serves as a proof mass and inboard spacer. The frequency outputs of each tuning fork resonant circuit are mixed to yield an output frequency of approximately 1kHz at zero acceleration. The sensitivity of the devices is approximately 1Hz/G. The fundamental vibration frequency of the cantilever beam is 2200Hz in this undamped device. Shock testing up to 1500G has indicated good survivability characteristics. Individual fork measurements compared with assembled cantilevers tested in a +- 1G field in the temperature range of -55C to +85C indicate that residual stresses associated with assembly contributes to the temperature sensitivity of the bias frequency. Centrifuge testing has been conducted over the range of 0-120G with an indicated non-linearity of less than 2mG.

Kass, W. J.; Snow, G. S.

187

Development of the Pintle Release Fork Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

An improved method of attachment of the pintle to the piston in the universal sampler is being developed. The mechanism utilizes a forked release disk which captures two balls in a cavity formed by a hole in the piston and a groove in the pintle rod.

BOGER, R.M.; DALE, R.

1999-08-27

188

Draft Report Yankee Fork Habitat Improvement  

E-print Network

Draft Report Yankee Fork Habitat Improvement Project: Pond Series 2 Preliminary (30 Percent) Basis of Design Report Custer County, Idaho Prepared for Bureau of Reclamation December 2011 322 Front Street........................................................................... 2-1 2.2.2 Channel Excavation and Channel Fill

189

Man-induced gradient adjustment of the South Fork Forked Deer River, west Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channel modifications from 1968 to 1969 on the South Fork Forked Deer River in western Tennessee have caused upstream degradation, downstream aggradation, and bank failures along the altered channels, adjacent reaches, and tributaries. The result of these adjustments is a general decrease in gradient as the channel attempts to absorb the imposed increase in energy conditions created by channelization. Headward degradation at a rate of approximately 2.57 km/yr on the South Fork Forked Deer River caused from 1.52 m to about 3.14 m of incision over a 13.5 km reach from 1969 to 1981. As a consequence of substantially increased sediment supply, approximately 2.13 m of aggradation was induced downstream of this reach during the same period. This accumulation represents a 60% recovery of bed level at the downstream site since the completion of channel work in 1969. Gradient adjustment with time is described by exponential decay functions. The length of time required for adjustment to some new quasi-equilibrium condition is computed by these decay functions and is about 20 years from the completion of channel work. Adjusted slopes are less than predisturbed values, probably because straightened channels dissipate less energy by friction, allowing more energy for sediment transport. An equivalent sediment load, therefore, can be transported at a considerably gentler slope. The predisturbed slope exceeds the adjusted slope by an order of magnitude on the downstream reach of the South Fork Forked Deer River. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Simon, A.; Robbins, C.H.

1987-01-01

190

Seismic investigation and attribute analysis of faults and fractures within a tight-gas sandstone reservoir: Williams Fork Formation, Mamm Creek Field, Piceance Basin, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic-reflection characteristics, distribution and orientation of faults, and fracture intensity of the Williams Fork Formation at Mamm Creek Field vary stratigraphically and with lithology and depositional setting. The fluvial, marsh, and shallow marine deposits of the Williams Fork Formation were deposited within alluvial-plain, coastal-plain, and shallow-marine environments. The deposits produce significant amounts of natural gas from Cretaceous-age tight-gas-sandstone reservoirs that are moderately porous but exhibit low matrix permeability. Faults and fractures provide conduits for gas migration and enhance permeability and reservoir productivity. Key stratigraphic units, fault and fracture characteristics, fracture intensity, and the controls on fracture distribution were evaluated by using p-wave seismic data and derived seismic attributes in conjunction with well logs, borehole-image logs, and core data. Amplitude dimming, poor amplitude coherency, and offset reflections characterize the alluvial-plain and coastal-plain deposits. More continuous and moderate-to-high amplitude reflections are present in the lower Williams Fork Formation, which is characterized by coastal-plain and shallowmarine deposits. An ant-tracking workflow and interpreted seismic-amplitude data and curvature attributes indicate that fault characteristics are complex and vary stratigraphically; the lowermost lower Williams Fork Formation is characterized by north-northwest- and east-west-trending small scale thrust and normal faults. The uppermost lower Williams Fork Formation and the middle and upper Williams Fork formations exhibit north-northeast- and east-west-trending arrays of fault splays that terminate upward and do not appear to displace the upper Williams Fork Formation. In the uppermost Williams Fork Formation and Ohio Creek Member, north-northeast-trending discontinuities are displaced by east-west-trending events and the east-west-trending events dominate. Fracture analysis based on ant-track and t* attenuation seismic attributes suggests a nonuniform spatial distribution of fractures. In general, higher fracture intensity occurs within the southern, southwestern, and western portions of the area, and fracture intensity is greater within the fluvial reservoirs of the middle and upper Williams Fork formations. Greater than 90% of natural fractures occur in sandstones and siltstones. In-situ stress analysis, based on induced-tensile fractures and borehole breakouts, indicates a north-northwest orientation of present-day maximum horizontal stress, an approximate 20-degree rotation in the orientation of Shmax with depth, and a sudden stress shift in the Rollins Sandstone Member.

Baytok, Sait

191

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

192

Bull Trout Population and Habitat Surveys in the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

Bull trout in the Willamette River Basin were historically distributed throughout major tributaries including the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie rivers. Habitat degradation, over-harvest, passage barriers, fish removal by rotenone, and hybridization and competition with non-native brook trout are all likely factors that have led to the decline of bull trout in the Willamette Basin (Ratliff and Howell 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act in 1998. Four bull trout populations were isolated in the upper Willamette River following the construction of flood control dams on the South Fork McKenzie River, McKenzie River, and Middle Fork Willamette River that created Cougar, Trail Bridge, and Hills Creek reservoirs. Buchanan et al. (1997) described the population in the main stem McKenzie as 'of special concern', the South Fork McKenzie population as 'high risk of extinction', the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as 'high risk of extinction', and bull trout in the Middle Fork Willamette as 'probably extinct'. Various management efforts such as strict angling regulations and passage improvement projects have been implemented to stabilize and rehabilitate bull trout habitat and populations in the McKenzie River over the past 10 years. Since 1997, bull trout fry from Anderson Creek on the upper McKenzie River have been transferred to the Middle Fork Willamette basin above Hills Creek Reservoir in an attempt to re-establish a reproducing bull trout population. This project was developed in response to concerns over the population status and management of bull trout in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife during the early 1990s. The project was conducted under measure 9.3G(2) of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor the status, life history, habitat needs, and limiting factors for bull trout within sub basins of the Columbia River. Also, this project provides information to develop native fish recovery plans such as the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Bull Trout Recovery Plan.

Seals, Jason; Reis, Kelly

2003-10-01

193

SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL  

E-print Network

and Trout 11 Seagoing Salmon and Steelhead 12 Trout Life Cycle 13 Salmon and Steelhead Life Cycle 14 MakingSALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL An lnstruction Manual for Hatching Salmon and Trout Eggs in Classroom and Game Native Salmonids of California Map \\|/try Hatcheries? Activities Fish Journals Habitats of Salmon

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

194

Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming Expected to Climb The world production of pen- farmed salmon doubled during 1981-83. Of the 24,500 metric tons (t) of farmed salmon produced in 1983, almost 85 percent was Atlantic salmon, Sa/mo safar (Table 1). While the farming of Pacific salmon, On

195

Impacts of multispecies parasitism on juvenile Oregon coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We are studying the impacts of parasites on threatened stocks of Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In our previous studies, we have found high infections of digeneans and myxozoans in coho salmon parr from the lower main stem of West Fork Smith River (WFSR), Oregon. In contrast parr from tributaries of this river, and outmigrating smolts, harbor considerably less parasites. Thus, we have hypothesized that heavy parasite burdens in parr from this river are associated with poor overwintering survival. The objective of the current study was to ascertain the possible effects these parasites have on smolt fitness. We captured parr from the lower main stem and tributaries of WFSR and held them in the laboratory to evaluate performance endpoints of smolts with varying degrees of infection by three digeneans (Nanophyetus salmincola, Apophallus sp., and neascus) and one myxozoan (Myxobolus insidiosus). The parameters we assessed were weight, fork length, growth, swimming stamina, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. We repeated our study on the subsequent year class and with hatchery reared coho salmon experimentally infected with N. salmincola. The most significant associations between parasites and these performance or fitness endpoints were observed in the heavily infected groups from both years. We found that all parasite species, except neascus, were negatively associated with fish fitness. This was corroborated for N. salmincola causing reduced growth with our experimental infection study. Parasites were most negatively associated with growth and size, and these parameters likely influenced the secondary findings with swimming stamina and ATPase activity levels.

Ferguson, Jayde A.; Romer, Jeremy; Sifneos, Jean C.; Madsen, Lisa; Schreck, Carl B.; Glynn, Michael; Kent, Michael L.

2011-01-01

196

Saving Coho Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how they’re looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call “the vortex of extinction.

Kqed

2012-08-08

197

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies  

E-print Network

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies R. SALESSE, J. GARNIER, B en Josas, France Summary. Pituitary gonadotropins of female and male pacific salmon Oncorhynchus) and in salmon (Donaldson et al., 1972), although physicochemical, biological or immunological evidence for two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON,  

E-print Network

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, Oncorhynchus nerka Marine Biological #12;#12;SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPJLATION OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS

199

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

2003-05-01

200

SOUTH FORK CLEARWATER RIVER HABITAT ENHANCEMENT  

E-print Network

to rear 200,000-300,000 spring chinook salmon annually. The pond is stocked with fry in the spring. After and Rick Stowell, Project Coordinator U.S.D.A. Forest Service Nezperce National Forest Prepared for Lorry B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Trees Placed for Cover Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Test

201

The Fight Over Pacific Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

202

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are the most abundant Pacific salmon  

E-print Network

among salmonids in having a determinate life cycle. Adults return to their natal streams to spawn at 2123 Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are the most abundant Pacific salmon species and spawn inten- sity (Takagi et al., 1981) or climate cycles (Mantua et al., 1997). Optimum management

203

SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

204

Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

2003-01-01

205

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic  

E-print Network

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic Retold by Rodney Frey 28 September 2000 Salmon ..................................12 Salmon is a great warrior. He's going up the Columbia River; Salmon always goes up river. Salmon to catch the salmon; it's not so good. Salmon goes over, piles up rocks, here and here. He goes up the bank

O'Laughlin, Jay

206

25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. The ARU130HK50 battery charger is visible in left foreground of photograph, with the A-40 backup battery charger visible adjacent to and beyond the ARU130HK50. The racks of 60 KCU-7 lead calcium batteries manufactured by C&D Batteries are visible in the center of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

207

City of Grand Forks GRAND FORKS is situated 75 miles south of the  

E-print Network

. Attractions include the Red River Greenway, the Myra Museum, the North Dakota Museum of Art and the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences on the University of North Dakota campus. Accommodations Greater Computing Heritage April 20 ­ 21, 2007 Alerus Center Grand Forks, North Dakota Call for Papers Hosted by

Hu, Wen-Chen

208

Senataxin Associates with Replication Forks to Protect Fork Integrity across RNA-Polymerase-II-Transcribed Genes  

PubMed Central

Summary Transcription hinders replication fork progression and stability. The ATR checkpoint and specialized DNA helicases assist DNA synthesis across transcription units to protect genome integrity. Combining genomic and genetic approaches together with the analysis of replication intermediates, we searched for factors coordinating replication with transcription. We show that the Sen1/Senataxin DNA/RNA helicase associates with forks, promoting their progression across RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-transcribed genes. sen1 mutants accumulate aberrant DNA structures and DNA-RNA hybrids while forks clash head-on with RNAPII transcription units. These replication defects correlate with hyperrecombination and checkpoint activation in sen1 mutants. The Sen1 function at the forks is separable from its role in RNA processing. Our data, besides unmasking a key role for Senataxin in coordinating replication with transcription, provide a framework for understanding the pathological mechanisms caused by Senataxin deficiencies and leading to the severe neurodegenerative diseases ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4. PMID:23141540

Alzu, Amaya; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Begnis, Martina; Lucca, Chiara; Piccini, Daniele; Carotenuto, Walter; Saponaro, Marco; Brambati, Alessandra; Cocito, Andrea; Foiani, Marco; Liberi, Giordano

2012-01-01

209

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming  

E-print Network

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming Ida Scheel1 salmon anemia (ISA) is one of the main infectious diseases in Atlantic salmon farming with major, worldwide. We study the data covering salmon farming in Norway from 2002 to 2005 and propose a stochastic

Aldrin, Magne

210

Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the efficacy of using an acoustic camera to count adult migrant Chinook salmon as they make their way to the spawning grounds on the Secesh River and Lake Creek. A phased approach to applying the acoustic camera was proposed, starting with testing and evaluation in spring 2003, followed by a full implementation in 2004 and 2005. The goal of this effort is to better assess the early run components when water clarity and night visibility preclude the use of optical techniques. A single acoustic camera was used to test the technology for enumerating adult salmon passage at the Secesh River. The acoustic camera was deployed on the Secesh at a site engineered with an artificial substrate to control the river bottom morphometry and the passage channel. The primary goal of the analysis for this first year of deployment was to validate counts of migrant salmon. The validation plan involved covering the area with optical video cameras so that both optical and acoustic camera images of the same viewing region could be acquired simultaneously. A secondary test was contrived after the fish passage was complete using a controlled setting at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, in which we tested the detectability as a function of turbidity levels. Optical and acoustic camera multiplexed video recordings of adult Chinook salmon were made at the Secesh River fish counting station from August 20 through August 29, 2003. The acoustic camera performed as well as or better than the optical camera at detecting adult Chinook salmon over the 10-day test period. However, the acoustic camera was not perfect; the data reflected adult Chinook salmon detections made by the optical camera that were missed by the acoustic camera. The conditions for counting using the optical camera were near ideal, with shallow clear water and good light penetration. The relative performance of the acoustic camera is expected to be even better than the optical camera in early spring when water clarity and light penetration are limited. Results of the laboratory tests at the Pacific North

Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

2004-01-01

211

Resonant tuning fork detector for THz radiation.  

PubMed

THz-sensing is an emerging technology that would be advantageous for a variety of applications in industry, biology, biochemistry and security, if small and convenient to use sources and detectors would be readily available. However, most of them are bulky, complicate to operate, and need cryogenic cooling. Here we present a new detection scheme that is versatile enough to detect electro-magnetic radiation within the whole spectrum, can be easily applied to the THz-range, and operates at room temperature. The mechanism is based on the resonant excitation of a quartz tuning fork. PMID:19654815

Willer, Ulrike; Pohlkötter, Andreas; Schade, Wolfgang; Xu, Jihua; Losco, Tonia; Green, Richard P; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A

2009-08-01

212

CREEL CENSUS AND EXPENDITURE STUDY, NORTH FORK SUN RIVER,  

E-print Network

CREEL CENSUS AND EXPENDITURE STUDY, NORTH FORK SUN RIVER, MONTANA, 1951 Marine Biological STUDY, NORTH FORK SUN RIVER, MONTANA, 1951 Marine Biological Laboratory JUN16 1954 WOODS HOLE, MASS MAP CREEL CENSUS SUN RIVER MONTANA DRAWN i*^ ^ TRACED- _2£jLt:l SUBMITTED . 1 V N 01 1 VN ei

213

14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand drips, view with three culvert pipes. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

214

9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF LAKE FORK CANAL, UINTAH PROJECT. TWO SLUICEWAYS TWENTY FEET WIDE HAVE BEEN LEFT IN THE DAM TO PASS BOULDERS DURING HIGH WATER. THESE SLUICEWAYS ARE CLOSED BY LOGS AND HAY DURING LOW WATER.' Date unknown - Irrigation Canals in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne, Duchesne County, UT

215

Biodiesel from Waste Salmon Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmon oils separated from salmon processing waste and hydrolysate and their derived methyl esters were analyzed and compared with corn oil and its methyl ester. These materials were characterized for their fatty acid profiles, viscosity, volatility, thermal properties, low temperature properties, o...

216

New York State Salmon River Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

217

76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...limit treatments and activities needed...Amendment 1--Wildland Fire Management would...align with Federal Wildland Fire policy by allowing...the proposed action and alternatives to the...high-intensity wildfires and landscape...

2011-08-03

218

XRCC3 and Rad51 Modulate Replication Fork Progression on Damaged Vertebrate Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which the progression of eukaryotic replication forks is controlled after DNA damage are unclear. We have found that fork progression is slowed by cisplatin or UV treatment in intact vertebrate cells and in replication assays in vitro. Fork slowing is reduced or absent in irs1SF CHO cells and XRCC3?\\/? chicken DT40 cells, indicating that fork slowing is

Judith Henry-Mowatt; Dean Jackson; Jean-Yves Masson; Penny A Johnson; Paula M Clements; Fiona E Benson; Larry H Thompson; Shunichi Takeda; Stephen C West; Keith W Caldecott

2003-01-01

219

RecA protein promotes the regression of stalled replication forks in vitro  

E-print Network

Colloquium RecA protein promotes the regression of stalled replication forks in vitro Mara E. Robu lesion, forks may stall and leave the lesion in a single-strand gap. Fork regression is the first step substrates designed to mimic one of the known structures of a fork stalled at a leading- strand lesion, we

Cox, Michael M.

220

ATR phosphorylates SMARCAL1 to prevent replication fork collapse  

PubMed Central

The DNA damage response kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) coordinates much of the cellular response to replication stress. The exact mechanisms by which ATR regulates DNA synthesis in conditions of replication stress are largely unknown, but this activity is critical for the viability and proliferation of cancer cells, making ATR a potential therapeutic target. Here we use selective ATR inhibitors to demonstrate that acute inhibition of ATR kinase activity yields rapid cell lethality, disrupts the timing of replication initiation, slows replication elongation, and induces fork collapse. We define the mechanism of this fork collapse, which includes SLX4-dependent cleavage yielding double-strand breaks and CtIP-dependent resection generating excess single-stranded template and nascent DNA strands. Our data suggest that the DNA substrates of these nucleases are generated at least in part by the SMARCAL1 DNA translocase. Properly regulated SMARCAL1 promotes stalled fork repair and restart; however, unregulated SMARCAL1 contributes to fork collapse when ATR is inactivated in both mammalian and Xenopus systems. ATR phosphorylates SMARCAL1 on S652, thereby limiting its fork regression activities and preventing aberrant fork processing. Thus, phosphorylation of SMARCAL1 is one mechanism by which ATR prevents fork collapse, promotes the completion of DNA replication, and maintains genome integrity. PMID:23873943

Couch, Frank B.; Bansbach, Carol E.; Driscoll, Robert; Luzwick, Jessica W.; Glick, Gloria G.; Bétous, Rémy; Carroll, Clinton M.; Jung, Sung Yun; Qin, Jun; Cimprich, Karlene A.; Cortez, David

2013-01-01

221

SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

222

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.

Wgbh; Domain, Teachers'

223

Salmon Move into Deeper Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For generations, Native Americans have depended on their observations of nature for their survival. In this video segment adapted from Northwest Indian College, an Elder recalls how fishermen suspected the water was warming after observing salmon retreating to deeper waters.

2010-03-24

224

8. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING N. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

225

9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING W. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

226

Interfacial instability and DNA fork reversal by repair proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A repair protein like RecG moves the stalled replication fork in the direction from the zipped to the unzipped state of DNA. It is proposed here that a softening of the zipped-unzipped interface at the fork results in the front propagating towards the unzipped side. In this scenario, an ordinary helicase destabilizes the zipped state locally near the interface and the fork propagates towards the zipped side. The softening of the interface can be produced by the aromatic interaction, predicted from the crystal structure, between RecG and the nascent broken base pairs at the Y-fork. A numerical analysis of the model also reveals the possibility of a stop and go type motion.

Bhattacharjee, Somendra M.

2010-04-01

227

17. DETAIL VIEW OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE STIRRING FORK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL VIEW OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE STIRRING FORK THAT MIXED COFFEE BEANS AS THEY WERE HUSKED - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

228

Toward a salmon conjecture  

E-print Network

By using a result from the numerical algebraic geometry package Bertini we show that (with extremely high probability) a set of degree 6 and degree 9 polynomials cut out the secant variety $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{2}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{2} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$. This, combined with an argument provided by Landsberg and Manivel, implies set-theoretic defining equations in degrees 5, 6 and 9 for a much larger set of secant varieties, including $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{3}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$ which is of particular interest in light of the salmon prize offered by E. Allman for the ideal-theoretic defining equations.

Oeding, Luke

2010-01-01

229

fcc Fork95 Compiler Reference Manual Christoph W. Keler  

E-print Network

fcc Fork95 Compiler Reference Manual Christoph W. Ke�ler Fachbereich 4 ­ Informatik Universit. Ke�ler, and J. Tr¨aff, to appear in spring 2000 at Wiley, New York. fcc is the Fork95 compiler for the SB-PRAM. The fcc implementation is partially based on the lcc compiler [5, 6, 7] for ANSI-C [3]. Parts

Kessler, Christoph

230

fcc Fork95 Compiler Reference Manual Christoph W. Keler  

E-print Network

fcc Fork95 Compiler Reference Manual Christoph W. KeÃ?ler Fachbereich 4 -- Informatik Universit. KeÃ?ler, and J. TrË?aff, to appear in spring 2000 at Wiley, New York. fcc is the Fork95 compiler for the SB­PRAM. The fcc implementation is partially based on the lcc compiler [5, 6, 7] for ANSI­C [3]. Parts

Kessler, Christoph

231

A micromachined comb-drive tuning fork rate gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of single-crystal and polysilicon tuning fork gyroscopes of very small size and low cost using microfabrication technology is reported. These tuning fork gyroscopes are extremely rugged, inherently balanced, and easy to fabricate. For a 1-mm gyroscope, projected performance is 10 to 100°\\/hr for bias stability and for resolution in a 60-Hz bandwidth. To date, 5000°\\/hr in a 60

J. Bernstein; S. Cho; A. T. King; A. Kourepenis; P. Maciel; M. Weinberg

1993-01-01

232

HOMESTEAD, LAKE FORK, AND LICK CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral survey concluded that the Homestead, Lake Fork and Lick Creek Roadless Area, Oregon offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the bedrock. Probable mineral-resource potential is assigned to the west and north parts of the Lake Fork Roadless Area, where gold resources may occur in glacial deposits and alluvium transported into this area from sources outside the roadless area to the west.

Evans, James G.; Conyac, Martin D.

1984-01-01

233

Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

2013-12-01

234

Stock Origins of Chinook Salmon in the Area of the Japanese Mothership Salmon Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The record catch of 704,000 chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by the Japanese mothership salmon fishery in 1980 intensified concern about the effect of high seas interceptions of salmon reared in North America. The goal of this study was to update and refine estimates of the relative proportions of Asian and North American chinook salmon stocks in the mothership fishery area

Katherine W. Myers; Colin K. Harris; Curtis M. Knudsen; Robert V. Walker; Nancy D. Davis; Donald E. Rogers

1987-01-01

235

LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON  

E-print Network

LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON MOTHERSHIP FISHERY that the percentage of net-marked sockeye salmon in the daily catch below' Hells Gate on the Fraser River during 1943 and the USSR have reported net injuries to salmon in coastal waters. Thus, Petrova (1964) reported that up

236

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon  

E-print Network

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon Martin Krkoseka,b,1 , Brendan a Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 9016; b Salmon Coast Field Station, Simoom) The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect

Dill, Lawrence M.

237

East Timor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News examines the escalation of violence and the proposal for autonomy in the Indonesian province of East Timor. Last weekend, anti-independence militiamen killed dozens of separatist activists in Dili, the East Timorese capital, intensifying the fierce bloodshed and political tumult in the province. The recent massacre is just one of several brutal episodes that have plagued East Timor in the past quarter-century. The people of the embattled island have suffered numerous human rights violations, have endured economic collapse, and have been decimated by guerrilla warfare, famine, and disease. Over 200,000 East Timorese -- or nearly one-fourth of the population -- have died in the troubles, which began in 1975 when Portugal abruptly abandoned East Timor after 400 years of colonial rule. Unstable and vulnerable, the newly independent East Timor was quickly invaded, occupied, and annexed in 1976 by Indonesia, a stronger nation that quashed all subsequent separatist movements. Last January, after years of political oppression, Indonesia's parliament finally succumbed to international pressure and announced that it would grant East Timor either full independence or autonomy within the Indonesian state. The United Nations, although it has never officially recognized Indonesia's sovereignty over East Timor, plans to supervise a vote, tentatively scheduled for July, wherein the East Timorese will determine whether they want full independence or provincial autonomy. Later this week, Foreign Ministers Ali Alatas of Indonesia and Jaime Gama of Portugal are meeting in New York with UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan to discuss the East Timorese autonomy option and plan for the pending UN-monitored poll. However, the recent resurgence of violence between anti- and pro-independence factions in and around Dili threatens the viability of the proposed poll and endangers the stability of East Timor's self-determination. The nine resources discussed offer background information, the latest news, political analysis, and social commentary.

Osmond, Andrew.

1999-01-01

238

Restoring Productivity of Salmon-Based Food Webs: Contrasting Effects of Salmon Carcass and Salmon Carcass Analog Additions on Stream-Resident Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypotheses that salmon carcasses and salmon carcass analogs (dried, processed hatchery salmon) increase the condition factor, production, and whole-body lipid content of stream-resident salmonids and that stream shading affects responses to enrichment. Two en- richment treatments (salmon carcass, salmon analog) and a control, each with and without simulated riparian shading (95% shade), were replicated six times in

MARK S. WIPFLI; JOHN P. H UDSON; JOHN P. C AOUETTE

2004-01-01

239

Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation. These fish continued rearing in the outdoor collection basin until release in March 2006. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 12,056 of the smolts released were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 90,450 smolts were released directly into Johnson Creek on March 13 through 15, 2006.

Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

2009-02-19

240

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON  

E-print Network

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958, Commissioner RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern and- Dipt iman 1958 #12;RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern, Diptiman

241

PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND  

E-print Network

of their birth to spawn and complete their life cycle. All Pacific salmon die after they have spawned. NLMON NATURAL LIFE The diagram shows the life cycle of salmon. Adults may spawn near the ocean or hundreds. Ocean life is 2 to 4 years. When mature, salmon return--some migrate hundreds of miles--to the streams

242

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE  

E-print Network

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE Marine Biological Laboratory iM0V3Ul953 WOODS HOLE and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director UTILIZATION OP ALASKM SALMON CANlTEaT WASH PAHTS I AHD II, September 1953 #12;#12;UTILIZATION OF AUSKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE y PART I 1. Possibility of Development

243

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian  

E-print Network

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian Networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen, Petri Karlsson and Ingemar Per¨a December 22, 2002 HIIT TECHNICAL REPORT 2002­7 #12;PREDICTING THE WILD SALMON elsewhere. #12;Predicting the wild salmon production using Bayesian networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen

Myllymäki, Petri

244

USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON  

E-print Network

353 USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory LIBRARY Of. zi 1960 WOODS of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON by Richard W Page The effect of dynamite on salmon 2 Description and results of variables tested 3 Effect of water

245

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead  

E-print Network

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead To Healthy, Harvestable Levels Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board December 15, 2004 Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife Subbasin Plan Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Skamania And Wahkiakum Counties #12;Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife

246

L'originalit de Juglar Pierre Salmon  

E-print Network

L'originalité de Juglar Pierre Salmon Thèse complémentaire soutenue le 28 mars 1966 Université de -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Version verbatim avec quelques corrections de forme mars 2011 Pierre Salmon Université de Bourgogne Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion (UMRS CNRS 5118) pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract This is a version

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role  

E-print Network

PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role In Fishery Management CIRCULAR 24 FISH- crease have intensified the problems of salmon-fishery maintenance. Natural propagation has been interfered with by pollution and by dams that cut off the salmon from their natural spawning grounds

248

-----WESLEy C. SALMON-----Confirmation and Relevance ,  

E-print Network

-----WESLEy C. SALMON----- Confirmation and Relevance , Item: One of the earliest surprises of Probability (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950), sec. 1l0A. ~ Wesley C. Salmon, "Partial Entailment Foundations, secs. 86-88. #12;Wesley C. Salmon that the first edition had been unclear with regard

Fitelson, Branden

249

BLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka  

E-print Network

and Wildlife Service, John L . Farley, Director BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARDBLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARD MIGRATION PAST BONNEVILLE DAM Marine Summary and conclusions 35 Literature cited 36 Appendix 37 #12;#12;BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCOHYNCHUS NERKA AGE

250

Atlantic Salmon Released into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS employee Marisa Lubeck releases the day's last young Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season b...

251

Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Tunison Lab scientist Emily Waldt (right) assists Dan Bishop of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in releasing Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being release...

252

Bed stability in unconfined gravel bed mountain streams: With implications for salmon spawning viability in future climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incubating eggs of autumn-spawning Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) could be at risk of midwinter high flows and substrate scour in a changing climate. A high-spatial-resolution multidimensional hydrodynamics model was used to assess the degree of scour risk in low-gradient unconfined gravel bed channels that are the favored environment for autumn-spawning salmon in mountain watersheds such as the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), Idaho. In one of the most important MFSR spawning tributaries, near-bed shear stresses were relatively low at all discharges from base flows to 300% of bankfull. The highest stresses were found only in small areas of the central flow core and not at spawning sites. Median shear stresses did not increase in overbank flow conditions because poor channel confinement released the excess water into adjacent floodplains. Channel and floodplain topography, rather than discharge, control the maximum near-bed shear stresses. Over the modeled range of discharges, ~2% of the total surface area of the main stem channel bed was predicted to be mobile. Even in known spawning areas, where shear stresses are higher, ?20% of the spawning surface area was mobile during overbank flows with a 2 year recurrence interval. Field measurements of little gravel transport during flows that were 93% of bankfull support the numerical model predictions. Regardless of some uncertainty in future climates in these watersheds, there appears to be relatively limited risk of extensive scour at salmon spawning sites in any likely hydrologic regimes.

McKean, Jim; Tonina, Daniele

2013-09-01

253

Salmon Move into Deeper Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, learn about subsistence fishing and harvesting. Hear from an Elder who speaks about how he used to go trolling (fishing) for salmon with his father, uncles, and cousins when he was young. He recalls that they noticed that the salmon were moving farther offshore, into deeper water. They suspected it was because the water was warming. The video segment was adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham, Washington. The background essay explains the huge significance of climate change for people who rely on the earth so much, and the correlation between the temperature of water and the abundance of salmon is further explained. The Discussion questions will help kids think about the issues,and therefore understand them in a better way. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

254

Quartz Tuning Forks and Acoustic Phenomena: Application to Superfluid Helium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersed mechanical resonators are well suited for probing the properties of fluids, since the surrounding environment influences the resonant characteristics of such oscillators in several ways. Quartz tuning forks have gained much popularity in recent years as the resonators of choice for studies of liquid helium. They have many superior properties when compared to other oscillating bodies conventionally used for this purpose, such as vibrating wires. However, the intricate geometry of a tuning fork represents a challenge for analyzing their behavior in a fluid environment—analytical approaches do not carry very far. In this article the characteristics of immersed quartz tuning fork resonators are studied by numerical simulations. We account for the compressibility of the medium, that is acoustic phenomena, and neglect viscosity, with the aim to realistically model the oscillator response in superfluid helium. The significance of different tuning fork shapes is studied. Acoustic emission in infinite medium and acoustic resonances in confined volumes are investigated. The results can aid in choosing a quartz tuning fork with suitable properties for experiments, as well as interpreting measured data.

Rysti, J.; Tuoriniemi, J.

2014-11-01

255

78 FR 29202 - Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota AGENCY...project in Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota. FOR...Federal Highway Administration, North Dakota Division Office, 1471...

2013-05-17

256

77 FR 55796 - Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest, KY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGRICULTURE Forest Service Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National...SUMMARY: The Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project involves activities...in part, to manage and/ or restore watersheds to ensure water quality supports...

2012-09-11

257

Marine growth of Columbia River hatchery Chinook salmon  

E-print Network

, salmon species, fish species, birds.... ** Almost all growth measures and most adult returning salmon stocks within a salmon species between salmon species between salmon and other fish species #12;Hatchery = abundance x size Food demand = biomass Measuring competitive interactions for food = difficult Estimating

258

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2012 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 89 686 597 13% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 35 1,028 993 3% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 84 562 478 15% 0 BS Chinook Salmon

259

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 -2008  

E-print Network

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 - 2008 Peter Hassemer Idaho Department of Fish;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Spring Chinook Salmon (Includes Snake River Summers) #12;Spring

260

Temperature effects in tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Temperature dependent measurements with a compact fiber coupled sensor for trace gas detection in the near-infrared based on tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy are presented. The temperature effects on the sensor have been investigated in a range from T = -41 °C to T = 107 °C, in particular the influence on the resonance frequency and the Q-factor of the micro tuning fork. The refined sensor head contains a combination of a silicon tuning fork and an acoustic off-beam resonator and permits methane detection with a detection limit of S = (3.85 ± 0.01) ppm. The functional capability of a numerical model for the optimization of acoustic off-beam resonators in COMSOL Multiphysics® is presented. PMID:24103964

Köhring, M; Böttger, S; Willer, U; Schade, W

2013-09-01

261

A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope  

PubMed Central

A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s. PMID:24048339

Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

2013-01-01

262

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004 14 Lower Columbia Mainstem Subbasin ­ Salmon Creek Figure 14-1. Location of the Salmon Creek Basin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 14.1 Basin Overview The Salmon Creek Basin comprises approximately

263

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004 18 Little White Salmon Subbasin Figure 18-1. Location of the Little White Salmon River Subbasin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 18.1 Basin Overview The Little White Salmon Subbasin

264

High Performance Matched-Mode Tuning Fork Gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the perfect matched-mode operation of a type I non-degenerate z-axis tuning-fork gyroscope (i.e., 0 Hz frequency split between high-Q drive and sense modes). The matched-mode tuning fork gyroscope (M2-TFG) is fabricated on 50-µ m thick SOI substrate and displays an overall rate sensitivity of 24.2 mV\\/º\\/s. Allan Variance analysis of the mode-matched device demonstrates an angle random

M. F. Zaman; A. Sharma; F. Ayazi

2006-01-01

265

Chemokine receptors in Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Teleost sequence data have revealed that many immune genes have evolved differently when compared to other vertebrates. Thus, each gene family needs functional studies to define the biological role of individual members within major species groups. Chemokine receptors, being excellent markers for various leukocyte subpopulations, are one such example where studies are needed to decipher individual gene function. The unique salmonid whole genome duplication that occurred approximately 95 million years ago has provided salmonids with many additional duplicates further adding to the complexity and diversity. Here we have performed a systematic study of these receptors in Atlantic salmon with particular focus on potential inflammatory receptors. Using the preliminary salmon genome data we identified 48 chemokine or chemokine-like receptors including orthologues to the ten receptors previously published in trout. We found expressed support for 40 of the bona fide salmon receptors. Eighteen of the chemokine receptors are duplicated, and when tested against a diploid sister group the majority were shown to be remnants of the 4R whole genome duplication with subsequent high sequence identity. The salmon chemokine receptor repertoire of 40 expressed bona fide genes is comparably larger than that found in humans with 23 receptors. Diversification has been a major driving force for these duplicate genes with the main variability residing in ligand binding and signalling domains. PMID:25445904

Grimholt, Unni; Hauge, Helena; Hauge, Anna Germundsson; Leong, Jong; Koop, Ben F

2015-03-01

266

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

Dygert Clark County Citizen 1998-current Tom Fox Lewis County Citizen 1998-2002 Dennis Hadaller Lewis and Associates Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership Zenn and Associates Parametrix JD White Company Lower Columbia ­ BONNEVILLE TRIBUTARIES SUBBASIN 17 WIND RIVER SUBBASIN 18 LITTLE WHITE SALMON SUBBASIN 19 COLUMBIA GORGE

267

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 2000: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 2000-2002.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon trapping, broodstock selection, and spawning was first implemented in 1998, did not occur in 1999, and was resumed in 2000. A total of 152 salmon were trapped in Johnson Creek in 2000, of which 73 (25 males, 16 females, and 32 jacks) fish were transported to Idaho Fish and Game=s South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility for artificial propagation purposes. The remaining 79 (29 males, 16 females, and 24 jacks) fish were released above the weir to spawn naturally. A total of 65,060 green eggs were taken from 16 female salmon and transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for incubation and rearing. Egg counts indicated an average eye-up rate of 86.0% for 55,971 eyed eggs. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,066 eggs per female. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery through November 2001. These fish were transferred to outdoor rearing facilities in December 2001 where they remained until release in March 2002. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 9,987 were also PIT tagged. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 57,392 smolts were released into a temporary acclimation channel in Johnson Creek on March 18, 19, 20, 2002. These fish were held in this facility until a fish screen was removed on March 22, 2002 and the fish were allowed to emigrate.

Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John; Hill, Robert

2003-05-01

268

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

269

THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. By CHARLES H. GILBERT,  

E-print Network

THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. ~ By CHARLES H. GILBERT, Professor of Zoology, Stanford University. " .. " .. " .. " .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 The king salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) " , .. .. . 318 Rate of travel. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 The chum or dog salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) , '" '" . .. .. .. . . . . . 325 Rate of travel

270

76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead...

2011-01-03

271

75 FR 78929 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 300 RIN 0648-XZ20 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The orders...

2010-12-17

272

77 FR 60631 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 0648-XC222 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2012-10-04

273

78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...action establishes Class E airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance...Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of...

2013-11-01

274

PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

275

WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

276

Relations between precipitation and daily and monthly mean flows in gaged, unmined and valley-filled watersheds, Ballard Fork, West Virginia, 1999-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large-scale surface mining using valley fills has changed hydrologic storage and processes in the Ballard Fork Watershed in West Virginia. Total unit flow for the 2-year study period (November 15, 1999?November 14, 2001) on the Unnamed Tributary (extensively mined) (11,700 cubic feet per second per square mile) was almost twice that on Spring Branch (unmined) (6,260 cubic feet per second per square mile), and about 1.75 times that on Ballard Fork (downstream, partly mined) (6,690 cubic feet per second per square mile). Unit flow from the Unnamed Tributary exceeded that from the other two streams for all flows analyzed (5?95 percent duration). Unit flow from Ballard Fork exceeded unit flow from Spring Branch about 80 percent of the time, but was about the same for high flows (less than 20 percent duration). The proportional differences among sites were greatest at low flows. Spring Branch was dry for several days in October and November 2000 and for most of October 2001, and the Unnamed Tributary had flow throughout the study period. The increase in flows from mined parts of the Ballard Fork Watershed appears to result from decreases in evapotranspiration caused by removal of trees and soil during mining. During both years, evapotranspiration from the Spring Branch Watershed greatly exceeded that from the Unnamed Tributary Watershed during May through October, when leaves were open. Evapotranspiration from the Unnamed Tributary Watershed slightly exceeded that from the Spring Branch Watershed in February and March during both years. Evapotranspiration, as a percentage of total rainfall, decreased from the first to the second, drier, year from the Unnamed Tributary Watershed (from 61 percent to 49 percent) but changed little from the Spring Branch (from 77 to 76 percent) and Ballard Fork (73 to 76 percent) Watersheds. Precipitation and flow during the study period at three nearby long-term sites, the U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging station East Fork Twelvepole Creek near Dunlow, West Virginia, and two National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration rain gages at Madison and Dunlow, West Virginia, were less than long-term annual averages. Relations observed among the three streams in the Ballard Fork Watershed during this study may not represent those in years when annual precipitation and flow are closer to long-term averages.

Messinger, Terence; Paybins, Katherine S.

2003-01-01

277

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2013-02-14

278

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2013-10-01

279

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

...2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2014-10-01

280

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2012-12-19

281

Infectious salmon anaemia virus replication and induction of alpha interferon in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV), which causes ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is an orthomyxovirus belonging to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of several fish species and it is generally accepted that the ISAV receptor destroying enzyme dissolves this haemagglutination except for Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. Recent work indicates that ISAV isolates that are able to

Samuel T Workenhe; Molly JT Kibenge; Glenda M Wright; Dorota W Wadowska; David B Groman; Frederick SB Kibenge

2008-01-01

282

THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

283

Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

284

Pacific salmon During their annual spawning migrations from the ocean to their natal streams, Pacific salmon  

E-print Network

Pacific salmon During their annual spawning migrations from the ocean to their natal streams, Pacific salmon influence stream ecosystems by (1) carrying and releasing large quantities of marine. In the foreground is a school of pink salmon (dark objects) migrating up Maybeso Creek, Prince of Wales Island

Tiegs, Scott

285

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

286

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

287

Producing optical vortices through forked holographic grating: study of polarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to know what happens to initial polarization during the formation of optical vortices. We use a computer-generated forked holographic grating to produce optical vortices in the laboratory and study changes in polarization, introduced by the grating, which generates optical vortices in its diffracted orders. The Mueller matrix has been used to quantify changes in the polarization in

Virendra K. Jaiswal; Ravindra P. Singh; R. Simon

2010-01-01

288

132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; POWER GATES FOR HYDRO-ELECTRIC. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

289

Mapping Prehistoric, Historic, and Channel Sediment Distribution, South Fork Noyo  

E-print Network

Mapping Prehistoric, Historic, and Channel Sediment Distribution, South Fork Noyo River: A Tool gravel bars and is mobilized primarily during winter flood events. Based on channel mapping and hydrologic data, we infer that the largest suspended sediment loads are spatially coincident

Standiford, Richard B.

290

LESSONS FROM GRAND FORKS :P LANNING NONSTRUCTURAL FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the flood of 1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota, did not take a single life, the people suffered enormous economic damage and such large intangible losses that the city considered itself damaged to the ''core.'' Losses were exacerbated by five surprises. People working to protect themselves as flood stages rose and then to salvage their possessions as waters

L. Douglas James; Scott F. Korom

291

Geometric properties of forking in stable theories David Evans  

E-print Network

Geometric properties of forking in stable theories David Evans School of Mathematics, UEA, Norwich. David Evans (UEA) 1 / 16 #12;Stability and independence NOTATION: L countable language; T complete first is independent from B over A. REMARK: This is really non-dividing... . David Evans (UEA) 2 / 16 #12;Stability

Evans, David M

292

Identification of proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been no structural information about the core protein of salmon nasal cartilage proteoglycan although its physiological activities have been investigated. Internal amino acid sequencing using nano-LC\\/MS\\/MS revealed that the salmon proteoglycan was aggrecan. Primer walk sequencing based on the amino acid information determined that the salmon aggrecan cDNA is comprised of 4207bp nucleotides predicted to encode 1324 amino

Ikuko Kakizaki; Yota Tatara; Mitsuo Majima; Yoji Kato; Masahiko Endo

2011-01-01

293

Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interim report from the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine is a prepublication of the March 2002 report provided by National Academy Press. The once abundant populations of Atlantic Salmon in Maine have declined in recent years, now listed as endangered. The NRC Committee believes that "understanding the genetic makeup of Maine's salmon is important for recovery efforts." This 48-page report includes information on the salmon's biology, evolution, genetics, its current state, and the committee's conclusions. It can be viewed online or downloaded for printing.

National Research Council. Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine.

294

Mitomycin C reduces abundance of replication forks but not rates of fork progression in primary and transformed human cells  

PubMed Central

DNA crosslinks can block replication in vitro and slow down S phase progression in vivo. We characterized the effect of mitomycin C crosslinker on S phase globally and on individual replication forks in wild type and FANCD2-deficient human cells. FANCD2 is critical to crosslink repair, and is also implicated in facilitating DNA replication. We used DNA fiber analysis to demonstrate persistent reduction in abundance but not progression rate of replication forks during an S phase of MMC-treated cells. FANCD2 deficiency did not eliminate this phenotype. Immunoprecipitation of EdU-labeled DNA indicated that replication was not suppressed in the domains that were undergoing response to MMC as marked by the presence of ?H2AX, and in fact ?H2AX was overrepresented on DNA that had replicated immediately after MMC in wild type through less so in FANCD2-depleted cells. FANCD2-depleted cells also produced fewer tracks of uninterrupted replication of up to 240Kb long, regardless of MMC treatment. Overall, the data suggest that crosslinks may not pose a block to S phase as a whole, but instead profoundly change its progress by reducing density of replication forks and causing at least a fraction of forks to operate within a DNA damage response-altered chromatin. PMID:25580447

Kehrli, Keffy; Sidorova, Julia M.

2014-01-01

295

Mitomycin C reduces abundance of replication forks but not rates of fork progression in primary and transformed human cells  

PubMed Central

DNA crosslinks can block replication in vitro and slow down S phase progression in vivo. We characterized the effect of mitomycin C crosslinker on S phase globally and on individual replication forks in wild type and FANCD2-deficient human cells. FANCD2 is critical to crosslink repair, and is also implicated in facilitating DNA replication. We used DNA fiber analysis to demonstrate persistent reduction in abundance but not progression rate of replication forks during an S phase of MMC-treated cells. FANCD2 deficiency did not eliminate this phenotype. Immunoprecipitation of EdU-labeled DNA indicated that replication was not suppressed in the domains that were undergoing response to MMC as marked by the presence of ?H2AX, and in fact ?H2AX was overrepresented on DNA that had replicated immediately after MMC in wild type through less so in FANCD2-depleted cells. FANCD2-depleted cells also produced fewer tracks of uninterrupted replication of up to 240Kb long, regardless of MMC treatment. Overall, the data suggest that crosslinks may not pose a block to S phase as a whole, but instead profoundly change its progress by reducing density of replication forks and causing at least a fraction of forks to operate within a DNA damage response-altered chromatin.

Kehrli, Keffy R.M.; Sidorova, Julia M.

2014-01-01

296

Acoustic tracking of migrating salmon.  

PubMed

Annual salmon migrations vary significantly in annual return numbers from year to year. In order to determine when a species' sustainable return size has been met, a method for counting and sizing the spawning animals is required. This project implements a probability hypothesis density tracker on data from a dual frequency identification sonar to automate the process of counting and sizing the fish crossing an insonified area. Data processing on the sonar data creates intensity images from which possible fish locations can be extracted using image processing. These locations become the input to the tracker. The probability hypothesis density tracker then solves the multiple target tracking problem and creates fish tracks from which length information is calculated using image segmentation. The algorithm is tested on data from the 2010 salmon run on the Kenai river in Alaska and compares favorably with statistical models from sub-sampling and manual measurements. PMID:25324076

Kupilik, Matthew J; Petersen, Todd

2014-10-01

297

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment features Native American Elders discussing the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world. A Native educator describes having taken students to a river's headwaters to watch salmon spawn, only to observe the deadly effects of water temperature rise on the fish eggs. She explains that even a small change in temperature can result in a population decline that could threaten Native peoples and their way of life. Included is a background essay explaining how important the fishing is to certain parts of the world, and how the warming waters are negatively affecting the fish and people. There is a helpful section that shows you the standards for your state ranging from grades K-12, as well as links to related resources.

2010-01-01

298

Restoring Productivity of Salmon-Based Food Webs: Contrasting Effects of Salmon Carcass and Salmon Carcass Analog Additions on Stream-Resident Salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypotheses that salmon carcasses and salmon carcass analogs (dried, processed hatchery salmon) increase the condition factor, production, and whole-body lipid content of stream-resident salmonids and that stream shading affects responses to enrichment. Two enrichment treatments (salmon carcass, salmon analog) and a control, each with and without simulated riparian shading (95% shade), were replicated six times in once-through

Mark S. Wipfli; John P. Hudson; John P. Caouette

2004-01-01

299

Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

2000-01-01

300

East Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

301

Middle East  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

Hemer, D.O. (Mobil Oil Corp., New York, NY); Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

1981-10-01

302

Estimated Fall Chinook Salmon Survival to Emergence in Dewatered Redds in a Shallow Side Channel of the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) often spawn in the tailraces of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Redds built in shallow habitats downstream of these dams may be periodically dewatered due to hydropower operations prior to the emergence of fry. To determine whether fall Chinook salmon redds were successful in a shallow area subjected to periodic dewatering downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River, we installed 7 redd caps and monitored fry emergence. Large numbers of live fry were captured from the redds between March 9 and May 18, 2003. Estimated survival from egg to fry for these redds, which were all subjected to some degree of dewatering during the incubation and post-hatch intragravel rearing period, ranged from 16.1 to 63.2 percent and averaged 27.8 percent (assuming 4,500 eggs/redd). The peak emergence date ranged from April 1 to 29, with the average peak about April 14, 2003. Mean fork length of fall Chinook salmon emerging from individual redds ranged from 38.3 to 41.2 mm, and lengths of fish emerging from individual redds increased throughout the emergence period.

McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; James, B B.; Lukas, Joe

2005-08-01

303

2005 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During mid-1990s, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) identified several populations of salmon spawning approximately three miles downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. These populations are exposed to rapidly changing flow regimes associated with Bonneville Dam's operation. This study investigated the relationship between changing water levels and stranding or entrapment of juvenile salmon in the Ives Island area. Walking surveys of the Ives Island and Pierce Island shorelines were conducted every one to three days throughout the juvenile emigration period. The nearby shorelines of the Washington and Oregon mainland were also surveyed. Between January and June of 2005, surveyors examined 21 substantial entrapments and 20 stranding sites. A total of 14,337 salmonids, made up of three species, were found either entrapped or stranded. Nearly 92% of the salmonids were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), 4.5% were federally listed chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), and 3.8% were coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). When compared to the 2004 study year, 2005 showed an 83% increase in the overall number of observed entrapped or stranded juvenile salmon. Much of this increase can be attributed to one entrapment found along the north shore of Pierce Island (identified as E501). E501 has historically been known to contain relatively large numbers of entrapped salmon. Even so, the number of entrapped salmon observed during 2005 was a 732% increase (5926) over any prior study years. Over 83% of all chum, 63.1% of all chinook, and 63.2% of all coho sampled during 2005 were retrieved from entrapments that were likely to have formed when Bonneville Dam tailwater levels dropped to elevations between 11.5 and 12.9 feet. Peak numbers of chum and chinook were sampled in mid-April when tailwater levels ranged between 11.6ft and 15.6ft. Peak numbers of coho were sampled during the last week of February, mid-March, and mid-April when tailwater level ranged between 11.4 and 14.3 feet, 11.5 and 15.3 ft, and 11.6 and 15.6 feet, respectively. The fork length data indicate that the majority of the entrapped and stranded salmon are in the 35-50 mm range. Stranded members of all three salmon species had mean fork lengths that were 8% to 30% shorter than those of their entrapped counterparts. The locations and habitat attributes of entrapments containing the majority of the observed juvenile salmon remain fairly constant from year to year. Changes in entrapment rankings appear to be more reflective of changes in prevailing tailwater levels than they are of changes in geography, vegetation, or fish behavior. Data collected over the past six study years indicates that there are entrapments that are capable of entrapping large numbers of salmon as various tailwater levels. Avoiding specific tailwater ranges may not minimize the impact of juvenile stranding. The only way to substantially minimize the impact of stranding is to allow no tailwater fluctuations or to only allow a steady increase of the tailwater level throughout the juvenile emigration period.

Wilson, Jeremy; Duston, Reed A. (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

2006-01-01

304

Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass. 2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river's water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales. 3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22%of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23 km (2009 and 2010, respectively) as stream temperatures seasonally warmed, but subyearling Chinook salmon were also found farther upstream during this time. 4. Our multiscale analysis suggests that bass were selecting habitat based on antecedent thermal history at a broad scale, and if satisfactory temperature conditions were met, mesoscale habitat features (i.e. channel-unit type and depth) played an additional role in determining bass abundance. The upstream extent of bass in the late summer corresponded to a high-gradient geomorphic discontinuity in the NFJDR, which probably hindered further upstream movements of bass. The habitat determinants and upstream extent of bass were largely consistent across years, despite marked differences in the magnitude and timing of spring peak flows prior to bass spawning.5. The overriding influence of water temperature on smallmouth bass distribution suggests that managers may be able limit future upstream range expansions of bass into salmon-rearing habitat by concentrating on restoration activities that mitigate climate- or land-use-related stream warming. These management activities could be prioritised to capitalise on survival bottlenecks in the life history of bass and spatially focused on landscape knick points such as high-gradient discontinuities to discourage further upstream movements of bass.

Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

2012-01-01

305

Historical streamflows of Double Mountain Fork of Brazos River and water-surface elevations of Lake Alan Henry, Garza County, Texas, water years 1962-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Lubbock, Texas, operates two surface-water stations in Garza County, Tex.: USGS streamflow-gaging station 08079600 Double Mountain Fork Brazos River at Justiceburg, Tex., and 08079700 Lake Alan Henry Reservoir, a water-supply reservoir about 60 miles southeast of Lubbock, Tex., and about 10 miles east of Justiceburg, Tex. The streamflow and water-surface elevation data from the two stations are useful to water-resource managers and planners in support of forecasting and water-resource infrastructure operations and are used in regional hydrologic studies.

Asquith, William H.; Vrabel, Joseph

2011-01-01

306

A MODEL FOR OPTIMAL SALMON MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable attention has been given in the literature recently to continuous time dy­ namic maximizing models for fisheries in general, but the time discreteness and inter­ dependency problems encountered in the case of most salmon fisheries have been largely ignored. Hence, a discrete time profit maximizing model for a salmon fishery is devel­ oped in this paper, and it is

DOUGLAS E. BOOTH

307

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON  

E-print Network

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory FEB !) ~iy;)9, Commissioner WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON By John A. Coates* and John E. Halver Western, John A Wiiti'i-sohilile vitamin ivcjuireineiits of silver sahnon, by John A. CoiUes and John E. Ilalver

308

WHO BUYS CANNED SALMON, Circular 89  

E-print Network

WHO BUYS CANNED SALMON, AND WHY? Circular 89 ;;: UNITED STATES bEPARTMENT^Of THE InfEWl :0 BUYS CANNED SALMON, AND WHY? A Study of Consxmer Motivation in Tltree Cities Prepai-ed in the Branch examines the buying habits of household consumers of canned tuna and sardines. Separate reports have been

309

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Impact Statement (EIS) provides decision-makers and the public with an evaluation of the environmental. The alternatives analyzed in this EIS generally involve limits or "caps" on the number of Chinook salmon that may Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Final EIS ­ December 2009 ES-1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This executive summary

310

AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS IN PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA,  

E-print Network

AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS IN PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, REDDS OF SASHIN CREEK, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA Although the toxic effects of ammonia have been observed in developing salmonids in hatcheries during and after the run of pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. Ammonia levels increased significantly

311

Salmon Are Carefully Released Using Buckets  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season by at least two months in Oswego County, N.Y. During fall 2011 and spring 2012, U.S. Geological Survey scie...

312

Chinook Salmon Recovery in the Stillaguamish Watershed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show explores the threats to the Chinook salmon population in the Stillaguamish River watershed of Snohomish County, Washington. Topics include the status of the present population, factors contributing to the decline of the population, habitat needs for healthy salmon, and steps that are necessary for the recovery of the population.

2003-07-10

313

PERSPECTIVE Simple dynamics underlie sockeye salmon  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE Simple dynamics underlie sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) cycles Ransom A. Myers proposed to explain the renowned British Columbia sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) cycles, most of which chez le saumon rouge (Oncorhynchus nerka) de la Colombie-Britannique : dans la plupart des cas

Myers, Ransom A.

314

Introduction to Ocean Waves Rick Salmon  

E-print Network

Introduction to Ocean Waves Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography University cross-ocean trip to San Diego. The energy in these long waves travels at a speed that increases are strongly affected by the Earth's rotation. Because the spatial 1 #12;Salmon: Introduction to Ocean Waves 2

Salmon, Rick

315

Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Tunison Lab scientists Rich Chiavelli (left) and Emily Waldt (middle) hand a bucketful of young Atlantic salmon to Dan Bishop (right) of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for release into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of you...

316

THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

317

Global Assessment of Organic Contaminants in Farmed Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual global production of farmed salmon has increased by a factor of 40 during the past two decades. Salmon from farms in northern Europe, North America, and Chile are now available widely year-round at relatively low prices. Salmon farms have been criticized for their ecological effects, but the potential human health risks of farmed salmon consumption have not been

Ronald A. Hites; Jeffery A. Foran; David O. Carpenter; M. Coreen Hamilton; Barbara A. Knuth; Steven J. Schwager

2004-01-01

318

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2013 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 35 686 651 5% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 127 1,028 901 12% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 134 560 426 24% 0 BS Chinook

319

SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION FEBRUARY 73, 7995  

E-print Network

#12;Al SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 73, 7995 LIONS CLUB HALL, SALMON ARM #12;I SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 13, 1995, I DOE FRAP 1995-01 \\ Compiled Salmon River Watershed Ecosystem Goals and Objectives Tyhson Banighen

320

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2011 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 120 686 566 17% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 164 1,028 864 16% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 76 498 422 15% 0 BS Chinook

321

Vertical and horizontal movements of adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus  

E-print Network

mechanisms salmon use to find their natal stream (McKeown 1984). Several investigators have ob- served Atlantic salmon. sockeye salmon. chum salmon O. keta. and steelhead trout O. mykiss in coastal waters have. the net was immediately re- trieved. and the fish removed and placed in a 100 L cooler filled with surface

322

Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

323

Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, LETF) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult LETF was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Agler, B.A.

2009-01-01

324

Synthetic Lethality of Cohesins with PARPs and Replication Fork Mediators  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethality has been proposed as a way to leverage the genetic differences found in tumor cells to affect their selective killing. Cohesins, which tether sister chromatids together until anaphase onset, are mutated in a variety of tumor types. The elucidation of synthetic lethal interactions with cohesin mutants therefore identifies potential therapeutic targets. We used a cross-species approach to identify robust negative genetic interactions with cohesin mutants. Utilizing essential and non-essential mutant synthetic genetic arrays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we screened genome-wide for genetic interactions with hypomorphic mutations in cohesin genes. A somatic cell proliferation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that the majority of interactions were conserved. Analysis of the interactions found that cohesin mutants require the function of genes that mediate replication fork progression. Conservation of these interactions between replication fork mediators and cohesin in both yeast and C. elegans prompted us to test whether other replication fork mediators not found in the yeast were required for viability in cohesin mutants. PARP1 has roles in the DNA damage response but also in the restart of stalled replication forks. We found that a hypomorphic allele of the C. elegans SMC1 orthologue, him-1(e879), genetically interacted with mutations in the orthologues of PAR metabolism genes resulting in a reduced brood size and somatic cell defects. We then demonstrated that this interaction is conserved in human cells by showing that PARP inhibitors reduce the viability of cultured human cells depleted for cohesin components. This work demonstrates that large-scale genetic interaction screening in yeast can identify clinically relevant genetic interactions and suggests that PARP inhibitors, which are currently undergoing clinical trials as a treatment of homologous recombination-deficient cancers, may be effective in treating cancers that harbor cohesin mutations. PMID:22412391

Barrett, Irene; Ferree, Elizabeth; van Pel, Derek M.; Ushey, Kevin; Sipahimalani, Payal; Bryan, Jennifer; Rose, Ann M.; Hieter, Philip

2012-01-01

325

Field trials of a method of induction of autoimmune gonad rejection in Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar L.)  

E-print Network

Field trials of a method of induction of autoimmune gonad rejection in Atlantic salmon (Salmon.K. Summary. Autoimmune gonad destruction was induced in Atlantic salmon of both sexes in trials carried out induced in the salmon testis was compared with that caused by autoimmune destruction of mammalian testis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in off- shore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth

G. T. Ruggerone; M. Zimmermann; K. W. Myers; J. L. Nielsen; D. E. Rogers

2003-01-01

327

Value engineering study report on Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project. Alternative No. 3  

SciTech Connect

The project under study is Alternative No. 3 as identified in the Feasibility Study dated August 1994. This alternative is identified as Excavation and Disposal of Commercial/DOE, Other, and Residential Remedial Unit Soil. The assumptions used for generating baseline costs are discussed in site associated costs. It is further described as follows: Soils with mercury concentrations greater than 200 ppM in the Commercial/DOE and Other Remedial Units and greater than 180 ppM in the Residential Remedial Unit [41,300m{sup 3} (54,000yd{sup 3} a volume equivalent to approximately 6,750 dump truck loads)] would be excavated and disposed of in an approved, lined landfill at Y-12 with leachate collection and possible pretreatment of the leachate before discharge. Because 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) of wetland would be destroyed, wetlands banking would occur, whereby a 1.8-ha (4.5-acre) wetland would be constructed on DOE-owned land near K-25. Borrow soil would be obtained from the Y-12 West End Borrow Area or from excess soil located at Y-12 landfills to fill the excavation. It is estimated that 7.3 ha (18.2 acres, and area about the size of 17 football fields) of habitat would be adversely affected. This alternative would use BMPs to minimize any adverse affects and to comply substantively with regulatory requirements.

NONE

1995-08-01

328

Calibrating acoustic acceleration transmitters for estimating energy use by wild adult Pacific salmon.  

PubMed

This study is the first to calibrate acceleration transmitters with energy expenditure using a vertebrate model species. We quantified the relationship between acoustic accelerometer output and oxygen consumption across a range of swim speeds and water temperatures for Harrison River adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). First, we verified that acceleration transmitters with a sampling frequency of 10 Hz could be used as a proxy for movement in sockeye salmon. Using a mixed effects model, we determined that tailbeat frequency and acceleration were positively correlated (p<0.0001), independent of tag ID. Acceleration (p<0.0001) was positively related to swim speed while fork length (p=0.051) was negatively related to swim speed. Oxygen consumption and accelerometer output (p<0.0001) had a positive linear relationship and were temperature dependent (p<0.0001). There were no differences in swim performance (F(2,12)=1.023, p=0.820) or oxygen consumption (F(1,12)=0.054, p=0.332) between tagged and untagged individuals. Five tagged fish were released into the Fraser River estuary and manually tracked. Of the five fish, three were successfully tracked for 1h. The above relationships were used to determine that the average swim speed was 1.25±0.03 body lengths s(-1) and cost of transport was 3.39±0.17 mg O(2) kg(-1)min(-1), averaged across the three detected fish. Acceleration transmitters can be effectively used to remotely evaluate fine-scale behavior and estimate energy consumption of adult Pacific salmon throughout their homeward spawning migration. PMID:23247092

Wilson, S M; Hinch, S G; Eliason, E J; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J

2013-03-01

329

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

330

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We tested for competition,between,pink salmon,(Oncorhynchus,gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus,tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984–1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years experienced 59% lower survival

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

331

Strand-specific analysis shows protein binding at replication forks and PCNA unloading from lagging strands when forks stall.  

PubMed

In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication proceeds with continuous synthesis of leading-strand DNA and discontinuous synthesis of lagging-strand DNA. Here we describe a method, eSPAN (enrichment and sequencing of protein-associated nascent DNA), which reveals the genome-wide association of proteins with leading and lagging strands of DNA replication forks. Using this approach in budding yeast, we confirm the strand specificities of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and show that the PCNA clamp is enriched at lagging strands compared with leading-strand replication. Surprisingly, at stalled forks, PCNA is unloaded specifically from lagging strands. PCNA unloading depends on the Elg1-containing alternative RFC complex, ubiquitination of PCNA, and the checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53. Cells deficient in PCNA unloading exhibit increased chromosome breaks. Our studies provide a tool for studying replication-related processes and reveal a mechanism whereby checkpoint kinases regulate strand-specific unloading of PCNA from stalled replication forks to maintain genome stability. PMID:25449133

Yu, Chuanhe; Gan, Haiyun; Han, Junhong; Zhou, Zhi-Xiong; Jia, Shaodong; Chabes, Andrei; Farrugia, Gianrico; Ordog, Tamas; Zhang, Zhiguo

2014-11-20

332

Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns  

PubMed Central

Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

2013-01-01

333

Wild chinook salmon survive better than hatchery salmon in a period of poor production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Cowichan River on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada are used by the Pacific Salmon Commission as an index\\u000a of the general state of chinook salmon coast wide. In recent years the production declined to very low levels despite the\\u000a use of a hatchery that was intended to increase production by

R. J. Beamish; R. M. Sweeting; C. M. Neville; K. L. Lange; T. D. Beacham; D. Preikshot

334

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2013-10-01

335

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2012-10-01

336

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2014-10-01

337

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2010-10-01

338

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2011-10-01

339

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

E-print Network

of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O to the extinct tusk-tooth salmon group related to sockeye salmon-- Oncorhynchus (Smilodonichthys) rastrosus, from

Montgomery, David R.

340

Coastal coho salmon research in the West Fork Smith River: Patterns of coho salmon size and survival within a complex watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective habitat restoration planning requires the ability to anticipate fish population responses to altered habitats. The EPA has conducted network-scale research to document habitat-specific growth and survival of juvenile salmonids in a complex watershed. These findings ha...

341

WATER QUALITY TREND MONITORING FROM 1979-1985 IN THE STIBNITE MONITORING DISTRICT, VALLEY COUNTY, IDAHO  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stibnite Mining District (17060208) is located in the drainage of the East Fork South Fork Salmon River. The monitoring program was established to document any changes in water quality associated with the initiation of a large scale open pit mine and cyanide leaching plant. ...

342

Structural geology of the Irons Fork - North Fork Creek area, Lake Ouachita, Arkansas  

E-print Network

. No fractures are associated with the F folding event. If the quartz does fill pre-existing frac- 1 tures, the fractures must have formed after the Fl folds, but prior to the initiation of the D 3 deformation event. Although the origin of the quartz filling... to the folding process. Much of the strain in the quartz veins was accomodated by pres- sure solution. DS) Mesoscopic, asymmetrical, east-west trending F& folds and their associated axial planar cleavage, S3, distinguish the D 3 deformation event. Macroscopic...

White, Marjorie Ann

1980-01-01

343

BRCA1 controls homologous recombination at Tus/Ter-stalled mammalian replication forks  

PubMed Central

Replication fork stalling can promote genomic instability, predisposing to cancer and other diseases1–3. Stalled replication forks may be processed by sister chromatid recombination (SCR), generating error-free or error-prone homologous recombination (HR) outcomes4–8. In mammalian cells, a long-standing hypothesis proposes that the major hereditary breast/ovarian cancer predisposition gene products, BRCA1 and BRCA2, control HR/SCR at stalled replication forks9. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 affect replication fork processing10–12, direct evidence that BRCA genes regulate HR at stalled chromosomal replication forks is lacking due to a dearth of tools for studying this process. We report that the Escherichia coli Tus/Ter complex13–16 can be engineered to induce site-specific replication fork stalling and chromosomal HR/SCR in mammalian cells. Tus/Ter-induced HR entails processing of bidirectionally arrested forks. We find that the BRCA1 C-terminal tandem BRCT repeat and regions of BRCA1 encoded by exon 11—two BRCA1 elements implicated in tumor suppression—control Tus/Ter-induced HR. Inactivation of either BRCA1 or BRCA2 increases the absolute frequency of “long-tract” gene conversions at Tus/Ter-stalled forks—an outcome not observed in response to a restriction endonuclease-mediated chromosomal double strand break (DSB). Therefore, HR at stalled forks is regulated differently from HR at DSBs arising independently of a fork. We propose that aberrant long-tract HR at stalled replication forks contributes to genomic instability and breast/ovarian cancer predisposition in BRCA mutant cells. PMID:24776801

Willis, Nicholas A.; Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Huang, Bin; Kwok, Amy; Follonier, Cindy; Deng, Chuxia; Scully, Ralph

2014-01-01

344

1.2000-2009 time-series return information for Snake River: a. Fall Chinook Salmon  

E-print Network

#12;Content: 1.2000-2009 time-series return information for Snake River: a. Fall Chinook Salmon b. Sockeye Salmon c. Summer Steelhead d. Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon 2.2010 run-size forecasts for: a. Sockeye Salmon b. Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon #12;#12;Species: Run: Origin: Period: Chinook Salmon Fall

345

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable...Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone:...

2012-07-01

346

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

...Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable...Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone:...

2014-07-01

347

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable...Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone:...

2013-07-01

348

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable...Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone:...

2010-07-01

349

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable...Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone:...

2011-07-01

350

76 FR 50171 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan, Sweetwater and...Statement (EIS) for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan (SCPP). The NRCS...Improvements'' alternative assumes a salinity control project will be...

2011-08-12

351

Classroom-Community Salmon Enhancement Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program in the Bellevue (Washington) public schools in which elementary and middle school teachers and students raise coho and Chinook salmon in the classroom and later release them into a nearby stream. (TW)

Hubbard-Gray, Sarah

1988-01-01

352

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon  

E-print Network

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD. The equilibrium state resembles the buoyancy structure actually observed. Key words: statistical mechanics, ocean circulation, Monte Carlo method 1. Introduction Equilibrium statistical mechanics applies to systems

Salmon, Rick

353

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

354

Feeding farmed salmon: Is organic better?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed provision accounts for the majority of material and energetic inputs and emissions associated with net-pen salmon farming. Understanding and reducing the environmental impacts of feed production is therefore central to improving the biophysical sustainability of salmon farming as a whole. We used life cycle assessment (with co-product allocation by gross energy content) to compare the cradle-to-mill gate life cycle

N. Pelletier; P. Tyedmers

2007-01-01

355

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-11-01

356

Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap with black bass is greatest. We conclude that under current conditions, predation by smallmouth bass and largemouth bass has a minor impact on Chinook salmon and other salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

2007-01-01

357

BLACK FORK MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, ARAKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black Fork Mountain Roadless Area covers about 21 sq mi in the Ouachita National Forest in Polk County, Arkansas and LeFlore County, Oklahoma. On the basis of a mineral survey the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Stone and sand and gravel suitable for construction purposes occur in the Jackfork Sandstone and the Stanley Shale which also occur outside the roadless area. Although the potential for gas and oil is unknown and no resource potential was identified, some investigators believe that there is a possibility for the occurrence of gas and oil in the roadless area.

Miller, Mary H.

1984-01-01

358

Analysis of protein dynamics at active, stalled, and collapsed replication forks  

PubMed Central

Successful DNA replication and packaging of newly synthesized DNA into chromatin are essential to maintain genome integrity. Defects in the DNA template challenge genetic and epigenetic inheritance. Unfortunately, tracking DNA damage responses (DDRs), histone deposition, and chromatin maturation at replication forks is difficult in mammalian cells. Here we describe a technology called iPOND (isolation of proteins on nascent DNA) to analyze proteins at active and damaged replication forks at high resolution. Using this methodology, we define the timing of histone deposition and chromatin maturation. Class 1 histone deacetylases are enriched at replisomes and remove predeposition marks on histone H4. Chromatin maturation continues even when decoupled from replisome movement. Furthermore, fork stalling causes changes in the recruitment and phosphorylation of proteins at the damaged fork. Checkpoint kinases catalyze H2AX phosphorylation, which spreads from the stalled fork to include a large chromatin domain even prior to fork collapse and double-strand break formation. Finally, we demonstrate a switch in the DDR at persistently stalled forks that includes MRE11-dependent RAD51 assembly. These data reveal a dynamic recruitment of proteins and post-translational modifications at damaged forks and surrounding chromatin. Furthermore, our studies establish iPOND as a useful methodology to study DNA replication and chromatin maturation. PMID:21685366

Sirbu, Bianca M.; Couch, Frank B.; Feigerle, Jordan T.; Bhaskara, Srividya; Hiebert, Scott W.; Cortez, David

2011-01-01

359

Persistence of Historical Logging Impacts on Channel Form in Mainstem North Fork Caspar Creek1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract: The old-growth redwood forest of North Fork Caspar Creek was clear- cut logged between 1860 and 1904. Transportation of logs involved construction of a splash dam in the headwaters of North Fork Caspar Creek. Water stored behind the dam was released during large storms to enable log drives. Before log drives could be conducted, the stream

Michael B. Napolitano

360

First report of anther smut caused by Microbotryum violaceum on forked catchfly in Turkey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forked catchfly (Silene dichotoma Ehrh.), family Caryophyllaceae, is a common and native plant in rangelands and pastures in Turkey. It is also an introduced plant that is widely distributed in North America. In May, 2007 about 20 forked catchfly plants on the campus of Ondokuz Mayis University, i...

361

DNA Replication Origin Plasticity and Perturbed Fork Progression in Human Inverted Repeats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of metazoan genomes during their duplication depends on the spatiotemporal activation of origins and the progression of forks. Human rRNA genes represent a unique challenge to DNA replication since a large proportion of them exist as noncanonical palindromes in addition to canonical tandem repeats. Whether origin usage and\\/or fork elongation can cope with the variable structure of these

Ronald Lebofsky; Aaron Bensimon

2005-01-01

362

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

...2014-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans...REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans...agent, shall operate the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

2014-07-01

363

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans...REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans...agent, shall operate the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

2012-07-01

364

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans...REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans...agent, shall operate the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

2011-07-01

365

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans...REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans...agent, shall operate the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

2010-07-01

366

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans...REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans...agent, shall operate the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

2013-07-01

367

Replication stalling at unstable inverted repeats: Interplay between DNA hairpins and fork  

E-print Network

Replication stalling at unstable inverted repeats: Interplay between DNA hairpins and fork genetic processes. However, direct evidence that IRs are replication stall sites in vivo is currently forks stall at IRs in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We found that DNA hairpins, rather than DNA

Mirkin, Sergei

368

The 2002 M5 Au Sable Forks, NY, earthquake sequence: Source scaling relationships and energy budget  

E-print Network

of the Au Sable Forks, NY, earthquake (M5, 2002) and aftershocks. This intraplate earthquake was the largest to occur in Eastern North America since 1988 and the largest to be recorded by regional broadband networksClick Here for Full Article The 2002 M5 Au Sable Forks, NY, earthquake sequence: Source scaling

Abercrombie, Rachel E.

369

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2011-07-01

370

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2013-07-01

371

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

...2014-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2014-07-01

372

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2012-07-01

373

Multi-Degree of Freedom Tuning Fork Gyroscope Demonstrating Shock Rejection  

E-print Network

Multi-Degree of Freedom Tuning Fork Gyroscope Demonstrating Shock Rejection Adam R. Schofield}@uci.edu Abstract-- This paper presents a z-axis MEMS tuning fork rate gyroscope with multi-degree of freedom (DOF in amplitude versus a single output. I. INTRODUCTION For many applications, gyroscopes are subject to a wide

Tang, William C

374

Appendix 68 Bull Trout Data for Hungry Horse and South Fork of the Flathead  

E-print Network

Appendix 68 Bull Trout Data for Hungry Horse and South Fork of the Flathead Excerpt from: Environmental Assessment and Decision Notice For Bull Trout Sport Fishery Reestablishment In Hungry Horse Reservoir and South Fork Flathead River Drainage. 2003. Bull Trout Monitoring In the draft EA we provided

375

ALDER ESTABLISHMENT AND CHANNEL DYNAMICS IN A TRIBUTARY OF THE SOUTH FORK EEL RIVER, MENDOCINO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA1  

E-print Network

ALDER ESTABLISHMENT AND CHANNEL DYNAMICS IN A TRIBUTARY OF THE SOUTH FORK EEL RIVER, MENDOCINO, a tributary of the upper South Fork Eel River, are bounded by two frequencies of periodic flooding. The upper, Williams 1978). On the tributaries of the upper South Fork Eel River, in Mendocino County, Cal- ifornia

Standiford, Richard B.

376

Stresa, Italy, 25-27 April 2007 A NOVEL X-AXIS TUNING FORK GYROSCOPE WITH "8 VERTICAL  

E-print Network

Stresa, Italy, 25-27 April 2007 A NOVEL X-AXIS TUNING FORK GYROSCOPE WITH "8 VERTICAL SPRINGS Electronic Devices Institute, China ABSTRACT A novel x-axis tuning fork MEMS gyroscope with "8 verticalV/(deg/s) and rate resolution around 0.1deg/s under atmosphere pressure. Keywords--x-axis gyroscope, tuning fork

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

HIGH PERFORMANCE MATCHED-MODE TUNING FORK GYROSCOPE M.F. Zaman, A. Sharma, and F. Ayazi  

E-print Network

HIGH PERFORMANCE MATCHED-MODE TUNING FORK GYROSCOPE M.F. Zaman, A. Sharma, and F. Ayazi Integrated the perfect matched-mode operation of a type I non-degenerate z-axis tuning-fork gyroscope (i.e., 0 Hz frequency split between high-Q drive and sense modes). The matched-mode tuning fork gyroscope (M2 -TFG

Ayazi, Farrokh

378

A tuning fork based wide range mechanical characterization tool with nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a tuning fork probe based nanomanipulation robotic system for mechanical characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures under scanning electron microscope. The force gradient is measured via the frequency modulation of a quartz tuning fork and two nanomanipulators are used for manipulation of the nanostructures. Two techniques are proposed for attaching the nanostructure to the tip of the tuning fork

Juan Camilo Acosta; Gilgueng Hwang; Jérôme Polesel-Maris; Stéphane Régnier

2011-01-01

379

Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems. PMID:16620373

Rajasingh, Hannah; Øyehaug, Leiv; Våge, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

2006-01-01

380

RAD51 and MRE11 dependent reassembly of uncoupled CMG helicase complex at collapsed replication forks  

PubMed Central

In higher eukaryotes the dynamics of replisome components during fork collapse and restart are poorly understood. Here, we reconstituted replication fork collapse and restart by inducing single-strand DNA (ssDNA) lesions that create a double-strand break (DSB) in one of the replicated sister chromatids after fork passage. We found that, upon fork collapse, the active CDC45–MCM–GINS (CMG) helicase complex loses its GINS subunit. A functional replisome is restored by the reloading of GINS and Pol epsilon onto DNA in a RAD51- and MRE11- dependent manner, but independently of replication origin assembly and firing. PCNA mutant alleles defective in break-induced replication (BIR) are unable to support restoration of replisome integrity. These results reveal that in higher eukaryotes replisomes are partially dismantled following fork collapse and fully re-established by a recombination-mediated process. PMID:22139015

Hashimoto, Yoshitami; Puddu, Fabio; Costanzo, Vincenzo

2015-01-01

381

DNA copy-number control through inhibition of replication fork progression.  

PubMed

Proper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict cell-cycle regulation. Importantly, DNA replication is highly influenced by developmental cues. In Drosophila, specific regions of the genome are repressed for DNA replication during differentiation by the SNF2 domain-containing protein SUUR through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that SUUR is recruited to active replication forks and mediates the repression of DNA replication by directly inhibiting replication fork progression instead of functioning as a replication fork barrier. Mass spectrometry identification of SUUR-associated proteins identified the replicative helicase member CDC45 as a SUUR-associated protein, supporting a role for SUUR directly at replication forks. Our results reveal that control of eukaryotic DNA copy number can occur through the inhibition of replication fork progression. PMID:25437540

Nordman, Jared T; Kozhevnikova, Elena N; Verrijzer, C Peter; Pindyurin, Alexey V; Andreyeva, Evgeniya N; Shloma, Victor V; Zhimulev, Igor F; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

2014-11-01

382

Not All Salmon Are Created Equal: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Global Salmon Farming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a global-scale life cycle assessment of a major food commodity, farmed salmon. Specifically, we report the cumulative energy use, biotic resource use, and greenhouse gas, acidifying, and eutrophying emissions associated with producing farmed salmon in Norway, the UK, British Columbia (Canada), and Chile, as well as a production-weighted global average. We found marked differences in the nature and

NATHAN P ELLETIER; PETER T YEDMERS; ULF S ONESSON; ASTRID S CHOLZ; FRIEDERIKE Z IEGLER; ANNA F LYSJO; SARAH K RUSE; BEATRIZ C ANCINO; HOWARD S ILVERMAN

2009-01-01

383

Genetic and ecological effects of salmon farming on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hindar, K., Fleming, I. A., McGinnity, P., and Diserud, O. 2006. Genetic and ecological effects of salmon farming on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results. ? ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63: 1234e1247. Cultured salmonids are released or escape into the wild in large numbers and may make up significant proportions of wild salmonid populations in fresh- and saltwater, causing

Kjetil Hindar; Ian A. Fleming; Philip McGinnity; Ola Diserud

2006-01-01

384

Salmon Farming and Salmon People: Identity and Environment in the Leggatt Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon

Schreiber, Dorothee

2003-01-01

385

Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

2004-12-01

386

On the decline of Pacific salmon and speculative links to salmon farming in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon abundance along the West Coast of Canada has been in sharp decline since the early 1990s. Declines have been most severe for coho and chinook salmon despite large additions of hatchery-reared fry and smolts. There is particular concern for populations of wild coho because, in addition to low abundance, up to 80% of the juvenile coho in the

Donald J. Noakes; Richard J. Beamish; Michael L. Kent

2000-01-01

387

36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the confluence of the North and East Forks, but is open in its entirety during the general summer season to the taking of two rainbow trout with a minimum six of 10 inches and maximum size of 20 inches. (2) Salmon Fishing. Salmon fishing is...

2011-07-01

388

36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the confluence of the North and East Forks, but is open in its entirety during the general summer season to the taking of two rainbow trout with a minimum six of 10 inches and maximum size of 20 inches. (2) Salmon Fishing. Salmon fishing is...

2012-07-01

389

36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the confluence of the North and East Forks, but is open in its entirety during the general summer season to the taking of two rainbow trout with a minimum six of 10 inches and maximum size of 20 inches. (2) Salmon Fishing. Salmon fishing is...

2013-07-01

390

RHEOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SALMON PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rheological and thermal properties of salmon oil and biodiesel derived from salmon oil are important for designing processing equipment. For example, the viscosity of biodiesel at different temperatures is required for designing a heat exchanger for winterization purposes. Understanding rheological ...

391

Salmon 2100: Some recovery strategies that just might work  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

392

POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

EPA Science Inventory

Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

393

Towards efficient semantic object storage for the home Brandon Salmon  

E-print Network

Towards efficient semantic object storage for the home Brandon Salmon Steven W. Schlosser1, Gregory Foundation, via grant #CNS-0326453. Brandon Salmon is supported in part by an NSF Fellowship. #12;Keywords

394

University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections: Salmon Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Washington presents the Salmon Collection, an online digital collection of "documents, photographs, and other original material describing the roots of the salmon crisis in the Pacific Northwest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries." Users may search for items by keyword or browse the entire collection, organized into the following categories: Native Americans, Traps and Fishwheels, Salmon Industry in Washington, Salmon on the Columbia River, Fish Drying, Salmon Industry in Alaska, Salmon Canneries, and Salmon Hatcheries. For a brief overview of the salmon crisis in the Pacific Northwest, click on About this Site (also provides technical information about the collection and its content). The photographs are particularly compelling. The entire collection should appeal to ecologists and history buffs alike.

395

MARKING SOCKEYE SALMON SCALES BY SHORT PERIODS OF STARVATION  

E-print Network

that the scale pattern of Columbia River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka can be recognizably modified Seaward migrations of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka 1 from Lake Wenatchee, Wash,, are composed of both

396

Predictors of Chinook salmon extirpation in California's Central Valley  

E-print Network

salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum). Thus, conservation of these populations has been deemed, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Abstract Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), populations have declined rapidly along the western coast of North America since

Cardinale, Bradley J.

397

Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

2009-10-01

398

Japanese Studies on the Early Ocean Life of Juvenile Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all the salmon resources in Japan have been supported by artificial enhance- ment, and because of the success of this program the population size of chum salmon (Oncorhyn- chus keta) has increased dramatically since the early 1970s. About 90% of Japan's salmon catch is chum; 5-10% is pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) and 0.5% masu (O. masou). Therefore, biological research

Hiroshi Mayama; Yukimasa Ishida

399

The RecQ helicase WRN is required for normal replication fork progression after DNA damage or replication fork arrest.  

PubMed

Werner syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic instability and cancer predisposition syndrome with features of premature aging. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the Werner syndrome protein WRN plays a role in DNA replication and S-phase progression. In order to define the exact role of WRN in genomic replication we examined cell cycle kinetics during normal cell division and after methyl-methane-sulfonate (MMS) DNA damage or hydroxyurea (HU)-mediated replication arrest following acute depletion of WRN from human fibroblasts. Loss of WRN markedly extended the time cells needed to complete the cell cycle after either of these genotoxic treatments. Moreover, replication track analysis of individual, stretched DNA fibers showed that WRN depletion significantly reduced the speed at which replication forks elongated in vivo after MMS or HU treatment. These results establish the importance of WRN during genomic replication and indicate that WRN acts to facilitate fork progression after DNA damage or replication arrest. The data provide a mechanistic basis for a better understanding of WRN-mediated maintenance of genomic stability and for predicting the outcomes of DNA-targeting chemotherapy in several adult cancers that silence WRN expression. PMID:18250621

Sidorova, Julia M; Li, Nianzhen; Folch, Albert; Monnat, Raymond J

2008-03-15

400

CANNING OF FISHERY PRODUCTS 117 PACIFIC SALMON7  

E-print Network

, coloration, duration of life cycle, the behavior of the young fish and the character of the food of the adultCANNING OF FISHERY PRODUCTS 117 PACIFIC SALMON7 The salmon canning industry is located on the Great salmon are caught commercially in the United States as far south as Monterey Bay in California. The total

401

GRAVEL SYSTEM HOLDS PROMISE FOR SALMON FRY INCUBATION  

E-print Network

completed. Initial work is with pink salmon because the two-year cycle of this species permits quick the rigors of ocean life. The concept of incubating salmon eggs in a carefully controlled gravel environmentGRAVEL SYSTEM HOLDS PROMISE FOR SALMON FRY INCUBATION Robert M. Burnett Fis hery b i 0 log

402

ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF PINK AND CHUM SALMON FRY IN  

E-print Network

runs based on the abundance of young salmon at some time in their life cycle after the greater;429: ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF PINK AND CHUM SALMON FRY IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, 1957 Marine Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF PINK AND CHUM SALMON FRY IN PRINCE WILLIAM

403

A framework for understanding Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) life history  

Microsoft Academic Search

We took a hierarchical approach to understanding Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) life history patterns by first comparing salmonids to other teleosts, next comparing Atlantic salmon to other salmonids, and finally, mapping correlations among individual life history traits within Atlantic salmon. The combination of anadromy, large eggs, nest construction and egg burial by females, and large size at maturity differentiates salmonids

Elizabeth A. Marschall; Thomas P. Quinn; Derek A. Roff; Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Neil B. Metcalfe; Tor A. Bakke; Richard L. Saunders; N. LeRoy Poff

1999-01-01

404

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL  

E-print Network

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL INVESTIGA- TIONSKenian, Director ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS season 35 Parasites 39 SCUBA 41 Part IV. Limnology and its relation to sockeye salmon 43 Plankton and its

405

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

406

BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON INIarTne Biological Laboratory!  

E-print Network

324 BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON INIarTne Biological Laboratory! 1960 WOODS HOLE, MASS« SPECIAL, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON by George J. Ridgway Eind George W. Klontz Acknowledgments 7 Summary 7 Literature cited 7 111 #12;#12;BLOOD TYPES IN PACIFIC SALMON by George J. Ridgway

407

Norwegian Salmon and Trout Farming ROBERT J. FORD  

E-print Network

Norwegian Salmon and Trout Farming ROBERT J. FORD Introduction The development of Norway's Atlantic salmon, Sa/rno sa/ar, and rainbow trout, S. gairdneri, farming in coastal waters is, in the opinion of farmed salmon and trout has in- creased dramatically during the past decade, from only 500 metric tons (t

408

HOMING AND FISHERIES CONTRIBUTION OF MARKED COHO SALMON,  

E-print Network

NOTES HOMING AND FISHERIES CONTRIBUTION OF MARKED COHO SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH, RELEASED AT TWO COLUMBIA RIVER LOCATIONS In 1970 we conducted an experiment to deter- mine if coho salmon to the fisheries there (Vreeland et al. 1975). We found the coho salmon returned almost exclusively to the re

409

Modeling juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain  

E-print Network

Modeling juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain E. Ashley Steel Peter Guttorp NRCSET juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain E. Ashley Steel and Peter Guttorp National Research.S.A SUMMARY We describe movement patterns of hatchery-raised, juvenile, spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus

Washington at Seattle, University of

410

LIFE AND WORK OF PROVOST GEORGE SALMON FRS  

E-print Network

LIFE AND WORK OF PROVOST GEORGE SALMON FRS 1819-1904 Lecture by Roderick Gow 6 April 2005 1 #12;The of George Salmon, mathematician, theologian and Provost of Trinity College from 1888. We are not aware of any commemoration of Salmon's life and work that occurred in 2004, and it is our intention, somewhat

Gow, Rod

411

Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population , John Wakeley*  

E-print Network

Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population Size Can Cenik¤ , John Wakeley* Department Abstract Pacific salmon include several species that are both commercially important and endangered. Here we use a coalescent approach to analyze a model of the complex life history of salmon, and derive

412

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

413

North American Pacific Salmon: A Case of Fragile Cooperation  

E-print Network

North American Pacific Salmon: A Case of Fragile Cooperation Paper Prepared for the Norway between cooperating on joint management of Pacific salmon harvests and squabbling over their respective shares of the catch. In June 1999, the two nations signed the Pacific Salmon Agreement, which amends

Miller, Kathleen

414

Horizontal competition in multilevel governmental settings Pierre Salmon  

E-print Network

May 2013 Horizontal competition in multilevel governmental settings by Pierre Salmon Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion Université de Bourgogne and CNRS pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract Governments the influence of three guiding thoughts. 1 Some other aspects are briefly discussed in Salmon (2006). 2 Several

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TROLL-CAUGHT SALMON  

E-print Network

379 STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TROLL-CAUGHT SALMON IN SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC SALMON, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA, 1957-58 By Gerald M. Raid United States Fish and Wildlife Service Special and nnaterials ^ Occurrence of food items ^ By season ^ By geographical area ^ By species of salmon 5 By lengths

416

2008 Salmon ICA Report To NPFMC 1 February 4, 2008  

E-print Network

2008 Salmon ICA Report To NPFMC 1 February 4, 2008 Report to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council on the Bering Sea Pollock Intercooperative Salmon Avoidance Agreement Karl Haflinger, Sea State (BSAI) Pollock Intercoop Salmon Avoidance Agreement ("ICA"). During the course of the fishery

417

SALMON RUNS -UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER, 1956-57  

E-print Network

364; SALMON RUNS - UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER, 1956-57 Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS HOLE, MAt L. McKernan, Director SALMON RUNS - UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER. 1956-57 by R. R. French and R. J. Wahle. October I960 #12;#12;CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Salmon runs past Rocky Reach Dam site 2 Time and size

418

WalnutCrusted Salmon cup finely chopped Walnuts  

E-print Network

WalnutCrusted Salmon ¼ cup finely chopped Walnuts 1 tablespoon dry bread crumbs 1 teaspoon grated Tablespoon ground flax seed 1 salmon fillets, skin-on 1 teaspoon brown mustard 2 lemon slices (thinly sliced slightly stick together; set aside. 2. Place salmon fillet, skin side down, and brush top with mustard

Jawitz, James W.

419

The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential  

E-print Network

1 In Oregon The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential A summary overview Bruce Introduction Fisheries in Oregon and wild caught salmon in particular have been critical to many Native American tribes both culturally and economically. Salmon continue to play a central economic role today

420

Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1 Final EIS ­ December 2009 1 with an evaluation of the predicted environmental effects of alternative measures to minimize Chinook salmon bycatch developed the following problem statement for Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch management: An effective

421

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) experience relatively high mortality  

E-print Network

-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Edward V. Farley Jr1 James M. Murphy1 Milo D--We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska121 Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) experience relatively high mortality rates during the first

422

Competition among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for food resources  

E-print Network

(Rogers and Rug- gerone, 1993). Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second355 Competition among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for food resources in the North Pacific

423

Predation by Bears Drives Senescence in Natural Populations of Salmon  

E-print Network

Predation by Bears Drives Senescence in Natural Populations of Salmon Stephanie M. Carlson1¤ *, Ray of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) subject to varying degrees of predation by brown bears (Ursus arctos was estimated as the long-term average of the annual percentage of salmon killed by bears. The degree

Hendry, Andrew

424

AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT  

E-print Network

AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT BY JAPANESE HIGH SEAS FLEETS IN NORTH PACIFIC Marine Fish and Wildlife Service, Amie J. Suomela, Commissioner AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT by the Japanese high-seas salmon fleets indicates the dominance of 2-year-in-ocean reds in the even years and 3

425

USGS Scientists Prepare to Release Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Ross Abbett transfers young Atlantic salmon from their transportation tank on the back of a truck to small buckets for release into Beaverdam Brook in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminishe...

426

Scientists Strategize at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists (L to R) Emily Waldt, Ross Abbett, and Jim Johnson chat with Dan Bishop (far left)of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation while watching hundreds of salmon swim into troughs at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon&nbs...

427

7,000 Atlantic Salmon Transported in Tank  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

About 7,000 young Atlantic salmon are transported in a large tank from the USGS Tunison Laboratory in Cortland, N.Y., to Beaverdam Brook in Altmar for release. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish...

428

Comparison of migration rate and survival between radio-tagged and PIT-tagged migrant yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to compare the travel times, detection probabilities, and survival of migrant hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha tagged with either gastrically or surgically implanted sham radio tags (with an imbedded passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag) with those of their cohorts tagged only with PIT tags in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Juvenile chinook salmon with gastrically implanted radio tags migrated significantly faster than either surgically radio-tagged or PIT-tagged fish, while migration rates were similar among surgically radio-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. The probabilities of PIT tag detection at downstream dams varied by less than 5% and were not significantly different among the three groups. Survival was similar among treatments for median travel times of less than approximately 6 d (migration distance of 106 km). However, for both gastrically and surgically radio-tagged fish, survival was significantly less than for PIT-tagged fish, for which median travel times exceeded approximately 10 d (migration distance of 225 km). The results of this study support the use of radio tags to estimate the survival of juvenile chinook salmon having a median fork length of approximately 150 mm (range, 127-285 mm) and a median travel time of migration of less than approximately 6 d.

Hockersmith, E.E.; Muir, W.D.; Smith, S.G.; Sandford, B.P.; Perry, R.W.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

2003-01-01

429

Selective Frontoinsular von Economo Neuron and Fork Cell Loss in Early Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia  

PubMed Central

Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) erodes complex social–emotional functions as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and frontoinsula (FI) degenerate, but the early vulnerable neuron within these regions has remained uncertain. Previously, we demonstrated selective loss of ACC von Economo neurons (VENs) in bvFTD. Unlike ACC, FI contains a second conspicuous layer 5 neuronal morphotype, the fork cell, which has not been previously examined. Here, we investigated the selectivity, disease-specificity, laterality, timing, and symptom relevance of frontoinsular VEN and fork cell loss in bvFTD. Blinded, unbiased, systematic sampling was used to quantify bilateral FI VENs, fork cells, and neighboring neurons in 7 neurologically unaffected controls (NC), 5 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 9 patients with bvFTD, including 3 who died of comorbid motor neuron disease during very mild bvFTD. bvFTD showed selective FI VEN and fork cell loss compared with NC and AD, whereas in AD no significant VEN or fork cell loss was detected. Although VEN and fork cell losses in bvFTD were often asymmetric, no group-level hemispheric laterality effects were identified. Right-sided VEN and fork cell losses, however, correlated with each other and with anatomical, functional, and behavioral severity. This work identifies region-specific neuronal targets in early bvFTD. PMID:21653702

Kim, Eun-Joo; Sidhu, Manu; Gaus, Stephanie E.; Huang, Eric J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Miller, Bruce L.; DeArmond, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

430

Salmon blood plasma: Effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.  

PubMed

The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (p<0.05). CSP performed slightly better than FSP at inhibiting salmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40°C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. PMID:25624255

Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

2015-06-01

431

Identification of proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartilage.  

PubMed

There has been no structural information about the core protein of salmon nasal cartilage proteoglycan although its physiological activities have been investigated. Internal amino acid sequencing using nano-LC/MS/MS revealed that the salmon proteoglycan was aggrecan. Primer walk sequencing based on the amino acid information determined that the salmon aggrecan cDNA is comprised of 4207bp nucleotides predicted to encode 1324 amino acids with a molecular mass of 143,276. It exhibited significant similarities to predicted pufferfish aggrecan, zebrafish similar to aggrecan, zebrafish aggrecan, bovine aggrecan and human aggrecan isoform 2 precursor; whose amino acid identities were 56%, 55%, 49%, 31% and 30%, respectively. Salmon cartilage aggrecan had globular domains G1, G2 and G3 as in mammalian aggrecans. Neither the putative keratan sulfate attachment domain enriched with serine, glutamic acid and proline, nor the putative chondroitin sulfate attachment domain with repeating amino acid sequence containing serine-glycine, found in mammalian aggrecans were observed in salmon, however, random serine-glycine (or glycine-serine) sequences predicted to the sugar chain attachment sites were observed. Based on cDNA analysis and amino acid analysis after ?-elimination, the ratio of serine attached to sugar chains was calculated to be approximately 37.7% of total serine, that is, 46 of 123 serine residues. PMID:21056541

Kakizaki, Ikuko; Tatara, Yota; Majima, Mitsuo; Kato, Yoji; Endo, Masahiko

2011-02-01

432

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2013-10-01

433

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2010-10-01

434

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2012-10-01

435

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2011-10-01

436

Monitoring salmon habitat in small streams using streambed profiling and the importance of large woody debris for juvenile chinook salmon  

E-print Network

Monitoring salmon habitat in small streams using streambed profiling and the importance of large woody debris for juvenile chinook salmon habitat in small Yukon streams by Brent Mossop B.Sc., Simon: Monitoring salmon habitat in small streams using streambed profiling and the importance of large woody debris

437

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2011-10-01

438

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2010-10-01

439

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2012-10-01

440

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2013-10-01

441

Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen; Saksida, Sonja M.

2015-01-01

442

History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

Parsons, John W.

1973-01-01

443

Division of Labor at the Eukaryotic Replication Fork  

PubMed Central

Summary DNA polymerase ? (Pol ?) and DNA polymerase ? (Pol ?) are both required for efficient replication of the nuclear genome, yet the division of labor between these enzymes has remained unclear for many years. Here we investigate the contribution of Pol ? to replication of the leading and lagging strand templates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a mutant Pol ? allele (pol3-L612M) whose error rate is higher for one mismatch (e.g., T•dGTP) than for its complement (A•dCTP). We find that strand-specific mutation rates strongly depend on the orientation of a reporter gene relative to an adjacent replication origin, in a manner implying that >90% of Pol ? replication is performed using the lagging strand template. When combined with recent evidence implicating Pol ? in leading strand replication, these data support a model of the replication fork wherein the leading and lagging strand templates are primarily copied by Pol ? and Pol ?, respectively. PMID:18439893

Nick McElhinny, Stephanie A.; Gordenin, Dmitry A.; Stith, Carrie M.; Burgers, Peter M.J.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

444

Finite Element Analysis of Electrically Excited Quartz Tuning Fork Devices  

PubMed Central

Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF)-based Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is an important field of research. A suitable model for the QTF is important to obtain quantitative measurements with these devices. Analytical models have the limitation of being based on the double cantilever configuration. In this paper, we present an electromechanical finite element model of the QTF electrically excited with two free prongs. The model goes beyond the state-of-the-art of numerical simulations currently found in the literature for this QTF configuration. We present the first numerical analysis of both the electrical and mechanical behavior of QTF devices. Experimental measurements obtained with 10 units of the same model of QTF validate the finite element model with a good agreement. PMID:23722828

Oria, Roger; Otero, Jorge; González, Laura; Botaya, Luis; Carmona, Manuel; Puig-Vidal, Manel

2013-01-01

445

An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon.  

PubMed

Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

Deng, Z D; Carlson, T J; Li, H; Xiao, J; Myjak, M J; Lu, J; Martinez, J J; Woodley, C M; Weiland, M A; Eppard, M B

2015-01-01

446

An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon  

PubMed Central

Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

2015-01-01

447

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

2003-01-01

448

Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In general, upriver brights differ from tules by at least one locus. Steelhead stocks can be divided into two main groups: (1) those stocks found east of the Cascades; and (2) those stocks found west of the Cascade Mountains. Steelhead from west of the Cascades are divisable into three subgroups of closely related stocks: (1) a group comprised mainly of wild winter steelhead from the lower Columbia River; (2) Willamette River hatchery and wild winter steelhead; and (3) summer and winter hatchery steelhead stocks from both the lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers. Steelhead from east of the Cascades are separable into three subgroups of closely related stocks: (1) wild summer steelhead; (2) a group comprised mainly of hatchery summer steelhead stocks; and (3) other hatchery and wild steelhead from Idaho. Streams east and west of the Cascades can be differentiated using characters including precipitation, elevation, distance from the mouth of the Columbia, number of frost-free days and minimum annual air temperature. There are significant differences among the stocks of chinook salmon and steelhead trout for each of the meristic and body shape characters. Between year variation does not account for differences among the stocks for the meristic and body shape characters with the exception of pelvic fin ray number in steelhead trout. Characters based on body shape are important for discriminating between the groups of hatchery and wild steelhead stocks. We could not determine whether the basis for the differences were genetic or environmental. The reason for the variation of the characters among stocks is as yet unclear. Neutrality or adaptiveness has not been firmly demonstrated.

Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

1986-08-01

449

Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon  

PubMed Central

Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species. PMID:24911974

Nelson, Michelle C.; Reynolds, John D.

2014-01-01

450

Establishment, maintenance and modifications of the lower jaw dentition of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) throughout its life cycle.  

PubMed

In this paper we elucidate the pattern of initiation of the first teeth and the pattern of tooth replacement on the dentary of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), throughout nearly all stages of its life cycle, using serially sectioned heads and jaws, cleared and stained animals, and X-rays. The dentary teeth are set in one row. Tooth germs appear around hatching, first in odd positions, followed by even positions. From position 8 further backwards, teeth are added in adjacent positions. The first replacement teeth appear in animals of about 30 mm fork length. On the dentary of early life stages (alevins and fry), every position in the tooth row holds a functional (i.e. attached and erupted) tooth and a replacement tooth. The alternating pattern set up anteriorly in the dentary by the first-generation teeth changes in juveniles (parr) whereby teeth are in a similar functional (for the erupted teeth) or developmental stage (for the replacement teeth) every three positions. This pattern is also observed in marine animals during their marine life phase and in both sexes of adult animals prior to spawning (grilse and salmon), but every position now holds either a functional tooth or a mineralised replacement tooth. This is likely due to the fact that replacement tooth germs have to grow to a larger size before mineralisation starts. In the following spring, the dentary tooth pattern of animals that have survived spawning (kelts) is highly variable. The abundance of functional teeth in post-spawning animals nevertheless indicates that teeth are not lost over winter. We confirm the earlier reported lack of evidence for the existence of an edentulous life phase, preceding the appearance of so-called breeding teeth during upstream migration to the spawning grounds, and consider breeding teeth to be just another tooth generation in a regularly replacing dentition. This study shows how Atlantic salmon maintains a functional adaptive dentition throughout its complex life cycle. PMID:17764526

Huysseune, Ann; Hall, Brian K; Witten, P Eckhard

2007-10-01

451

Mixed-Stock Analysis of Yukon River Chum Salmon: Application and Validation in a Complex Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yukon River chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta are managed under the Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST), which requires conservation and equitable sharing of this fishery resource by the USA and Canada. Fall chum salmon are of special concern because they spawn in both the United States and Canada, and the focus of the PST is on Canadian-origin salmon. Yukon River chum salmon

Blair G. Flannery; Terry D. Beacham; John R. Candy; Russell R. Holder; Gerald F. Maschmann; Eric J. Kretschmer; John K. Wenburg

2010-01-01

452

HEALTHY STOCKS OF NW SALMON FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Geographic distribution of eight species/races of Pacific salmon and steelhead (spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, summer steelhead and winter steelhead. The data are based upon the Oregon Trout report Healthy Native Stock...

453

GENETIC VARIATION IN CHINOOK, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, AND COHO, 0. K1SUTCH, SALMON FROM  

E-print Network

GENETIC VARIATION IN CHINOOK, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, AND COHO, 0. K1SUTCH, SALMON FROM THE NORTH to genetically characterize the populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho salmon, O (frequency of the common allele was less than 0.95) in chinook salmon and 3 in coho salmon. Statistical tests

454

CAN WE SUSTAIN WILD SALMON THROUGH 2100? THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

abstract for presentation Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appe...

455

Hysteresis, Switching and Anomalous Behaviour of a Quartz Tuning Fork in Superfluid 4He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying the behaviour of commercial quartz tuning forks immersed in superfluid 4He and driven at resonance. For one of the forks we have observed hysteresis and switching between linear and non-linear damping regimes at temperatures below 10 mK. We associate linear damping with pure potential flow around the prongs of the fork, and non-linear damping with the production of vortex lines in a turbulent regime. At appropriate prong velocities, we have observed metastability of both the linear and the turbulent flow states, and a region of intermittency where the flow switched back and forth between each state. For the same fork, we have also observed anomalous behaviour in the linear regime, with large excursions in both damping, resonant frequency, and the tip velocity as a function of driving force.

Bradley, D. I.; Fear, M. J.; Fisher, S. N.; Guénault, A. M.; Haley, R. P.; Lawson, C. R.; Pickett, G. R.; Schanen, R.; Tsepelin, V.; Wheatland, L. A.

2014-04-01

456

75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Hazard Reduction Project...prepare an environmental impact statement for the Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Reduction Project (Salt Project). A supplemental environmental...

2010-05-07

457

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN Big Creek, North Fork of the Flathead River  

E-print Network

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN For Big Creek, North Fork of the Flathead River March 2003 Appendix 99.2 GENERAL WATERSHED CHARACTERIZATION ........................................ 6 2.2.2 Geology/Landform/Stream Type Characterization of the Big Creek Watershed........ 9 2

458

ADAPTATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE ROARING FORK WATERSHED, COLORADO.  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will assess climate-related impacts to the Roring Fork River (near Aspen, Colorado) and identify adaptive opportunities for surface water users, to support a larger global change assessment by the city of Aspen, CO (the Canary Initiative)....

459

Artemis-dependent DNA double-strand break formation at stalled replication forks.  

PubMed

Stalled replication forks undergo DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) under certain conditions. However, the precise mechanism underlying DSB induction and the cellular response to persistent replication fork stalling are not fully understood. Here we show that, in response to hydroxyurea exposure, DSBs are generated in an Artemis nuclease-dependent manner following prolonged stalling with subsequent activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling pathway. The kinase activity of the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase, a prerequisite for stimulation of the endonuclease activity of Artemis, is also required for DSB generation and subsequent ATM activation. Our findings indicate a novel function of Artemis as a molecular switch that converts stalled replication forks harboring single-stranded gap DNA lesions into DSBs, thereby activating the ATM signaling pathway following prolonged replication fork stalling. PMID:23465063

Unno, Junya; Takagi, Masatoshi; Piao, Jinhua; Sugimoto, Masataka; Honda, Fumiko; Maeda, Daisuke; Masutani, Mitsuko; Kiyono, Tohru; Watanabe, Fumiaki; Morio, Tomohiro; Teraoka, Hirobumi; Mizutani, Shuki

2013-06-01

460

The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability  

PubMed Central

Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA–protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA–protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability. PMID:22426535

Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

461

The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability.  

PubMed

Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA-protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA-protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability. PMID:22426535

Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C

2012-03-15

462

Differential rejection of salmon lice by pink and chum salmon: disease consequences and expression of proinflammatory genes.  

PubMed

The consequences of high (735 copepodids fish-1) and low (243 copepodids fish-1) level exposures of size-matched juvenile pink and chum salmon to Lepeophtheirus salmonis copepodids were examined. At both levels of exposure the prevalence and abundance of L. salmonis was significantly higher on chum salmon. In addition, the weight of exposed chum salmon following the high exposure was significantly less than that of unexposed chum salmon. At both exposures, the haematocrit of exposed chum salmon was significantly less than that of unexposed chum. Neither weight nor haematocrit of pink salmon was affected by exposures at these levels. Despite the presence of microscopic inflammatory lesions associated with attachment of L. salmonis on the epithelium of gill and fin of both salmon species, there were no mortalities following either exposure. A transient cortisol response was observed in chum salmon 21 d after low exposure. An earlier and quantitatively higher expression of the proinflammatory genes interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor alpha-1 (TNFalpha-1) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in fin and head kidney of pink salmon suggested a mechanism of more rapid louse rejection in this species. Together, these observations indicate a relatively enhanced innate resistance to L. salmonis in the juvenile pink salmon compared with the juvenile chum salmon. PMID:17629118

Jones, Simon R M; Fast, Mark D; Johnson, Stewart C; Groman, David B

2007-05-01

463

Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon’s plastic life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered

Nadia Aubin-Horth; Benjamin H. Letcher; Hans A. Hofmann

2009-01-01

464

Dietary Calcein Marking of Brook Trout, Atlantic Salmon, Yellow Perch, and Coho Salmon Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7–10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93–98% in Atlantic

Dale C. Honeyfield; Christian S. Ostrowski; John W. Fletcher; Jerre W. Mohler

2006-01-01

465

Depositional environment of Red Fork sandstones, deep Anadarko Basin, western Oklahoma  

E-print Network

is accompanied by a decrease in grain size upward within bedsets, indicating deposition during a decreasing flow- regime. Red Fork sandstones are low-permeability reservoirs with an average porosity and permeability of 7. 8 percent and 0. 1... Fork sandstones. DEDICATION TO MY FAMILY ACKNOWLDEGEMENTS I want to thank Dr. Robert R. Berg and Dr. Thomas T. Tieh for their guidance and encouragement throughout the preparation of this thesis. Dr. Berg offered more than his expansive...

Whiting, Philip Howard

2012-06-07

466

Error sources in in-plane silicon tuning-fork MEMS gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the error sources defining tactical-grade performance in silicon, in-plane tuning-fork gyroscopes such as the Honeywell-Draper units being delivered for military applications. These analyses have not yet appeared in the literature. These units incorporate crystalline silicon anodically bonded to a glass substrate. After general descriptions of the tuning-fork gyroscope, ordering modal frequencies, fundamental dynamics, force, and fluid coupling,

Marc S. Weinberg; Anthony Kourepenis

2006-01-01

467

Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

Honeyfield, D.C.; Ostrowski, C.S.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

2006-01-01

468

Checkpoint-dependent RNR induction promotes fork restart after replicative stress  

PubMed Central

The checkpoint kinase Rad53 is crucial to regulate DNA replication in the presence of replicative stress. Under conditions that interfere with the progression of replication forks, Rad53 prevents Exo1-dependent fork degradation. However, although EXO1 deletion avoids fork degradation in rad53 mutants, it does not suppress their sensitivity to the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU). In this case, the inability to restart stalled forks is likely to account for the lethality of rad53 mutant cells after replication blocks. Here we show that Rad53 regulates replication restart through the checkpoint-dependent transcriptional response, and more specifically, through RNR induction. Thus, in addition to preventing fork degradation, Rad53 prevents cell death in the presence of HU by regulating RNR-expression and localization. When RNR is induced in the absence of Exo1 and RNR negative regulators, cell viability of rad53 mutants treated with HU is increased and the ability of replication forks to restart after replicative stress is restored. PMID:25601385

Morafraile, Esther C.; Diffley, John F. X.; Tercero, José Antonio; Segurado, Mónica

2015-01-01

469

Checkpoint-dependent RNR induction promotes fork restart after replicative stress.  

PubMed

The checkpoint kinase Rad53 is crucial to regulate DNA replication in the presence of replicative stress. Under conditions that interfere with the progression of replication forks, Rad53 prevents Exo1-dependent fork degradation. However, although EXO1 deletion avoids fork degradation in rad53 mutants, it does not suppress their sensitivity to the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU). In this case, the inability to restart stalled forks is likely to account for the lethality of rad53 mutant cells after replication blocks. Here we show that Rad53 regulates replication restart through the checkpoint-dependent transcriptional response, and more specifically, through RNR induction. Thus, in addition to preventing fork degradation, Rad53 prevents cell death in the presence of HU by regulating RNR-expression and localization. When RNR is induced in the absence of Exo1 and RNR negative regulators, cell viability of rad53 mutants treated with HU is increased and the ability of replication forks to restart after replicative stress is restored. PMID:25601385

Morafraile, Esther C; Diffley, John F X; Tercero, José Antonio; Segurado, Mónica

2015-01-01

470

Effect of fork-lift truck driving on low-back trouble.  

PubMed

In a population of 240 male fork-lift truck drivers who drove at least 4 h daily, the occurrence of low-back trouble was studied in relation to that of two reference groups. The participation rate of the fork-lift truck drivers was 88%. The responses to a questionnaire concerning low-back trouble were reviewed. Among the fork-lift truck drivers, a statistically significant higher occurrence of low-back trouble was reported for the year preceding the study, in comparison, according to age, to that of a reference group of 399 working men (65 against 47%); however, there was no significantly increased frequency when compared to that of a reference group of 66 unskilled male workers (65 against 51%). The fork-lift truck drivers had a significantly higher rate of absence from work within the previous year due to low-back trouble than the two reference groups (22% compared to 7 and 9%). These findings were confirmed during the follow-up year. A correlation was found between length of employment as a fork-lift truck driver and the occurrence of low-back trouble within the preceding year. It was concluded that fork-lift truck driving may be a contributory cause for low-back trouble. PMID:2963374

Brendstrup, T; Biering-Sørensen, F

1987-10-01

471

SALMON RECOVERY: CATEGORIZING AGENTS, DRIVERS, AND DELUSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the downward trajectory for wild sal...

472

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Analysis (EIS/RIR/IRFA) provides decision-makers and the public with an evaluation of the environmental pollock fishery. The alternatives analyzed in this EIS/RIR/IRFA generally involve limits or "caps-7228 #12;(blank page) #12;Executive Summary Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Draft EIS/RIR/IRFA ­ December

473

SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

474

EFFECTS OF SOUND WAVES ON YOUNG SALMON  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF SOUND WAVES ON YOUNG SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory X. 1 33 R A. RTT ir.':; WOODS instantaneously to sounds. It was con- were tested in an experimental tank and in eluded that sound waves were, Wash . sound studies conducted under the above contract are terminated. #12;EFFECTS OF SOUND WAVES

475

Ocean Conditions, Salmon, and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Ocean Conditions, Salmon, and Climate Change John Ferguson1 NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries;Today's talk · Past (why study the ocean?) · Present (how we study the ocean) · Future (what we're finding - adult forecasts and climate change) #12;1. Past (for context) · The coastal pelagic ecosystem

476

Ecoforestry Fall, 2001 13 Salmon nutrients,  

E-print Network

displays and recent investigations by research- ers in Washington, British Columbia and Alaska indicate and the remnants were scavenged by eagles, marten and flocks of crows, ravens and gulls. A diversity of insects the British Columbia coast wher- ever bears and salmon are common and these nutrients represent a significant

Reimchen, Thomas E.

477

LONGTERM OLFACTORY "MEMORY" IN COHO SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS  

E-print Network

LONG·TERM OLFACTORY "MEMORY" IN COHO SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCHl Many experiments have correlated. The existence of long-term olfactory memory persisting over this time period has only been inferred. Idler et al) in his review of this EEG technique states: "This electric response [from the olfactory bulbs

478

Echo characteristics of two salmon species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Department of Fish and Game relies on split-beam hydroacoustic techniques to estimate Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returns to the Kenai River. Chinook counts are periodically confounded by large numbers of smaller sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Echo target-strength has been used to distinguish fish length classes, but was too variable to separate Kenai River chinook and sockeye distributions. To evaluate the efficacy of alternate echo metrics, controlled acoustic measurements of tethered chinook and sockeye salmon were collected at 200 kHz. Echo returns were digitally sampled at 48 kHz. A suite of descriptive metrics were collected from a series of 1,000 echoes per fish. Measurements of echo width were least variable at the -3 dB power point. Initial results show echo elongation and ping-to-ping variability in echo envelope width were significantly greater for chinook than for sockeye salmon. Chinook were also observed to return multiple discrete peaks from a single broadcast echo. These characteristics were attributed to the physical width of chinook exceeding half of the broadcast echo pulse width at certain orientations. Echo phase variability, correlation coefficient and fractal dimension distributions did not demonstrate significant discriminatory power between the two species. [Work supported by ADF&G, ONR.

Nealson, Patrick A.; Horne, John K.; Burwen, Debby L.

2005-04-01

479

Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our…

Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

480

Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

481

Geomorphology and the Restoration Ecology of Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and anthropogenic influences on watershed processes affect the distribution and abundance of salmon across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from differences in species use and density between individual pools and riffles to regional patterns of threatened, endangered, and extinct runs. The specific impacts of human activities (e.g., mining, logging, and urbanization) vary among regions and watersheds,

D. R. Montgomery

2005-01-01

482

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon  

E-print Network

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD equilibrium statistical mechanics based upon the conservation of energy and potential enstrophy to the mass. The equilibrium state resembles the buoyancy structure actually observed. Key words: statistical mechanics, ocean

Salmon, Rick

483

SALMON AND NATIVE FISH HABITAT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The research described in this project deals with the influence of human activities on aquatic and aquatic-dependent biota at landscape, watershed, and regional scales. Specifically, it will examine watershed and landscape scale habitat issues affecting salmon and native fishes i...

484

Assessment of juvenile coho salmon movement and behavior in relation to rehabilitation efforts in the Trinity River, California, using PIT tags and radiotelemetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast (SONCC) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) is federally listed as a threatened species. The Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) is rehabilitating the Trinity River to restore coho salmon (coho) and other salmonid populations. In order to evaluate the program’s actions, several studies of movements and behavior of coho in the Trinity River were conducted from 2006 to 2009, including snorkel surveys and mark-recapture techniques based on Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, elastomer tags, and radio transmitters. Catch, recapture, and condition of natural sub-yearlings, along with site fidelity and emigration of hatchery-reared yearlings in rehabilitated and reference habitats, were studied. Location was important because coho were absent from the lower controlled and rehabilitated sites most of the time. However, rehabilitation did not have a significant effect on natural coho salmon at the site level. Apparent survival of radio-tagged, hatchery-reared yearling coho released downstream from Lewiston Dam was much lower in the first 10 km downstream from the release site than in other areas between Lewiston Dam and the Klamath River estuary. Estimated survival of yearling hatchery coho salmon per 100 km down to Blake’s Riffle was estimated at 64 % over the distance of the 239 km study area. Migration primarily occurred at night in the upper Trinity River; however, as yearlings moved through the lower Trinity River towards the Klamath River, estuary nocturnal migration became less. Apparent survival was generally lowest in areas upstream from the North Fork of the Trinity River.

Chase, Robert; Hemphill, Nina; Beeman, John; Juhnke, Steve; Hannon, John; Jenkins, Amy M.

2013-01-01

485

Does diurnal temperature variability affect growth in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar?  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of diurnal temperature variability (>7° C) on the growth of 1+ year Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Experimental manipulation of water temperature was used to simulate: (1) constant and (2) naturally varying thermal regimes with similar daily mean values. Data from two replicates of four treatments (two thermal and two feeding regimes) were collected over 6 months corresponding to the main spring to summer growth period. Fish growth was assessed at fortnightly intervals. Small but significant differences in mean fork length (L(F) ) and mass were observed between temperature treatments, with smaller, lighter fish under the variable temperature regime. The effects of temperature regime on growth were independent of food ration. At termination of the experiment, the median L(F) and mass of fish exposed to the variable temperature regime were estimated, respectively, to be 2· 6 and 8· 0% less than those under the constant regime. Given the relatively small differences in growth attributable to variable temperature regime in these experiments, it is suggested that mean daily temperatures are adequate to inform juvenile growth models for field-based studies. PMID:21284627

Imholt, C; Malcolm, I A; Bacon, P J; Gibbins, C N; Soulsby, C; Miles, M; Fryer, R J

2011-02-01

486

Ova fecundity in Scottish Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: predictions, selective forces and causal mechanisms.  

PubMed

Ova fecundities of Scottish Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, predicted from log(10) regression of ova numbers and female fork length (L(F)), differed widely between upland and lowland stocks within the same river, whereas sea-age, river and year factors had insignificant effects on fecundity once L(F) was accounted for. For upland fish, the relationship between log(10)L(F) and log(10) ova mass (M(O)) was stable between two datasets collected 40 years apart. Although upland and lowland females both produced comparable log(10)M(O) (log(10)L(F))(-1), lowland females partitioned this into 45% more, but smaller ova, whereas upland females produced fewer, but larger, eggs. The possible causes and implications of this are discussed for evolutionary perspectives (lifetime production), population structure (local tributary v. large catchments; environmental effects), population dynamics and stability (density-dependent control mechanisms) and fisheries management (stock-recruitment; short and long-term stock sustainability). PMID:22880727

Bacon, P J; MacLean, J C; Malcolm, I A; Gurney, W S C

2012-08-01

487

76 FR 8345 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The salmonid life cycle includes spawning...juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead...During their life cycles, all listed salmon and steelhead...reduce threats to salmon and steelhead...stage in their life cycles. However,...

2011-02-14

488

Central Valley Salmon: A Perspective on Chinook and Steelhead in the Central Valley of California  

E-print Network

chinook salmon life history. Redding, California: CH2M Hill.history of salmon and people in the Central Valley region of California.history of salmon and people in the Central Valley region of California.

Williams, John G.

2006-01-01

489

Wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho: Some recovery strategies that just might work  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify salmon recovery options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project doe...

490

76 FR 57945 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...submitted Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2011-09-19

491

40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

492

40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

493

78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY...announces one inseason action in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-05-23

494

78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-06-12

495

76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2011-05-04

496

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

497

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

498

77 FR 31353 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK AGENCY...Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska...Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay,...

2012-05-25

499

DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN: DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................1 DAMS AS OBSTACLES TO MIGRATIONS OF SALMON..........................................5 DEVELOPMENT..............................................................................................6 MORTALITY OF JUVENILE SALMON IN TURBINES ..........................................7 MORTALITY

500

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01