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1

Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council gave the responsibility of developing this project to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. This Model Watershed Plan is intended to be a dynamic plan that helps address these two tasks. It is not intended to be the final say on either. It is also not meant to establish laws, policies, or regulations for the agencies, groups, or individuals who participated in the plan development.

Swift, Ralph

1995-11-01

2

Needs assessment for the Greenway Grand Forks-East Grand Forks development and public education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the flood of 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks (the Greenway) as a flood control measure for Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It extends along both the Red River of the North and the Red Lake River, encompassing 2200 acres of land. The cities of Grand Forks

Laura Munski

2008-01-01

3

Hydraulic geometry and sediment data for the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho, 1985-86  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic geometry, suspended-sediment, and bedload samples were collected at three sites in the upper reach of the South Fork Salmon River drainage basin from April 1985 to June 1986. Sites selected were South Fork Salmon River near Krassel Ranger Station, Buckhorn Creek, and North Fork Lick Creek. Results of the data collection are presented in this report.

Williams, Rhea P.; O'Dell, Ivalou; Megahan, Walter F.

1989-01-01

4

Bedload measurements, East Fork River, Wyoming  

PubMed Central

A bedload trap in the riverbed provided direct quantitative measurement of debris-transport rate in the East Fork River, Wyoming, a basin of 466 km2 drainage area. Traction load moves only during the spring snow melt season. Data collected in three spring runoff seasons during which a peak flow of 45 m3/s occurred showed that transport rate is correlated with power expenditure of the flowing water and at high flows becomes directly proportional to power as suggested by Bagnold. PMID:16592302

Leopold, Luna B.; Emmett, William W.

1976-01-01

5

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of east side; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of east side; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

6

STREAM CHANNEL SEDIMENT CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTH FORK SALMON RIVER, IDAHO, PROGRESS REPORT IV, JUNE 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the South Fork Salmon River (17060208) studies is to determine the condition of the aquatic environment and provide measures needed to maintain or enhance this environment. Prior to 1965, the South Fork Salmon River steadily degraded in quality, due to acceleratio...

7

76 FR 29721 - Lost River and Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon-Challis National Forest; ID; Lost...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon- Challis National Forest; ID; Lost...National Forest System lands managed by the Salmon-Challis National Forest. This project...Lands Center, 1206 S. Challis Street, Salmon, ID 83467; telephone:...

2011-05-23

8

Changes in Salmon Spawning and Rearing Habitat from Increased Delivery of Fine Sediment to the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of surface and subsurface fine sediment (<4.75 mm in diameter) were measured annually from 1965 to 1985 in spawning and rearing areas for chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) in the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Between 1950 and 1965, logging and road construction, in combination with large storm events of 1964 and 1965,

William S. Platts; Richard J. Torquemada; Michael L. McHenry; Charles K. Graham

1989-01-01

9

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N =

Venditti; David A

2003-01-01

10

Bank stability and channel width adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. Bank stability, and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width, in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill. -from Author

Andrews, E.D.

1982-01-01

11

Needs assessment for the Greenway Grand Forks-East Grand Forks development and public education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the flood of 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks (the Greenway) as a flood control measure for Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It extends along both the Red River of the North and the Red Lake River, encompassing 2200 acres of land. The cities of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks hired consultants to assist with the postflood planning process. The planning process culminated with the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine if the development of the Greenway addressed the objectives of the planning report. The history of the land adjacent to the rivers was reviewed to document the progression of riverfront development. Anecdotal evidence was collected, field observations were made, city council minutes were reviewed, Greenway Technical Committee members were interviewed, Greenway Technical Committee minutes were reviewed, and the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks survey results were reviewed to determine if the objectives of the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report were addressed. A cross section survey was designed by Laura Munski for this dissertation research. The survey was approved by the Greenway Technical Committee. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data from the community. The purpose of the survey portion of the research project was to ascertain how residents were kept informed of activities on the Greenway and what amenities residents were using on the Greenway and to solicit their comments regarding the Greenway. The results of the survey research were used in both marketing and event planning for the Greenway. The singular qualitative survey question gave respondents an opportunity to share their comments regarding the Greenway. The qualitative data analysis provided insight to the amenities and educational programs desired by respondents, their concerns regarding the Greenway, and the limitations of public knowledge regarding the Greenway. The Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998) stated that the Greenway could be an excellent resource for supplementing educational curriculums. Greenways provide outdoor classrooms for both formal and informal education. The educational opportunities of other North American greenways were investigated and compared to the educational opportunities of the Greenway.

Munski, Laura

12

South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment activities that move toward road decommissioning to reduce sediment delivery to spawning gravels and rearing habitats by reducing sedimentation from road related, man-made sources. For FY08, the project included the design and implementation of two fish barrier replacement structures mentioned above, the Salt and Profile Creek Bridges. These work elements were to be implemented on Valley County easements within the Payette National Forest. The existing culverts are full or partial barriers to most aquatic life species and all juvenile anadromous and resident fish species. Implementation will reconnect 9.34 miles of habitat, and provide natural stream channels to facilitate complete passage for all aquatic life forms. All designs were completed and a construction subcontract was awarded to construct free span, pre-cast concrete bridges. For 2008, the project statement of work also included all the necessary work elements to manage, coordinate, plan, and develop continuing strategies for restoration and protection activities.

Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

2009-04-15

13

Influences of Hatchery Supplementation, Spawner Distribution, and Habitat on Genetic Structure of Chinook Salmon in the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the genetic influence of hatchery supplementation on distinct naturally spawning populations of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the South Fork Salmon River (SFSR), Idaho. Genetic tissue samples were collected from unmarked natural-origin and McCall Fish Hatchery (MFH)-reared Chinook salmon carcasses, and fish were identified by an adipose fin clip at five main-stem sites located both upstream and downstream

Andrew P. Matala; Shawn R. Narum; William Young; Jason L. Vogel

2012-01-01

14

Anadronous Fish Habitat Enhancement for the Middle Fork and Upper Salmon River, 1988 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The wild and natural salmon and steelhead populations in the Middle Fork and Upper Salmon River are at a critical low. Habitat enhancement through decreasing sediment loads, increasing vegetative cover, removing passage barriers, and providing habitat diversity is imperative to the survival of these specially adapted fish, until passage problems over the Columbia River dams are solved. Personnel from the Boise and Sawtooth National Forests completed all construction work planned for 1988. In Bear Valley, 1573 feet of juniper revetment was constructed at eleven sites, cattle were excluded from 1291 feet of streambanks to prevent bank breakdown, and a small ephemeral gully was filled with juniper trees. Work in the Upper Salmon Drainage consisted of constructing nine rock sills/weirs, two rock deflectors, placing riprap along forty feet of streambank, construction of 2.1 miles of fence on private lands, and opening up the original Valley Creek channel to provide spring chinook passage to the upper watershed. A detailed stream survey of anadromous fish habitat covering 72.0 miles of streams in the Middle Fork Sub-basin was completed.

Andrews, John ( US Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Boise, ID)

1990-01-01

15

BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

1997-10-24

16

Biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Beaty, T.W.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.S.

1997-04-18

17

BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

ADAMS, S.M.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.

1998-09-09

18

Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils  

SciTech Connect

The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child`s digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative.

Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.

1995-05-01

19

Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biologicai Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the compiex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC, These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumuiation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macro invertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five sites, although sites maybe excluded and/or others added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), iocated off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and limited light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1 ). Other sampling sites on EFPC are utilized as appropriate for individual tasks. Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasional 1 y used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Einory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

1998-10-15

20

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

Rowe, Mike

1989-04-01

21

Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45

R. S. Halbrook; J. M. Loar; S. M. Adams; M. C. Black; H. L. Boston; M. S. Jr. Greeley; W. R. Hill; R. L. Hinzman; J. F. McCarthy; M. J. Peterson; M. G. Ryon; E. M. Schilling; J. G. Smith; G. R. Southworth; A. J. Stewart; A. J. Gatz

1991-01-01

22

Tennessee`s East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45

R. S. Halbrook; J. M. Loar; S. M. Adams; M. C. Black; H. L. Boston; M. S. Jr. Greeley; W. R. Hill; R. L. Hinzman; J. F. McCarthy; M. J. Peterson; M. G. Ryon; E. M. Schilling; J. G. Smith; G. R. Southworth; A. J. Stewart; A. J. Gatz

1991-01-01

23

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

24

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

25

Time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River, November 1975; and Elm Fork Trinity River, December 1975; Trinity River Basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In Texas, the time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River and the Elm Fork Trinity River was determined in 1975 by injecting a fluorescent dye (Rhodamine WT, 20-percent solution) that could be detected by fluorometric analysis of water samples collected at selected downstream sites. Plots of dye concentration versus time were made for each injection and sampling site. The graphs were then used to determine arrival times of the leading edge, the peak, and the trailing edge of the dye cloud. The study in November 1975 was conducted on the East Fork Trinity River from just below the Rockwall-Forney Dam at Lake Ray Hubbard to the confluence with the Trinity River, a distance of 27.0 miles. The study in December 1975 was conducted on the Elm Fork Trinity River from just below the dam at Lewisville Lake to the Spur 482 crossing, a distance of 25.7 miles. (Woodard-USGS)

Myers, Dennis R.; Slade, R.M., Jr.

1976-01-01

26

Predicted climate change effects on streambed scour and risks to Chinook salmon survival in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to recent climate warming trends in the Pacific Northwest, the frequency and magnitude of winter floods is expected to increase in some areas where rain-on-snow events occur. Eggs of fall spawning salmonids are incubating in the streambed at this time of year and may be at risk if streambed scour exceeds typical egg burial depths. We investigated how projected trends in streamflow associated with climate change may alter the probability of streambed scour below documented egg burial depths (15-50 cm) for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), central Idaho. Predictions are made for the magnitude and timing of current and future bankfull flows (approximated by the 2-year flood, Q2) at the basin scale by coupling digital elevation models with empirical predictions of grain size and bankfull shear stress, determined from field surveys of 120 channel reaches distributed throughout the basin. Historic and future values of Q2 were derived from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model at the scale of 1/16th degree cells. Future predictions of Q2 were derived from the VIC model using output from an ensemble of Global Climate Models under an A1B emissons scenario for the 2040s and 2080s. Predicted changes in both bankfull flow and the probability of scour to egg burial depths were examined at recent spawning sites (1995-2004 surveys) to assess ecological risk. We found that in the low gradient reaches (Slope <3%) where most spawning occurs, the probability of critical scour was consistently <0.1 under the historic scenario. Future scenarios indicated only a small increase in the length of streams subject to scour in the MFSR, and suggested that this high-elevation system could be largely resistant to climate-driven changes in flow, except under extreme warming scenarios. We are currently extending these analyses to lower elevation basins in rain-dominated and transitional (rain and snow) hydroclimates to assess relative scour sensitivities over a wider range of environmental conditions across the Pacific Northwest.

Goode, J.; Buffington, J. M.; Tonina, D.; Isaak, D.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Wenger, S.; Thurow, R.; Nagel, D.; Luce, C.

2011-12-01

27

Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana, from where the Flatrock and Driftwood Rivers combine to make up East Fork White River to just upstream of the confluence of Clifty Creek with the East Fork White River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03364000&agency_cd=USGS&). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana at their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system Website (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/), that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data), having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02 ft horizontal accuracy), in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The availability of these maps, along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at Columbus, Indiana, and forecasted stream stages from the NWS will provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as evacuations and road closures as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2013-01-01

28

CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION AT THE EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK SITE, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic accidental release of mercury-contaminated material associated with nuclear weapons production at East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulted in stream and floodplain contamination. he EFPC is designated as an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) operable unit under the Comprehensive ...

29

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1990 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

Rowe, Mike

1991-12-01

30

An identification of the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The work in this report was conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, during the period November 1991 through July 1992. The purpose of this study is to identify the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain. This information is required as part of the remedial action plans for removal or containment of contamination within the EFPC floodplain. EFPC and a portion of its floodplain have been contaminated as a result of operations and accidental releases at the Department of Energy`s Y-12 Plant. Mercury is the major contaminant found in EFPC and its floodplain.

NONE

1992-12-01

31

Yankee Fork Stream Survey This page intentionally left blank  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................................20 Riparian VegetationAPPENDIX K Yankee Fork Stream Survey #12;This page intentionally left blank #12;YANKEE FORK OF THE SALMON RIVER 2010 Stream Survey Report Salmon-Challis National Forest Yankee Fork Ranger District #12

32

Habitat Selection Influences Sex Distribution, Morphology, Tissue Biochemistry, and Parasite Load of Juvenile Coho Salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon's West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals were to compare the body morphology, tissue biochemistry, genetics, and parasite load and determine whether sex,

Kenneth J. Rodnick; Sophie St.-Hilaire; Pavan K. Battiprolu; Steven M. Seiler; Michael L. Kent; Madison S. Powell; Joseph L. Ebersole

2008-01-01

33

Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon?s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

34

Effects of controlled burning of chaparral on streamflow and sediment characteristics, East Fork Sycamore Creek, central Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of controlled burning of part of a chaparral-covered drainage basin on streamflow and sediment characteristics were studied in the upper reaches of the Sycamore Creek basin in central Arizona. A paired-watershed method was used to analyze data collected in two phases separated by the controlled burning of 45 percent of the East Fork Sycamore Creek drainage basin by the U.S. Forest Service on October 31, 1981. Statistically significant increases in streamflow in East Fork occurred from October 26, 1982, through August 25, 1984. Streamflow for August 26, 1984, through the end of data collection for the study on May 31, 1986, was generally at or less than preburn levels. An increase in the percentage of time that flow occurred in East Fork was noted for water years 1983 and 1984. No increase in the magnitude of instantaneous peak flows as a result of the burn was discernable at statistically significant levels. Suspended-sediment yields computed for data collected during water year 1983 were significantly greater in the East Fork drainage basin, 546 tons per square mile, than in the West Fork drainage basin, 22.6 tons per square mile. Suspended-sediment yields computed for East Fork and West Fork for water year 1985, 38.3 and 13.3 tons per square mile, respectively, were much closer in yield. These more uniform yields indicate a possible return to preburn conditions. Data collection did not begin until 11 months after the burn; therefore, the largest increases in streamflow and sediment yields, which commonly occur during the year after a burn, may not have been measured. During the second through fourth years after the burn, smaller increases in stream- flow and sediment yields were found in this study than were found in similar studies in this region.

Baldys, Stanley; Hjalmarson, H.W.

1994-01-01

35

An investigation of shallow ground-water quality near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radio-nuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the U.S. Department of Energy 's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. (USGS)

Carmichael, J.K.

1989-01-01

36

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-10-01

37

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, SALMON RIVER, MAIN STEM (HEADWATERS TO BELOW MIDDLE FORK), IDAHO, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Fifteen water quality stations in the Salmon River Basin (17060201, 17060203) were sampled bi-weekly for a year. Eight of the stations were on the Main Salmon River and the remaining seven represented the major tributaries. This portion of the study extended from Stanley to bel...

38

Monitoring, Modeling, and Emergent Toxicology in the East Fork Watershed: Developing a Test Bed for Water Quality Management.  

EPA Science Inventory

Overarching objectives for the development of the East Fork Watershed Test Bed in Southwestern Ohio include: 1) providing research infrastructure for integrating risk assessment and management research on the scale of a large multi-use watershed (1295 km2); 2) Focusing on process...

39

Waste management plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Plant Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain. The waste management plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the LEFPC remedial action. Most of the solid wastes will be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y- 12 facilities. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, along with possible low-level or mixed wastes (> 35 pCi/g). Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary and capable of being disposed of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant, except sanitary sewage.

NONE

1996-04-01

40

Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program  

SciTech Connect

On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were best'' or worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature.

Halbrook, R.S. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)); Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Gatz, A.J. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States))

1991-01-01

41

Tennessee`s East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program  

SciTech Connect

On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge`s Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ``best`` or ``worst`` for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature.

Halbrook, R.S. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States); Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gatz, A.J. [Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)

1991-12-31

42

Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs.

NONE

1994-09-01

43

Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices, Volume 4, Appendix V-C  

SciTech Connect

This is the the final verification run data package for pilot scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are data on volatiles, semivolatiles, and TCLP volatiles.

NONE

1994-09-01

44

Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the organization, strategy, and procedures to be used to confirm that mercury concentrations in soils in the remediated areas are statistically less than, or equal to, the cleanup standard of 400 ppm. It focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of the Lower East Fork Popular Creed flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its associated flood plain.

NONE

1996-12-01

45

Waste Management Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain upon completion of remediation activities. This effort will be conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for LEFPC as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) action. The Waste Management Plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the remedial action for the LEFPC Project Most of the solid wastes will be considered to be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y-12 facilities for those types of waste. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, and the possibility of low- level or mixed waste exists (greater than 35 pCi/g), although these are not expected. Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary in nature and which will be capable of being disposed 0214 of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant.

NONE

1996-08-01

46

Quarterly Progress Report on the Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program ( BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.

1996-12-30

47

Post construction report for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project, Phase 1, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Phase 1 Remedial Action (RA) effort was conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action. The LEFPC, Phase 1 RA removed approximately 5,560 yd{sup 3} of mercury-contaminated soils, {ge} 400 ppm, from selected portions of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) site LEFPC floodplain from July 8, 1996--September 14, 1996. During excavation activities, pockets of elevated radiologically contaminated soils (greater than 35 pCi/g) were located by the continuous monitoring of the excavation areas and contaminated soils with radiological monitoring instruments. Through characterization sampling it has been determined that {approximately} 90 yd{sup 3} are less than 35 pCi/g uranium contaminated and will be transported to the Y-12 Landfill V for disposal and the remaining {approximately}40 yd{sup 3} do not meet the WAC for radiological constituents included in the Special Waste Permit for Landfill V. The radiologically contaminated soil will be placed in 21st Century containers for storage at the K-25 site.

NONE

1996-11-01

48

An inventory of wetlands in the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

An inventory of wetlands within the floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee was conducted during October, 1991 through May, 1992 for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District. About 15 miles of EFPC channel and 500 acres of its floodplain are contaminated with mercury and other contaminants released from the Y-12 Plant on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The wetland inventory will serve as baseline information for DOE`s remedial action planning and National Environmental Policy Act compliance efforts related to the contamination. In order to provide broad wetland determinations beyond which future wetland definitions are unlikely to expand, the 1989 Federal Manual for Identifying And Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands was utilized. Using the manual`s methodology in a contaminated system under the approved health and safety plan presented some unique problems, resulting in intrusive sampling for field indicators of hydric soils being accomplished separately from observation of other criteria. Beginning with wetland areas identified on National Wetland Inventory Maps, the entire floodplain was examined for presence of wetland criteria, and 17 wetlands were identified ranging from 0.01 to 2.81 acres in size. The majority of wetlands identified were sized under 1 acre. Some of the wetlands identified were not delineated on the National Wetland Inventory Maps, and much of the wetland area delineated on the maps did not meet the criteria under the 1989 manual.

NONE

1992-12-01

49

Remedial design work plan for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This remedial action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing contaminated floodplain soil. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (1992). In accordance with the FFA, a remedial investigation (RI) (DOE 1994a) and a feasibility study (DOE 1994b) were conducted to assess contamination of the Lower EFPC and propose remediation alternatives. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative by the feasibility study was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Following the remedial investigation/feasibility study, and also in accordance with the FFA, a proposed plan was prepared to more fully describe the proposed remedy.

NONE

1995-10-01

50

Some Effects of Mt. St. Helens Volcanic Ash on Juvenile Salmon Smolts  

E-print Network

East, Seattle, WA981l2. ABSTRA CT-Chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and sockeye, O. nerka, salmon. St. Helens occurred during the seaward migration of juvenile Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp. tshawytscha, smolts (mean fork length = 129 ± 13 mm) were obtained from the Leavenworth Na- tional Fish

51

Those Dammed Flat-bottomed Alpine Valleys III: The East Fork of the San Juan River, Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual field trip takes students to the East Fork of the San Juan River east of Pagosa Springs, Colorado, and west of the Continental Divide. Photos, written narrative, and thought questions for students explain how a landslde once blocked the river, creating a broad floodplain in what is otherwise mountainous terrain. There is also a brief discussion of how the sediments (sands and gravels) in the valley act to moderate the flow of the river by storing water from heavy rains or snowfall, which then drains out during times of drought, keeping water flowing in the stream.

52

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Northern Water Snakes ( Nerodia sipedon ) from East Fork Poplar Creek and the Little River, East Tennessee, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the blood, kidney, liver, muscle, and skin of northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) collected from the upper reach of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the United States Department of Energy’s (USDOE’s) Y-12 National Security Complex with concentrations in tissues of northern water snakes from a

K. R. Campbell; T. S. Campbell; J. Burger

2005-01-01

53

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-10-18

54

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-04-18

55

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-07-18

56

Climate-driven changes in scour regime and potential risks to salmonid survival in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing and magnitude of streamflow in the Pacific Northwest show measurable changes to twentieth century climate change. How the physical characteristics of fluvial systems in this region will respond, and how such changes will affect salmonid species remain unresolved questions. Flow and sediment transport conditions during the spawning and incubation periods are of particular concern. To enhance survival, the depth of egg burial must exceed the depth to which the bed scours during flows within the incubation period. Here, we investigate whether climate-driven shifts in the timing and depth of bed scour will impact salmonid spawning success in the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), Idaho. The MFSR is a snowmelt-dominated system that supports federally listed salmonids, and is the largest unregulated basin in the conterminous US. As a first-order analysis, we ask whether changes in the magnitude and timing of the typical annual flood (i.e., bankfull) will affect scour risk for incubating salmonids. The spatial distribution of critical scour (that which exceeds egg burial depths for different salmonid populations of interest) is predicted at basin scales using current bed material grain size and bankfull shear stress. Grain size and bankfull shear stress are predicted from empirical functions of drainage area and slope determined from field surveys of 121 channel reaches, coupled with digital elevation models to extrapolate these relationships across the landscape. The spatial distribution of critical scour for predicted changes in bankfull flow (altered magnitude and timing) are compared to known salmonid spawning sites within the basin to assess location of scour risk. Future work will examine predicted changes in the magnitude and variability of flows during the incubation period, as well as differences in predicted impacts across a range of hydroclimates (snowmelt- vs. rainfall-dominated basins) in the western US and Europe.

Goode, J.; Buffington, J. M.; Isaak, D.; Tonina, D.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Tockner, K.; Thurow, R.; McKean, J. A.; Luce, C.; Wenger, S.; Nagel, D.

2010-12-01

57

Human and ecological remediation goals for soil mercury at East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN  

SciTech Connect

Mercury, used in the past production of enriched lithium by the Department of Energy, is the principal chemical of concern in the 14-mile floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). SAIC has developed risk-based remediation goal options (RGOS) for mercury in EFPC soils to protect the most sensitive human receptors. The existing chronic oral RfD for mercury is based on exposure of laboratory species to mercuric chloride. However, speciation and leaching/availability studies (conducted by EPA EMSL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) indicated less soluble and less toxic mercury species, principally mercuric sulfide, with measurable quantities of metallic mercury also present, predominate in EFPC floodplain soils. SAIC derived human health RGOs using deterministic and probabilistic methods and incorporated the probability density function for bioavailability of mercury species from leaching/availability data generated by ORNL. Monte Carlo simulation was used in uncertainty analysis and supported the derivation of a protective, but realistic risk-based remediation goal of 400 mg mercury/kg soil. For ecological risk assessment, RGOs were based on risks through food chains from contaminants in soil. The authors describe a terrestrial food-chain model of contaminant transfer to primary producers, first-order consumers, mid-level predators, and top-level predators. The model uses published toxicity data, site-specific contaminant concentrations, and bioaccumulation factors calculated from measured body burdens of floodplain organisms to compute RGOs for various combinations of exposure parameters. Model calculations show that under reasonably conservative conditions, mid-level predators have the highest exposures relative to dietary limits and, therefore, require the lowest soil-mercury RGOs. Mercury concentrations of {approximately}500 mg/kg are protective of the receptor populations exposed through food chains at this site.

Zafran, F.A.; Cornaby, B.W.; Hadden, C.T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States). Engineering and Environmental Compliance Group; [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

58

Remedial design work plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been prepared. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative, as stated in the Record of Decision (ROD) was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Thereafter, a public hearing was held to review the proposed plan. Comments were incorporated. The revised selected remedy, per the ROD is to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated above the remediation goal of 400 parts per million mercury. The approved ROD with this goal will be the basis for remedial design (RD). The RD work plan (RDWP) is composed of six chapters. An introductory chapter describes the purpose and scope of the RDWP, the selected remedy as identified by the ROD; the roles and responsibilities of the RD team members, and the site background information, including site history, contaminants of concern, and site characteristics. Chapter 2 contains the design objectives, RD approach, regulatory considerations during RD, and the design criteria with assumptions. Chapter 3 presents the RD planning process to prepare this RDWP, as well as secondary RD support plans. Chapter 4 describes the scope of the RD activities in more detail and identifies what will be included in the design package. Chapter 5 presents the schedule for performance of the RD activities, identifying key RD milestones. Specific documents used in the preparation of this document are referenced in Chapter 6.

NONE

1996-02-01

59

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

2001-01-19

60

Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of post-breach reservoir erosion and of geomorphic recovery from the disturbances produced by dam removal has been rapid, far exceeding pre-breach predictions.Table 1: Comparison of Milltown and Condit Dam removals

Wilcox, A. C.

2012-12-01

61

Mercury and Selenium Concentrations in Biofilm, Macroinvertebrates, and Fish Collected in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and Their Potential Effects on Fish Health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yankee Fork is a large tributary of the Salmon River located in central Idaho, USA, with an extensive history of placer and dredge-mining activities. Concentrations of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in various aquatic trophic levels were measured in the Yankee Fork during 2001 and 2002. Various measurements of fish health were also performed. Sites included four on the mainstem of the Yankee Fork and two off-channel sites in partially reclaimed dredge pools used as rearing habitat for cultured salmonid eggs and fry. Hg concentrations in whole mountain whitefish and shorthead sculpin ranged from 0.28 to 0.56 ?g/g dry weight (dw), concentrations that are generally less than those reported to have significant impacts on fish. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.05 to 0.43 ?g Hg/g dw. Se concentrations measured in biota samples from the Yankee Fork were greater than many representative samples collected in the Snake and Columbia watersheds and often exceeded literature-based toxic thresholds. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.58 to 4.66 ?g Se/g dw. Whole fish ranged from 3.92 to 7.10 ?g Se/g dw, and gonads ranged from 6.91 to 31.84 ?g Se/g dw. Whole-body Se concentrations exceeded reported toxicological thresholds at three of four sites and concentrations in liver samples were mostly greater than concentrations shown to have negative impacts on fish health. Histological examinations performed during this study noted liver abnormalities, especially in shorthead sculpin, a bottom-dwelling species.

Rhea, Darren T.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; McConnell, Elizabeth; Brumbaugh, William G.

2013-01-01

62

Mercury and selenium concentrations in biofilm, macroinvertebrates, and fish collected in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and their potential effects on fish health.  

PubMed

The Yankee Fork is a large tributary of the Salmon River located in central Idaho, USA, with an extensive history of placer and dredge-mining activities. Concentrations of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in various aquatic trophic levels were measured in the Yankee Fork during 2001 and 2002. Various measurements of fish health were also performed. Sites included four on the mainstem of the Yankee Fork and two off-channel sites in partially reclaimed dredge pools used as rearing habitat for cultured salmonid eggs and fry. Hg concentrations in whole mountain whitefish and shorthead sculpin ranged from 0.28 to 0.56 ?g/g dry weight (dw), concentrations that are generally less than those reported to have significant impacts on fish. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.05 to 0.43 ?g Hg/g dw. Se concentrations measured in biota samples from the Yankee Fork were greater than many representative samples collected in the Snake and Columbia watersheds and often exceeded literature-based toxic thresholds. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.58 to 4.66 ?g Se/g dw. Whole fish ranged from 3.92 to 7.10 ?g Se/g dw, and gonads ranged from 6.91 to 31.84 ?g Se/g dw. Whole-body Se concentrations exceeded reported toxicological thresholds at three of four sites and concentrations in liver samples were mostly greater than concentrations shown to have negative impacts on fish health. Histological examinations performed during this study noted liver abnormalities, especially in shorthead sculpin, a bottom-dwelling species. PMID:23080409

Rhea, Darren T; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; McConnell, Elizabeth; Brumbaugh, William G

2013-01-01

63

Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The East Fork Regime encompasses several confirmed and suspected sources of groundwater contamination within industrialized areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Groundwater and surface water monitoring in the East Fork Regime are performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the East Fork Regime issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) on August 30, 1996. The post-closure permit addresses post-closure monitoring requirements for two closed RCRA-regulated surface impoundments: the S-3 Ponds and New Hope Pond.

NONE

1997-02-01

64

Challenges and opportunities of mercury remediation in East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the release of a large quantity of mercury (Hg) in the 1950s and early 1960s resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in source areas, as well as in water and streambed of the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Remedial actions at Y-12 NSC have reduced Hg inputs into EFPC by >90% since the early 1980s, but the site and EFPC remain contaminated with inorganic Hg and methylmercury, leading to an elevated Hg in biota. The spatial distribution, speciation, and the extent of Hg contamination in the subsurface of the source zone remain poorly understood. Our research aims to both delineate mercury subsurface distribution and mercury transformation at the water-sediment interface where steep biogeochemical gradients are present. We report initial research results on field coring/characterization, where large amounts of Hg were present as elemental Hg beads near the source area. Hg speciation analysis and chemical reduction to decrease Hg from the headwaters of EFPC were also studied. Our work shows the importance of kinetic controls in this system that receives a constant source of inorganic mercury which becomes increasingly complexed with natural dissolved organic matter (DOM, at <3 mg/L) along its flow path. The formation of strong Hg-DOM complexes prevents Hg(II) from being reduced by stannous chloride (SnCl2), and the magnitude of the effect increases with distance downstream. Therefore, field manipulative tests were conducted at the headwater to evaluate chemical reduction using Sn(II) to convert dissolved Hg(II), to dissolved gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0). Our results show that, when Na2S2O3 was used as dechlorinating agent and SnCl2 as the chemical reductant, approximately 35% of the total Hg in the headwater was converted to Hg(0). Additional Hg was mobilized in the drainage pipe by complexation with the added S2O32-. Using ascorbic acid as a dechlorinating agent, however, resulted an effective removal of residue chlorine and also a conversion of ~15% of the Hg(II) to Hg(0). Addition of Sn(II) following dechlorination achieved an overall conversion of Hg(II) to Hg(0) of 92% in the headwater. The fate of residue Hg varies, but often results in methylmercury formation in natural waters. The biogeochemical factors are found to closely link to the type of the bacteria, as shown by the correlation of methylmercury and a sulfate reducer Desulfobulbus spp in EFPC. Efforts continue to seek a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern Hg transformation and behavior, which may provide technology solutions to mitigate the adverse impact on the environment.

Liang, L.; Gu, B.; Brooks, S. C.; Miller, C. L.; He, F.; Elias, D.; Watson, D. B.; Peterson, M. J.

2010-12-01

65

Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC Appendices, Volume 2, Appendix V-A  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information concerning validation of analytical data for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Floodplain soils located at the Y-12 Plant site. This volume is an appendix of compiled data from this validation process.

NONE

1994-09-01

66

Use of a rainfall-runoff model for simulating effects of forest management on streamflow in the east Fork Lobster Creek Basin, Oregon. Water resources investigation  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the results of model calibration and validation, and evaluates the extent to which runoff response to timber harvesting and increased road densities in East Fork Lobster Creek Basin can be simulated, using Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a deterministic, destributed-parameter-modeling system.

Nakama, L.Y.; Risley, J.C.

1993-12-31

67

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part III, river hydraulics and sediment transport, 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frequent measurements of river stage, water discharge, sediment-transport rate and particle-size gradation, and river slope were made at 44 cross sections along a 1.83-kilometer reach of East Fork River, Wyoming, during the spring 1980 snowmelt runoff. Data are tabulated and explanatory text facilitates its use for description of river hydraulics and sediment transport. (USGS)

Emmett, W.W.; Myrick, R.M.; Meade, R.H.

1982-01-01

68

Influence of Natural Sources on Mercury in Water, Sediment and Aquatic Biota in Seven Tributary Streams of the East Fork of the Upper Carson River, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The East Fork of the Upper Carson River (EFUCR) drainagebasin contains the Leviathan mine site, a known source of acidmine drainage, and numerous small prospects and mineralizedareas, some of which are enriched in mercury. In 1999 aninvestigation was undertaken to characterize total mercuryconcentrations in water, sediment, and whole aquaticmacroinvertebrates from seven tributaries of the EFUCR watershedon a seasonal time step.

Peter Fischer; Mae Sexauer Gustin

2002-01-01

69

GENE EXPRESSION ALTERATIONS OBSERVED IN PRIMARY CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES AFTER TREATMENT WITH CHLORINATED OR CHLORINATED AND OZONATED DRINKING WATER FROM EAST FORK LAKE, OHIO  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water from East Fork Lake was spiked with iodide and bromide, disinfected with chlorine or ozone + chlorine, concentrated ~100-fold using reverse osmosis, and volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs) added back. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to full-strength, 1:10...

70

Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

NONE

1996-04-01

71

Late Cretaceous Middle Fork caldera and its resurgent granite porphyry intrusion, east-central Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Named for the Middle Fork of the North Fork of the Fortymile River, the Middle Fork caldera encompasses a 10 x 20 km area of rhyolite welded tuff and granite porphyry ~100 km west of the Yukon border. Intracaldera tuff has ?4 mm quartz and feldspar phenocrysts and cm-sized fiamme; its maximum exposed thickness is 850 m. Less densely welded tuff near the caldera margins locally contains 1-2 cm K-feldspar megacrysts and pumice clasts to 6 cm. Zircon from intracaldera tuff yields a SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age of 68.7 ± 1.1 Ma (all ages 95% confidence). Granite porphyry occupies much of an 8 x 12 km area having 650 m of relief within the western part of the caldera fill. Zircon from the porphyry gives a SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age of 68.4 ± 1.0 Ma. These ages agree with a previous 40Ar/39Ar biotite age of 69.1 ± 0.5 Ma for proximal outflow tuff. The crystal-rich intracaldera tuff contains embayed quartz, plagioclase>K-feldspar, biotite, and Fe-Ti oxide phenocrysts in a very fine-grained crystalline groundmass. The porphyry carries 40-50% of larger phenocrysts of the same phases (skeletal quartz to 1 cm; K-feldspar to 2 cm, rarely to 4 cm) in a fine-grained groundmass characterized by abundant 50-100 ?m quartz. Compositions of 3 tuff and 3 porphyry samples overlap, form a limited differentiation series at 69-72% SiO2, have arc geochemical signatures, and yield subparallel chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns with light REE enrichment, concave-upward heavy REE, and small negative Eu anomalies. Although their phenocrysts differ in size (owing to fragmentation of crystals in the tuff) and abundance, the similar mineralogy, composition (in spite of crystal concentration in the tuff), and indistinguishable ages of the tuff and porphyry indicate that the magmas were closely related. A rare magmatic enclave (54% SiO2, arc geochemical signature) in the porphyry may be similar to parental magma and provides evidence of mafic magma and thermal input. The porphyry is interpreted to have been exposed by erosion of thick intracaldera tuff from an asymmetric resurgent dome. The Middle Fork of the North Fork of the Fortymile River cuts an arcuate valley into and around the caldera on the west and north, and may have cut down from an original caldera moat. Proximal outflow tuff, and thus the 69 Ma land surface, remains at the west margin of the caldera structure. The Middle Fork caldera lies within a region of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesozoic plutons bounded by northeast-trending faults. To the northwest, Cretaceous plutonic rocks are widely exposed, indicating greater exhumation. The Middle Fork is a relatively well preserved caldera within a broad region of Alaska and adjacent Yukon that contains Late Cretaceous plutons and, in the less deeply exhumed blocks, silicic volcanic rocks.

Bacon, C. R.; Dusel-Bacon, C.; Aleinikoff, J. N.; Slack, J. F.

2012-12-01

72

Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere.

NONE

1994-09-01

73

Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site (1) is intended as an educational resource, but is also fit for a general audience as it introduces salmon, their habitat, the need for conservation, and salmon fisheries. The next site is from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Fish FAQs (2) and has several pages of salmon FAQs, all of which can be found by using the next button. The third resource from an Anthropology course at Oregon State University (3) gives an account of the changing Columbia River Basin and the status of commercial fisheries in the region. The King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Web site (4) has information on salmon conservation and recovery efforts in King County. Research papers on salmon and other Pacific Northwest fishes are provided on this Northwest Fisheries Science Center page (5). The Web site for the organization Wild Olympic Salmon (6) celebrates the successful recovery of summer chum salmon to Chimacum Creek. The Wild Salmon Center (7), a nonprofit organization formed to protect salmon and their habitat, provides numerous links to salmon conservation information. Some interesting video clips of salmon runs were caught on tape by the King County Salmon Cam (8).

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

74

Phase 2 confirmatory sampling data report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A Remedial Investigation of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) concluded that mercury is the principal contaminant of concern in the EFPC floodplain. The highest concentrations of mercury were found to be in a visually distinct black layer of soil that typically lies 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in.) below the surface. Mercury contamination was found to be situated in distinct areas along the floodplain, and generally at depths > 20 cm (8 in.) below the surface. In accordance with Comprehensive, Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a feasibility study was prepared to assess alternatives for remediation, and a proposed plan was issued to the public in which a preferred alternative was identified. In response to public input, the plan was modified and US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Record of Decision in 1995 committing to excavating all soil in the EFPC floodplain exceeding a concentration of 400 parts per million (ppm) of mercury. The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) remedial action (RA) focuses on the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the city of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its associated floodplain. Specific areas were identified that required remediation at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Site along Illinois Avenue and at the Bruner Site along the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The RA was conducted in two separate phases. Phase 2, conducted from February to October 1997, completed the remediation efforts at the NOAA facility and fully remediated the Bruner Site. During both phases, data were collected to show that the remedial efforts performed at the NOAA and Bruner sites were successful in implementing the Record of Decision and had no adverse impact on the creek water quality or the city of Oak Ridge publicly owned treatment works.

NONE

1998-01-01

75

Salmon Patties Ingredients  

E-print Network

Salmon Patties Ingredients: 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 15 ounces salmon, canned 1 cup whole wheat to medium. 2. While skillet is heating, open can of salmon and add to bowl. Use a fork to remove skin to bowl with salmon. 5. Use hands to mix ingredients together and shape mixture into eight patties. 6. Add

Liskiewicz, Maciej

76

Long-term water-quality changes in East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee: background, trends, and potential biological consequences.  

PubMed

We review long-term changes that have occurred in factors affecting water quality in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC; in East Tennessee) over a nearly 25-year monitoring period. Historically, the stream has received wastewaters and pollutants from a major United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility on the headwaters of the stream. Early in the monitoring program, EFPC was perturbed chemically, especially within its headwaters; evidence of this perturbation extended downstream for many kilometers. The magnitude of this perturbation, and the concentrations of many biologically significant water-quality factors, has lessened substantially through time. The changes in water-quality factors resulted from a large number of operational changes and remedial actions implemented at the DOE facility. Chief among these were consolidation and elimination of many effluents, elimination of an unlined settling/flow equalization basin, reduction in amount of blow-down from cooling tower operations, dechlorination of effluents, and implementation of flow augmentation. Although many water-quality characteristics in upper EFPC have become more similar to those of reference streams, conditions remain far from pristine. Nutrient enrichment may be one of the more challenging problems remaining before further biological improvements occur. PMID:21380789

Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G; Loar, James M

2011-06-01

77

Flooding in Grand Forks, North Dakota in 1997  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flood waters inundated Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota.The picture is looking west to Grand Forks, North Dakota and the  USGS gage house is the small white square in the center of the picture....

78

Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 6. Appendix VI-X  

SciTech Connect

This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 6, Appendix VI - X. These appendices cover the following areas: chain of custody, miscellaneous process calculations (residence time and orifice plate calculations), waste management (mercury and radiation confirmatory testing before and after final verification run), health and safety (training, respirator fit test and radiation work permits), and transportation (soil receipt documentation).

NONE

1994-09-01

79

An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

1989-04-01

80

Floods on North Toe River and Beaver, Grassy, and East Fork Grassy Creeks in the vicinity of Spruce Pine, North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

This flood hazard information report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of the North Toe River and Beaver, Grassy, and East Fork Grassy Creeks in the vicinity of Spruce Pine, North Carolina. It was prepared in response to a request by the town for up-to-date information regarding the flood potential along the studied stream reaches in order to better administer the local floodplain management program.

Not Available

1985-09-01

81

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for East Fork White River, Bartholomew County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in East Fork White River, Bartholomew County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that benthic-oxygen demand and the headwater concentrations of carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand, nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration of East Fork White River downstream from the Columbus wastewater-treatment facility. The effect of effluent from the facility on the water quality of East Fork White River was minimal. The model also indicates that, with a benthic-oxygen demand of approximately 0.65 gram per square meter per day, the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity during summer low flows. Regardless of the quality of the Columbus wastewater effluent, the minimum 24-hour average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams, would not be met. Ammonia toxicity is not a limiting water-quality criterion during summer and winter low flows. During winter low flows, the current carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Columbus wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard. (USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.; Crawford, Charles G.

1979-01-01

82

Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

NONE

1994-09-01

83

Investigation of increased mercury levels in the fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (Lefpc), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting remediation efforts on the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility and within downstream riparian zones. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of aqueous phase elemental mercury (Hg deg. A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC. Small (mg/L) quantities of un-sulphured molasses and peptone were added to some of the Hinds Creek samples to stimulate initial bacterial growth. Other Hinds Creek samples either were dosed with glutaraldehyde to preclude microbial growth, or were wrapped in aluminum foil to preclude Hg photochemical redox effects. The bench-scale testing for Phase II was completed August 2006. The final reporting and the planning for Phase III testing are in progress. (authors)

Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., 200 Technology Way, Butte, MT (United States); Southworth, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sims, L. [Bechtel Jacobs Company, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2007-07-01

84

Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

1993-06-01

85

First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

1992-07-01

86

Postremediation monitoring program baseline assessment report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) and its floodplain are contaminated with mercury (Hg) from ongoing and historical releases from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A remedial investigation and feasibility study of LEFPC resulted in the signing of a Record of Decision (ROD) in August 1995. In response to the ROD, soil contaminated with mercury above 400 mg/kg was removed from two sites in LEFPC and the floodplain during a recently completed remedial action (RA). The Postremediation Monitoring Program (PMP) outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan was envisioned to occur in two phases: (1) a baseline assessment prior to remediation and (2) postremediation monitoring. The current report summarizes the results of the baseline assessment of soil, water, biota, and groundwater usage in LEFPC and its floodplain conducted in 1995 and 1996 by personnel of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). This report also includes some 1997 data from contaminated sites that did not undergo remediation during the RA (i.e., sites where mercury is greater than 200 mg/kg but less than 400 mg/kg). The baseline assessment described in this document is distinct and separate from both the remedial investigation/feasibility study the confirmatory sampling conducted by SAIC during the RA. The purpose of the current assessment was to provide preremediation baseline data for the LEFPC PMP outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan, using common approaches and techniques, as specified in that plan.

Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Ashwood, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Rash, C.D.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc. (United States)

1998-04-01

87

Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fish kill for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the monitoring of fish kills in upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) from July 1990 to June 1993. Since the opening of Lake Reality (LR) in 1988, total numbers of fish inhabiting upper EFPC have increased. However, species diversity has remained poor. Water quality data have been collected in upper EFPC during the time period covered in this report. Total residual chlorine (TRC) levels have exceeded federal and state water quality criteria over the years. However, with the installation of two dechlorination systems in late 1992, TRC levels have been substantially lowered in most portions of upper EFPC. By June 1993, concentrations of TRC were 0.04 to 0.06 mg/L at the north-south pipes (NSP) and below detection limits at sampling station AS-8 and were 0 to 0.01 mg/L at the inlet and outlet of LR. The daily chronic fish mortality in upper EFPC has been attributed to background stress resulting from the continuous discharge of chlorine into upper EFPC. Mean daily mortality rates for 22 acute fish kills were three fold or more above background and usually exceeded ten fish per day. Total number of dead fish collected per acute kill event ranged from 30 to over 1,000 fish; predominant species killed were central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus). Spills or elevated releases of toxic chemicals, such as acids, organophosphates, aluminum nitrate, ammonia, or chlorine, were identified as possible causative agents; however, a definitive cause-effect relationship was rarely established for any acute kills. Ambient toxicity testing, in situ chemical monitoring, and streamside experiments were used to examine TRC dynamics and ambient toxicity in EFPC.

Etnier, E.L.; Opresko, D.M.; Talmage, S.S. [eds.

1994-08-01

88

The Influence of Climate Change and Fire on Sediment Transport and Aquatic Habitat: a Case Study of the South Fork of Salmon River Basin, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the western United States, climate change is predicted to increase fire severity and frequency, decrease snowpack, and alter the timing and volume of runoff. Wildfire often increases hillslope erosion rates, which alter the timing, quantity and grain-size distribution of sediment supplied to streams. In addition, extreme flood events may become more frequent with climate change and will impact the channel morphology, grain-size distributions and aquatic habitat. To understand the influence of climatically induced alterations in flow hydrographs and hillslope erosion rates, a one-dimensional bedload transport model is used to calculate sediment and flow routing through the South Fork of the Salmon River. The model includes a channel network with drainage areas between 1.5 to 125 square kilometers. To understand the impact of increased hillslope erosion rates, we varied the amount and grain size distribution of supplied sediment between model runs while holding the flow hydrograph constant (rain vs. snow dominated). We also use data collected from an extreme flood event in June 2010, which was the highest recorded flow on record, as a proxy for the impact of climate change. We measured the grain size distributions, and channel dimensions in seventeen channels before and after this event. These parameters only changed significantly in channels with large sediment inputs from landslides. We also model the following two scenarios: 1) pre-event channel and sediment supply conditions combined with a snowmelt dominated hydrograph and 2) post-event channel and sediment supply conditions combined with the extreme event hydrograph. We compare the predicted channel slopes, grain size distributions, flow hydraulics (e.g. flow velocity, shear stress) and bedload fluxes between each model run and throughout the channel network. Such calculations are used to better understand the impact of sediment supply and flow hydrographs on channel stability, and aquatic habitat suitability (e.g. grain size, flow hydraulics) for a number of threatened and endangered species in Idaho.

Neupane, S.; Yager, E. M.

2010-12-01

89

Data that describe at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload; East Fork River, Wyoming, and Fall River, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data from the East Fork River, Wyoming, and the Fall River, Colorado, that document at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload, associated with the downstream migration of dunes, are presented. Bedload sampling was undertaken, using a 76.2 x 76.2 mm Helley-Smith sampler, on three separate occasions at each site in June 1988. In each instance, the sampling time was 30 seconds and the sampling intervals 5 minutes. The sampling period ranged from 4.92 to 8.25 hours. Water stage did not vary appreciably during any of the sampling periods. (USGS)

Gomez, Basil; Emmett, W.W.

1990-01-01

90

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy s Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated oncethrough cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody s biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Smith, John G [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL

2011-01-01

91

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

2011-06-01

92

A retrospective study of the chemical analysis cost for the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study of the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee was completed. The study was conducted by reviewing the public Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act record documents associated with the remediation of LEFPC and through discussions with the project staff involved or familiar with the project. The remediation took place in two phases. The first phase involved the excavation of about 5,560 yd{sup 3} of soil at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) locations in 1996. The second phase involved the excavation of 39,200 yd{sup 3} at another NOAA location and at the Bruner location in 1997. For the entire project (remedial investigation through cleanup), a total of 7,708 samples (1 sample for each 5.8 yd{sup 3} of soil remediated) were analyzed for mercury. The project obtained special regulatory approval to use two methods for the determination of mercury in soils that are not part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SW-846 methods manual. The mercury analysis cost was $678,000, which represents 9.6% of the cleanup cost. During the cleanup phase of the project, an on-site laboratory was used. The estimated cost savings that the on-site laboratory provided fall into two categories: direct reduction of costs associated with chemical analysis and sample shipment totaling approximately $38,000, which represents a 5.3% savings relative to the estimated cost of using an off-site laboratory, and savings in the amount of $890,000 (12.5% of the $7.1 M cleanup cost), associated with expediting execution of the cleanup work by providing rapid (< 3 hours) sample result turnaround time. The manner in which the analytical services were procured for the LEFPC project suggest that the development of new chemical analysis technology must address deployment, performance, regulatory, robustness, reliability, and business appropriateness factors if the technology is to be used in environmental remediation.

Klatt, L.N.

1998-06-01

93

Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation Wd Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the PCP defines the RCRA post-closure corrective action monitoring requirements for the portion of the groundwater contaminant plume that has migrated into the East Fork Regime ftom the S-3 Ponds, a closed RCW-regulated former surface impoundment located in Bear Creek Valley near the west end of the Y-12 Plant. In addition to the RCIL4 post-closure corrective action monitoring results, this report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 to fulfill requirements of DOE Order 5400.1.

Jones, S.B.

1998-02-01

94

A description of the hydrologic system and the effects of coal mining on water quality in the East Fork Little Chariton River and the alluvial aquifer between Macon and Huntsville, north-central Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of surface and groundwater has been affected by abandoned strip mines and by abandoned underground mines in a 110-sq mi subbasin of the East Fork Little Chariton River. More than 14% of the area was strip mined for coal before 1979. The hydrologic system in the area was investigated and the effects of coal mining on quality of water in the river and alluvial aquifer were analyzed, with major emphasis on defining strip-mining effects. The groundwater gradient was from glacial drift or coal spring to alluvium to the East Fork Little Chariton River, and was greatest in spring and least in fall. Seepage from alluvium to the East Fork Little Chariton River occurs throughout the year, except during drought conditions when the only river flow is water released from Long Branch Lake. In the East Fork Little Chariton River median dissolved-solids concentrations increased from 153 mg/L near Macon to 630 mg/L near Huntsville and median sulfate concentrations increased from 36 mg/L near Macon to 360 mg/L near Huntsville. The median dissolved-solids concentration in water from the alluvium increased from 408 mg/L upstream from the strip mines to 641 mg/L near the mines and median dissolved-sulfate concentration increased from 140 to 350 mg/L. The sulfate-to-chloride ratio, used as the most sensitive indicator of strip-mining effects, increased markedly downstream in the East Fork Little Chariton River and nearby Middle Fork Little Chariton River, which also is affected by strip mining. There were no significant increases in sulfate-to-chloride ratio and dissolved-solids concentrations in comparable nearby subbasins of the Grand, Thompson, and Chariton Rivers where there was no mining. (Author 's abstract)

Hall, D.C.

1986-01-01

95

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

Konopacky, Richard C.

1986-04-01

96

Sources of Mercury to East Fork Poplar Creek Downstream from the Y-12 National Security Complex: Inventories and Export Rates  

SciTech Connect

East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been heavily contaminated with mercury (also referred to as Hg) since the 1950s as a result of historical activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and hereinafter referred to as Y-12). During the period from 1950 to 1963, spills and leaks of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) contaminated soil, building foundations, and subsurface drainage pathways at the site, while intentional discharges of mercury-laden wastewater added 100 metric tons of mercury directly to the creek (Turner and Southworth 1999). The inventory of mercury estimated to be lost to soil and rock within the facility was 194 metric tons, with another estimated 70 metric tons deposited in floodplain soils along the 25 km length of EFPC (Turner and Southworth 1999). Remedial actions within the facility reduced mercury concentrations in EFPC water at the Y-12 boundary from > 2500 ng/L to about 600 ng/L by 1999 (Southworth et al. 2000). Further actions have reduced average total mercury concentration at that site to {approx}300 ng/L (2009 RER). Additional source control measures planned for future implementation within the facility include sediment/soil removal, storm drain relining, and restriction of rainfall infiltration within mercury-contaminated areas. Recent plans to demolish contaminated buildings within the former mercury-use areas provide an opportunity to reconstruct the storm drain system to prevent the entry of mercury-contaminated water into the flow of EFPC. Such actions have the potential to reduce mercury inputs from the industrial complex by perhaps as much as another 80%. The transformation and bioaccumulation of mercury in the EFPC ecosystem has been a perplexing subject since intensive investigation of the issue began in the mid 1980s. Although EFPC was highly contaminated with mercury (waterborne mercury exceeded background levels by 1000-fold, mercury in sediments by more than 2000-fold) in the 1980s, mercury concentrations in EFPC fish exceeded those in fish from regional reference sites by only a little more than 10-fold. This apparent low bioavailability of mercury in EFPC, coupled with a downstream pattern of mercury in fish in which mercury decreased in proportion to dilution of the upstream source, lead to the assumption that mercury in fish would respond to decreased inputs of dissolved mercury to the stream's headwaters. However, during the past two decades when mercury inputs were decreasing, mercury concentrations in fish in Lower EFPC (LEFPC) downstream of Y-12 increased while those in Upper EFPC (UEFPC) decreased. The key assumption of the ongoing cleanup efforts, and concentration goal for waterborne mercury were both called into question by the long-term monitoring data. The large inventory of mercury within the watershed downstream presents a concern that the successful treatment of sources in the headwaters may not be sufficient to reduce mercury bioaccumulation within the system to desired levels. The relative importance of headwater versus floodplain mercury sources in contributing to mercury bioaccumulation in EFPC is unknown. A mercury transport study conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1984 estimated that floodplain sources contributed about 80% of the total annual mercury export from the EFPC system (ORTF 1985). Most of the floodplain inputs were associated with wet weather, high flow events, while much of the headwater flux occurred under baseflow conditions. Thus, day-to-day exposure of biota to waterborne mercury was assumed to be primarily determined by the Y-12 source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of recent studies and monitoring within the EFPC drainage with a focus on discerning the magnitude of floodplain mercury sources and how long these sources might continue to contaminate the system after headwater sources are eliminated or greatly reduced.

Southworth, George R [ORNL; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Floyd, Stephanie B [ORNL

2010-02-01

97

Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

NONE

1995-09-01

98

Post-closure permit application for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime at the Y-12 Plant: New Hope Pond and Eastern S-3 ponds plume. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this Post-Closure, Permit Application (PCPA) is to satisfy the post-closure permitting requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-11. This application is for the entire Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV). This PCPA has been prepared to include the entire East Fork Regime because, although there are numerous contaminant sources within the regime, the contaminant plumes throughout the East Fork Regime have coalesced and can no longer be distinguished as separate plumes. This PCPA focuses on two recognized Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units: New Hope Pond (NHP) and the eastern S-3 Ponds plume. This PCPA presents data from groundwater assessment monitoring throughout the regime, performed since 1986. Using this data, this PCPA demonstrates that NHP is not a statistically discernible source of groundwater contaminants and that sites upgradient of NHP are the likely sources of groundwater contamination seen in the NHP vicinity. As such, this PCPA proposes a detection monitoring program to replace the current assessment monitoring program for NHP.

NONE

1995-02-01

99

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1 of 2, 1986 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, that will be used in conjunction with 1984 and 1985 fish and habitat pre-treatment (baseline) data to evaluate effects of habitat enhancement on the habitat and fish community in Bear Valley Creek overtime. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur in the upper-Salmon River basin. Subproject III involved fish inventories (pre-treatment) in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River, and habitat problem identification on Fivemile and Ramey Creek. Subproject IV involved baseline habitat and fish inventories on the East Fork of the Salmon River, Herd Creek and Big-Boulder Creek. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the four subproject reports. 20 refs., 37 figs., 22 tabs.

Richards, Carl

1987-03-01

100

LAKE FORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...

101

An archaeological reconnaissance of a 14 mile section of the East Fork Poplar Creek for the Environmental Restoration Project, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, Nashville, Tennessee, an archaeological reconnaissance of the potential impact areas of the Environmental Restoration Project (ERP) along the East Fork Poplar Creek was conducted during the period December 16, 1991, and March 3, 1992. The reconnaissance was conducted in response to environmental evaluations as a result of the accidental spillage of approximately 293,000 pounds of mercury, radionuclides, heavy metals and other compounds. The reconnaissance to assess adverse impacts to cultural resources located within the boundaries of Federally-licensed, permitted, funded or assisted projects was conducted in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and Executive Order 11593.

DuVall, G.D. [DuVall and Associates, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

1993-01-01

102

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan EAST FORK LEWIS II, 13-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

1902 and 1952, have had lasting effects on basin hydrology, sediment transport, soil conditions in headwater areas. The most important areas in the basin from an aquatic habitat perspective are the mainstem reaches and the lower mainstem tributaries. The upper mainstem is critical for summer steelhead production

103

Evaluation of Calendar Year 1997 Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data For The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

1 1.0 INTRODUCTION This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater quality monitoring data reported in: Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwatw Monitoring Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologtc Rep-meat the US. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (AJA Technical Services, Inc. 1998), which is hereafter referenced as the Annual Monitoring Report. Section 2.0 presents background information for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) that is relevant to data evaluation, including brief descriptions of the geology, the groundwater flow system, the contaminant source areas, and the extent of groundwater contamination in the regime. Section 3.0 provides an overview of the groundwater sampling and analysis activities petiormed during calendar year (CY) 1997, including monitoring well locations, sampling frequency and methods, and laboratory analyses. Evaluation and interpretation of the monitoring da% described in Section 4.0, is generally focused on an overview of data quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), long-term concentration trends for selected inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants, and consistency with applicable site-specific conceptual contaminant transport models described in: Report on the Remedial Investigation of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (U.S. Department of Energy 1998), which is referenced hereafter as the Remedial Investigation @I) Report. Findings of the data evaluations are summarized :in Section 5.0 and a list of technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed irdormation (Section 6.0) concludes the report. All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in the text are presented in Appendm A and Appendix B, respectively. Appendix C provides a summary of the analytical results that meet applicable data quality objectives (DQOS) of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program.

Jones, S.B.

1998-09-01

104

Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications  

SciTech Connect

This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites lie within the boundaries of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to ensure protection of local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part I consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part I GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1995 Part I GWQR for the East Fork Regime to the TDEC in February 1996. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality.

NONE

1996-08-01

105

Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several waste-management facilities and a petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) site associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The East Fork Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant, encompasses the Y-12 Plant. The regime extends west from a surface water and shallow groundwater divide located near the west end of the plant to Scarboro Road (directions in this report are in reference to the Y-12 Plant grid system unless otherwise noted). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy.

NONE

1995-02-01

106

Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the East Fork Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

Not Available

1994-02-01

107

Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

None

1999-09-01

108

Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil.

Morris, M.I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States); Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D. [IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

109

Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors.

Not Available

1992-02-01

110

Evaluation of fish kills during November 1986 and July 1987 in upper East Fork Poplar Creek near the Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) investigated two fish kills that occurred on November 21, 1986, and July 9, 1987, in upper East Fork Poplar Creek at the outfall of New Hope Pond (NHP) below the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Investigative procedures included sampling of water at the inlet and outfall of NHP for water quality, examination of operating procedures at the Y-12 Plant and in the biomonitoring program that may have adversely affected the fish populations, review of results of concurrent ambient toxicity tests of the inlet and outfall water of NHP, autopsy investigations of the cause of death of the stonerollers, and laboratory experimentation to evaluate potential causes. The investigations revealed that the cause of death was bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a stress-mediated disease. The specific stressor responsible for the outbreak of the disease was not identified. Several possible stresses were indicated, including elevated concentrations of mercury and chlorine, excessive electroshocking activity, and elevated levels of the pathogen. Cumulative stress due to the combination of several factors was also suggested. Elevated temperatures and overcrowding may have enhanced the spread of the epizootic but were not the primary causes. The impact on the stoneroller population below NHP was not ecologically significant. 23 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Ryon, M.G.; Loar, J.M.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.

1990-09-01

111

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part I, River hydraulics and sediment transport, 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bed-material gradation and water-surface slope were determined for a 3.3-kilometer reach of East Fork River, Wyo. During peak snowmelt runoff, frequent measurements of water discharge and sediment-transport rate provided data describing the inflow and outflow of water and sediment. In spring 1979, bankfull stage was exceeded on 8 days. Maximum discharge was about 32 cubic meters per second, which has a recurrence interval of about 2 years. The median particle size of bed material is 1.28 millimeters; the 35 and 65 percentiles are represented by diameters of 0.50 and 2.88 millimeters, respectively. The average water-surface slope in the reach is 0.0007 and varies little with river stage. Bedload-transport rates ranged from a little less than 0.001 to a little more than 0.1 kilograms per meter of channel width per second. Median bedload grain size, with several exceptions, ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 millimeters. Gravel-size particles generally constituted 10 to 40% of the bedload. Suspended-sediment concentrations ranged from 6 to 95 milligrams per liter. Suspended sediment smaller than sand constited about half the measured suspended sediment, ranging from 17 to 81%. (USGS)

Emmett, William W.; Myrick, Robert M.; Meade, Robert H.

1980-01-01

112

Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

Not Available

1993-08-01

113

Chemical characteristics, including stable-isotope ratios, of surface water and ground water from selected sources in and near East Fork Armells Creek basin, southeastern Montana, 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected from 29 sites to provide synoptic chemical data, including stable-isotope ratios, for an area of active surface coal mining and to explore the effectiveness of using the data to chemically distinguish water from different aquifers. Surface-water samples were collected from one spring, four sites on East Armells Creek, one site on Stocker Creek, and two fly-ash ponds. Streamflows in East Fork Armells Creek ranged from no flow in several upstream reaches to 2.11 cu ft/sec downstream from Colstrip, Montana. Only one tributary, Stocker Creek, was observed to contribute surface flow in the study area. Groundwater samples were collected from wells completed in Quaternary alluvium or mine spoils, Rosebud overburden, Rosebud coal bed, McKay coal bed, and sub-McKay deposits of the Tongue River Member, Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Dissolved-solids concentrations, in mg/L, were 840 at the spring, 3,100 to 5,000 in the streams, 13,000 to 22,000 in the ash ponds, and 690 to 4 ,100 in the aquifers. With few exceptions, water from the sampled spring, streams, and wells had similar concentrations of major constituents and trace elements and similar stable-isotope ratios. Water from the fly-ash ponds had larger concentrations of dissolved solids, boron, and manganese and were isotopically more enriched in deuterium and oxygen-18 than water from other sources. Water from individual aquifers could not be distinguished by either ion-composition diagrams or statistical cluster analyses. (USGS)

Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.; Davis, R.E.

1989-01-01

114

Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

NONE

1996-08-01

115

Along Middle Fork Road toward North Fork of the Crazy ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Along Middle Fork Road toward North Fork of the Crazy Woman Creek Bridge, view to west - North Fork of Crazy Woman Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Crazy Woman Creek at Middle Fork Road, Buffalo, Johnson County, WY

116

Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Smith, John G [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL

2011-01-01

117

Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349  

SciTech Connect

In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)] [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

2013-07-01

118

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and survival ranged from 0% to 96%, although there was evidence that some eggs had died after reaching the eyed stage. Six redds were capped in an attempt to document fry emergence, but none were collected. A final hydraulic sampling of the capped redds yielded nothing from five of the six, but 75 dead eggs and one dead fry were found in the sixth. Smothering by fine sediment is the suspected cause of the observed mortality between the eyed stage and fry emergence.

Venditti, David A.

2002-04-01

119

Two Forks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You, the reader, are a medical investigator on vacation in Two Forks, Idaho. You are called in to investigate an outbreak of salmonellosis, an infectious disease, caused by the Salmonella paratyphi, a bacterium, typically spread from human to human by contaminated water or food. You interview people known to have had contact with the victims, and determine the identity of the disease carrier by deductive reasoning. The story has two layers of built-in interactive hint structures. First, after you do your research, you have an option to solve the mystery or continue for a further hint. If you choose the hint, the story progresses a bit further, you receive a helpful hint, and you again have the option to "solve" or "continue for second hint." If you choose to continue, the story progresses yet further and you receive another hint. Once again you choose to solve or to continue. If you continue, the story progresses and gives you a third (and very useful) hint.

Ken Eklund (WriterGuy REV)

2002-02-18

120

Roles of Dissolved Organic Matter in Aqueous Speciation of Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ in East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aqueous speciation of mercury [Hg(II)] and methylmercury (CH3Hg+) in contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is not well understood despite recognition of the important roles played by dissolved organic matter (DOM) in controlling the cycling, transport and bioavailability of Hg in the system. We determined Hg species distributions in the EFPC based on EFPC water chemistry and a selected database of reaction constants of Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ with various organic and inorganic ligands, using the "PHREEQC" geochemical speciation computer code. Results show that DOM affects both Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ speciation by forming strong Hg(II)-DOM and CH3Hg-DOM complexes through reactive sulfur groups or thiol-like functional groups in DOM in EFPC surface waters under conditions of pH = 7.5 to 8.1 and DOM about 3 mg/L. The neutral complexes of Hg(OH)2 and Hg(OH)Cl, and CH3HgCl and CH3HgOH were found to be of secondary importance in EFPC surface water. The competitive effects of co-existing metal ions (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Fe3+ and UO22+) on the Hg(II)-DOM and CH3Hg-DOM complexation in the EFPC surface water were evaluated using analogous model organic compounds (i.e., cysteine and glutathione), because reliable binding constants of these co- existing metal ions with thiol-like functional groups in DOM are scarce in the literature. Results show that only Zn2+ (present at relatively high concentrations in EFPC) competes with Hg(II) for the binding sites (thiol) in DOM and therefore contributes to the decreased distribution of Hg(II)-DOM. The effect of other metal ions on the distribution of Hg(II)-DOM and CH3Hg-DOM complexes are estimated to be minimal. These results provided further understanding of mercury speciation, bioavailability and transformation in the EFPC stream water. A literature review of the conditional formation constants (log K) of Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ with reactive sulfur groups (RS) in DOM gives a broad spread of values of log K from 21 to 40 for Hg(II)-RS complexes and from 10 to 17 for CH3Hg-RS complexes, suggesting that the quantitative characterization of reactive binding sites in DOM and their interactions with Hg(II), CH3Hg+, H+ and other metal ions in environments, remain to be developed. Methodologies to develop these areas of understanding are essential for more accurate modeling of Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ speciation in aquatic ecosystems.

Dong, W.; Liang, L.; Southworth, G.; Gu, B.

2008-12-01

121

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

122

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of (W) and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of (W) and (S) sides, view to northeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

123

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood floor; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

124

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, general view in setting showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, general view in setting showing (N) side; view (S) - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

125

Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, Basin-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were gathered from May through September 2002 at 76 randomly selected sites in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). Basin characteristics (land use and drainage area) and biolog-ical-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the basin of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Compo-nents Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related using Spearman's rho to the seasonal algal-biomass, basin-charac-teristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, and biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score was not significantly related to the nine habitat or 12 nutrient variables examined. One land-use variable, drainage area, was negatively related to the periphyton PC1. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the periphyton PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent) and one metric score (car-nivore percent metric score). It was positively related to three fish-community attributes (headwater percent, pioneer percent, and simple lithophil percent). The periphyton PC1 was not statistically related to any of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes or metric scores examined. Of the 12 nutrient variables examined two were nega-tively related to the seston PC1 site score in two seasons: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July and September), and TP (May and September). There were no statistically significant relations between the seston PC1 and the five basin-characteristics or nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the seston PC1 was positively related to one attribute (headwater percent) and negatively related to one metric score (large-river percent metric score) . Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metrics exam-ined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one metric score (number of individuals metric score). To understand how the choice of sampling sites might have affected the results, an analysis of the drainage area and land use was done. The sites selected in the Whitewater River Basin were generally small drainage basins; compared to Whitewater River Basin sites, the sites selected in the East Fork White River Basin were generally larger drainage basins. Although both basins were dominated by agricultural land use the Whitewater River Basin sites had more land in agriculture than the East Fork White River Basin sites. The values for nutrients (nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) and chlorophyll a (per-iphyton and seston) were compared to published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) values for Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregions VI and IX and USEPA Level III Ecore-gions 55 and 71. Several nutrient values were greater than the 25th percentile of published USEPA values. Chlorophyll a (periphyton and seston) values were either greater than the 25thpercentile of published USEPA values or they extended data ranges in the Aggregate Nutrient and Level III Ecore-gions. If the values for the 25th percentile as proposes by the USEPA were adopted as nutrient water-quality criteria, many samples in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins would have exceeded the criteria.

Caskey, Brian J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Lowe, B. Scott

2007-01-01

126

Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents proposed modifications to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). The modifications are proposed to: (1) revise the current text for two of the Permit Conditions included in Permit Section II - General Facility Conditions, and (2) update the PCP with revised versions of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) technical field procedures included in several of the Permit Attachments. The updated field procedures and editorial revisions are Class 1 permit modifications, as specified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) {section}270.42; Appendix I - Classification of Permit Modifications. These modifications are summarized below.

NONE

1997-05-01

127

BALD ROCK AND MIDDLE FORK FEATHER RIVER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bald Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Areas in California indicate several areas within the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area that have probable mineral-resource potential. A probable potential for placer gold exists at various localities, both in areas covered by Tertiary volcanic rocks and in small streams that drain into the Middle Fork of the Feather River. A probable potential for small deposits of chromite exists in tracts underlain by ultramafic rocks in the Melones fault zone. A probable potential for lead-silver deposits is recognized at the east end of the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area.

Sorensen, Martin L.; Buehler, Alan R.

1984-01-01

128

Saving the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Students participate in the Salmon in the Schools Program, sponsored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine. Through this collaborative effort, students raise 300 river-specific, wild Atlantic salmon and then release them into the East Machias River at the culminating annual Salmon Release Day Field Trip. In addition to releasing salmon fry into the headwaters of the river, students perform physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the river.

Donald Sprangers

2004-05-01

129

Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum-based flocculent used in the lower reservoir. Suspended-sediment concentrations and turbidity measurements were largest at the site downstream from the lower reservoir. This is because of the large amounts of debris deposited in the lower reservoir from the breach, which in turn were redeposited into the East Fork Black River during releases. When these constituents were plotted over time, the concentrations decreased and were similar to the other two sites in the study. Trend analyses were studied at one site with historical data. No major trends were discovered for streamflow, turbidity, suspended-sediment concentrations, or suspended-sediment discharges before or after the event. Although long-term effects of the elevated turbidity, major trace metals, and suspended sediments in the study area as a result of the reservoir embankment breach are not expected, there could possibly be other effects not measured during this study that could potentially affect the surface-water quality, such as loss of riparian habitat, changes in biological ecosystems, and large-scale reworking of sediments.

Barr, Miya N.

2009-01-01

130

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

Venditti, David A.

2003-10-01

131

Salmon Patch  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Salmon Patch A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Salmon patches frequently occur at the center of the forehead. Overview Salmon patch is the name given to a very ...

132

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan  

E-print Network

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan May 2004 # # # # # # # # # # # LemhiRiverBig Creek PahsimeroiRiver PantherCreek LittleSalmonRiver RapidRiver E.Fk.SalmonRiver Chamberlain Creek N.Fk. SalmonRiver MidFkSalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver S.Fk.SalmonRiver Salmon River Salmon River IDAHO LEMHI CUSTER VALLEY

133

Proposed experiment for SnCl{sub 2} treatment of Outfall 200 for the purpose of mercury removal from East Fork Poplar Creek, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Identification and treatment/elimination of point sources of mercury (Hg) to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the Y-12 Plant have reduced base flow mercury concentrations considerably; but, after all such actions are completed, nonpoint sources will continue to add mercury to the creek. Studies conducted in 1996 on the use of air stripping to remove elemental mercury from Outfall 51, a mercury-contaminated natural spring, demonstrated that the addition of trace concentrations of stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) converted a large fraction of the dissolved mercury in the outfall to elemental mercury, which could subsequently be removed by air stripping. Dissolved mercury is the dominant form in EFPC at the north/south (N/S) pipes, where it emerges from the underground storm drain network. More than 50% of that mercury is capable of being rapidly reduced by the addition of a 3--5 fold molar excess of stannous chloride. Upon conversion to the volatile gaseous (elemental) form, mercury would be lost across the air-water interface through natural volatilization. EFPC within the Y-12 Plant is shallow, turbulent, and open to sunlight and wind, providing conditions that facilitate natural evasion of volatile chemicals from the water. Preliminary calculations estimate that 75% or more of the elemental mercury could be removed via evasion between the N/S pipes and the Y-l2 Plant boundary (Station 17). Alternatively, elemental mercury might be removed from EFPC in a short reach of stream below the N/S pipes by an in-situ air stripping system which bubbles air through the water column. The purpose of these proposed experiments is to test whether natural volatilization or in-situ air stripping may be used to further reduce baseflow concentrations of mercury in EFPC. Results of this experiment will be useful for understanding the transport and fate of other volatile chemicals in the upper reaches of EFPC.

Southworth, G.R.

1997-03-01

134

1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH FLUME AND CONCRETE DIVERSION DAM SPILLING WATER. CONCRETE ABUTMENTS OF THE ORIGINAL HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE OVER THE NORTH FORK ARE VISIBLE ON EITHER SIDE OF THE DAM. NEW HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE IS VISIBLE ACROSS TOP OF PHOTO. VIEW TO NORTH. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

135

LIFE HISTORY MONITORING OF SALMONIDS IN THE WEST FORK SMITH RIVER, UMPQUA BASIN, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

As a life-cycle monitoring basin for the Oregon Salmon Plan, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife has estimated adult returns, distribution and smolt outmigration of coho, chinook and winter steelhead in the West Fork Smith River since 1998. In 2001/2002, the Environmenta...

136

Proposed Amendments 10, 11, and 12 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the  

E-print Network

), and authorized commercial troll fishing in the East Area. Management measures for the salmon fisheries commercial hand-troll and power-troll salmon fishing in the East Area, (2) retained the prohibition

137

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

138

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND MISTAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

139

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

140

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Twenty-six captive-reared females constructed 33 redds in the WFYF in 2002. Eighteen of these were hydraulically sampled, and eggs were collected from 17. The percentage of live eggs ranged from 0-100% and averaged 34.6%. No live eggs were found in redds spawned by brood year 1997 females. Expanding these results to the remaining redds gives an estimate of 22,900 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish in the WFYF. Additionally, 130 mature adults (including 41 precocial males) were released into the EFSR. Almost all of these fish moved out of the areas shoreline observers had access to, so no spawning behavior was observed. Radio-telemetry indicated that most of these fish initially moved downstream (although three females moved upstream as far as 7 km) and then held position.

Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

2003-11-01

141

Oak Grove Fork Habitat Improvement Project, 1988 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Oak Grove Fork of the Clackamas River is a fifth-order tributary of the Clackamas River drainage supporting depressed runs of coho and chinook salmon, and summer and winter steelhead. Habitat condition rating for the Lower Oak Grove is good, but smelt production estimates are below the average for Clackamas River tributaries. Limiting factors in the 3.8 miles of the Lower Oak Grove supporting anadromous fish include an overall lack of quality spawning and rearing habitat. Beginning in 1986. measures to improve fish habitat in the Lower Oak Grove were developed in coordination with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODF&W) and Portland General Electric (PGE) fisheries biologists. Prior to 1986, no measures had been applied to the stream to mitigate for PGE's storage and regulation of flows in the Oak Grove Fork (Timothy Lake, Harriet Lake). Catchable rainbow trout are stocked by ODF&W two or three times a year during the trout fishing season in the lowermost portion of the Oak Grove Fork near two Forest Service campgrounds (Ripplebrook and Rainbow). The 1987 field season marked the third year of efforts to improve fish habitat of the Lower Oak Grove Fork and restore anadromous fish production. The efforts included the development of an implementation plan for habitat improvement activities in the Lower Oak Grove Fork. post-project monitoring. and maintenance of the 1986 improvement structures. No new structures were constructed or placed in 1987. Fiscal year 1988 brought a multitude of changes which delayed implementation of plans developed in 1987. The most prominent change was the withdrawal of the proposed Spotted Owl Habitat Area (SOHA) which overlapped the Oak Grove project implementation area. Another was the change in the Forest Service biologist responsible for implementation and design of this project.

Bettin, Scott (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

1989-04-01

142

Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

2006-02-01

143

Depositional environment of Red Fork sandstones, deep Anadarko Basin, western Oklahoma  

E-print Network

with thick marine shales. On the broad Anadarko shelf, north and east of the study area, the Red Fork sandstones have been interpreted as fluvio-deltaic deposits (Zeliff, 1975; Hill and Clark, 1980). However, the basinal section may not be a deltaic... Moore (1979) and Evans (1979) Page Regional structure on top of the Red Fork Formation in the deep Anadarko basin of west-central Oklahoma showing locations of cored wells and fields. Typical gamma-ray log character of the two main Red Fork...

Whiting, Philip Howard

1982-01-01

144

9. OVERVIEW OF THE TOWNSITE, LOOKING EAST Photographic copy of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. OVERVIEW OF THE TOWNSITE, LOOKING EAST Photographic copy of historic photograph. Taken prior to 1929. Original print is located in Lemhi County Historical Museum, Salmon, Idaho. Photographer is unknown. - Leesburg Townsite, Napias Creek, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

145

Tuning Forks and Monitor Screens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the vibrations of a tuning fork against a computer monitor screen as a pattern that can illustrate or explain physical concepts like wave vibrations, wave forms, and phase differences. Presents background information and demonstrates the experiment. (Author/YDS)

Harrison, M. A. T.

2000-01-01

146

AL ASK A SALMON alaska Salmon  

E-print Network

189 AL ASK A SALMON UNIT 13 alaska Salmon INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon have played an important and pivotal role in the history of Alaska. Salmon, along with mining, timber, and furs, were the keystone now, the abundant salmon resources of this region continue to shape much of the con- temporary lives

147

Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be intensively monitored. Planners recommended that a combination of natural and hatchery production

Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

2009-06-12

148

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to Eagle Fish Hatchery on September 14, 2004 and later incorporated into hatchery spawn matrices. Nine anadromous females, 102 captive females from brood year 2001, and one captive female from brood year 2000 broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2004. Spawn pairings produced approximately 140,823 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed stage of development averaging 72.8%. Eyed-eggs (49,134), presmolts (130,716), smolts (96), and adults (241) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 2004. Reintroduction strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, five broodstocks and five unique production groups were in culture at Idaho Department of Fish and Game (Eagle Fish Hatchery and Sawtooth Fish Hatchery) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (Oxbow Fish Hatchery) facilities. Two of the five broodstocks were incorporated into the 2004 spawning design.

Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

2006-05-01

149

Exo1 Processes Stalled Replication Forks and Counteracts Fork Reversal in Checkpoint-Defective Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replication checkpoint coordinates the cell cycle with DNA replication and recombination, preventing genome instability and cancer. The budding yeast Rad53 checkpoint kinase stabilizes stalled forks and replisome-fork complexes, thus preventing the accumulation of ss-DNA regions and reversed forks at collapsed forks. We searched for factors involved in the processing of stalled forks in HU-treated rad53 cells. Using the neutral-neutral

Cecilia Cotta-Ramusino; Daniele Fachinetti; Chiara Lucca; Ylli Doksani; Massimo Lopes; José Sogo; Marco Foiani

2005-01-01

150

PACIFIC COAST SALMON pacific Coast Salmon  

E-print Network

181 PACIFIC COAST SALMON UNIT 12 pacific Coast Salmon Unit 12 ROBERT G. KOPE NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center Seattle Washington INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon support important commercial and recreational fisheries in Washington, Oregon, and California. Salmon are a vital part of the cul- ture

151

Directions to the WSU Vancouver campus: 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue  

E-print Network

Directions to the WSU Vancouver campus: Address 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue Vancouver, Washington) and follow 134th Street as it turns into Salmon Creek Avenue. Follow the WSU Vancouver signs to the entrance Street exit. Turn left (east) onto 134th Street and follow as it turns into Salmon Creek Avenue. Follow

Collins, Gary S.

152

Catch Me if You Can: A Projection of Southeast Alaskan Coho Salmon Populations  

E-print Network

Catch Me if You Can: A Projection of Southeast Alaskan Coho Salmon Populations Control Team 51 February 7, 2005 Abstract We model the future of the Coho salmon stock for five rivers in South- east to mimic the Coho life cycle. Our model estimates salmon stocks based on the parameters of initial stock

Morrow, James A.

153

77 FR 19004 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...referendum for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery. DATES: Comments must be submitted...NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway,...

2012-03-29

154

77 FR 41754 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...program in the Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery. NMFS conducted a referendum...NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway,...

2012-07-16

155

Spring above Rhoads Fork, SD  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Headwater springflow is common in the Limestone Pateau area in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Most headwater springs in the Black Hills, like this one contributing to Rhoads Fork, generally occur near the base of the Madison Limestone along the eastern edge of the Limestone Plateau area....

156

Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

1997-05-01

157

Salmon's Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

Shannon, Thomas A.

1994-01-01

158

6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located on the pipe floor between Unit 3 and Unit 4, the high pressure CO2 tanks are connected to the generator barrel of all four units. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

159

Structural geology of Torlesse rocks, Otaki Forks, Tararua Range, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexly deformed Torlesse terrane lithologies of Otaki Forks, North Island, New Zealand, are dominated by very thick bedded sandstone, thinly alternating sandstone and argillite, very thick bedded argillite, with locally important green argillite, rare limestone, and intraformational conglomerate, some of which are Upper Triassic. The strata generally strike north-east-southwest, dipping steeply, but there are significant variations from this trend. The

Mark S. Rattenbury

1986-01-01

160

Diet of landlocked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and trout in the Waitaki lakes, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landlocked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), ranging in fork length (FL) from 105 to 313 mm, were captured in fine?mesh gill nets set in the limnetic zone of the Waitaki hydro lakes (44° 30? S, 170° 10’ E) in the South Island, New Zealand. A total of 443 stomachs was examined and the frequency of occurrence, volume and weight of prey

E. Graynoth; L. C. Bennett; J. C. Pollard

1986-01-01

161

Predictability of multispecies competitive interactions in three populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.  

PubMed

Juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from three allopatric populations (LaHave, Sebago and Saint-Jean) were placed into artificial streams with combinations of four non-native salmonids: brown trout Salmo trutta, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Non-additive effects, as evidenced by lower performance than predicted from weighted summed two-species competition trials, were detected for S. salar fork length (LF ) and mass, but not for survival, condition factor or riffle use. These data support emerging theory on niche overlap and species richness as factors that can lead to non-additive competition effects. PMID:25753912

Houde, A L S; Wilson, C C; Neff, B D

2015-04-01

162

Chinook Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can painted wooden fish on a schoolyard fence change human behavior and help clean up the ocean for the real salmon? Stream of Dreams in British Columbia thinks so, and a lot of wooden fish and some 100,000 school kids later, they have some intriguing results to show for their effort. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

163

LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING EAST Generals Highway, Lodge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING EAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

164

Avoiding chromosome pathology when replication forks collide  

PubMed Central

Chromosome duplication normally initiates via the assembly of replication fork complexes at defined origins1,2. DNA synthesis by any one fork is thought to cease when it meets another travelling in the opposite direction, at which stage the replication machinery may simply dissociate before the nascent strands are finally ligated. But what actually happens is not clear. Here we present evidence consistent with the idea that every fork collision has the potential to threaten genomic integrity. In Escherichia coli this threat is kept at bay by RecG DNA translocase3 and by single-strand DNA exonucleases. Without RecG, replication initiates where forks meet via a replisome assembly mechanism normally associated with fork repair, replication restart and recombination4,5, establishing new forks with the potential to sustain cell growth and division without an active origin. This potential is realised when roadblocks to fork progression are reduced or eliminated. It relies on the chromosome being circular, reinforcing the idea that replication initiation is triggered repeatedly by fork collision. The results reported raise the question of whether replication fork collisions have pathogenic potential for organisms that exploit multiple origins to replicate each chromosome. PMID:23892781

Rudolph, Christian J.; Upton, Amy L.; Stockum, Anna; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Lloyd, Robert G.

2013-01-01

165

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assemblage of fossil sockeye salmon was discovered in Pleistocene lake sediments along the South Fork Skokomish River, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The fossils were abundant near the head of a former glacial lake at 115 m elevation. Large adult salmon are concentrated in a sequence of death assemblages that include individuals with enlarged breeding teeth and worn caudal fins indicating migration, nest digging, and spawning prior to death. The specimens were 4 yr old and 45-70 cm in total length, similar in size to modern sockeye salmon, not landlocked kokanee. The fossils possess most of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O. gorbuscha. This suggests the degree of divergence of these species at about 1 million yr ago, when geological evidence indicates the salmon were deposited at the head of a proglacial lake impounded by the Salmon Springs advance of the Puget lobe ice sheet. Surficial geology and topography record a complicated history of glacial damming and river diversion that implies incision of the modern gorge of the South Fork Skokomish River after deposition of the fossil-bearing sediments.

Smith, Gerald R.; Montgomery, David R.; Peterson, N. Phil; Crowley, Bruce

2007-09-01

166

Assessment of Salmon Stocks  

E-print Network

Annual Assessment of Salmon Stocks and Fisheries in England and Wales 2009 #12;#12;SALMON STOCKS;Acknowledgement: This report has been compiled jointly by staff from the Cefas Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries and assessment of salmon stocks is funded by Defra. Both Cefas and the Environment Agency would like to extend

167

Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

None

2010-01-04

168

Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

Devaney, Laurel

169

Salmon Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students infer numbers of a virtual population illustrated within a rectangular sampling grid. They observe the accuracy of the technique in relation to the sample size upon which the estimate is based. This activity offers students an introduction to population sampling, an application of sampling technique, and an opportunity to relate sample size to estimate accuracy. Students learn that much of what is known about salmon and tuna populations is based upon population sampling, and that the assumption that a random sample is representative of the population's overall concentration is key to this strategy.

170

Geometry of forking in simple theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the geometry of forking for U- rank 2 elements in supersimple !-categorical theories and prove stable forking and some structural properties for such elements. We extend this analysis to the case of U-rank 3 elements. Simple theories were defined and initially investigated in 1980 by Shelah ((S2)). In the 90s Kim (and Pillay), inspired by the work of

Assaf Peretz

2006-01-01

171

Migration timing of female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka: diel patterns and effects of maturation state.  

PubMed

Diel patterns of migration and migration speed were compared between reproductive timing phenotypes in female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Females of varying degrees of reproductive maturation were captured on their migration route to the Meadow Creek Spawning Channel (British Columbia, Canada), were tagged with passive-integrated transponders (PIT tags) and were subsequently monitored with stationary receivers. Females showed crepuscular migration timing, with approximately equal detections at dawn and dusk. In particular, peaks of movement were associated with the appearance of the sun over the mountains in the east and the disappearance of the sun over the mountains in the west. Over 25 m, migration speed was 1·0 body lengths (measured as fork length; L(F)) s(-1) and did not depend on maturation state. Over 3 km, migration speed was much slower (0·2-0·3 L(F) s(-1)) than over the short distance, with less mature females migrating more slowly than more mature females. Less mature females appeared to be in less of a hurry to reach breeding areas compared with more mature females. PMID:22957867

Warren, M A; Morbey, Y E

2012-09-01

172

Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a baseline release of 1,300 cfs to a maximum release of 25,530 cfs with an overall temperature depression in the lower Clearwater River exceeding 10 C. With continued Dworshak Dam operations as those documented in 1994, there is potential risk to the continued existence of the endangered fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. Additional data and conclusions will be contained in successive years` annual reports.

Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

1995-08-01

173

South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring  

SciTech Connect

There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

1990-06-01

174

Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

175

Calcitonin Salmon Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

176

SALMON 2100 PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty eight salmon scientists and policy experts have joined forces in an innovative project to identify ways that, if adopted, likely would restore and sustain wild salmon runs in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. ...

177

Salmon Homing Instincts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon Homing Instincts is an activity that enables learners to experience what it is like to be a returning salmon attempting to find its home by smell. Scientific research suggests that salmon use the smell of water to find their home stream; even after being out in the open ocean as many as six years. The activity allows the entire class to participate in the life cycle of the Pacific salmon and the hazards (i.e. pollution) of their journey.

Deborah Werner

1998-01-01

178

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

179

Cooking with Canned Salmon  

E-print Network

baking dish. 5. Spread the mashed potatoes over the top of the salmon mixture. ... that might be in the canned salmon. 4. Mix the salmon, liquid, soup, bread crumbs, eggs, onion and lemon juice. 5. Press the mixture into a greased 9- by 5-inch loaf pan. 6. Bake at 375 degrees F for about 1 hour. Cool it for 10 minutes before removing...

Anding, Jenna

2001-09-10

180

SOUTH FORK CLEARWATER RIVER HABITAT ENHANCEMENT  

E-print Network

SOUTH FORK CLEARWATER RIVER HABITAT ENHANCEMENT ANNUAL REPORT - 1985 BY Don Hair, Project Biologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Monitoring, (Results and Needs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Design River 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Table Two - of Accomplishments, Red River, 1.985 . . l . l 273

181

Chapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381  

E-print Network

Chapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381 Final EIS ­ December 2009 6.0 CHUM SALMON Five species of salmon occur in Alaskan waters. The remaining four species, after Chinook, are managed together in the `other salmon' management category and reported for accounting purposes as "non

182

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245 Final EIS ­ December 2009 5.0 CHINOOK SALMON This chapter provides information on Chinook salmon biology, distribution, and current stock assessments. This chapter then analyzes the impacts of the alternatives on Chinook salmon

183

Cohesin acetylation speeds the replication fork.  

PubMed

Cohesin not only links sister chromatids but also inhibits the transcriptional machinery's interaction with and movement along chromatin. In contrast, replication forks must traverse such cohesin-associated obstructions to duplicate the entire genome in S phase. How this occurs is unknown. Through single-molecule analysis, we demonstrate that the replication factor C (RFC)-CTF18 clamp loader (RFC(CTF18)) controls the velocity, spacing and restart activity of replication forks in human cells and is required for robust acetylation of cohesin's SMC3 subunit and sister chromatid cohesion. Unexpectedly, we discovered that cohesin acetylation itself is a central determinant of fork processivity, as slow-moving replication forks were found in cells lacking the Eco1-related acetyltransferases ESCO1 or ESCO2 (refs 8-10) (including those derived from Roberts' syndrome patients, in whom ESCO2 is biallelically mutated) and in cells expressing a form of SMC3 that cannot be acetylated. This defect was a consequence of cohesin's hyperstable interaction with two regulatory cofactors, WAPL and PDS5A (refs 12, 13); removal of either cofactor allowed forks to progress rapidly without ESCO1, ESCO2, or RFC(CTF18). Our results show a novel mechanism for clamp-loader-dependent fork progression, mediated by the post-translational modification and structural remodelling of the cohesin ring. Loss of this regulatory mechanism leads to the spontaneous accrual of DNA damage and may contribute to the abnormalities of the Roberts' syndrome cohesinopathy. PMID:19907496

Terret, Marie-Emilie; Sherwood, Rebecca; Rahman, Sadia; Qin, Jun; Jallepalli, Prasad V

2009-11-12

184

Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms  

E-print Network

Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms Brendan M of pathogen transmission from farmed fish on species interactions or other ecosystem components. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch smolts are susceptible hosts to the parasitic salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis as well

Dill, Lawrence M.

185

76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...is recognized that Eagle Creek stream gage includes flow contributions from the South Fork tributary. For consistency...water use within the North or South Fork drainages. The South Fork and North Fork stream gages would also continue...

2011-02-03

186

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

187

Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

2013-01-01

188

Salmon Population Depleted  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon populations face several serious threats, including pollution, habitat destruction, overfishing, and climate change. In this publication, the reason for the downward spiral of salmon populations is discussed. This video segment features Elders discussing the decline in the local population of salmon, which are at the heart of the cultural identity of the Native American Lummi Nation of Washington State. Fish were very abundant a few decades ago, but now even the fishermen have to buy fish. The background essay explains the many threats that the salmon population faces. There is also a brief description of the salmon lifecycle. The four discussion questions asks the reasons why the salmon population is depleting, and what people can do to help. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

189

15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING RIGHT FORK WITH GATE IN PLACE AND A FEW NEEDLES IN PLACE - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

190

11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

191

3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and third stops - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

192

9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

193

12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand drips, view from road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

194

6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

195

Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet Great Smoky ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

196

1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

197

2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

198

8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

199

7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

200

5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

201

Quartz Tuning Forks as Cryogenic Vacuum Gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements of the mechanical Q of a 32.7 kHz quartz tuning fork as a function of pressure for helium and argon at T = 300 K and for helium in the temperature range 7.0-0.7 K. In the low pressure ballistic regime, the damping due to the surrounding gas is inversely proportional to P , while for higher pressures, a hydrodynamic treatment accounts for most of the variation of Q with P . We have combined the ballistic and hydrodynamic models together with calculations of the thermal transpiration correction to correlate the tuning fork Q at low temperature with the pressure measured with a room temperature pressure gauge. The fork was found to be useful as an in situ pressure gauge for pressures above ˜ 0.1 mTorr. A dissipation peak and frequency drop associated with the superfluid transition in the adsorbed helium film is also observed for T<1.4 K.

Huisman, F. M.; Velasco, A. E.; Van Cleve, E.; Taborek, P.

2014-07-01

202

27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Fork of Long Island. 9.113 Section...American Viticultural Areas § 9.113 North Fork of Long Island. (a) Name. ...viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Long Island.” (b)...

2010-04-01

203

5. JUNCTION OF NORTH AND SOUTH FORK TULE RIVER MIDDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. JUNCTION OF NORTH AND SOUTH FORK TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH FLUMES SHOWING SPILLWAY VALVES ON EACH FLUME, CONCRETE SANDBOX AT JUNCTION (SPILLING WATER), AND FLUME CONTROL HOUSE AND FISH WHEEL AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

204

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt August 1, 2006  

E-print Network

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt Les Hatton August 1, 2006 $Date: 2003/01/15 00:05:52 $ 1 pleasure to so many. 2 Exposition It starts quite innocently with a bottle of wine, a plate of salmon penne in a Stockholm restaurant and a copy of "The Salmon of Doubt" by Douglas Adams. Whilst eating the meal with my

Hatton, Les

205

USGS Releases Atlantic Salmon at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists (L to R) Ross Abbett and Rich Chiavelli watch as hundreds of salmon swim into troughs at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, e...

206

Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visit the Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminish...

207

Salmon River Fish Hatchery: Home Base for Released Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salmon that have been reared and released at the NY State Salmon River Fish Hatchery imprint on the Hatchery waters, often returning to visit the Hatchery after they are released. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this dim...

208

Man-induced gradient adjustment of the South Fork Forked Deer River, west Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channel modifications from 1968 to 1969 on the South Fork Forked Deer River in western Tennessee have caused upstream degradation,\\u000a downstream aggradation, and bank failures along the altered channels, adjacent reaches, and tributaries. The result of these\\u000a adjustments is a general decrease in gradient as the channel attempts to absorb the imposed increase in energy conditions\\u000a created by channelization.\\u000a \\u000a Headward

Andrew Simon; Clarence H. Robbins

1987-01-01

209

Saving the Salmon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

Sprangers, Donald

2004-01-01

210

Young Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These two-day old Atlantic salmon were hatched at the USGS Tunison Lab and will eventually be released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecos...

211

Yearling Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecosystem and economy. To restore the population, young Atlantic salmon are reared at the USGS Tunison Laboratory of Aquaitic Science&nb...

212

Salmon-Filled Tanks  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Specialized tanks at the USGS Tunison Lab hold young Atlantic salmon until they are released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local ecosystem and ...

213

Young Atlantic Salmon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These two-day old Atlantic salmon were hatched at the USGS Tunison Lab and will eventually be released in Lake Ontario tributaries. A new, sophisticated fish rearing facility in Cortland, N.Y. will help restore Atlantic salmon, bloater, and lake herring to Lake Ontario, strengthening the local...

214

Development of the Pintle Release Fork Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

An improved method of attachment of the pintle to the piston in the universal sampler is being developed. The mechanism utilizes a forked release disk which captures two balls in a cavity formed by a hole in the piston and a groove in the pintle rod.

BOGER, R.M.; DALE, R.

1999-08-27

215

Double-ended tuning fork quartz accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz accelerometers with frequency output have been designed and built using etched double-ended tuning fork technology. These devices consist of two tuning forks connected in a cantilever beam configuration with beryllium-copper spacers which serves as a proof mass and inboard spacer. The frequency outputs of each tuning fork resonant circuit are mixed to yield an output frequency of approximately 1kHz at zero acceleration. The sensitivity of the devices is approximately 1Hz/G. The fundamental vibration frequency of the cantilever beam is 2200Hz in this undamped device. Shock testing up to 1500G has indicated good survivability characteristics. Individual fork measurements compared with assembled cantilevers tested in a +- 1G field in the temperature range of -55C to +85C indicate that residual stresses associated with assembly contributes to the temperature sensitivity of the bias frequency. Centrifuge testing has been conducted over the range of 0-120G with an indicated non-linearity of less than 2mG.

Kass, W. J.; Snow, G. S.

216

www.law.und.edu GRAND FORKS  

E-print Network

www.law.und.edu GRAND FORKS 2010-2011 ACADEMIC CATALOG #12;WELCOME FROM THE DEAN Thank you for your interest in the University of North Dakota School of Law. As you weigh choosing among the more than 200 law one law school from another. If you are looking for a law school that o ers a high-quality legal

Delene, David J.

217

www.law.und.edu GRAND FORKS  

E-print Network

www.law.und.edu GRAND FORKS 2011-2012 ACADEMIC CATALOG #12;WELCOME FROM THE DEAN Thank you for your interest in the University of North Dakota School of Law. As you weigh choosing among the more than 200 law one law school from another. If you are looking for a law school that offers a high-quality legal

Delene, David J.

218

Man-induced gradient adjustment of the South Fork Forked Deer River, west Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channel modifications from 1968 to 1969 on the South Fork Forked Deer River in western Tennessee have caused upstream degradation, downstream aggradation, and bank failures along the altered channels, adjacent reaches, and tributaries. The result of these adjustments is a general decrease in gradient as the channel attempts to absorb the imposed increase in energy conditions created by channelization. Headward degradation at a rate of approximately 2.57 km/yr on the South Fork Forked Deer River caused from 1.52 m to about 3.14 m of incision over a 13.5 km reach from 1969 to 1981. As a consequence of substantially increased sediment supply, approximately 2.13 m of aggradation was induced downstream of this reach during the same period. This accumulation represents a 60% recovery of bed level at the downstream site since the completion of channel work in 1969. Gradient adjustment with time is described by exponential decay functions. The length of time required for adjustment to some new quasi-equilibrium condition is computed by these decay functions and is about 20 years from the completion of channel work. Adjusted slopes are less than predisturbed values, probably because straightened channels dissipate less energy by friction, allowing more energy for sediment transport. An equivalent sediment load, therefore, can be transported at a considerably gentler slope. The predisturbed slope exceeds the adjusted slope by an order of magnitude on the downstream reach of the South Fork Forked Deer River. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Simon, A.; Robbins, C.H.

1987-01-01

219

Phosphorylated RPA recruits PALB2 to stalled DNA replication forks to facilitate fork recovery  

PubMed Central

Phosphorylation of replication protein A (RPA) by Cdk2 and the checkpoint kinase ATR (ATM and Rad3 related) during replication fork stalling stabilizes the replisome, but how these modifications safeguard the fork is not understood. To address this question, we used single-molecule fiber analysis in cells expressing a phosphorylation-defective RPA2 subunit or lacking phosphatase activity toward RPA2. Deregulation of RPA phosphorylation reduced synthesis at forks both during replication stress and recovery from stress. The ability of phosphorylated RPA to stimulate fork recovery is mediated through the PALB2 tumor suppressor protein. RPA phosphorylation increased localization of PALB2 and BRCA2 to RPA-bound nuclear foci in cells experiencing replication stress. Phosphorylated RPA also stimulated recruitment of PALB2 to single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a cell-free system. Expression of mutant RPA2 or loss of PALB2 expression led to significant DNA damage after replication stress, a defect accentuated by poly-ADP (adenosine diphosphate) ribose polymerase inhibitors. These data demonstrate that phosphorylated RPA recruits repair factors to stalled forks, thereby enhancing fork integrity during replication stress. PMID:25113031

Murphy, Anar K.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Ro, Teresa; Kim, Jee Hyun; Rabinowitsch, Ariana I.; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Schildkraut, Carl L.

2014-01-01

220

Salmon on the Columbia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit explores aspects of the history of salmon in the Columbia Basin. The materials provided for this unit are primarily social studies related, but include topics in both math and science and. Students have the opportunity to explore data using GIS mapping technology. The learning goals include: understanding the historical, cultural, and economic importance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin to both native and European immigrant populations; identifying technological, economic, and environmental factors that contributed to the decline in salmon populations in the Columbia Basin; use GIS and graphing software to analyze and interpret factors related to changes in the Columbia River salmon population over the last century and describe these phenomena in narrative, graphical or mathematical terms as appropriate; and evaluate the effectiveness of recent actions in helping to restore Columbia Basin salmon populations.

Rick Thomas

221

Bull Trout Population and Habitat Surveys in the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

Bull trout in the Willamette River Basin were historically distributed throughout major tributaries including the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie rivers. Habitat degradation, over-harvest, passage barriers, fish removal by rotenone, and hybridization and competition with non-native brook trout are all likely factors that have led to the decline of bull trout in the Willamette Basin (Ratliff and Howell 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act in 1998. Four bull trout populations were isolated in the upper Willamette River following the construction of flood control dams on the South Fork McKenzie River, McKenzie River, and Middle Fork Willamette River that created Cougar, Trail Bridge, and Hills Creek reservoirs. Buchanan et al. (1997) described the population in the main stem McKenzie as 'of special concern', the South Fork McKenzie population as 'high risk of extinction', the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as 'high risk of extinction', and bull trout in the Middle Fork Willamette as 'probably extinct'. Various management efforts such as strict angling regulations and passage improvement projects have been implemented to stabilize and rehabilitate bull trout habitat and populations in the McKenzie River over the past 10 years. Since 1997, bull trout fry from Anderson Creek on the upper McKenzie River have been transferred to the Middle Fork Willamette basin above Hills Creek Reservoir in an attempt to re-establish a reproducing bull trout population. This project was developed in response to concerns over the population status and management of bull trout in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife during the early 1990s. The project was conducted under measure 9.3G(2) of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor the status, life history, habitat needs, and limiting factors for bull trout within sub basins of the Columbia River. Also, this project provides information to develop native fish recovery plans such as the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Bull Trout Recovery Plan.

Seals, Jason; Reis, Kelly

2003-10-01

222

Pacific Salmon Information Via the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Marine Fisheries Service maintains this Pacific Salmon metasite, which covers the life history, habitat, and economic status of salmon, the role of US state fisheries and Canadian agencies in managing salmon stocks, and additional salmon information. From the University of Washington's concise and informative "Salmon Life History" page, to the Pacific Salmon Alliance's proud "Stand up for Canada: Save our Salmon" page, interested users will find much information on the ecology and politics of Salmon.

223

PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND  

E-print Network

THIS IS A SALMO HATCH PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND SPORT FISHERIES SHKT* illiiniltiiiii SALMON HATCHERY? To maintain the resource, enough of the mature salmon entering and destroyed young salmon. To counteract the effects of these, salmon hatcheries are necessary. Hatchery salmon

224

fork head domain genes in zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine members of the fork head domain gene family (fkd1–fkd9) were isolated from early cDNA libraries in the zebrafish. They show unique expression patterns in whole-mount RNA in situ\\u000a hybridization during the first 24 h of embryonic development. These fkd genes fall into three of ten classes, based on sequence similarities within the DNA-binding domain, whereas members for the\\u000a other

J. Odenthal; Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

1998-01-01

225

The forked flap repair for hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The “Forked-Flap” repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip–flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit's prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed. PMID:23449992

Chadha, Anil; Singh, Amitabh

2012-01-01

226

Direct observation of stalled fork restart via fork regression in the T4 replication system  

PubMed Central

The restart of a stalled replication fork is a major challenge for DNA replication. Depending upon the nature of the damage, different repair processes might be triggered; one is template switching that is bypass of a leading strand lesion via fork regression. Using magnetic tweezers to study the T4 bacteriophage enzymes, we have reproduced in vitro the complete process of template switching. We show that the UvsW DNA helicase in cooperation with the T4 holoenzyme can overcome leading strand lesion damage by a pseudo stochastic process periodically forming and migrating a four ways Holliday junction. The initiation of the repair process requires partial replisome disassembly via the departure of the replicative helicase. The results support the role of fork regression pathways in DNA repair. PMID:23197534

Manosas, Maria; Perumal, Senthil K.; Croquette, Vincent; Benkovic, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

227

State of the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon, like many other species of fish, know no political boundaries. In effect, this makes it hard for humans to craft detailed and meaningful policies for the survival and health of these important creatures. The State of the Salmon is an international consortium that is "dedicated to improving understanding of salmon status and trends across the North Pacific--and building a knowledge network that can inform salmon conservation and management decisions in the future." Given this broad range of cooperation, visitors will not be surprised to find that much of the material featured on the site is available in Russian, English, and Chinese. The materials on the site are divided into several sections, including "Monitoring", "Data & Maps", "Status & Trends", and "Collaborate". The "Data & Maps" area is quite useful, and it features a variety of interactive maps that document existing salmon populations and their movements. Moving on, the "Status & Trends" area provides updates on salmon population trends in Canada, Japan, Russia, and the United States. The site is rounded out by a glossary and information about the organization's basic operating principles.

228

Genetic diversity over multiple generations of supplementation: an example from Chinook salmon using microsatellite and demographic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined demographic data and microsatellite loci in a supplemented population of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) seeking evidence of changes in genetic diversity or for reduction of the effective size (N\\u000a \\u000a e\\u000a ) arising from supplementation (i.e., the Ryman-Laikre effect). A supplementation program in the North Fork Stillaguamish\\u000a River (Washington State, USA) was intended to increase abundance (N) and maintain

William H. Eldridge; Kip Killebrew

2008-01-01

229

Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303,769 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2002 survived to the lower trap. Post release survival estimates for hatchery chinook salmon were within the range of past estimates; 88.4% in 1998 to 100.9% in 1994. An estimated 7,646 to 23,249 (95% C.I.) natural chinook salmon smolts migrated past the lower Imnaha River trap from April 4 to April 22. An additional 6,767 to 14,706 (95% C.I.) natural chinook salmon smolts migrated past the lower Imnaha River trap from April 23 to May 14, 2002. Natural chinook salmon captured and tagged at the upper rkm 74 trap survived to Lower Granite Dam (LGR) at a rate of 28.8% during migration year 2001 and 21.9% during migration year 2002. The survival estimate for fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower trap to LGR was 41.9% in 2001 and 33.3% in 2002. Differences between survival from release to LGR for fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower trap have been 5.9% to 16.9% higher than for fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the upper trap from 1994 to 2002. Spring PIT tag release groups of natural chinook salmon, hatchery chinook salmon, and hatchery steelhead produced estimates of survival from the trap to LGR within the range of past estimates since 1993. Estimated survival from release to LGR for 2001 and 2002 were as follows: 83.7% and 86.9% for natural chinook salmon, 80.3% and 77.3% for hatchery chinook salmon, 82.7% and 81.8% for natural steelhead, and 82.0% and 83.0% for hatchery steelhead. Estimates of survival for spring tagged fish from the trap to Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) during the drought of 2001 were the lowest estimates of survival from 1998 to 2002 for natural chinook salmon, and from1997 to 2002 for natural and hatchery steelhead. Estimates of migration year 2001 survival from the trap to LMO were as follows: 65.6% - natural chinook salmon, 68.9% - hatchery chinook salmon, 49.7% natural steelhead, and 42.9% - hatchery steelhead. Estimates of migration year 2002 survival from the trap to LMO were as follows: 76.8% - natural chinook salmon, 68.1% - hatchery chinook salmon, 69.9% natural steelhead, and 78.0%

Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

2003-12-01

230

Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

2002-01-01

231

76 FR 62038 - Boundary Establishment for North Fork Crooked National Wild and Scenic River, Ochoco National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Establishment for North Fork Crooked National Wild and Scenic River, Ochoco National...of the North Fork Crooked National Wild and Scenic River to Congress. FOR...designated the North Fork Crooked River, Oregon, as a National Wild and Scenic...

2011-10-06

232

16 CFR 1512.14 - Requirements for fork and frame assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for fork and frame assembly. 1512.14...REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512...Requirements for fork and frame assembly. The fork...evidence of fracture or frame deformation that significantly...be turned. Sidewalk bicycles are exempt from...

2010-01-01

233

77 FR 66541 - Safety Zone; Alliance Road Bridge Demolition; Black Warrior River, Locust Fork; Birmingham, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone; Alliance Road Bridge Demolition; Black Warrior River, Locust Fork; Birmingham...for a portion of the Locust Fork to the Black Warrior River, Birmingham, AL. This...which crosses the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River, a navigable...

2012-11-06

234

PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

235

Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-01

236

Statistical Explanation WESLEY C. SALMON  

E-print Network

Statistical Explanation WESLEY C. SALMON Indiana University EVER SINCE IUS CLASSIC PAPER with Paul Science Foundation for support of the sesearch contained in this paper. 29 30 : Wesley C. Salmon probabi

Fitelson, Branden

237

Oblique perspective, due east by 70 degrees. Note concrete pier, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique perspective, due east by 70 degrees. Note concrete pier, added CA. 1930's. Other piers and abutments are heavily mortared rubble stone. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

238

VOLUNTEER-BASED SALMON RIVER  

E-print Network

VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS Institute Environment Canada VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS STREAM ECOSYSTEM HEALTH #12;Volunteer-Based Monitoring Program for the Salmon River

239

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD RECOVERY AND SUBBASIN PLAN Technical Foundation Executive Council MAY 28, 2004 DRAFT #12;Lower Columbia River Salmon Recovery Plan Technical Foundation Executive. This information provides a basis for an integrated Salmon Recovery and Subbasin Plan prepared by the Fish Recovery

240

a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^-'^ "^  

E-print Network

Take a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^·-'^ "^ #12;\\ V 4- #12;balmon has been nourishing the human race of the easy-to-store, easy-to- use can are two good reasons for cooking and serving salmon frequently. But there are even better reasons. The protein in salmon is a complete protein, in the same food group as meat

241

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

242

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations.  

PubMed

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10-20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon--proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment--will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

Marty, Gary D; Saksida, Sonja M; Quinn, Terrance J

2010-12-28

243

The Restoration of Coldwater Fork Using the Reference Reach Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal slurry release from the Big Branch Slurry Impoundment on October 11, 2000 resulted in the flow of approximately 300 million gallons of slurry into the Coldwater Fork watershed. Emergency response to this spill required pumping of slurry and the use of excavators. Efforts were made to maintain the pre-spill channel configuration of Coldwater Fork during the clean up;

J. George Athanasakes; Michael F. Adams

244

33 CFR 117.307 - Miami River, North Fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miami River, North Fork. 117.307 Section 117.307 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Florida § 117.307 Miami River, North Fork. The draw of the FDOT Railroad Bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

245

Adaptive-sliding mode semi-active bicycle suspension fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an adaptive sliding mode controller design for the semi-active bicycle suspension fork with a Magnetorheological (MR) damper is addressed. First, the mathematical equations of quarter-car suspension system for bicycle forks are proposed. Next, the adaptive sliding mode control is utilized to design the robust controller with sprung mass parameter estimation using the MR damper for eliminating external

Fu-Kuang Yeh; Jian-Ji Huang; Chia-Wei Huang

2010-01-01

246

9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF LAKE FORK CANAL, UINTAH PROJECT. TWO SLUICEWAYS TWENTY FEET WIDE HAVE BEEN LEFT IN THE DAM TO PASS BOULDERS DURING HIGH WATER. THESE SLUICEWAYS ARE CLOSED BY LOGS AND HAY DURING LOW WATER.' Date unknown - Irrigation Canals in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne, Duchesne County, UT

247

14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand drips, view with three culvert pipes. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

248

Radio tag retention and tag-related mortality among adult sockeye salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tag retention and tag-related mortality are concerns for any tagging study but are rarely estimated. We assessed retention and mortality rates for esophageal radio tag implants in adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Migrating sockeye salmon captured at the outlet of Lake Clark, Alaska, were implanted with one of four different radio tags (14.5 ?? 43 mm [diameter ?? length], 14.5 ?? 49 mm, 16 ?? 46 mm, and 19 ?? 51 mm). Fish were observed for 15 to 35 d after tagging to determine retention and mortality rates. The overall tag retention rate was high (0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.00; minimum, 33 d), with one loss of a 19-mm ?? 51-mm tag. Mortality of tagged sockeye salmon (0.02; 95% CI, 0-0.08) was similar to that of untagged controls (0.03 [0-0.15]). Sockeye salmon with body lengths (mid-eye to tail fork) of 585-649 mm retained tags as large as 19 ?? 51 mm and those with body lengths of 499-628 mm retained tags as small as 14.5 ?? 43 mm for a minimum of 33 d with no increase in mortality. The tags used in this study represent a suite of radio tags that vary in size, operational life, and cost but that are effective in tracking adult anadromous salmon with little tag loss or increase in fish mortality.

Ramstad, K.M.; Woody, C.A.

2003-01-01

249

Impacts of multispecies parasitism on juvenile Oregon coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We are studying the impacts of parasites on threatened stocks of Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In our previous studies, we have found high infections of digeneans and myxozoans in coho salmon parr from the lower main stem of West Fork Smith River (WFSR), Oregon. In contrast parr from tributaries of this river, and outmigrating smolts, harbor considerably less parasites. Thus, we have hypothesized that heavy parasite burdens in parr from this river are associated with poor overwintering survival. The objective of the current study was to ascertain the possible effects these parasites have on smolt fitness. We captured parr from the lower main stem and tributaries of WFSR and held them in the laboratory to evaluate performance endpoints of smolts with varying degrees of infection by three digeneans (Nanophyetus salmincola, Apophallus sp., and neascus) and one myxozoan (Myxobolus insidiosus). The parameters we assessed were weight, fork length, growth, swimming stamina, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. We repeated our study on the subsequent year class and with hatchery reared coho salmon experimentally infected with N. salmincola. The most significant associations between parasites and these performance or fitness endpoints were observed in the heavily infected groups from both years. We found that all parasite species, except neascus, were negatively associated with fish fitness. This was corroborated for N. salmincola causing reduced growth with our experimental infection study. Parasites were most negatively associated with growth and size, and these parameters likely influenced the secondary findings with swimming stamina and ATPase activity levels.

Ferguson, Jayde A.; Romer, Jeremy; Sifneos, Jean C.; Madsen, Lisa; Schreck, Carl B.; Glynn, Michael; Kent, Michael L.

2011-01-01

250

Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how ‘no effect’ thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

Brauner, C. J.; Sackville, M.; Gallagher, Z.; Tang, S.; Nendick, L.; Farrell, A. P.

2012-01-01

251

Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.  

PubMed

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

2012-06-19

252

SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL  

E-print Network

SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL An lnstruction Manual for Hatching Salmon and Trout Eggs in Classroom and Game Native Salmonids of California Map \\|/try Hatcheries? Activities Fish Journals Habitats of Salmon and Trout 11 Seagoing Salmon and Steelhead 12 Trout Life Cycle 13 Salmon and Steelhead Life Cycle 14 Making

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

253

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

2003-05-01

254

25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. The ARU130HK50 battery charger is visible in left foreground of photograph, with the A-40 backup battery charger visible adjacent to and beyond the ARU130HK50. The racks of 60 KCU-7 lead calcium batteries manufactured by C&D Batteries are visible in the center of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

255

Saving Coho Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how they’re looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call “the vortex of extinction.

2012-03-12

256

Ocean Conditions, Salmon, and Climate Change  

E-print Network

points: -Salmon cycles can last ~1,000 years -Anchovy & sardines out of phase with salmon in Alaska -Within millennia, cycles last 60-100 years Sockeye salmon -AK Anchovy - CA Sardine - CA Fish bones - BC

257

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies  

E-print Network

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies R. SALESSE, J. GARNIER, B en Josas, France Summary. Pituitary gonadotropins of female and male pacific salmon Oncorhynchus) and in salmon (Donaldson et al., 1972), although physicochemical, biological or immunological evidence for two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON,  

E-print Network

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, Oncorhynchus nerka Marine Biological #12;#12;SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPJLATION OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS

259

ATR phosphorylates SMARCAL1 to prevent replication fork collapse  

PubMed Central

The DNA damage response kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) coordinates much of the cellular response to replication stress. The exact mechanisms by which ATR regulates DNA synthesis in conditions of replication stress are largely unknown, but this activity is critical for the viability and proliferation of cancer cells, making ATR a potential therapeutic target. Here we use selective ATR inhibitors to demonstrate that acute inhibition of ATR kinase activity yields rapid cell lethality, disrupts the timing of replication initiation, slows replication elongation, and induces fork collapse. We define the mechanism of this fork collapse, which includes SLX4-dependent cleavage yielding double-strand breaks and CtIP-dependent resection generating excess single-stranded template and nascent DNA strands. Our data suggest that the DNA substrates of these nucleases are generated at least in part by the SMARCAL1 DNA translocase. Properly regulated SMARCAL1 promotes stalled fork repair and restart; however, unregulated SMARCAL1 contributes to fork collapse when ATR is inactivated in both mammalian and Xenopus systems. ATR phosphorylates SMARCAL1 on S652, thereby limiting its fork regression activities and preventing aberrant fork processing. Thus, phosphorylation of SMARCAL1 is one mechanism by which ATR prevents fork collapse, promotes the completion of DNA replication, and maintains genome integrity. PMID:23873943

Couch, Frank B.; Bansbach, Carol E.; Driscoll, Robert; Luzwick, Jessica W.; Glick, Gloria G.; Bétous, Rémy; Carroll, Clinton M.; Jung, Sung Yun; Qin, Jun; Cimprich, Karlene A.; Cortez, David

2013-01-01

260

Chemical and biological sensing using tuning forks  

DOEpatents

A device for sensing a chemical analyte is disclosed. The device is comprised of a vibrating structure having first and second surfaces and having an associated resonant frequency and a wire coupled between the first and second surfaces of the vibrating structure, wherein the analyte interacts with the wire and causes a change in the resonant frequency of the vibrating structure. The vibrating structure can include a tuning fork. The vibrating structure can be comprised of quartz. The wire can be comprised of polymer. A plurality of vibrating structures are arranged in an array to increase confidence by promoting a redundancy of measurement or to detect a plurality of chemical analytes. A method of making a device for sensing a chemical analyte is also disclosed.

Tao, Nongjian; Boussaad, Salah

2012-07-10

261

The Fight Over Pacific Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

262

Little Known Facts about the Common Tuning Fork.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the physical principles of the tuning fork which has a common use in teaching laboratories. Includes information on its vibration, frequency of vibration, elasticity, and reasons for having two prongs. (YDS)

Ong, P. P.

2002-01-01

263

17. DETAIL VIEW OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE STIRRING FORK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL VIEW OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE STIRRING FORK THAT MIXED COFFEE BEANS AS THEY WERE HUSKED - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

264

16 CFR 1512.13 - Requirements for front fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for strength by application of at least 39.5 J (350 in-lb) of energy in accordance with the fork test, § 1512.18(k)(1), without visible evidence of fracture. Sidewalk bicycles need not meet this...

2014-01-01

265

Replication fork recovery and regulation of common fragile sites stability.  

PubMed

The acquisition of genomic instability is a triggering factor in cancer development, and common fragile sites (CFS) are the preferential target of chromosomal instability under conditions of replicative stress in the human genome. Although the mechanisms leading to CFS expression and the cellular factors required to suppress CFS instability remain largely undefined, it is clear that DNA becomes more susceptible to breakage when replication is impaired. The models proposed so far to explain how CFS instability arises imply that replication fork progression along these regions is perturbed due to intrinsic features of fragile sites and events that directly affect DNA replication. The observation that proteins implicated in the safe recovery of stalled forks or in engaging recombination at collapsed forks increase CFS expression when downregulated or mutated suggests that the stabilization and recovery of perturbed replication forks are crucial to guarantee CFS integrity. PMID:25216703

Franchitto, Annapaola; Pichierri, Pietro

2014-12-01

266

205. View of the Raven Fork Overlook with its unusual ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

205. View of the Raven Fork Overlook with its unusual double crescent design. Looking southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

267

Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the efficacy of using an acoustic camera to count adult migrant Chinook salmon as they make their way to the spawning grounds on the Secesh River and Lake Creek. A phased approach to applying the acoustic camera was proposed, starting with testing and evaluation in spring 2003, followed by a full implementation in 2004 and 2005. The goal of this effort is to better assess the early run components when water clarity and night visibility preclude the use of optical techniques. A single acoustic camera was used to test the technology for enumerating adult salmon passage at the Secesh River. The acoustic camera was deployed on the Secesh at a site engineered with an artificial substrate to control the river bottom morphometry and the passage channel. The primary goal of the analysis for this first year of deployment was to validate counts of migrant salmon. The validation plan involved covering the area with optical video cameras so that both optical and acoustic camera images of the same viewing region could be acquired simultaneously. A secondary test was contrived after the fish passage was complete using a controlled setting at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, in which we tested the detectability as a function of turbidity levels. Optical and acoustic camera multiplexed video recordings of adult Chinook salmon were made at the Secesh River fish counting station from August 20 through August 29, 2003. The acoustic camera performed as well as or better than the optical camera at detecting adult Chinook salmon over the 10-day test period. However, the acoustic camera was not perfect; the data reflected adult Chinook salmon detections made by the optical camera that were missed by the acoustic camera. The conditions for counting using the optical camera were near ideal, with shallow clear water and good light penetration. The relative performance of the acoustic camera is expected to be even better than the optical camera in early spring when water clarity and light penetration are limited. Results of the laboratory tests at the Pacific North

Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

2004-01-01

268

A micromachined comb-drive tuning fork rate gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of single-crystal and polysilicon tuning fork gyroscopes of very small size and low cost using microfabrication technology is reported. These tuning fork gyroscopes are extremely rugged, inherently balanced, and easy to fabricate. For a 1-mm gyroscope, projected performance is 10 to 100°\\/hr for bias stability and for resolution in a 60-Hz bandwidth. To date, 5000°\\/hr in a 60

J. Bernstein; S. Cho; A. T. King; A. Kourepenis; P. Maciel; M. Weinberg

1993-01-01

269

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic  

E-print Network

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic Retold by Rodney Frey 28 September 2000 Salmon ..................................12 Salmon is a great warrior. He's going up the Columbia River; Salmon always goes up river. Salmon to catch the salmon; it's not so good. Salmon goes over, piles up rocks, here and here. He goes up the bank

O'Laughlin, Jay

270

SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

271

Nucleosome assembly and genome integrity: The fork is the link.  

PubMed

Maintaining the stability of the replication forks is one of the main tasks of the DNA damage response. Specifically, checkpoint mechanisms detect stressed forks and prevent their collapse. In the published report reviewed here we have shown that defective chromatin assembly in cells lacking either H3K56 acetylation or the chromatin assembly factors CAF1 and Rtt106 affects the integrity of advancing replication forks, despite the presence of functional checkpoints. This loss of replication intermediates is exacerbated in the absence of Rad52, suggesting that collapsed forks are rescued by homologous recombination and providing an explanation for the accumulation of recombinogenic DNA damage displayed by these mutants. These phenotypes mimic those obtained by a partial reduction in the pool of available histones and are consistent with a model in which defective histone deposition uncouples DNA synthesis and nucleosome assembly, thus making the fork more susceptible to collapse. Here, we review these findings and discuss the possibility that defects in the lagging strand represent a major source of fork instability in chromatin assembly mutants. PMID:22754621

Prado, Félix; Clemente-Ruiz, Marta

2012-01-01

272

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming  

E-print Network

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming Ida Scheel1 salmon anemia (ISA) is one of the main infectious diseases in Atlantic salmon farming with major, worldwide. We study the data covering salmon farming in Norway from 2002 to 2005 and propose a stochastic

Aldrin, Magne

273

MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL  

EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

274

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon  

E-print Network

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon Last Updated: Wednesday, December 8, 2004 | 9 Canadian diners with genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as normal fish. Aqua Bounty Bounty will ask for permission to sell GM salmon for humans to eat. Both salmon are one year old

Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

275

WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

276

New York State Salmon River Fish Hatchery  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

277

SALMON-TAGGING EXPERIMENTS IN ALASKA, 1929 1 By SETON H. THOMPSON, M. S.  

E-print Network

PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND Anderson Bay. Hinchinbrook Island, 4 miles east of Johnstone Point. Bainbridge salmon were recorded __ r~e William Sound _ turns from experiments in Montague Strait Prince Williams Sound-Continued. Returns from experiments at Johnstone Point _ Cook Inlpt _ Returns from

278

Fascin, may the Forked be with you.  

PubMed

The FGFR pathway triggers a wide range of key biological responses. Among others, the Breathless (Btl, Drosophila FGFR1) receptor cascade promotes cell migration during embryonic tracheal system development. However, how the actin cytoskeleton responds to Btl pathway activation to induce cell migration has remained largely unclear. Our recent results shed light into this issue by unveiling a link between the actin-bundling protein Singed (Sn) and the Btl pathway. We showed that the Btl pathway regulates sn, which leads to the stabilization of the actin bundles required for filopodia formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. This regulation contributes to tracheal migration, tracheal branch fusion and tracheal cell elongation. Parallel actin bundles (PABs) are usually cross-linked by more than one actin-bundling protein. Accordingly, we have also shown that sn synergistically interacts with forked (f), another actin crosslinker. In this Extra View we extend f analysis and hypothesize how both actin-bundling proteins may act together to regulate the PABs during tracheal embryonic development. Although both proteins are required for similar tracheal events, we suggest that Sn is essential for actin bundle initiation and stiffening, while F is required for the lengthening and further stabilization of the PABs. PMID:25482727

Okenve-Ramos, Pilar; Llimargas, Marta

2014-07-01

279

77 FR 34337 - Uinta-Wasatch-Cache National Forest; Evanston-Mountain View Ranger District; Utah; Smiths Fork...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Evanston-Mountain View Ranger District; Utah; Smiths Fork Vegetation Restoration Project AGENCY...correction to the notice of intent for the Smiths Fork Vegetation Restoration Project published...DATES: The scoping period for the Smiths Fork Vegetation Restoration Project...

2012-06-11

280

More forks on the road to replication stress recovery  

PubMed Central

High-fidelity replication of DNA, and its accurate segregation to daughter cells, is critical for maintaining genome stability and suppressing cancer. DNA replication forks are stalled by many DNA lesions, activating checkpoint proteins that stabilize stalled forks. Stalled forks may eventually collapse, producing a broken DNA end. Fork restart is typically mediated by proteins initially identified by their roles in homologous recombination repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In recent years, several proteins involved in DSB repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) have been implicated in the replication stress response, including DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA Ligase IV-XRCC4, Artemis, XLF and Metnase. It is currently unclear whether NHEJ proteins are involved in the replication stress response through indirect (signaling) roles, and/or direct roles involving DNA end joining. Additional complexity in the replication stress response centers around RPA, which undergoes significant post-translational modification after stress, and RAD52, a conserved HR protein whose role in DSB repair may have shifted to another protein in higher eukaryotes, such as BRCA2, but retained its role in fork restart. Most cancer therapeutic strategies create DNA replication stress. Thus, it is imperative to gain a better understanding of replication stress response proteins and pathways to improve cancer therapy. PMID:21278446

Allen, Chris; Ashley, Amanda K.; Hromas, Robert; Nickoloff, Jac A.

2011-01-01

281

Quartz Tuning Forks and Acoustic Phenomena: Application to Superfluid Helium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersed mechanical resonators are well suited for probing the properties of fluids, since the surrounding environment influences the resonant characteristics of such oscillators in several ways. Quartz tuning forks have gained much popularity in recent years as the resonators of choice for studies of liquid helium. They have many superior properties when compared to other oscillating bodies conventionally used for this purpose, such as vibrating wires. However, the intricate geometry of a tuning fork represents a challenge for analyzing their behavior in a fluid environment—analytical approaches do not carry very far. In this article the characteristics of immersed quartz tuning fork resonators are studied by numerical simulations. We account for the compressibility of the medium, that is acoustic phenomena, and neglect viscosity, with the aim to realistically model the oscillator response in superfluid helium. The significance of different tuning fork shapes is studied. Acoustic emission in infinite medium and acoustic resonances in confined volumes are investigated. The results can aid in choosing a quartz tuning fork with suitable properties for experiments, as well as interpreting measured data.

Rysti, J.; Tuoriniemi, J.

2014-11-01

282

Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.  

SciTech Connect

The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done in the Lochsa basin by IDFG. Fish were trucked from the hatcheries to outplant sites.

Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

2002-04-16

283

Health Improvement Program http://hip.stanford.edu HIP Interest Story Dana Forks  

E-print Network

Health Improvement Program http://hip.stanford.edu HIP Interest Story ­ Dana Forks Alternative by Administrative Associate Dana Forks on her pedometer. Dana takes the Dumbarton Express stress related to finding parking or being in traffic. Dana writes, "I

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

284

78 FR 29202 - Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota AGENCY...project in Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota. FOR...Federal Highway Administration, North Dakota Division Office, 1471...

2013-05-17

285

SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

286

A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope  

PubMed Central

A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s. PMID:24048339

Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

2013-01-01

287

Temperature effects in tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Temperature dependent measurements with a compact fiber coupled sensor for trace gas detection in the near-infrared based on tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy are presented. The temperature effects on the sensor have been investigated in a range from T = -41 °C to T = 107 °C, in particular the influence on the resonance frequency and the Q-factor of the micro tuning fork. The refined sensor head contains a combination of a silicon tuning fork and an acoustic off-beam resonator and permits methane detection with a detection limit of S = (3.85 ± 0.01) ppm. The functional capability of a numerical model for the optimization of acoustic off-beam resonators in COMSOL Multiphysics® is presented. PMID:24103964

Köhring, M; Böttger, S; Willer, U; Schade, W

2013-09-01

288

East Timor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News examines the escalation of violence and the proposal for autonomy in the Indonesian province of East Timor. Last weekend, anti-independence militiamen killed dozens of separatist activists in Dili, the East Timorese capital, intensifying the fierce bloodshed and political tumult in the province. The recent massacre is just one of several brutal episodes that have plagued East Timor in the past quarter-century. The people of the embattled island have suffered numerous human rights violations, have endured economic collapse, and have been decimated by guerrilla warfare, famine, and disease. Over 200,000 East Timorese -- or nearly one-fourth of the population -- have died in the troubles, which began in 1975 when Portugal abruptly abandoned East Timor after 400 years of colonial rule. Unstable and vulnerable, the newly independent East Timor was quickly invaded, occupied, and annexed in 1976 by Indonesia, a stronger nation that quashed all subsequent separatist movements. Last January, after years of political oppression, Indonesia's parliament finally succumbed to international pressure and announced that it would grant East Timor either full independence or autonomy within the Indonesian state. The United Nations, although it has never officially recognized Indonesia's sovereignty over East Timor, plans to supervise a vote, tentatively scheduled for July, wherein the East Timorese will determine whether they want full independence or provincial autonomy. Later this week, Foreign Ministers Ali Alatas of Indonesia and Jaime Gama of Portugal are meeting in New York with UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan to discuss the East Timorese autonomy option and plan for the pending UN-monitored poll. However, the recent resurgence of violence between anti- and pro-independence factions in and around Dili threatens the viability of the proposed poll and endangers the stability of East Timor's self-determination. The nine resources discussed offer background information, the latest news, political analysis, and social commentary.

Osmond, Andrew.

1999-01-01

289

Subjective assessment of fork-lift truck seats under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subjective assessment of fork-lift truck seats has been carried out to assess the range of preferred seat dimensions and the acceptability of different seat adjustments to fork-lift truck drivers. Twelve fork-lift truck seats fitted to a fixed bench were assessed by twelve fork-lift truck drivers. For each seat, each driver completed a questionnaire that covered the following areas: eleven

P. Donati; J. A. Patel

1999-01-01

290

John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1999-2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest populations of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the entire Columbia River basin. Spring chinook salmon in this basin are therefore, used as an important index stock to measure the effects of future management actions on other salmon stocks in the Columbia basin. To meet the data requirements as an index stock, we estimated annual spawner escapement, age-structure, and smolt-to-adult survival. This information will allow us to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. To estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates, 1,852 chinook smolts were tagged with PIT tags from 3 March to 5 May, 2000. Length of captured smolts varied, ranging from 80 to 147 mm fork length (mean = 113 mm). These fish will be monitored for PIT tags as returning adults at dams and during future spawning ground surveys. During spawning ground surveys, a total of 351.3 km of stream were surveyed resulting in the observation of 478 redds. When expanded, we estimated total number of redds at 481 and total number of spawners at 1,583 fish in the John Day River basin. We estimated that 13% of the redds were in the mainstem John Day, 27% in the Middle Fork, 34% in the North Fork, and 26% were in the Granite Creek basin. Sampled carcasses had a sex ratio comprised of 53% females and 47% males with an age structure comprised of 0.5% age-2, 6.3% age-3, 88.7% age-4, and 4.5% age-5 fish. Five of the 405 carcasses examined had fin clips suggesting they were of hatchery origin. The 1999 index redd count total for the North Fork, Mainstem, and Granite Creek was lower than the 1999 average (535) but well within the range of annual redd counts during this period. The index redd count for the Middle Fork was higher than the 1990's average (92) but considerably lower than the average from 1978-1985 (401). Although quite variable over the past 40 years, the number of redds in the John Day River basin during 1999 was well within the range of redd counts since they were initiated in 1959.

Ruzycki, James R.; Wilson, Wayne H.; Carmichael, Richard W.

2002-01-01

291

High Performance Matched-Mode Tuning Fork Gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the perfect matched-mode operation of a type I non-degenerate z-axis tuning-fork gyroscope (i.e., 0 Hz frequency split between high-Q drive and sense modes). The matched-mode tuning fork gyroscope (M2-TFG) is fabricated on 50-µ m thick SOI substrate and displays an overall rate sensitivity of 24.2 mV\\/º\\/s. Allan Variance analysis of the mode-matched device demonstrates an angle random

M. F. Zaman; A. Sharma; F. Ayazi

2006-01-01

292

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.

WGBH

293

Salmon Move into Deeper Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For generations, Native Americans have depended on their observations of nature for their survival. In this video segment adapted from Northwest Indian College, an Elder recalls how fishermen suspected the water was warming after observing salmon retreating to deeper waters.

2010-03-24

294

EARLY CENOZOIC MAMMALIAN FAUNAS OF THE CLARK'S FORK BASIN-POLECAT BENCH AREA,  

E-print Network

EARLY CENOZOIC MAMMALIAN FAUNAS OF THE CLARK'S FORK BASIN-POLECAT BENCH AREA, NORTHWESTERN WYOMING Bench and the southern margin of the Clark's Fork Basin. Lancian, early Puercan, and late Torrejonian Tiffanian) in the Clark's Fork Basin. Clarkforkian faunas occur at 135 localities in about 470 m of section

Gingerich, Philip D.

295

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2012-07-01

296

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2013-07-01

297

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2011-07-01

298

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2014-07-01

299

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2010-07-01

300

76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY AGENCY: National Park...South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY...SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public notice is hereby...South Fork National Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky,...

2011-06-20

301

Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

2013-12-01

302

Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

2000-01-01

303

Toward a salmon conjecture  

E-print Network

By using a result from the numerical algebraic geometry package Bertini we show that (with extremely high probability) a set of degree 6 and degree 9 polynomials cut out the secant variety $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{2}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{2} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$. This, combined with an argument provided by Landsberg and Manivel, implies set-theoretic defining equations in degrees 5, 6 and 9 for a much larger set of secant varieties, including $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{3}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$ which is of particular interest in light of the salmon prize offered by E. Allman for the ideal-theoretic defining equations.

Oeding, Luke

2010-01-01

304

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon  

E-print Network

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon Martin Krkoseka,b,1 , Brendan a Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 9016; b Salmon Coast Field Station, Simoom) The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect

Dill, Lawrence M.

305

LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON  

E-print Network

LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON MOTHERSHIP FISHERY that the percentage of net-marked sockeye salmon in the daily catch below' Hells Gate on the Fraser River during 1943 and the USSR have reported net injuries to salmon in coastal waters. Thus, Petrova (1964) reported that up

306

Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation. These fish continued rearing in the outdoor collection basin until release in March 2006. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 12,056 of the smolts released were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 90,450 smolts were released directly into Johnson Creek on March 13 through 15, 2006.

Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

2009-02-19

307

New histone supply regulates replication fork speed and PCNA unloading  

PubMed Central

Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show that replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and efficient nucleosome assembly. Inhibition of canonical histone biosynthesis impaired replication fork progression and reduced nucleosome occupancy on newly synthesized DNA. Replication forks initially remained stable without activation of conventional checkpoints, although prolonged histone deficiency generated DNA damage. PCNA accumulated on newly synthesized DNA in cells lacking new histones, possibly to maintain opportunity for CAF-1 recruitment and nucleosome assembly. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that PCNA unloading is delayed in the absence of nucleosome assembly. We propose that coupling of fork speed and PCNA unloading to nucleosome assembly provides a simple mechanism to adjust DNA replication and maintain chromatin integrity during transient histone shortage. PMID:24379417

Mejlvang, Jakob; Feng, Yunpeng; Alabert, Constance; Neelsen, Kai J.; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Zhao, Xiaobei; Lees, Michael; Sandelin, Albin; Pasero, Philippe; Lopes, Massimo

2014-01-01

308

Synthetic Lethality of Cohesins with PARPs and Replication Fork Mediators  

E-print Network

Synthetic lethality has been proposed as a way to leverage the genetic differences found in tumor cells to affect their selective killing. Cohesins, which tether sister chromatids together until anaphase onset, are mutated in a variety of tumor types. The elucidation of synthetic lethal interactions with cohesin mutants therefore identifies potential therapeutic targets. We used a cross-species approach to identify robust negative genetic interactions with cohesin mutants. Utilizing essential and non-essential mutant synthetic genetic arrays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we screened genome-wide for genetic interactions with hypomorphic mutations in cohesin genes. A somatic cell proliferation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that the majority of interactions were conserved. Analysis of the interactions found that cohesin mutants require the function of genes that mediate replication fork progression. Conservation of these interactions between replication fork mediators and cohesin in both yeast and C. elegans prompted us to test whether other replication fork mediators not found in the yeast were required for viability in cohesin mutants. PARP1 has roles in the DNA damage response but also in the restart of stalled replication forks. We found that a hypomorphic allele of the C. elegans SMC1 orthologue, him-1(e879), genetically interacted with mutations in the orthologues of PAR metabolism genes resulting in a reduced brood size and somatic cell defects. We then demonstrated that this interaction is conserved in human cells by showing that PARP inhibitors reduce the viability of cultured human cells depleted for cohesin components. This work

Jessica L. Mclellan; Nigel J. O’neil; Irene Barrett; Elizabeth Ferree; Derek M. Van Pel; Payal Sipahimalani; Jennifer Bryan; Ann M. Rose; Philip Hieter

309

27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the North Fork of Roanoke viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. Virginia, 7.5 minute series maps. They are: (1) McDonalds Mill Quadrangle, 1965; (2) Glenvar Quadrangle, 1965; (3) Elliston Quadrangle, 1965; (4) Ironto...

2010-04-01

310

Reduction of Subtask Dispersion in Fork-Join Systems  

E-print Network

Imperial College London, 180 Queen's Gate, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom, Email: {it09,wjk at the head of the parallel service queues. Nu- merical results show the ability to reduce dispersion in fork are natural abstractions for representing the flow and pro- cessing of tasks in parallel systems in which high

Knottenbelt, William J.

311

136. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; HIGH LINE GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

312

Scalability of fork\\/join queueing networks with blocking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how the through put of a general fork-join queueing network with blocking behaves as the number of nodes increases to infinity while the processing speed and buffer space of each node stay unchanged. The problem is motivated by applications arising from distributed systems and computer networks. One example is large-scale distributed stream processing systems where TCP is

Cathy H. Xia; Zhen Liu; Don Towsley; Marc Lelarge

2007-01-01

313

Scalability of fork\\/join queueing networks with blocking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how the throughput of a general fork\\/join queueing network with blocking behaves as the number of nodes increases to infinity while the processing speed and buffer space of each node stay unchanged. The problem is motivated by applications arising from distributed systems and computer networks. One example is large-scale distributed stream processing systems where TCP is used

Cathy H. Xia; Zhen Liu; Donald F. Towsley; Marc Lelarge

2007-01-01

314

EMPLOYMENT SUMMARY FOR 2011 GRADUATES Grand Forks, ND 58202  

E-print Network

EMPLOYMENT SUMMARY FOR 2011 GRADUATES Grand Forks, ND 58202 Website : www.law.und.edu Phone : 701 Date Deferred 0 Total graduates 81 Unemployed - Not Seeking 0 Employment Status Unknown 2 Unemployed - Seeking 9 Employed - Undeterminable * 0 0 0 0 0 Employed - Bar Passage Required 40 0 1 0 41 Pursuing

Delene, David J.

315

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

316

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

317

THE KING SALMON OF COOK INLET, ALASKA  

E-print Network

, Alaska ABSTRACT Runs of king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Cook Inlet, Alaska, are de- clining for spawning. INTRODUCTION Historically, the king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is one of the most

318

Salmon lice increase the age of returning Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

The global increase in the production of domestic farmed fish in open net pens has created concerns about the resilience of wild populations owing to shifts in host–parasite systems in coastal ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of increased parasite abundance on life-history traits in wild fish populations. Here, we report the results of two separate studies in which 379 779 hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts were treated (or not) against salmon lice, marked and released. Adults were later recaptured, and we specifically tested whether the age distribution of the returning spawners was affected by the treatment. The estimates of parasite-induced mortality were 31.9% and 0.6% in the River Vosso and River Dale stock experiments, respectively. Age of returning salmon was on average higher in treated versus untreated fish. The percentages of fish returning after one winter at sea were 37.5% and 29.9% for the treated and untreated groups, respectively. We conclude that salmon lice increase the age of returning salmon, either by affecting their age at maturity or by disproportionately increasing mortality in fish that mature early. PMID:24478199

Vollset, Knut Wiik; Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir; Skoglund, Helge; Normann, Eirik Straume; Skilbrei, Ove Tommy

2014-01-01

319

Bed stability in unconfined gravel bed mountain streams: With implications for salmon spawning viability in future climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incubating eggs of autumn-spawning Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) could be at risk of midwinter high flows and substrate scour in a changing climate. A high-spatial-resolution multidimensional hydrodynamics model was used to assess the degree of scour risk in low-gradient unconfined gravel bed channels that are the favored environment for autumn-spawning salmon in mountain watersheds such as the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), Idaho. In one of the most important MFSR spawning tributaries, near-bed shear stresses were relatively low at all discharges from base flows to 300% of bankfull. The highest stresses were found only in small areas of the central flow core and not at spawning sites. Median shear stresses did not increase in overbank flow conditions because poor channel confinement released the excess water into adjacent floodplains. Channel and floodplain topography, rather than discharge, control the maximum near-bed shear stresses. Over the modeled range of discharges, ~2% of the total surface area of the main stem channel bed was predicted to be mobile. Even in known spawning areas, where shear stresses are higher, ?20% of the spawning surface area was mobile during overbank flows with a 2 year recurrence interval. Field measurements of little gravel transport during flows that were 93% of bankfull support the numerical model predictions. Regardless of some uncertainty in future climates in these watersheds, there appears to be relatively limited risk of extensive scour at salmon spawning sites in any likely hydrologic regimes.

McKean, Jim; Tonina, Daniele

2013-09-01

320

L'originalit de Juglar Pierre Salmon  

E-print Network

L'originalité de Juglar Pierre Salmon Thèse complémentaire soutenue le 28 mars 1966 Université de -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Version verbatim avec quelques corrections de forme mars 2011 Pierre Salmon Université de Bourgogne Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion (UMRS CNRS 5118) pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract This is a version

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role  

E-print Network

PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role In Fishery Management CIRCULAR 24 FISH- crease have intensified the problems of salmon-fishery maintenance. Natural propagation has been interfered with by pollution and by dams that cut off the salmon from their natural spawning grounds

322

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead  

E-print Network

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead To Healthy, Harvestable Levels Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board December 15, 2004 Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife Subbasin Plan Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Skamania And Wahkiakum Counties #12;Lower Columbia Salmon Recovery And Fish & Wildlife

323

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian  

E-print Network

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian Networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen, Petri Karlsson and Ingemar Per¨a December 22, 2002 HIIT TECHNICAL REPORT 2002­7 #12;PREDICTING THE WILD SALMON elsewhere. #12;Predicting the wild salmon production using Bayesian networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen

Myllymäki, Petri

324

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE  

E-print Network

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE Marine Biological Laboratory iM0V3Ul953 WOODS HOLE and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director UTILIZATION OP ALASKM SALMON CANlTEaT WASH PAHTS I AHD II, September 1953 #12;#12;UTILIZATION OF AUSKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE y PART I 1. Possibility of Development

325

USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON  

E-print Network

353 USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory LIBRARY Of. zi 1960 WOODS of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON by Richard W Page The effect of dynamite on salmon 2 Description and results of variables tested 3 Effect of water

326

-----WESLEy C. SALMON-----Confirmation and Relevance ,  

E-print Network

-----WESLEy C. SALMON----- Confirmation and Relevance , Item: One of the earliest surprises of Probability (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950), sec. 1l0A. ~ Wesley C. Salmon, "Partial Entailment Foundations, secs. 86-88. #12;Wesley C. Salmon that the first edition had been unclear with regard

Fitelson, Branden

327

BLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka  

E-print Network

and Wildlife Service, John L . Farley, Director BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARDBLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARD MIGRATION PAST BONNEVILLE DAM Marine Summary and conclusions 35 Literature cited 36 Appendix 37 #12;#12;BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCOHYNCHUS NERKA AGE

328

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON  

E-print Network

RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION Marine Biological Laboratory AUG 1 1 1958, Commissioner RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern and- Dipt iman 1958 #12;RAPID COUNTING OF NEMATODA IN SALMON BY PEPTIC DIGESTION by Joseph A. Stern, Diptiman

329

Atlantic Salmon Released into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS employee Marisa Lubeck releases the day's last young Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season b...

330

Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Tunison Lab scientist Emily Waldt (right) assists Dan Bishop of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in releasing Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being release...

331

Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming  

E-print Network

farmers alone ex- pect to produce 80,000 t of Atlantic salmon, but farmers in other coun- tries also plan to expand operations in their own country, several Norwegian com- panies have exported their salmon farming salmon has become an im- portant Norwegian fishery export. In 1983, Norway exported 15,500 t of farmed

332

ALKALI EXTRACTED PROTEIN FRACTIONS FROM SALMON BYPRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

From 1995-2000 the harvest of wild salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) from Alaska waters averaged 364,000 mt. It has been estimated that the major byproducts available in Alaska from Pacific salmon processing include over 50,000 mt of salmon heads and 30,000 mt of viscera, of which much is under utilized. ...

333

HOWARD FORK ACID ROCK DRAINAGE SOURCE INTERCEPTION STUDY; HOWARD FORK OF THE SAN MIGUEL RIVER NEAR OPHIR, COLORADO  

EPA Science Inventory

This project proposes to analyze regional hydrogeology as it relates to mine workings which discharge significant heavy metals into the Howard Fork of the San Miguel River and recommend strategies to intercept and divert water away from mineralized zones. The study also includes...

334

Salmon Move into Deeper Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, learn about subsistence fishing and harvesting. Hear from an Elder who speaks about how he used to go trolling (fishing) for salmon with his father, uncles, and cousins when he was young. He recalls that they noticed that the salmon were moving farther offshore, into deeper water. They suspected it was because the water was warming. The video segment was adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham, Washington. The background essay explains the huge significance of climate change for people who rely on the earth so much, and the correlation between the temperature of water and the abundance of salmon is further explained. The Discussion questions will help kids think about the issues,and therefore understand them in a better way. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

335

Effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters on growth and feeding behavior of juvenile chinook salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters (representing 2.3-5.5% of body weight) on the growth and feeding behavior of 192 juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (114-159 mm in fork length). Throughout the 54-d study, the 48 fish with transmitters in their stomachs (gastric fish) consistently grew more slowly than fish with surgically implanted transmitters (surgery fish), fish with surgery but no implanted transmitter (sham-surgery fish), or fish exposed only to handling (control fish). Growth rates of surgery fish were also slightly impaired at day 21, but by day 54 they were growing at rates comparable with those of control fish. Despite differences in growth, overall health was similar among all test fish. However, movement of the transmitter antenna caused abrasions at the corner of the mouth in all gastric fish, whereas only 22% of the surgery fish had inflammation around the antenna exit wound. Feeding activity was similar among groups, but gastric fish exhibited a coughing behavior and appeared to have difficulty retaining swallowed food. Because growth and feeding behavior were less affected by the presence of surgically implanted transmitters than by gastric implants, we recommend surgically implanting transmitters for biotelemetry studies of juvenile chinook salmon between 114 and 159 mm fork length.

Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.; Evans, S.D.; Kelly, J.E.

1998-01-01

336

Effects of the exxon valdez oil spill on fork-tailed storm-petrels breeding in the Barren Islands, Alaska. Bird study number 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) at East Amatuli Island, Barren Islands, the largest storm-petrel breeding colony within the trajectory of the oil slick, to determine whether there was evidence of adverse effects, following the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill. Although we were unable to measure all possible indicators, we found insufficient evidence to conclude that there were significant adverse impacts to breeding storm-petrels in 1989.

Nishimoto, M.; Byrd, G.V.

1993-04-01

337

Effects of the exxon valdez oil spill on fork-tailed storm-petrels breeding in the Barren Islands, Alaska. Bird study number 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state\\/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) at East Amatuli Island, Barren Islands, the largest storm-petrel breeding colony within the trajectory of the oil slick, to determine whether there was evidence of adverse effects, following the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill. Although we were unable to measure all possible indicators, we found insufficient evidence to conclude that there were significant adverse

M. Nishimoto; G. V. Byrd

1993-01-01

338

A Fork in the Road We stand at a fork in the road. Conventional oil and gas supplies are limited. We can move  

E-print Network

A Fork in the Road We stand at a fork in the road. Conventional oil and gas supplies are limited. The economics is crystal clear. We are all better off if fossil fuels are made to pay their honest costs. The public must pay the medical costs for all pollution effects. The public will pay costs caused by climate

Hansen, James E.

339

Hydrologic modeling of flood conveyance and impacts of historic overbank sedimentation on West Fork Black's Fork, Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses historic overbank alluvial sedimentation along a low-gradient reach of West Fork Black's Fork in the northern Uinta Mountains, Utah. In this previously glaciated setting, an alluvial floodplain that is approximately 400 m wide by 1500 m long has been modified by the combined effects of valley morphometry and the recent history of clear-cut logging during the late

Eric C. Carson

2006-01-01

340

Channelization and floodplain forests: Impacts of accelerated sedimentation and valley plug formation on floodplain forests of the Middle Fork Forked Deer River, Tennessee, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the severe degradation of floodplain habitats resulting from channelization and concomitant excessive coarse sedimentation on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River in west Tennessee from 2000 to 2003. Land use practices have resulted in excessive sediment in the tributaries and river system eventually resulting in sand deposition on the floodplain, increased overbank flooding, a rise in the groundwater

Sonja N. Oswalt; Sammy L. King

2005-01-01

341

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 -2008  

E-print Network

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 - 2008 Peter Hassemer Idaho Department of Fish;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Upriver Summer Steelhead #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Spring Chinook Salmon (Includes Snake River Summers) #12;Spring

342

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2012 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 89 686 597 13% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 35 1,028 993 3% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 84 562 478 15% 0 BS Chinook Salmon

343

High Gyrodactylus salaris infection rate in triploid Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.  

PubMed

We describe an unusually high infection rate of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. of Baltic Sea origin, which are generally believed to be more resistant to G. salaris than East Atlantic salmon populations. Based on analyses of mitochondrial (complete cytochrome oxidase 1 [CO1] gene, 1548 bp) and nuclear (ADNAM1, 435 bp; internal transcribed spacer [ITS] rDNA region, 1232 bp) DNA fragments, the closest relatives of the characterized Estonian G. salaris strain were parasites found off the Swedish west coast and in Raasakka hatchery, Iijoki (Baltic Sea, Finland). Analyses of 14 microsatellite loci of the host S. salarrevealed that approximately 40% of studied fish were triploids. We subsequently identified triploid Atlantic salmon of Baltic origin as more susceptible to G. salaris infection than their diploid counterparts, possibly due to compromised complement-dependent immune pathways in triploid salmon. This is in accordance with earlier studies that have shown elevated susceptibility of triploids to various viral or bacterial pathogens, and represents one of the first reports of increased susceptibility of triploid salmonid fish to an ectoparasite. However, further experimental work is needed to determine whether triploid Atlantic salmon is generally more susceptible to G. salaris compared to their diploid counterparts, irrespective of the particular triploidization method and population of origin. PMID:21387992

Ozerov, M Y; Lumme, J; Päkk, P; Rintamäki, P; Zietara, M S; Barskaya, Y; Lebedeva, D; Saadre, E; Gross, R; Primmer, C R; Vasemägi, A

2010-09-01

344

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 2000: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 2000-2002.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon trapping, broodstock selection, and spawning was first implemented in 1998, did not occur in 1999, and was resumed in 2000. A total of 152 salmon were trapped in Johnson Creek in 2000, of which 73 (25 males, 16 females, and 32 jacks) fish were transported to Idaho Fish and Game=s South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility for artificial propagation purposes. The remaining 79 (29 males, 16 females, and 24 jacks) fish were released above the weir to spawn naturally. A total of 65,060 green eggs were taken from 16 female salmon and transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for incubation and rearing. Egg counts indicated an average eye-up rate of 86.0% for 55,971 eyed eggs. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,066 eggs per female. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery through November 2001. These fish were transferred to outdoor rearing facilities in December 2001 where they remained until release in March 2002. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 9,987 were also PIT tagged. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 57,392 smolts were released into a temporary acclimation channel in Johnson Creek on March 18, 19, 20, 2002. These fish were held in this facility until a fish screen was removed on March 22, 2002 and the fish were allowed to emigrate.

Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John; Hill, Robert

2003-05-01

345

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are the most abundant Pacific salmon  

E-print Network

- Analysis of contemporary genetic structure of even-broodyear populations of Asian and western Alaskan pink part of the North American Pacific coast has only small even-year runs; and in western Alaska, even and conservation of the pink salmon resource requires thor- ough knowledge of their biology, includ- ing population

346

Claspin Promotes Normal Replication Fork Rates in Human Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The S phase-specific adaptor protein Claspin mediates the checkpoint response to replication stress by facilitating phosphorylation of Chk1 by ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR). Evidence suggests that these components of the ATR pathway also play a critical role during physiological S phase. Chk1 is required for high rates of global replication fork progression, and Claspin interacts with the replication machinery and

Eva Petermann; Thomas Helleday; Keith W. Caldecott

2008-01-01

347

New interpretation of Clarks Fork field, northern Bighorn basin, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clarks Fork field is located at the northern edge of the Bighorn basin (T9S, R22E) in Carbon County, Montana. Production was first established in 1944 by General Petroleum Corporation in the Cretaceous Peay Sandstone (basal Frontier) and was later extended to the Cretaceous Greybull (1949) and Lakota (1956) sandstones by British American. Total cumulative hydrocarbons from this field are 1,1789,193

J. S. Johnson; N. Lindsley-Griffin

1986-01-01

348

NORTH FORK OF THE AMERICAN RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mineral-resource surveys of the North Fork of the American River Wilderness study area, California have identified a zone of substantiated resource potential for gold and silver. Zones of probable gold and silver potential occur in the eastern part of the area between the Wubbena and La Trinidad mines and locally around the Marrs mine. A zone with probable chromium potential occurs in the serpentinite belt along the western border of the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

Harwood, David S.; Federspiel, Francis E.

1984-01-01

349

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004 14 Lower Columbia Mainstem Subbasin ­ Salmon Creek Figure 14-1. Location of the Salmon Creek Basin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 14.1 Basin Overview The Salmon Creek Basin comprises approximately

350

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004 18 Little White Salmon Subbasin Figure 18-1. Location of the Little White Salmon River Subbasin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 18.1 Basin Overview The Little White Salmon Subbasin

351

Historical streamflows of Double Mountain Fork of Brazos River and water-surface elevations of Lake Alan Henry, Garza County, Texas, water years 1962-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Lubbock, Texas, operates two surface-water stations in Garza County, Tex.: USGS streamflow-gaging station 08079600 Double Mountain Fork Brazos River at Justiceburg, Tex., and 08079700 Lake Alan Henry Reservoir, a water-supply reservoir about 60 miles southeast of Lubbock, Tex., and about 10 miles east of Justiceburg, Tex. The streamflow and water-surface elevation data from the two stations are useful to water-resource managers and planners in support of forecasting and water-resource infrastructure operations and are used in regional hydrologic studies.

Asquith, William H.; Vrabel, Joseph

2011-01-01

352

Split quartz tuning fork sensors for enhanced sensitivity force detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz tuning forks (TFs) are often employed in dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) as piezoelectric force sensors, to replace the usual AFM microcantilevers, especially in ultra-high vacuum or cryogenic environments. A sharp tip is attached to one of the fork prongs, to obtain atomic scale AFM resolution. We devise a novel TF design by splitting the electrodes of its two prongs, which are produced at the factory as connected to each other, in order to address each of them separately. In such way, the motion of the probe tip can be unambiguously measured, irrespective of the motion of the other prong, which conversely influences its measurement in standard TFs. Furthermore, attachment of the probe tip dramatically spoils the oscillator Q-factor, as it unbalances the two prongs of the TF, with consequent dissipation of energy through the fork holder, due to the motion of the center of mass (CM) of the system. The possibility to independently drive the two prongs of the split TF gives the opportunity to rebalance them just by electrical means, thereby restoring the original Q-factor, by stopping the CM motion. By modeling the split TF as a three-mass, four-spring system, its behavior can be accurately described. Our model is used to explore alternative operation modes with enhanced sensitivity to applied forces.

Labardi, M.; Lucchesi, M.

2015-03-01

353

Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time component also was a statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating chloride. The regression equations for chloride at the Red River at Fargo provided a fair relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.66 and the equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a relatively good relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.77. Turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and turbidity was the only statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively poor relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations, turbidity, and streamflow, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.46. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a fair relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations and turbidity, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.73. Some of the variability that was not explained by the equations might be attributed to different sources contributing nitrates to the stream at different times. Turbidity, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating total phosphorus at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively fair relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.74. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a good relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.87. For the Red River at Fargo, turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimatin

Galloway, Joel M.

2014-01-01

354

The level of origin firing inversely affects the rate of replication fork progression.  

PubMed

DNA damage slows DNA synthesis at replication forks; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Cdc7 kinase is required for replication origin activation, is a target of the intra-S checkpoint, and is implicated in the response to replication fork stress. Remarkably, we found that replication forks proceed more rapidly in cells lacking Cdc7 function than in wild-type cells. We traced this effect to reduced origin firing, which results in fewer replication forks and a consequent decrease in Rad53 checkpoint signaling. Depletion of Orc1, which acts in origin firing differently than Cdc7, had similar effects as Cdc7 depletion, consistent with decreased origin firing being the source of these defects. In contrast, mec1-100 cells, which initiate excess origins and also are deficient in checkpoint activation, showed slower fork progression, suggesting the number of active forks influences their rate, perhaps as a result of competition for limiting factors. PMID:23629964

Zhong, Yuan; Nellimoottil, Tittu; Peace, Jared M; Knott, Simon R V; Villwock, Sandra K; Yee, Janis M; Jancuska, Jeffrey M; Rege, Sanket; Tecklenburg, Marianne; Sclafani, Robert A; Tavaré, Simon; Aparicio, Oscar M

2013-04-29

355

Replication fork reversal in eukaryotes: from dead end to dynamic response.  

PubMed

The remodelling of replication forks into four-way junctions following replication perturbation, known as fork reversal, was hypothesized to promote DNA damage tolerance and repair during replication. Albeit conceptually attractive, for a long time fork reversal in vivo was found only in prokaryotes and specific yeast mutants, calling its evolutionary conservation and physiological relevance into question. Based on the recent visualization of replication forks in metazoans, fork reversal has emerged as a global, reversible and regulated process, with intriguing implications for replication completion, chromosome integrity and the DNA damage response. The study of the putative in vivo roles of recently identified eukaryotic factors in fork remodelling promises to shed new light on mechanisms of genome maintenance and to provide novel attractive targets for cancer therapy. PMID:25714681

Neelsen, Kai J; Lopes, Massimo

2015-04-01

356

Chemokine receptors in Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Teleost sequence data have revealed that many immune genes have evolved differently when compared to other vertebrates. Thus, each gene family needs functional studies to define the biological role of individual members within major species groups. Chemokine receptors, being excellent markers for various leukocyte subpopulations, are one such example where studies are needed to decipher individual gene function. The unique salmonid whole genome duplication that occurred approximately 95 million years ago has provided salmonids with many additional duplicates further adding to the complexity and diversity. Here we have performed a systematic study of these receptors in Atlantic salmon with particular focus on potential inflammatory receptors. Using the preliminary salmon genome data we identified 48 chemokine or chemokine-like receptors including orthologues to the ten receptors previously published in trout. We found expressed support for 40 of the bona fide salmon receptors. Eighteen of the chemokine receptors are duplicated, and when tested against a diploid sister group the majority were shown to be remnants of the 4R whole genome duplication with subsequent high sequence identity. The salmon chemokine receptor repertoire of 40 expressed bona fide genes is comparably larger than that found in humans with 23 receptors. Diversification has been a major driving force for these duplicate genes with the main variability residing in ligand binding and signalling domains. PMID:25445904

Grimholt, Unni; Hauge, Helena; Hauge, Anna Germundsson; Leong, Jong; Koop, Ben F

2015-03-01

357

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

358

77 FR 60631 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 0648-XC222 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2012-10-04

359

76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway...duty orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead...

2011-01-03

360

75 FR 78929 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 300 RIN 0648-XZ20 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The orders...

2010-12-17

361

THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. By CHARLES H. GILBERT,  

E-print Network

THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. ~ By CHARLES H. GILBERT, Professor of Zoology, Stanford University. " .. " .. " .. " .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 The king salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) " , .. .. . 318 Rate of travel. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 The chum or dog salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) , '" '" . .. .. .. . . . . . 325 Rate of travel

362

75 FR 14135 - Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration RIN 0648-ZC16 Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund AGENCY: National Marine...announces the availability of Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Funding (PCSRF), as authorized...restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and their...

2010-03-24

363

Evolution of introduced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Lake Huron  

E-print Network

Evolution of introduced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Lake Huron: emergence divergence; rapid evolution Introduction Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Wal- baum) in Lake Huron October 21, 2011 Abstract ­ Population genetic structure was detected in Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus

Neff, Bryan D.

364

Abstract.-Chinook salmon. Onco-rhynchus tshawytscha, transplanted  

E-print Network

colonizing suitable habitat. Origin and genetic structure of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ofchinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. used in the genetic comparison with New Zealand populations. San506 Abstract.-Chinook salmon. Onco- rhynchus tshawytscha, transplanted from the Sacramento River

365

Strand-Specific Analysis Shows Protein Binding at Replication Forks and PCNA Unloading from Lagging Strands when Forks Stall  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication proceeds with continuous synthesis of leading-strand DNA and discontinuous synthesis of lagging-strand DNA. Here we describe a method, eSPAN (enrichment and sequencing of protein-associated nascent DNA), which reveals the genome-wide association of proteins with leading and lagging strands of DNA replication forks. Using this approach in budding yeast, we confirm the strand specificities of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and show that the PCNA clamp is enriched at lagging strands compared with leading-strand replication. Surprisingly, at stalled forks, PCNA is unloaded specifically from lagging strands. PCNA unloading depends on the Elg1-containing alternative RFC complex, ubiquitination of PCNA, and the checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53. Cells deficient in PCNA unloading exhibit increased chromosome breaks. Our studies provide a tool for studying replication-related processes and reveal a mechanism whereby checkpoint kinases regulate strand-specific unloading of PCNA from stalled replication forks to maintain genome stability. PMID:25449133

Yu, Chuanhe; Gan, Haiyun; Han, Junhong; Zhou, Zhi-Xiong; Jia, Shaodong; Chabes, Andrei; Farrugia, Gianrico; Ordog, Tamas; Zhang, Zhiguo

2015-01-01

366

WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

367

PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

368

Ecological condition of the East Fork of the River and selected tributaries  

E-print Network

, Main Diamond Creek, lower South Diamond Creek, and Black Canyon Creek are all in very heavily degraded sufficient for bank formation. All stream reaches are in wilderness areas. Wildlife values of these habitats

369

Value engineering study report on Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project. Alternative No. 3  

SciTech Connect

The project under study is Alternative No. 3 as identified in the Feasibility Study dated August 1994. This alternative is identified as Excavation and Disposal of Commercial/DOE, Other, and Residential Remedial Unit Soil. The assumptions used for generating baseline costs are discussed in site associated costs. It is further described as follows: Soils with mercury concentrations greater than 200 ppM in the Commercial/DOE and Other Remedial Units and greater than 180 ppM in the Residential Remedial Unit [41,300m{sup 3} (54,000yd{sup 3} a volume equivalent to approximately 6,750 dump truck loads)] would be excavated and disposed of in an approved, lined landfill at Y-12 with leachate collection and possible pretreatment of the leachate before discharge. Because 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) of wetland would be destroyed, wetlands banking would occur, whereby a 1.8-ha (4.5-acre) wetland would be constructed on DOE-owned land near K-25. Borrow soil would be obtained from the Y-12 West End Borrow Area or from excess soil located at Y-12 landfills to fill the excavation. It is estimated that 7.3 ha (18.2 acres, and area about the size of 17 football fields) of habitat would be adversely affected. This alternative would use BMPs to minimize any adverse affects and to comply substantively with regulatory requirements.

NONE

1995-08-01

370

Rad51-mediated replication fork reversal is a global response to genotoxic treatments in human cells.  

PubMed

Replication fork reversal protects forks from breakage after poisoning of Topoisomerase 1. We here investigated fork progression and chromosomal breakage in human cells in response to a panel of sublethal genotoxic treatments, using other topoisomerase poisons, DNA synthesis inhibitors, interstrand cross-linking inducers, and base-damaging agents. We used electron microscopy to visualize fork architecture under these conditions and analyzed the association of specific molecular features with checkpoint activation. Our data identify replication fork uncoupling and reversal as global responses to genotoxic treatments. Both events are frequent even after mild treatments that do not affect fork integrity, nor activate checkpoints. Fork reversal was found to be dependent on the central homologous recombination factor RAD51, which is consistently present at replication forks independently of their breakage, and to be antagonized by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase/RECQ1-regulated restart. Our work establishes remodeling of uncoupled forks as a pivotal RAD51-regulated response to genotoxic stress in human cells and as a promising target to potentiate cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25733714

Zellweger, Ralph; Dalcher, Damian; Mutreja, Karun; Berti, Matteo; Schmid, Jonas A; Herrador, Raquel; Vindigni, Alessandro; Lopes, Massimo

2015-03-01

371

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2014-10-01

372

76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2011-12-29

373

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2012-10-01

374

50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679...Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic...

2013-10-01

375

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2013-02-14

376

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2012-12-19

377

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2012-10-01

378

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2014-10-01

379

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2013-10-01

380

East Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

381

Pacific salmon During their annual spawning migrations from the ocean to their natal streams, Pacific salmon  

E-print Network

Pacific salmon During their annual spawning migrations from the ocean to their natal streams, Pacific salmon influence stream ecosystems by (1) carrying and releasing large quantities of marine. In the foreground is a school of pink salmon (dark objects) migrating up Maybeso Creek, Prince of Wales Island

Tiegs, Scott

382

THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

383

Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interim report from the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine is a prepublication of the March 2002 report provided by National Academy Press. The once abundant populations of Atlantic Salmon in Maine have declined in recent years, now listed as endangered. The NRC Committee believes that "understanding the genetic makeup of Maine's salmon is important for recovery efforts." This 48-page report includes information on the salmon's biology, evolution, genetics, its current state, and the committee's conclusions. It can be viewed online or downloaded for printing.

National Research Council. Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine.

384

Acoustic tracking of migrating salmon.  

PubMed

Annual salmon migrations vary significantly in annual return numbers from year to year. In order to determine when a species' sustainable return size has been met, a method for counting and sizing the spawning animals is required. This project implements a probability hypothesis density tracker on data from a dual frequency identification sonar to automate the process of counting and sizing the fish crossing an insonified area. Data processing on the sonar data creates intensity images from which possible fish locations can be extracted using image processing. These locations become the input to the tracker. The probability hypothesis density tracker then solves the multiple target tracking problem and creates fish tracks from which length information is calculated using image segmentation. The algorithm is tested on data from the 2010 salmon run on the Kenai river in Alaska and compares favorably with statistical models from sub-sampling and manual measurements. PMID:25324076

Kupilik, Matthew J; Petersen, Todd

2014-10-01

385

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment features Native American Elders discussing the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world. A Native educator describes having taken students to a river's headwaters to watch salmon spawn, only to observe the deadly effects of water temperature rise on the fish eggs. She explains that even a small change in temperature can result in a population decline that could threaten Native peoples and their way of life. Included is a background essay explaining how important the fishing is to certain parts of the world, and how the warming waters are negatively affecting the fish and people. There is a helpful section that shows you the standards for your state ranging from grades K-12, as well as links to related resources.

2010-01-01

386

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a...

2012-07-01

387

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a...

2013-07-01

388

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a...

2014-07-01

389

Estimated Fall Chinook Salmon Survival to Emergence in Dewatered Redds in a Shallow Side Channel of the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) often spawn in the tailraces of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Redds built in shallow habitats downstream of these dams may be periodically dewatered due to hydropower operations prior to the emergence of fry. To determine whether fall Chinook salmon redds were successful in a shallow area subjected to periodic dewatering downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River, we installed 7 redd caps and monitored fry emergence. Large numbers of live fry were captured from the redds between March 9 and May 18, 2003. Estimated survival from egg to fry for these redds, which were all subjected to some degree of dewatering during the incubation and post-hatch intragravel rearing period, ranged from 16.1 to 63.2 percent and averaged 27.8 percent (assuming 4,500 eggs/redd). The peak emergence date ranged from April 1 to 29, with the average peak about April 14, 2003. Mean fork length of fall Chinook salmon emerging from individual redds ranged from 38.3 to 41.2 mm, and lengths of fish emerging from individual redds increased throughout the emergence period.

McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; James, B B.; Lukas, Joe

2005-08-01

390

2005 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During mid-1990s, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) identified several populations of salmon spawning approximately three miles downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. These populations are exposed to rapidly changing flow regimes associated with Bonneville Dam's operation. This study investigated the relationship between changing water levels and stranding or entrapment of juvenile salmon in the Ives Island area. Walking surveys of the Ives Island and Pierce Island shorelines were conducted every one to three days throughout the juvenile emigration period. The nearby shorelines of the Washington and Oregon mainland were also surveyed. Between January and June of 2005, surveyors examined 21 substantial entrapments and 20 stranding sites. A total of 14,337 salmonids, made up of three species, were found either entrapped or stranded. Nearly 92% of the salmonids were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), 4.5% were federally listed chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), and 3.8% were coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). When compared to the 2004 study year, 2005 showed an 83% increase in the overall number of observed entrapped or stranded juvenile salmon. Much of this increase can be attributed to one entrapment found along the north shore of Pierce Island (identified as E501). E501 has historically been known to contain relatively large numbers of entrapped salmon. Even so, the number of entrapped salmon observed during 2005 was a 732% increase (5926) over any prior study years. Over 83% of all chum, 63.1% of all chinook, and 63.2% of all coho sampled during 2005 were retrieved from entrapments that were likely to have formed when Bonneville Dam tailwater levels dropped to elevations between 11.5 and 12.9 feet. Peak numbers of chum and chinook were sampled in mid-April when tailwater levels ranged between 11.6ft and 15.6ft. Peak numbers of coho were sampled during the last week of February, mid-March, and mid-April when tailwater level ranged between 11.4 and 14.3 feet, 11.5 and 15.3 ft, and 11.6 and 15.6 feet, respectively. The fork length data indicate that the majority of the entrapped and stranded salmon are in the 35-50 mm range. Stranded members of all three salmon species had mean fork lengths that were 8% to 30% shorter than those of their entrapped counterparts. The locations and habitat attributes of entrapments containing the majority of the observed juvenile salmon remain fairly constant from year to year. Changes in entrapment rankings appear to be more reflective of changes in prevailing tailwater levels than they are of changes in geography, vegetation, or fish behavior. Data collected over the past six study years indicates that there are entrapments that are capable of entrapping large numbers of salmon as various tailwater levels. Avoiding specific tailwater ranges may not minimize the impact of juvenile stranding. The only way to substantially minimize the impact of stranding is to allow no tailwater fluctuations or to only allow a steady increase of the tailwater level throughout the juvenile emigration period.

Wilson, Jeremy; Duston, Reed A. (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

2006-01-01

391

Acoustic Resonances in Helium Fluids Excited by Quartz Tuning Forks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinary quartz tuning fork resonators, operated at about 30 or 200 kHz frequency, couple to acoustic first and second sound resonances in helium fluids under certain conditions. We have studied acoustic resonances in supercritical 4He, normal and superfluid 4He, and in isotopic mixtures of helium. Suggestive temperature, pressure, and concentration dependences are given. Furthermore, we propose a thermometric reference point device based on second sound resonances in helium mixtures, and indicate possible differences in the nature of second sound resonances in superfluid 4He and helium mixtures.

Salmela, A.; Tuoriniemi, J.; Rysti, J.

2011-03-01

392

Burnup measurements with the Los Alamos fork detector  

SciTech Connect

The fork detector system can determine the burnup of spent-fuel assemblies. It is a transportable instrument that can be mounted permanently in a spent-fuel pond near a loading area for shipping casks, or be attached to the storage pond bridge for measurements on partially raised spent-fuel assemblies. The accuracy of the predicted burnup has been demonstrated to be as good as 2% from measurements on assemblies in the United States and other countries. Instruments have also been developed at other facilities throughout the world using the same or different techniques, but with similar accuracies. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Bosler, G.E.; Rinard, P.M.

1991-01-01

393

Quartz Tuning Fork: Thermometer, Pressure- and Viscometer for Helium Liquids  

E-print Network

Commercial quartz oscillators of the tuning-fork type with a resonant frequency of ~32 kHz have been investigated in helium liquids. The oscillators are found to have at best Q values in the range 10^5-10^6, when measured in vacuum below 1.5 K. However, the variability is large and for very low temperature operation the sensor has to be preselected. We explore their properties in the regime of linear viscous hydrodynamic response in normal and superfluid 3He and 4He, by comparing measurements to the hydrodynamic model of the sensor.

R. Blaauwgeers; M. Blazkova; M. Clovecko; V. B. Eltsov; R. de Graaf; J. Hosio; M. Krusius; D. Schmoranzer; W. Schoepe; L. Skrbek; P. Skyba; R. E. Solntsev; D. E. Zmeev

2006-08-17

394

First report of anther smut caused by Microbotryum violaceum on forked catchfly in Turkey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forked catchfly (Silene dichotoma Ehrh.), family Caryophyllaceae, is a common and native plant in rangelands and pastures in Turkey. It is also an introduced plant that is widely distributed in North America. In May, 2007 about 20 forked catchfly plants on the campus of Ondokuz Mayis University, i...

395

Substrate-selective repair and restart of replication forks by DNA translocases  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Stalled replication forks are sources of genetic instability. Multiple fork remodeling enzymes are recruited to stalled forks, but how they work to promote fork restart is poorly understood. By combining ensemble biochemical assays and single molecule studies with magnetic tweezers, we show that SMARCAL1 branch migration and DNA annealing activities are directed by the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA to selectively regress stalled replication forks caused by blockage to the leading-strand polymerase and to restore normal replication forks with a lagging-strand gap. We unveil the molecular mechanisms by which RPA enforces SMARCAL1 substrate preference. E. coli RecG acts similarly to SMARCAL1 in the presence of E. coli SSB, whereas the highly related human protein ZRANB3 has different substrate preferences. Our findings identify the important substrates of SMARCAL1 in fork repair, suggest that RecG and SMARCAL1 are functional orthologues, and provide a comprehensive model of fork repair by these DNA translocases. PMID:23746452

Bétous, Rémy; Couch, Frank. B.; Mason, Aaron C.; Eichman, Brandt F.

2013-01-01

396

Type-based complexity analysis for fork Emmanuel Hainry, Jean-Yves Marion, and Romain Pechoux  

E-print Network

loops and forks calls, which provides an upper bound on the complexity of a process by controlling its data flow. Threads are created dynamically and they do not share a global memory. Each fork call creates a new child process with a distinct identifier (id) and duplicates the execution context including

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2010-07-01

398

Mean Value Technique for Closed ForkJoin Networks Elizabeth Varki  

E-print Network

is given here. This technique is similar to the mean value analysis technique for closed product value equation for fork­join networks which relates the response time of a network to the mean service product­form networks, the mean value equa­ tion for fork­join networks is an approximation

Varki, Elizabeth

399

The Vascular Flora of the South Fork Native Plant Preserve, Van Buren County, Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Fork Native Plant Preserve, a property owned and managed by the Gates Rogers Foundation, Inc., is located along the South Fork of the Little Red River (now Greers Ferry Lake) in Van Buren County, Arkansas. We conducted a floristic inventory of a 61.3 ha study area consisting of the preserve, adjacent lakefront property owned by the U.S. Army

Theo WiTsell; BrenT Baker

400

Scanning optical homodyne detection of high-frequency picoscale resonances in cantilever and tuning fork sensors  

E-print Network

, driven by ambient thermal radiation. Quartz tuning forks additionally display both in-plane and out environments.4 In most cases the mechanical excited motion of the fork is the fundamental symmetric in-plane type sensors demonstrated the capa- bility to measure local sample stiffness9 and the contact potential

Bashir, Rashid

401

On the sound field radiated by a tuning fork Daniel A. Russell  

E-print Network

On the sound field radiated by a tuning fork Daniel A. Russell Science and Mathematics Department, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 Received 14 June 1999; accepted 25 April 2000 When a sounding. © 2000 American Association of Physics Teachers. I. INTRODUCTION If one rotates a sounding tuning fork

Russell, Daniel A.

402

Differences in Defensive Volatiles of the Forked Fungus Beetle, Bolitotherus cornutus, Living on Two Species  

E-print Network

Differences in Defensive Volatiles of the Forked Fungus Beetle, Bolitotherus cornutus, Living on Two Species of Fungus Alison E. Holliday & Faye M. Walker & Edmund D. Brodie III & Vincent A. Formica November 2009 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009 Abstract Forked fungus beetles, Bolitotherus

Brodie III, Edmund D.

403

Mutual interactions of oscillating quartz tuning forks in superfluid 4He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quartz tuning fork has recently become a popular experimental tool for investigations of both classical and quantum turbulence in cryogenic helium. Its increased use in low-temperature experiments and a number of puzzling results obtained in the past have led to many questions concerning the interaction of multiple tuning forks or the interaction of tuning forks with other oscillators. We report measurements performed in He II at low temperatures around 360 mK, on the mutual interaction of tuning forks placed in the same volume of fluid, and examine the responsible mechanisms in an effort to discriminate between acoustic coupling and interaction via quantized vortices. To this end, the interaction of two tuning forks is investigated by analyzing their recorded resonance curves, looking for any nonelectrical crosstalk. Further, the force-velocity characteristics of a detector tuning fork are measured for different operating velocities of a generator tuning fork. As a complementary measurement, the intensity of sound waves is recorded using a set of miniature receivers. We confirm the current knowledge on acoustic emission by tuning forks in He II and verify properties of their radiation patterns. We conclude that in our experiment the interaction is almost entirely mediated by sound waves.

Sheshin, G.; Gritsenko, I.; Schmoranzer, D.; Skrbek, L.

2013-10-01

404

Flood Obelisk, Red River of the North, Grand Forks, North Dakota  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flood obelisk marking the greatest floods from 1882-1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota. This has become a famous landmark to compare current conditions to past events. This picture was taken on March 15, 2010, just before the Red River began to flood at Grand Forks....

405

Multi-Degree of Freedom Tuning Fork Gyroscope Demonstrating Shock Rejection  

E-print Network

Multi-Degree of Freedom Tuning Fork Gyroscope Demonstrating Shock Rejection Adam R. Schofield}@uci.edu Abstract-- This paper presents a z-axis MEMS tuning fork rate gyroscope with multi-degree of freedom (DOF in amplitude versus a single output. I. INTRODUCTION For many applications, gyroscopes are subject to a wide

Tang, William C

406

Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass. 2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river's water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales. 3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22%of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23 km (2009 and 2010, respectively) as stream temperatures seasonally warmed, but subyearling Chinook salmon were also found farther upstream during this time. 4. Our multiscale analysis suggests that bass were selecting habitat based on antecedent thermal history at a broad scale, and if satisfactory temperature conditions were met, mesoscale habitat features (i.e. channel-unit type and depth) played an additional role in determining bass abundance. The upstream extent of bass in the late summer corresponded to a high-gradient geomorphic discontinuity in the NFJDR, which probably hindered further upstream movements of bass. The habitat determinants and upstream extent of bass were largely consistent across years, despite marked differences in the magnitude and timing of spring peak flows prior to bass spawning.5. The overriding influence of water temperature on smallmouth bass distribution suggests that managers may be able limit future upstream range expansions of bass into salmon-rearing habitat by concentrating on restoration activities that mitigate climate- or land-use-related stream warming. These management activities could be prioritised to capitalise on survival bottlenecks in the life history of bass and spatially focused on landscape knick points such as high-gradient discontinuities to discourage further upstream movements of bass.

Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

2012-01-01

407

Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

2000-01-01

408

Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, LETF) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult LETF was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Agler, B.A.

2009-01-01

409

Middle East food safety perspectives.  

PubMed

Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. PMID:24415527

Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

2014-08-01

410

Scaling the Geomorphic and Ecological Consequences of Contemporary Climate Change Within the Salmon River Watershed, Central Idaho: A View From Taylor Ranch Field Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Established in 1970 by the University of Idaho, Taylor Ranch Field Station is located in the Frank Church Wilderness of No Return, along Big Creek, a 1445 km2 tributary to the Middle Fork of the Salmon River. The field station has provided a stable center for terrestrial and aquatic ecological studies within the Salmon River for almost 40 years. Dr. Wayne Minshall began monitoring aquatic ecology indices at numerous sites in the Salmon River basin in the late 1970's. This rare continuum of roughly 30 years of field data can be coupled with publically available hydrologic, geomorphic and meteorological data sets to reveal a rich record of how recent demonstrable changes in climate have affected this wilderness watershed. As a consequence of improved access and automated and telemetered sensors of water quality and quantity, contemporary studies continue through out the watershed at an increasing temporal and spatial resolution. The impetuous is upon current researchers to understand both the role of the basin as a major water source to the Snake and Columbia River systems and also the function of the basin as ideal habitat for threatened native fish. Beyond these applied questions that directly impact management decisions, the pristine nature of much of the Salmon River basin also favors studies of fundamental feedbacks between the physical and biological systems. These interdisciplinary studies are augmented by increasing collections of high resolution spatial data sets such as Hyperspectral Imagery, Distributed Sensor Networks and LiDAR topography. We present a study that explicitly examines the feedbacks between wildfire, sediment production, basin hydrology and aquatic ecosystem function. Because the tributaries to the Salmon River span discrete ranges in elevation across the snow- to rainfall-dominated hydrologic regimes, these studies reveal how sensitive different portions of the Salmon River system are to projected changes in temperature. Depending on the elevation range within a give catchment, these changes will result in different responses in hillslope stability, wildfire susceptibility, stream ecology and channel form.

Crosby, B. T.; Baxter, C. V.

2008-12-01

411

Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

412

DNA interstrand cross-link repair requires replication-fork convergence.  

PubMed

DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) prevent strand separation during DNA replication and transcription and therefore are extremely cytotoxic. In metazoans, a major pathway of ICL repair is coupled to DNA replication, and it requires the Fanconi anemia pathway. In most current models, collision of a single DNA replication fork with an ICL is sufficient to initiate repair. In contrast, we show here that in Xenopus egg extracts two DNA replication forks must converge on an ICL to trigger repair. When only one fork reaches the ICL, the replicative CMG helicase fails to unload from the stalled fork, and repair is blocked. Arrival of a second fork, even when substantially delayed, rescues repair. We conclude that ICL repair requires a replication-induced X-shaped DNA structure surrounding the lesion, and we speculate on how this requirement helps maintain genomic stability in S phase. PMID:25643322

Zhang, Jieqiong; Dewar, James M; Budzowska, Magda; Motnenko, Anna; Cohn, Martin A; Walter, Johannes C

2015-03-01

413

75 FR 28673 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Morehead & South Fork Railroad...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FD 35339] Carolina Coastal Railway...Exemption--Morehead & South Fork Railroad Co...lease of Morehead & South Fork Railroad Co...MHSF) with North Carolina State Ports Authority...SPA. Morehead & South Fork R.R...Operation Exemption--Carolina Rail Service,...

2010-05-21

414

Stresa, Italy, 25-27 April 2007 A NOVEL X-AXIS TUNING FORK GYROSCOPE WITH "8 VERTICAL  

E-print Network

Stresa, Italy, 25-27 April 2007 A NOVEL X-AXIS TUNING FORK GYROSCOPE WITH "8 VERTICAL SPRINGS Electronic Devices Institute, China ABSTRACT A novel x-axis tuning fork MEMS gyroscope with "8 verticalV/(deg/s) and rate resolution around 0.1deg/s under atmosphere pressure. Keywords--x-axis gyroscope, tuning fork

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

HIGH PERFORMANCE MATCHED-MODE TUNING FORK GYROSCOPE M.F. Zaman, A. Sharma, and F. Ayazi  

E-print Network

HIGH PERFORMANCE MATCHED-MODE TUNING FORK GYROSCOPE M.F. Zaman, A. Sharma, and F. Ayazi Integrated the perfect matched-mode operation of a type I non-degenerate z-axis tuning-fork gyroscope (i.e., 0 Hz frequency split between high-Q drive and sense modes). The matched-mode tuning fork gyroscope (M2 -TFG

Ayazi, Farrokh

416

Coastal coho salmon research in the West Fork Smith River: Patterns of coho salmon size and survival within a complex watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective habitat restoration planning requires the ability to anticipate fish population responses to altered habitats. The EPA has conducted network-scale research to document habitat-specific growth and survival of juvenile salmonids in a complex watershed. These findings ha...

417

76 FR 54216 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY: National...Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) Salmon Subcommittee, and Model...

2011-08-31

418

THERMAL TOLERANCE OF JUVENILE PACIFIC SALMON AND STEELHEAD TROUT IN RELATION TO SUPERSATURATION OF  

E-print Network

chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (0. kisutch), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri (1952) listed maximum temperatures for survival of young Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) be- tween 23

419

GENETIC ESTIMATES OF STOCK COMPOSITIONS OF 1983 CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, HARVESTS  

E-print Network

GENETIC ESTIMATES OF STOCK COMPOSITIONS OF 1983 CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, HARVESTS ofchinook salmon populations. Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, runs returning to Pacific drainages

420

CtIP mediates replication fork recovery in a FANCD2-regulated manner.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosome instability syndrome characterized by increased cancer predisposition. Within the FA pathway, an upstream FA core complex mediates monoubiquitination and recruitment of the central FANCD2 protein to sites of stalled replication forks. Once recruited, FANCD2 fulfills a dual role towards replication fork recovery: (i) it cooperates with BRCA2 and RAD51 to protect forks from nucleolytic degradation and (ii) it recruits the BLM helicase to promote replication fork restart while suppressing new origin firing. Intriguingly, FANCD2 and its interaction partners are also involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks, hinting that FANCD2 utilizes HR proteins to mediate replication fork recovery. One such candidate is CtIP (CtBP-interacting protein), a key HR repair factor that functions in complex with BRCA1 and MRE11, but has not been investigated as putative player in the replication stress response. Here, we identify CtIP as a novel interaction partner of FANCD2. CtIP binds and stabilizes FANCD2 in a DNA damage- and FA core complex-independent manner, suggesting that FANCD2 monoubiquitination is dispensable for its interaction with CtIP. Following cellular treatment with a replication inhibitor, aphidicolin, FANCD2 recruits CtIP to transiently stalled, as well as collapsed, replication forks on chromatin. At stalled forks, CtIP cooperates with FANCD2 to promote fork restart and the suppression of new origin firing. Both functions are dependent on BRCA1 that controls the step-wise recruitment of MRE11, FANCD2 and finally CtIP to stalled replication forks, followed by their concerted actions to promote fork recovery. PMID:24556218

Yeo, Jung Eun; Lee, Eu Han; Hendrickson, Eric A; Sobeck, Alexandra

2014-07-15

421

Environment of deposition of Clear Fork Formation: Yoakum County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Clear Fork Formation is Permian (Leonardian) in age and constitutes a major oil-bearing unit in the Permian basin of west Texas. In Yoakum County, west Texas, the upper Clear Fork carbonates record a subtidal upward-shoaling sequence of deposition. A small bryozoan-algal patch reef is situated within these carbonates near the southern edge of the North Basin platform. The reef is completely dolomitized, but paramorphic replacement has facilitated a study of the paleoecology, lateral variations, and community succession within this buildup. Build-ups of this type are scarcely known in strata of Permian age. The reef was apparently founded on a coquina horizon at the base of the buildup. The reef apparently had a low-relief, dome-shaped morphology. The trapping and binding of sediment by bryozoa appear to have been the main constructional process. A significant role was also played by encrusting forams and the early precipitation of submarine cements, both of which added rigidity to the structure. The reef also contains a low-diversity community of other invertebrates. Algal constituents predominate at the basinward edge of the buildup. The reef was formed entirely subaqueously on a broad, relatively shallow tropical marine carbonate shelf environment. An understanding of the lithofacies distribution and paragenesis within this sequence will provide information on porosity variations and the nature and distribution of permeability barriers. Such information is useful in reservoir modeling studies and for secondary recovery techniques in shelf-edge carbonate reservoirs of this type.

Moore, B.K.

1987-05-01

422

Chinook Salmon Recovery in the Stillaguamish Watershed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show explores the threats to the Chinook salmon population in the Stillaguamish River watershed of Snohomish County, Washington. Topics include the status of the present population, factors contributing to the decline of the population, habitat needs for healthy salmon, and steps that are necessary for the recovery of the population.

2003-07-10

423

Reproductive Performance of Inland Fall Chinook Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive performance data were collected for inland fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Lake Oahe, South Dakota, in 1988 and 1998. This population exists outside the native geographical range of chinook salmon and completes its entire life cycle in freshwater. Female weights and lengths, total fecundity, relative fecundity (eggs\\/mm), egg size, and egg survival were all considerably less than reported

Michael E. Barnes; Robert P. Hanten; Rick J. Cordes; William A. Sayler; John Carreiro

2000-01-01

424

TRANSGENIC SALMON FOR CULTURE AND CONSUMPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 years we have generated stable lines of transgenic Atlantic salmon possessing either antifreeze protein (AFP) genes or a salmon growth hormone (GH) gene construct. The AFP transgene is expressed and AFP secreted into the blood of all generations to date. However antifreeze protein levels remain low and a means to improve these levels needs to be

Garth L. Fletcher; Margaret A. Shears; Madonna J. King

425

Introduction to Ocean Waves Rick Salmon  

E-print Network

Introduction to Ocean Waves Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography University cross-ocean trip to San Diego. The energy in these long waves travels at a speed that increases are strongly affected by the Earth's rotation. Because the spatial 1 #12;Salmon: Introduction to Ocean Waves 2

Salmon, Rick

426

THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

427

SALMON: A WORLD AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

428

Salmon Are Carefully Released Using Buckets  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this diminished Lake Ontario fish population, extending the sport fishing season by at least two months in Oswego County, N.Y. During fall 2011 and spring 2012, U.S. Geological Survey scie...

429

Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Tunison Lab scientists Rich Chiavelli (left) and Emily Waldt (middle) hand a bucketful of young Atlantic salmon to Dan Bishop (right) of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for release into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of you...

430

Marine Fisheries On the cover: Atlantic salmon  

E-print Network

of Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, in Puget Sound Guianas-Brazil Shrimp Fishery and Related U.S. ResearchMarine Fisheries ~~WD~~ On the cover: Atlantic salmon photographs courtesy of the u.s. Fish

431

AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS IN PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA,  

E-print Network

Agency [EPA] 1974). The EPA method was modified by stabilizing the heat source during the reaction from the gravel is critical for survival ofyoung salmon. The young salmon have a higher rate the end of yolk absorption excrete ammonia at a higher rate than eggs or early alevins (Rice and Stokes

432

WATER QUALITY TREND MONITORING FROM 1979-1985 IN THE STIBNITE MONITORING DISTRICT, VALLEY COUNTY, IDAHO  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stibnite Mining District (17060208) is located in the drainage of the East Fork South Fork Salmon River. The monitoring program was established to document any changes in water quality associated with the initiation of a large scale open pit mine and cyanide leaching plant. ...

433

CANNING OF FISHERY PRODUCTS 117 PACIFIC SALMON7  

E-print Network

CANNING OF FISHERY PRODUCTS 117 PACIFIC SALMON7 The salmon canning industry is located on the Great salmon are caught commercially in the United States as far south as Monterey Bay in California. The total annual world pack of canned salmon in this area aver- ages about 10,000,000 cases of 48 one-pound cans

434

SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION FEBRUARY 73, 7995  

E-print Network

#12;Al SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 73, 7995 LIONS CLUB HALL, SALMON ARM #12;I SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 13, 1995, I DOE FRAP 1995-01 \\ Compiled Salmon River Watershed Ecosystem Goals and Objectives Tyhson Banighen

435

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2013 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 35 686 651 5% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 127 1,028 901 12% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 134 560 426 24% 0 BS Chinook

436

Nutrient export from freshwater ecosystems by anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus  

E-print Network

Nutrient export from freshwater ecosystems by anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Jonathan W. Moore and Daniel E. Schindler Abstract: Anadromous and semelparous salmon transport nutrients of research on the role of salmon-derived nutrients in coastal ecosys- tems. However, salmon also transport

437

Global Assessment of Organic Contaminants in Farmed Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual global production of farmed salmon has increased by a factor of 40 during the past two decades. Salmon from farms in northern Europe, North America, and Chile are now available widely year-round at relatively low prices. Salmon farms have been criticized for their ecological effects, but the potential human health risks of farmed salmon consumption have not been

Ronald A. Hites; Jeffery A. Foran; David O. Carpenter; M. Coreen Hamilton; Barbara A. Knuth; Steven J. Schwager

2004-01-01

438

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2011 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 120 686 566 17% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 164 1,028 864 16% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 76 498 422 15% 0 BS Chinook

439

THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

440

Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists release young Atlantic salmon into Lake Ontario tributaries near the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar, N.Y. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being released into Salmon River in an effort to restore this di...

441

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In August 1996, we PIT tagged and released 1,360 wild chinook salmon parr in the South Fork of the Salmon River and two of its tributaries in Idaho. During spring and summer 1997, the overall adjusted percentage of PIT-tagged fish from Idaho detected at six downstream dams averaged 18.3% (range 16.0 to 27.3% depending on stream of origin). Peak detections of all wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts (from Idaho and Oregon) at Lower Granite Dam occurred during variable but increasing river flows in April. High river flows from mid-April to mid-May moved most of these fish through Lower Granite Dam, with 50 and 90% passage occurring on 24 April and 21 May, respectively. From 1989 to 1996, peak detections of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts were highly variable and generally independent of river flows before about 9 May at this dam; however, during these years (including 1997), peak detections of wild fish coincided with periods of peak flow at the dam from 9 May to the end of May. In both 1995 and 1996, in excess of 90% of the wild fish had migrated past Lower Granite Dam by the time peak flows occurred in June. In 1989, we observed a period of peak detections of wild fish that coincided with peak flows at the dam in June. After examining chinook salmon smolt passage timing at the dams over the last 9 years, it has become clear that flow is only one of several factors that influence passage timing. Other factors, such as annual climatic conditions, water temperature, turbidity, physiological development, variability in stock behavior, fish size, and other yet unknown conditions may equally affect wild smolt passage timing at dams. As additional environmental monitors and traps are installed in study streams, we will be able to more accurately monitor parr and smolt movements out of rearing areas and examine the relationships of these movements to environmental parameters within the streams. Mapped over time, this information will provide the basis for accurately predicting the migrational timing of different wild stocks as they migrate downstream through the hydropower system.

Achord, Stephen; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

1998-05-01

442

Calibrating acoustic acceleration transmitters for estimating energy use by wild adult Pacific salmon.  

PubMed

This study is the first to calibrate acceleration transmitters with energy expenditure using a vertebrate model species. We quantified the relationship between acoustic accelerometer output and oxygen consumption across a range of swim speeds and water temperatures for Harrison River adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). First, we verified that acceleration transmitters with a sampling frequency of 10 Hz could be used as a proxy for movement in sockeye salmon. Using a mixed effects model, we determined that tailbeat frequency and acceleration were positively correlated (p<0.0001), independent of tag ID. Acceleration (p<0.0001) was positively related to swim speed while fork length (p=0.051) was negatively related to swim speed. Oxygen consumption and accelerometer output (p<0.0001) had a positive linear relationship and were temperature dependent (p<0.0001). There were no differences in swim performance (F(2,12)=1.023, p=0.820) or oxygen consumption (F(1,12)=0.054, p=0.332) between tagged and untagged individuals. Five tagged fish were released into the Fraser River estuary and manually tracked. Of the five fish, three were successfully tracked for 1h. The above relationships were used to determine that the average swim speed was 1.25±0.03 body lengths s(-1) and cost of transport was 3.39±0.17 mg O(2) kg(-1)min(-1), averaged across the three detected fish. Acceleration transmitters can be effectively used to remotely evaluate fine-scale behavior and estimate energy consumption of adult Pacific salmon throughout their homeward spawning migration. PMID:23247092

Wilson, S M; Hinch, S G; Eliason, E J; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J

2013-03-01

443

Incidence of Hybridization between Naturally Sympatric Westslope Cutthroat Trout and Rainbow Trout in the Middle Fork Salmon River Drainage, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introgressive hybridization has been widely reported for westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi and rainbow trout (RBT) O. mykiss and is often a result of introductions of nonnative RBT into previously allopatric populations of westslope cutthroat trout. The WCT evolved in sympatry with RBT in a portion of its native range. Few studies have evaluated natural hybrid zone structure

Christine C. Kozfkay; Matthew R. Campbell; Steven P. Yundt; Michael P. Peterson; Madison S. Powell

2007-01-01

444

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LOWER NORTH FORK LEWIS II, 11-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

of the basin between 1902 and 1952, have had lasting effects on basin hydrology, sediment transport, soil private commercial timberland. The most important aquatic habitat areas in the basin are upper Cedar Creek is very important for steelhead spawning and rearing, however, production is severely limited by habitat

445

Natural Climate Insurance for Pacific Northwest Salmon and Salmon Fisheries: Finding our way through the Entangled Bank  

E-print Network

expansion of a global salmon aquaculture industry has drastically reduced market prices for salmon, greatly) and sustainable salmon management policies. We show the importance of climate in its effects on salmon production-season monitoring of both the resource and its environment 3. Focus on strategies that minimize the importance

Mantua, Nathan

446

Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.  

PubMed

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

Rogers, Luke A; Peacock, Stephanie J; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R M; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G G; Revie, Crawford W; Krkošek, Martin

2013-01-01

447

Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon  

PubMed Central

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin

2013-01-01

448

Replication forks reverse at high frequency upon replication stress in Physarum polycephalum.  

PubMed

The addition of hydroxyurea after the onset of S phase allows replication to start and permits the successive detecting of replication-dependent joint DNA molecules and chicken foot structures in the synchronous nuclei of Physarum polycephalum. We find evidence for a very high frequency of reversed replication forks upon replication stress. The formation of these reversed forks is dependent on the presence of joint DNA molecules, the impediment of the replication fork progression by hydroxyurea, and likely on the propensity of some replication origins to reinitiate replication to counteract the action of this compound. As hydroxyurea treatment enables us to successively detect the appearance of joint DNA molecules and then of reversed replication forks, we propose that chicken foot structures are formed both from the regression of hydroxyurea-frozen joint DNA molecules and from hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks. These experiments underscore the transient nature of replication fork regression, which becomes detectable due to the hydroxyurea-induced slowing down of replication fork progression. PMID:24951952

Maric, Chrystelle; Bénard, Marianne

2014-12-01

449

Depositional environments of the Red Fork Sandstone in Custer and Roger Mills Counties, southwestern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Desmoinesian Red Fork formation is a prolific, overpressured gas-producing sequence of interbedded sandstones and shales. Total thickness ranges from less than 100 ft (northeast) to more than 1100 ft (south). Isopach maps suggest that syndepositional faulting controlled major depositional trends. The lower Red Fork, whose base is defined by a persistent, hot, black shale (sequence boundary ), is mainly deep-marine shale and siltstone. Two major shallowing-upward deltaic sequences separated by a marine transgression are evident in the middle (50-400-ft thick) and upper (30-250-ft thick) Red Fork. The middle Red Fork is marine dominated and was deposited into a relatively deep basin on a steep, unstable delta-front slope. In contrast, the upper Red Fork deltaic sequence is more fluvial dominated and was deposited in shallower water. The upper Red Fork is overlain by the Pink lime interval which appears to be shallow-marine/lagoonal black shale. The Pink lime contains fish scales, coffee-ground to branch-size lignitic plant debris, and brackish to shallow-marine ostracodes, linguloid brachiopods, Tasmanites algae, and gastropods. Most of the Red Fork has an easterly, possibly Ouachita Mountain area source. The prolific Southwest Leedey field has a different mineral assemblage and diagenetic sequence and may have a northern source.

Tolson, P.M. (Maxus Exploration Company, Amarillo, TX (United States))

1993-09-01

450

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We tested for competition,between,pink salmon,(Oncorhynchus,gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus,tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984–1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years experienced 59% lower survival

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

451

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

452

Geomorphic Characterization of the Middle Fork Saline River: Garland, Perry, and Saline Counties, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report was prepared to help address concerns raised by local residents, State, and Federal agencies about the current geomorphic conditions of the Middle Fork Saline River. Over the past 30 years the Middle Fork Saline River Basin has experienced a marked increase in urbanization. The report summarizes the Middle Fork?s current (2003) channel characteristics at nine stream reaches in the upper 91 square miles of the basin. Assessments at each study reach included comparing measured stream geometry dimensions (cross-sectional area, top width, and mean depth) at bankfull stage to regional hydraulic geometry curves for the Ouachita Mountains Physiographic Province of Arkansas and Oklahoma, evaluations of streambed materials and sinuosity, and classification of individual stream reach types. When compared to the Ouachita Mountains? regional hydraulic geometry curves for natural, stable, stream reaches, five of the nine study reaches had slightly smaller crosssectional areas, longer top widths, and shallower depths. Streambed material analysis indicates that the Middle Fork is a bedrock influenced, gravel dominated stream with lesser amounts of sand and cobbles. Slight increases in sinuosity from 1992 to 2002 at seven of the nine study reaches indicate a slight decrease in stream channel slope. Analyses of the Middle Fork?s hydraulic geometry and sinuosity indicate that the Middle Fork is currently overly wide and shallow, but is slowly adjusting towards a deeper, narrower hydraulic geometry. Using the Rosgen system of channel classification, the two upstream study reaches classified as B4c/1 stream types; which were moderately entrenched, riffle dominated channels, with infrequently spaced pools. The downstream seven study reaches classified as C4/1 stream types; which were slightly entrenched, meandering, gravel-dominated, riffle/ pool channels with well developed flood plains. Analyses of stream reach types suggest that the downstream reaches of the Middle Fork are more vulnerable to streambank failure than the upstream reaches of the stream.

Pugh, Aaron L.; Garday, Thomas J.; Redman, Ronald

2008-01-01

453

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2010-10-01

454

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2013-10-01

455

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2014-10-01

456

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2012-10-01

457

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412...OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon...

2011-10-01

458

Finite Element Analysis of Electrically Excited Quartz Tuning Fork Devices  

PubMed Central

Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF)-based Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is an important field of research. A suitable model for the QTF is important to obtain quantitative measurements with these devices. Analytical models have the limitation of being based on the double cantilever configuration. In this paper, we present an electromechanical finite element model of the QTF electrically excited with two free prongs. The model goes beyond the state-of-the-art of numerical simulations currently found in the literature for this QTF configuration. We present the first numerical analysis of both the electrical and mechanical behavior of QTF devices. Experimental measurements obtained with 10 units of the same model of QTF validate the finite element model with a good agreement. PMID:23722828

Oria, Roger; Otero, Jorge; González, Laura; Botaya, Luis; Carmona, Manuel; Puig-Vidal, Manel

2013-01-01

459

Mechanism of asymmetric polymerase assembly at the eukaryotic replication fork.  

PubMed

Eukaryotes use distinct polymerases for leading- and lagging-strand replication, but how they target their respective strands is uncertain. We reconstituted Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication forks and found that CMG helicase selects polymerase (Pol) ? to the exclusion of Pol ? on the leading strand. Even if Pol ? assembles on the leading strand, Pol ? rapidly replaces it. Pol ?-PCNA is distributive with CMG, in contrast to its high stability on primed ssDNA. Hence CMG will not stabilize Pol ?, instead leaving the leading strand accessible for Pol ? and stabilizing Pol ?. Comparison of Pol ? and Pol ? on a lagging-strand model DNA reveals the opposite. Pol ? dominates over excess Pol ? on PCNA-primed ssDNA. Thus, PCNA strongly favors Pol ? over Pol ? on the lagging strand, but CMG over-rides and flips this balance in favor of Pol ? on the leading strand. PMID:24997598

Georgescu, Roxana E; Langston, Lance; Yao, Nina Y; Yurieva, Olga; Zhang, Dan; Finkelstein, Jeff; Agarwal, Tani; O'Donnell, Mike E

2014-08-01

460

Measuring the orbital angular momentum of electron vortex beams using a forked grating  

E-print Network

The present study experimentally examines how an electron vortex beam with orbital angular momentum (OAM) undergoes diffraction through a forked grating. The nth-order diffracted electron vortex beam after passing through a forked grating with a Burgers vector of 1 shows an OAM transfer of nh. Hence, the diffraction patterns become mirror asymmetric owing to the size difference between the electron beams. Such a forked grating, when used in combination with a pinhole located at the diffraction plane, could act as an analyzer to measure the OAM of input electrons.

Koh Saitoh; Yuya Hasegawa; Kazuma Hirakawa; Nobuo Tanaka; Masaya Uchida

2013-07-24

461

Measuring the orbital angular momentum of electron vortex beams using a forked grating.  

PubMed

The present study experimentally examines how an electron vortex beam with orbital angular momentum (OAM) undergoes diffraction through a forked grating. The nth-order diffracted electron vortex beam after passing through a forked grating with a Burgers vector of 1 shows an OAM transfer of n?. Hence, the diffraction patterns become mirror asymmetric owing to the size difference between the electron beams. Such a forked grating, when used in combination with a pinhole located at the diffraction plane, could act as an analyzer to measure the OAM of input electrons. PMID:23992070

Saitoh, Koh; Hasegawa, Yuya; Hirakawa, Kazuma; Tanaka, Nobuo; Uchida, Masaya

2013-08-16

462

Measuring the Orbital Angular Momentum of Electron Vortex Beams Using a Forked Grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study experimentally examines how an electron vortex beam with orbital angular momentum (OAM) undergoes diffraction through a forked grating. The nth-order diffracted electron vortex beam after passing through a forked grating with a Burgers vector of 1 shows an OAM transfer of n?. Hence, the diffraction patterns become mirror asymmetric owing to the size difference between the electron beams. Such a forked grating, when used in combination with a pinhole located at the diffraction plane, could act as an analyzer to measure the OAM of input electrons.

Saitoh, Koh; Hasegawa, Yuya; Hirakawa, Kazuma; Tanaka, Nobuo; Uchida, Masaya

2013-08-01

463

Using otolith chemical and structural analysis to investigate reservoir habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.  

PubMed

Isotopic composition of (87) Sr:(86) Sr and natural elemental tracers (Sr, Ba, Mg, Mn and Ca) were quantified from otoliths in juvenile and adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to assess the ability of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to reconstruct juvenile O. tshawytscha rearing habitat and growth. Daily increments were measured to assess relative growth between natal rearing habitats. Otolith microchemistry was able to resolve juvenile habitat use between reservoir and natal tributary rearing habitats (within headwater basins), but not among catchments. Results suggest that 90% (n?=?18) of sampled non-hatchery adults returning to the Middle Fork Willamette River were reared in a reservoir and 10% (n?=?2) in natal tributary habitat upstream from the reservoir. Juveniles collected in reservoirs had higher growth rates than juveniles reared in natal streams. The results demonstrate the utility of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to distinguish among rearing habitats, including habitats in highly altered systems. PMID:25229130

Bourret, S L; Kennedy, B P; Caudill, C C; Chittaro, P M

2014-11-01

464

Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap with black bass is greatest. We conclude that under current conditions, predation by smallmouth bass and largemouth bass has a minor impact on Chinook salmon and other salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

2007-01-01

465

1.2000-2009 time-series return information for Snake River: a. Fall Chinook Salmon  

E-print Network

#12;Content: 1.2000-2009 time-series return information for Snake River: a. Fall Chinook Salmon b. Sockeye Salmon c. Summer Steelhead d. Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon 2.2010 run-size forecasts for: a. Sockeye Salmon b. Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon #12;#12;Species: Run: Origin: Period: Chinook Salmon Fall

466

Diagenesis of the Clear Fork Formation (Leonardian) in the Monahans field, west Texas  

E-print Network

level rise. Lucia (1972) examined cores from two fields on the northern Central Basin Platform where the upper Clear Fork unit consists of dolomitized supratidal and shallow marine deposits. He recognized several cycles of marine to supratidal...

Hedrick, Carroll Lee

1993-01-01

467

Tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy: a new method for trace gas analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photoacoustic trace gas sensor based on an optical read-out method of a quartz tuning fork is shown. Instead of conventional piezoelectric signal read-out, as applied in well-known quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), an interferometric read-out method for measurement of the tuning fork's oscillation is presented. To demonstrate the potential of the optical read-out of tuning forks in photoacoustics, a comparison between the performances of a sensor with interferometric read-out and conventional QEPAS with piezoelectric read-out is reported. The two sensors show similar characteristics. The detection limit (L) for the optical read-out is determined to be L opt=(2598±84) ppm (1 ?) compared to L elec=(2579±78) ppm (1 ?) for piezoelectric read-out. In both cases the detection limit is defined by the thermal noise of the tuning fork.

Köhring, M.; Pohlkötter, A.; Willer, U.; Angelmahr, M.; Schade, W.

2011-01-01

468

75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Hazard Reduction Project...prepare an environmental impact statement for the Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Reduction Project (Salt Project). A supplemental environmental...

2010-05-07

469

Local and global functions of Timeless and Tipin in replication fork protection  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic cell replicates its chromosomal DNA with almost absolute fidelity in the course of every cell cycle. This accomplishment is remarkable considering that the conditions for DNA replication are rarely ideal. The replication machinery encounters a variety of obstacles on the chromosome, including damaged template DNA. In addition, a number of chromosome regions are considered to be difficult to replicate owing to DNA secondary structures and DNA binding proteins required for various transactions on the chromosome. Under these conditions, replication forks stall or break, posing grave threats to genomic integrity. How does the cell combat such stressful conditions during DNA replication? The replication fork protection complex (FPC) may help answer this question. Recent studies have demonstrated that the FPC is required for the smooth passage of replication forks at difficult-to-replicate genomic regions and plays a critical role in coordinating multiple genome maintenance processes at the replication fork. PMID:22987152

Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Eishi

2012-01-01

470

ADAPTATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE ROARING FORK WATERSHED, COLORADO.  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will assess climate-related impacts to the Roring Fork River (near Aspen, Colorado) and identify adaptive opportunities for surface water users, to support a larger global change assessment by the city of Aspen, CO (the Canary Initiative)....

471

HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

472

Classroom-Community Salmon Enhancement Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program in the Bellevue (Washington) public schools in which elementary and middle school teachers and students raise coho and Chinook