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1

Big Game-Livestock Relationships on the Big Horn Sheep Winter Range, East Fork Salmon River, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An historical record, description of habitat, and outline of winter range use patterns and relationships of bighorn sheep to mule deer and livestock are presented for the East Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Competition among bighorn sheep, mule deer, and cattl...

J. L. Lauer J. M. Peek

1976-01-01

2

Abundance and Run Timing of Adult Pacific Salmon in the East Fork Audreafsky River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2003. Alaska Fisheries Data Series Number 2005-10.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A resistance board weir was used to collect abundance, run timing, and biological data from salmon returning to the East Fork Andreafsky River, a tributary to the lower Yukon River, between June 19 and September 15, 2003. In 2003, an estimated total of 4,...

C. S. Gewin G. K. VanHatten

2005-01-01

3

5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River-southernmost span. 1900-era Northern Pacific Railway Bridge in background. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

4

Shrub-steppe vegetation trend, Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

Treesearch

Title: Shrub-steppe vegetation trend, Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho ... Wilderness science in a time of change conference—Volume 3: Wilderness as a place for scientific inquiry; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.

5

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of east side; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of east side; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

6

South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The v...

M. D. Reaney

2009-01-01

7

Cultural Resource Investigation of the Grand Forks/East Grand Forks Urban Study and the East Grand Forks Flood Control Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has proposed flood control and flood plain management alternatives for the Grand Forks, North Dakota/East Grand Forks, Minnesota area. The purpose of this investigation is to compile all known cultural resource data within...

G. J. Hudak

1981-01-01

8

Needs assessment for the Greenway Grand Forks-East Grand Forks development and public education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the flood of 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks (the Greenway) as a flood control measure for Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It extends along both the Red River of the North and the Red Lake River, encompassing 2200 acres of land. The cities of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks hired consultants to assist with the postflood planning process. The planning process culminated with the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine if the development of the Greenway addressed the objectives of the planning report. The history of the land adjacent to the rivers was reviewed to document the progression of riverfront development. Anecdotal evidence was collected, field observations were made, city council minutes were reviewed, Greenway Technical Committee members were interviewed, Greenway Technical Committee minutes were reviewed, and the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks survey results were reviewed to determine if the objectives of the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report were addressed. A cross section survey was designed by Laura Munski for this dissertation research. The survey was approved by the Greenway Technical Committee. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data from the community. The purpose of the survey portion of the research project was to ascertain how residents were kept informed of activities on the Greenway and what amenities residents were using on the Greenway and to solicit their comments regarding the Greenway. The results of the survey research were used in both marketing and event planning for the Greenway. The singular qualitative survey question gave respondents an opportunity to share their comments regarding the Greenway. The qualitative data analysis provided insight to the amenities and educational programs desired by respondents, their concerns regarding the Greenway, and the limitations of public knowledge regarding the Greenway. The Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998) stated that the Greenway could be an excellent resource for supplementing educational curriculums. Greenways provide outdoor classrooms for both formal and informal education. The educational opportunities of other North American greenways were investigated and compared to the educational opportunities of the Greenway.

Munski, Laura

9

Shrub-Steppe Vegetation Trend, Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

populations occurred in the 1990s. This paper describes the shrub- steppe communities inside and adjacent to exclosures in the Middle Fork. Also presented is the current vegetative appearance at sites photographed in 1925, 1968, and 1988. Comparisons of plant species composition and characteristics, plus knowledge of grazing history, provide a basis for interpreting vegetation change and relationships to herbivore populations.

James M. Peek

2000-01-01

10

Influences of Hatchery Supplementation, Spawner Distribution, and Habitat on Genetic Structure of Chinook Salmon in the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the genetic influence of hatchery supplementation on distinct naturally spawning populations of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the South Fork Salmon River (SFSR), Idaho. Genetic tissue samples were collected from unmarked natural-origin and McCall Fish Hatchery (MFH)-reared Chinook salmon carcasses, and fish were identified by an adipose fin clip at five main-stem sites located both upstream and downstream

Andrew P. Matala; Shawn R. Narum; William Young; Jason L. Vogel

2012-01-01

11

Mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek and Bear Creek  

SciTech Connect

A one-month study was performed to determine the concentration of mercury in sediment, fish, moss, and pasture grass in the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) and Bear Creek drainages and to determine whether mercury is still being released from the Y-12 Plant. Total mercury concentration in a sediment core from New Hope Pond was 100 ..mu..g/g dry wt at the surface and up to 300 ..mu..g/g dry wt in subsurface sediments, relative to background concentrations of less than 0.3 ..mu..g/g dry wt. There has been an apparent decrease since 1973 in mercury concentration of sediment entering New Hope Pond. Total mercury concentration in muscle tissue of bluegill from EFPC was positively correlated with body weight, as expected. Total mercury concentration averaged 3.5 and 0.2 ..mu..g/g fresh wt for dead and live foliage in pasture grass, respectively, on the flood plain of EFPC. Results for Bear Creek indicate that this drainage is considerably less contaminated with mercury than East Fork Poplar Creek. The concentration in the sediment was 13 ..mu..g/g dry wt near the settling basins at the west end of the Y-12 Plant area, but decreased to background concentrations before the confluence of Bear Creek with EFPC. Total mercury concentration in fish, except for one rock bass, did not exceed the FDA action level. Recommendations are made (1) to limit the quantity of mercury released from the Y-12 Plant area into EFPC, (2) to consider notifying the responsible state agencies and fishermen concerning mercury concentrations found in fish in EFPC, and (3) to measure mercury concentration in hair from cattle grazing on pasture grasses along EFPC. Recommendations concerning further monitoring are also made. 15 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

Van Winkle, W.; Counts, R.W.; Dorsey, J.G.; Elwood, J.W.; Lowe, V.W. Jr.; McElhaney, R.; Schlotzhauer, S.D.; Taylor, F.G. Jr.; Turner, R.R.

1984-02-01

12

Restoration of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the East Fork Specimen Creek Watershed: Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Park Service (NPS) proposes to restore native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisii, WCT) in the East Fork Specimen Creek watershed in Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone or park). By an Act of Congress on March 1, 1872, Y...

2006-01-01

13

Estimating Post-Wildfire Catchment Sediment Budgets, South Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is an important agent of hydrological, biological and geomorphological change in Idaho forests. Vegetation mortality, loss of root strength, and increased soil hydrophobicity contribute to increase post-fire hillslope erosion rates. Over longer time scales, warmer, drier periods are linked to more frequent forest fires, which in turn helps to drive long-term sediment flux. Increasing annual temperature and drought occurrence associated with current climate change have the potential to amplify forest fire frequency and severity, and thus to increase hillslope erosion rates. Hillslope erosion rates affect forest vegetation recovery and the sediment supplied to channels, which impacts aquatic habitat and downstream reservoir longevity. Severe fires in 2007 on the Payette National Forest, Idaho, affected much of the South Fork Salmon River basin. This research estimates the quantity of sediment delivered to the channel of a small catchment within the South Fork Salmon River basin. For this event, sediment volumes delivered by landslides and debris flows were measured using ground surveys, and overland flow input is being measured using 210Pb and 137Cs soil profiles. Our results suggest that in the absence of major landslides or debris flows, the contribution of overland flow may be a major component of post-wildfire sediment budgets in steep alluvial valleys. Basin-wide disturbances like the 2007 fires have the potential to contribute substantially to long-term catchment-scale sediment budgets, and may occur more frequently as an effect of current climate change.

Perreault, L. M.; Yager, E. M.; Aalto, R. E.

2009-12-01

14

Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils  

SciTech Connect

The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child`s digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative.

Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.

1995-05-01

15

Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biologicai Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the compiex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC, These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumuiation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macro invertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five sites, although sites maybe excluded and/or others added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), iocated off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and limited light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1 ). Other sampling sites on EFPC are utilized as appropriate for individual tasks. Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasional 1 y used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Einory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

1998-10-15

16

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

17

Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

Hassemer, Peter F.

2001-04-01

18

Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit.

NONE

1996-04-01

19

Predicted climate change effects on streambed scour and risks to Chinook salmon survival in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to recent climate warming trends in the Pacific Northwest, the frequency and magnitude of winter floods is expected to increase in some areas where rain-on-snow events occur. Eggs of fall spawning salmonids are incubating in the streambed at this time of year and may be at risk if streambed scour exceeds typical egg burial depths. We investigated how projected trends in streamflow associated with climate change may alter the probability of streambed scour below documented egg burial depths (15-50 cm) for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), central Idaho. Predictions are made for the magnitude and timing of current and future bankfull flows (approximated by the 2-year flood, Q2) at the basin scale by coupling digital elevation models with empirical predictions of grain size and bankfull shear stress, determined from field surveys of 120 channel reaches distributed throughout the basin. Historic and future values of Q2 were derived from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model at the scale of 1/16th degree cells. Future predictions of Q2 were derived from the VIC model using output from an ensemble of Global Climate Models under an A1B emissons scenario for the 2040s and 2080s. Predicted changes in both bankfull flow and the probability of scour to egg burial depths were examined at recent spawning sites (1995-2004 surveys) to assess ecological risk. We found that in the low gradient reaches (Slope <3%) where most spawning occurs, the probability of critical scour was consistently <0.1 under the historic scenario. Future scenarios indicated only a small increase in the length of streams subject to scour in the MFSR, and suggested that this high-elevation system could be largely resistant to climate-driven changes in flow, except under extreme warming scenarios. We are currently extending these analyses to lower elevation basins in rain-dominated and transitional (rain and snow) hydroclimates to assess relative scour sensitivities over a wider range of environmental conditions across the Pacific Northwest.

Goode, J.; Buffington, J. M.; Tonina, D.; Isaak, D.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Wenger, S.; Thurow, R.; Nagel, D.; Luce, C.

2011-12-01

20

Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South Fork Salmon River (IDFG). The East Fork Salmon River received supplementation treatments yearly through 1995. There have been no treatments since 1995, and no significant future treatments from local broodstock are conceivable due to extremely poor escapement. The West Fork Yankee Fork received a single presmolt treatment in 1994. Similarly, no significant future treatments are planned for the WFYF due to extremely poor escapement. However, small scale experimental captive rearing and broodstock techniques are currently being tested with populations from the EFSR and WFYF. Captive rearing/broodstock techniques could potentially provide feedback for evaluation of supplementation. The other three SBT-ISS streams are control streams and do not receive hatchery treatments.

Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

2001-11-01

21

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1990 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

Rowe, Mike

1991-12-01

22

Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana, from where the Flatrock and Driftwood Rivers combine to make up East Fork White River to just upstream of the confluence of Clifty Creek with the East Fork White River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03364000&agency_cd=USGS&). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana at their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system Website (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/), that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data), having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02 ft horizontal accuracy), in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The availability of these maps, along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at Columbus, Indiana, and forecasted stream stages from the NWS will provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as evacuations and road closures as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2013-01-01

23

CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION AT THE EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK SITE, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic accidental release of mercury-contaminated material associated with nuclear weapons production at East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulted in stream and floodplain contamination. he EFPC is designated as an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) operable unit under the Comprehensive ...

24

Habitat Selection Influences Sex Distribution, Morphology, Tissue Biochemistry, and Parasite Load of Juvenile Coho Salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon's West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals were to compare the body morphology, tissue biochemistry, genetics, and parasite load and determine whether sex,

Kenneth J. Rodnick; Sophie St.-Hilaire; Pavan K. Battiprolu; Steven M. Seiler; Michael L. Kent; Madison S. Powell; Joseph L. Ebersole

2008-01-01

25

Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregonâ??s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

26

An identification of the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The work in this report was conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, during the period November 1991 through July 1992. The purpose of this study is to identify the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain. This information is required as part of the remedial action plans for removal or containment of contamination within the EFPC floodplain. EFPC and a portion of its floodplain have been contaminated as a result of operations and accidental releases at the Department of Energy`s Y-12 Plant. Mercury is the major contaminant found in EFPC and its floodplain.

NONE

1992-12-01

27

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, SALMON RIVER, MAIN STEM (HEADWATERS TO BELOW MIDDLE FORK), IDAHO, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Fifteen water quality stations in the Salmon River Basin (17060201, 17060203) were sampled bi-weekly for a year. Eight of the stations were on the Main Salmon River and the remaining seven represented the major tributaries. This portion of the study extended from Stanley to bel...

28

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-10-01

29

Effects of acid mine drainage on the stream ecosystem of the east fork of the Obey River, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stream ecosystem of the east fork of the Obey River, Tennessee was studied from January through December 1970. Emphasis centered on water quality, macroinvertebrates, fish and aquatic flora affected by acid mine drainage. Two control stations were established within the study area, one located below the zone of pollution. A reservoir station was established to detect any neutralization occurring

L. E. Nichols; F. L. Bulow

1973-01-01

30

Waste management plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Plant Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain. The waste management plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the LEFPC remedial action. Most of the solid wastes will be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y- 12 facilities. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, along with possible low-level or mixed wastes (> 35 pCi/g). Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary and capable of being disposed of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant, except sanitary sewage.

NONE

1996-04-01

31

Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the organization, strategy, and procedures to be used to confirm that mercury concentrations in soils in the remediated areas are statistically less than, or equal to, the cleanup standard of 400 ppm. It focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of the Lower East Fork Popular Creed flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its associated flood plain.

NONE

1996-12-01

32

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy’s Y-12 National\\u000a Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC).\\u000a The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges\\u000a of treated and untreated

James M. Loar; Arthur J. Stewart; John G. Smith

2011-01-01

33

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated

James M. Loar; Arthur J. Stewart; John G. Smith

2011-01-01

34

Post construction report for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project, Phase 1, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Phase 1 Remedial Action (RA) effort was conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action. The LEFPC, Phase 1 RA removed approximately 5,560 yd{sup 3} of mercury-contaminated soils, {ge} 400 ppm, from selected portions of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) site LEFPC floodplain from July 8, 1996--September 14, 1996. During excavation activities, pockets of elevated radiologically contaminated soils (greater than 35 pCi/g) were located by the continuous monitoring of the excavation areas and contaminated soils with radiological monitoring instruments. Through characterization sampling it has been determined that {approximately} 90 yd{sup 3} are less than 35 pCi/g uranium contaminated and will be transported to the Y-12 Landfill V for disposal and the remaining {approximately}40 yd{sup 3} do not meet the WAC for radiological constituents included in the Special Waste Permit for Landfill V. The radiologically contaminated soil will be placed in 21st Century containers for storage at the K-25 site.

NONE

1996-11-01

35

Remedial design work plan for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This remedial action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing contaminated floodplain soil. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (1992). In accordance with the FFA, a remedial investigation (RI) (DOE 1994a) and a feasibility study (DOE 1994b) were conducted to assess contamination of the Lower EFPC and propose remediation alternatives. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative by the feasibility study was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Following the remedial investigation/feasibility study, and also in accordance with the FFA, a proposed plan was prepared to more fully describe the proposed remedy.

NONE

1995-10-01

36

Waste Management Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain upon completion of remediation activities. This effort will be conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for LEFPC as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) action. The Waste Management Plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the remedial action for the LEFPC Project Most of the solid wastes will be considered to be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y-12 facilities for those types of waste. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, and the possibility of low- level or mixed waste exists (greater than 35 pCi/g), although these are not expected. Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary in nature and which will be capable of being disposed 0214 of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant.

NONE

1996-08-01

37

Those Dammed Flat-bottomed Alpine Valleys III: The East Fork of the San Juan River, Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual field trip takes students to the East Fork of the San Juan River east of Pagosa Springs, Colorado, and west of the Continental Divide. Photos, written narrative, and thought questions for students explain how a landslde once blocked the river, creating a broad floodplain in what is otherwise mountainous terrain. There is also a brief discussion of how the sediments (sands and gravels) in the valley act to moderate the flow of the river by storing water from heavy rains or snowfall, which then drains out during times of drought, keeping water flowing in the stream.

38

Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag chinook smolts. These traps are also used to monitor parr movement, and collect individuals for the State and Tribal chinook salmon captive rearing program. The SBT monitors fisheries parameters in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork. Chinook populations in all SBT-ISS monitored streams continue to decline. The South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek have the strongest remaining populations. Snorkel survey methodology was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. Confidence intervals for the parr population estimates were large, especially when the populations were low. In 1998, based on ISS cooperator agreement, snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was ceased due to the large confidence intervals. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring, summer, and fall of 1998 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997. Supplementation treatments have occurred on the South Fork Salmon River (IDFG), the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), and the West Fork Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (WFYF). The EFSR received supplementation treatments yearly through 1995. There have been no treatments since 1995, and no significant future treatments from local broodstock are planned due to extremely poor escapement. The WFYF received a single presmolt treatment in 1994. There was an egg and adult release treatment in 1998 from the captive rearing program, not part of the original ISS study. Similarly, no significant future treatments are planned for the West Fork Yankee Fork due to extremely poor escapement. However, small scale experimental captive rearing and broodstock techniques are currently being tested with populations from the EFSR and WFYF. Captive rearing/broodstock techniques could potentially provide feedback for evaluation of supplementation. The other three SBT-ISS streams are control streams and do not receive supplementation treatments.

Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

1999-06-01

39

Climate-driven changes in scour regime and potential risks to salmonid survival in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing and magnitude of streamflow in the Pacific Northwest show measurable changes to twentieth century climate change. How the physical characteristics of fluvial systems in this region will respond, and how such changes will affect salmonid species remain unresolved questions. Flow and sediment transport conditions during the spawning and incubation periods are of particular concern. To enhance survival, the depth of egg burial must exceed the depth to which the bed scours during flows within the incubation period. Here, we investigate whether climate-driven shifts in the timing and depth of bed scour will impact salmonid spawning success in the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), Idaho. The MFSR is a snowmelt-dominated system that supports federally listed salmonids, and is the largest unregulated basin in the conterminous US. As a first-order analysis, we ask whether changes in the magnitude and timing of the typical annual flood (i.e., bankfull) will affect scour risk for incubating salmonids. The spatial distribution of critical scour (that which exceeds egg burial depths for different salmonid populations of interest) is predicted at basin scales using current bed material grain size and bankfull shear stress. Grain size and bankfull shear stress are predicted from empirical functions of drainage area and slope determined from field surveys of 121 channel reaches, coupled with digital elevation models to extrapolate these relationships across the landscape. The spatial distribution of critical scour for predicted changes in bankfull flow (altered magnitude and timing) are compared to known salmonid spawning sites within the basin to assess location of scour risk. Future work will examine predicted changes in the magnitude and variability of flows during the incubation period, as well as differences in predicted impacts across a range of hydroclimates (snowmelt- vs. rainfall-dominated basins) in the western US and Europe.

Goode, J.; Buffington, J. M.; Isaak, D.; Tonina, D.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Tockner, K.; Thurow, R.; McKean, J. A.; Luce, C.; Wenger, S.; Nagel, D.

2010-12-01

40

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Northern Water Snakes ( Nerodia sipedon ) from East Fork Poplar Creek and the Little River, East Tennessee, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the blood, kidney, liver, muscle, and skin of northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) collected from the upper reach of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the United States Department of Energy’s (USDOE’s) Y-12 National Security Complex with concentrations in tissues of northern water snakes from a

K. R. Campbell; T. S. Campbell; J. Burger

2005-01-01

41

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-07-18

42

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-10-18

43

Remedial design work plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been prepared. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative, as stated in the Record of Decision (ROD) was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Thereafter, a public hearing was held to review the proposed plan. Comments were incorporated. The revised selected remedy, per the ROD is to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated above the remediation goal of 400 parts per million mercury. The approved ROD with this goal will be the basis for remedial design (RD). The RD work plan (RDWP) is composed of six chapters. An introductory chapter describes the purpose and scope of the RDWP, the selected remedy as identified by the ROD; the roles and responsibilities of the RD team members, and the site background information, including site history, contaminants of concern, and site characteristics. Chapter 2 contains the design objectives, RD approach, regulatory considerations during RD, and the design criteria with assumptions. Chapter 3 presents the RD planning process to prepare this RDWP, as well as secondary RD support plans. Chapter 4 describes the scope of the RD activities in more detail and identifies what will be included in the design package. Chapter 5 presents the schedule for performance of the RD activities, identifying key RD milestones. Specific documents used in the preparation of this document are referenced in Chapter 6.

NONE

1996-02-01

44

Environmental compliance plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Remedial action for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, as defined by the Record of Decision, requires that soil contaminated with >400 ppM mercury be excavated and disposed. Based on the remediation goal, soil will be excavated from areas located at the NOAA site and the Bruner site and disposed at the Industrial Landfill V at the Y-12 Plant. Objective is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to CERCLA and the Federal Facility Agreement (DOE 1992).

NONE

1996-07-01

45

Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek remedial action project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has three major operating facilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee: the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the K-25 Site, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed by Lockheed Martin Environmental Research Corporation. All facilities are managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (Energy Systems) for the DOE. The Y-12 Plant is adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge and is also upstream from Oak Ridge along East Fork Poplar Creek. The portion of the creek downstream from the Y-12 Plant is Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC). This project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the LEFPC floodplain, transport the soils to Industrial Landfill V (ILF-V), and restore any affected areas. This project contains areas that were designated in 1989 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site. The site includes DOE property and portions of commercial, residential, agricultural, and miscellaneous areas within the city of Oak Ridge.

NONE

1996-08-01

46

Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The East Fork Regime encompasses several confirmed and suspected sources of groundwater contamination within industrialized areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Groundwater and surface water monitoring in the East Fork Regime are performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the East Fork Regime issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) on August 30, 1996. The post-closure permit addresses post-closure monitoring requirements for two closed RCRA-regulated surface impoundments: the S-3 Ponds and New Hope Pond.

NONE

1997-02-01

47

GENE EXPRESSION ALTERATIONS OBSERVED IN PRIMARY CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES AFTER TREATMENT WITH CHLORINATED OR CHLORINATED AND OZONATED DRINKING WATER FROM EAST FORK LAKE, OHIO  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water from East Fork Lake was spiked with iodide and bromide, disinfected with chlorine or ozone + chlorine, concentrated ~100-fold using reverse osmosis, and volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs) added back. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to full-strength, 1:10...

48

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part III, river hydraulics and sediment transport, 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frequent measurements of river stage, water discharge, sediment-transport rate and particle-size gradation, and river slope were made at 44 cross sections along a 1.83-kilometer reach of East Fork River, Wyoming, during the spring 1980 snowmelt runoff. Data are tabulated and explanatory text facilitates its use for description of river hydraulics and sediment transport. (USGS)

Emmett, W. W.; Myrick, R. M.; Meade, R. H.

1982-01-01

49

Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

NONE

1996-04-01

50

Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere.

NONE

1994-09-01

51

Estimation of the bioaccumulation of mercury by bluegill sunfish in East Fork Poplar Creek: Final report for the period 1 October 1985-30 April 1987  

SciTech Connect

Studies conducted by Van Winkle, et al., (1984), on East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) documented the system to be contaminated by mercury originating from the Department of Energy's Y-12 Plant. Specifically, the study showed that the fine sediments in the stream were significantly contaminated with mercury; the mercury contamination was highest near the Y-12 discharge and decreased in downstream sediments, and fish in the system had mercury concentrations in muscle tissue exceeding FDA limits of 1.0 ppM.

Young, R.C.

1987-04-01

52

Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated

John G Smith; Arthur J Stewart; James M Loar

2011-01-01

53

An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

1989-04-01

54

Phase 2 remedial design report on the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek remedial action project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Phase II Remedial Design Report consists of construction drawings and specifications for excavating and restoring areas of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain having soils contaminated with mercury greater than 400 ppm. Several associated project plans are being provided under separate cover. The Phase II LEFPC Project Remedial Action consists of a variety of activities. The Bruner site will be remediated first to take advantage of the lower water table elevations at the Bruner site during the spring of the year and allow the water table elevations to recede prior to action at the site. Once mobilization is complete, vegetation will be removed from the areas where contaminated soils are located. Soils will be excavated using standard excavation equipment and based on the moisture content of the soils, will be sent to the landfill or for drying operations. Once the areas have been excavated, confirmatory sampling will be performed in the vertical directions and verification sampling will be performed to ensure all the contamination has been removed, prior to backfill activities. After sites are restored, demobilization will take place.

NONE

1996-07-01

55

Phase 2 remedial design report on the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Phase II Remedial Design Report consists of construction drawings and specifications for excavating and restoring areas of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain having soils contaminated with mercury greater than 400 ppm. Several associated project plans are being provided under separate cover. The Phase II LEFPC Project Remedial Action consists of a variety of activities. the Bruner site will be remediated first to take advantage of the lower water table elevations at the Bruner site during the spring and allow the water table elevations to recede prior to action at the site. Once mobilization is complete, vegetation will be removed from the areas where contaminated soils are located. Soils will be excavated using standard excavation equipment and based on the moisture content of the soils, will be sent to the landfill or for drying operations. Once the areas have been excavated, confirmatory sampling will be performed to ensure all the contamination has been removed, prior to backfill activities. After sites are restored, demobilization will take place.

NONE

1996-04-01

56

Postremediation monitoring program baseline assessment report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) and its floodplain are contaminated with mercury (Hg) from ongoing and historical releases from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A remedial investigation and feasibility study of LEFPC resulted in the signing of a Record of Decision (ROD) in August 1995. In response to the ROD, soil contaminated with mercury above 400 mg/kg was removed from two sites in LEFPC and the floodplain during a recently completed remedial action (RA). The Postremediation Monitoring Program (PMP) outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan was envisioned to occur in two phases: (1) a baseline assessment prior to remediation and (2) postremediation monitoring. The current report summarizes the results of the baseline assessment of soil, water, biota, and groundwater usage in LEFPC and its floodplain conducted in 1995 and 1996 by personnel of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). This report also includes some 1997 data from contaminated sites that did not undergo remediation during the RA (i.e., sites where mercury is greater than 200 mg/kg but less than 400 mg/kg). The baseline assessment described in this document is distinct and separate from both the remedial investigation/feasibility study the confirmatory sampling conducted by SAIC during the RA. The purpose of the current assessment was to provide preremediation baseline data for the LEFPC PMP outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan, using common approaches and techniques, as specified in that plan.

Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Ashwood, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Rash, C.D.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc. (United States)

1998-04-01

57

Investigation of Increased Mercury Levels in the Fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting Oak Ridge's remediation efforts by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of dissolved and colloidal forms of elemental mercury (Hg deg.A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC; MeHg production by these bio-films under anoxic versus oxic conditions was the critical measurement taken. The bench-scale testing for Phase I was completed November 2005. The final reporting and the planning for Phase II testing are in progress. (authors)

Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., (United States); Southworth, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Simms, L. [Bechtel Jacobs Company (United States)

2006-07-01

58

Investigation of increased mercury levels in the fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (Lefpc), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting remediation efforts on the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility and within downstream riparian zones. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of aqueous phase elemental mercury (Hg deg. A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC. Small (mg/L) quantities of un-sulphured molasses and peptone were added to some of the Hinds Creek samples to stimulate initial bacterial growth. Other Hinds Creek samples either were dosed with glutaraldehyde to preclude microbial growth, or were wrapped in aluminum foil to preclude Hg photochemical redox effects. The bench-scale testing for Phase II was completed August 2006. The final reporting and the planning for Phase III testing are in progress. (authors)

Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., 200 Technology Way, Butte, MT (United States); Southworth, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sims, L. [Bechtel Jacobs Company, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2007-07-01

59

Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fish kill for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the monitoring of fish kills in upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) from July 1990 to June 1993. Since the opening of Lake Reality (LR) in 1988, total numbers of fish inhabiting upper EFPC have increased. However, species diversity has remained poor. Water quality data have been collected in upper EFPC during the time period covered in this report. Total residual chlorine (TRC) levels have exceeded federal and state water quality criteria over the years. However, with the installation of two dechlorination systems in late 1992, TRC levels have been substantially lowered in most portions of upper EFPC. By June 1993, concentrations of TRC were 0.04 to 0.06 mg/L at the north-south pipes (NSP) and below detection limits at sampling station AS-8 and were 0 to 0.01 mg/L at the inlet and outlet of LR. The daily chronic fish mortality in upper EFPC has been attributed to background stress resulting from the continuous discharge of chlorine into upper EFPC. Mean daily mortality rates for 22 acute fish kills were three fold or more above background and usually exceeded ten fish per day. Total number of dead fish collected per acute kill event ranged from 30 to over 1,000 fish; predominant species killed were central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus). Spills or elevated releases of toxic chemicals, such as acids, organophosphates, aluminum nitrate, ammonia, or chlorine, were identified as possible causative agents; however, a definitive cause-effect relationship was rarely established for any acute kills. Ambient toxicity testing, in situ chemical monitoring, and streamside experiments were used to examine TRC dynamics and ambient toxicity in EFPC.

Etnier, E.L.; Opresko, D.M.; Talmage, S.S. [eds.

1994-08-01

60

Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The East Fork Regime encompasses several confirmed and suspected sources of groundwater contamination within industrialized areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 1996 groundwater and surface water monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, along with the required data evaluations specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the East Fork Regime. This report provides additional evaluation of the CY 1996 groundwater and surface water monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater contamination and long-term concentration trends for regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters.

NONE

1997-09-01

61

Data that describe at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload; East Fork River, Wyoming, and Fall River, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data from the East Fork River, Wyoming, and the Fall River, Colorado, that document at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload, associated with the downstream migration of dunes, are presented. Bedload sampling was undertaken, using a 76.2 x 76.2 mm Helley-Smith sampler, on three separate occasions at each site in June 1988. In each instance, the sampling time was 30 seconds and the sampling intervals 5 minutes. The sampling period ranged from 4.92 to 8.25 hours. Water stage did not vary appreciably during any of the sampling periods. (USGS)

Gomez, Basil; Emmett, W. W.

1990-01-01

62

YOLLA BOLLY-MIDDLE EEL WILDERNESS AND BIG BUTTE-SHINBONE, EAST FORK, MURPHY GLADE, AND WILDERNESS CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral survey of the Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness, California identified a mine with inferred resources of manganese and an occurrence with inferred resources of nickel. The adjacent Big Butte-Shinbone Roadless Area to the west has an area of probable potential for the occurrence of chromium-nickel-cobalt resources and mines with demonstrated and inferred resources of manganese and chrome-nickel-cobalt. The known deposits are small and low grade. The East Fork, Murphy Glade, and Wilderness Contiguous Roadless Areas are considered to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

Blake, Jr. , M. C.; Leszcykowski, A. M.

1984-01-01

63

A retrospective study of the chemical analysis cost for the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study of the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee was completed. The study was conducted by reviewing the public Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act record documents associated with the remediation of LEFPC and through discussions with the project staff involved or familiar with the project. The remediation took place in two phases. The first phase involved the excavation of about 5,560 yd{sup 3} of soil at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) locations in 1996. The second phase involved the excavation of 39,200 yd{sup 3} at another NOAA location and at the Bruner location in 1997. For the entire project (remedial investigation through cleanup), a total of 7,708 samples (1 sample for each 5.8 yd{sup 3} of soil remediated) were analyzed for mercury. The project obtained special regulatory approval to use two methods for the determination of mercury in soils that are not part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SW-846 methods manual. The mercury analysis cost was $678,000, which represents 9.6% of the cleanup cost. During the cleanup phase of the project, an on-site laboratory was used. The estimated cost savings that the on-site laboratory provided fall into two categories: direct reduction of costs associated with chemical analysis and sample shipment totaling approximately $38,000, which represents a 5.3% savings relative to the estimated cost of using an off-site laboratory, and savings in the amount of $890,000 (12.5% of the $7.1 M cleanup cost), associated with expediting execution of the cleanup work by providing rapid (< 3 hours) sample result turnaround time. The manner in which the analytical services were procured for the LEFPC project suggest that the development of new chemical analysis technology must address deployment, performance, regulatory, robustness, reliability, and business appropriateness factors if the technology is to be used in environmental remediation.

Klatt, L.N.

1998-06-01

64

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

Konopacky, Richard C.

1986-04-01

65

Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several waste-management facilities and a petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) site at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites lie within the boundaries of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to ensure protection of local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy.

NONE

1995-10-01

66

A description of the hydrologic system and the effects of coal mining on water quality in the East Fork Little Chariton River and the alluvial aquifer between Macon and Huntsville, north-central Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of surface and groundwater has been affected by abandoned strip mines and by abandoned underground mines in a 110-sq mi subbasin of the East Fork Little Chariton River. More than 14% of the area was strip mined for coal before 1979. The hydrologic system in the area was investigated and the effects of coal mining on quality of water in the river and alluvial aquifer were analyzed, with major emphasis on defining strip-mining effects. The groundwater gradient was from glacial drift or coal spring to alluvium to the East Fork Little Chariton River, and was greatest in spring and least in fall. Seepage from alluvium to the East Fork Little Chariton River occurs throughout the year, except during drought conditions when the only river flow is water released from Long Branch Lake. In the East Fork Little Chariton River median dissolved-solids concentrations increased from 153 mg/L near Macon to 630 mg/L near Huntsville and median sulfate concentrations increased from 36 mg/L near Macon to 360 mg/L near Huntsville. The median dissolved-solids concentration in water from the alluvium increased from 408 mg/L upstream from the strip mines to 641 mg/L near the mines and median dissolved-sulfate concentration increased from 140 to 350 mg/L. The sulfate-to-chloride ratio, used as the most sensitive indicator of strip-mining effects, increased markedly downstream in the East Fork Little Chariton River and nearby Middle Fork Little Chariton River, which also is affected by strip mining. There were no significant increases in sulfate-to-chloride ratio and dissolved-solids concentrations in comparable nearby subbasins of the Grand, Thompson, and Chariton Rivers where there was no mining. (Author 's abstract)

Hall, D. C.

1986-01-01

67

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1 of 2, 1986 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, that will be used in conjunction with 1984 and 1985 fish and habitat pre-treatment (baseline) data to evaluate effects of habitat enhancement on the habitat and fish community in Bear Valley Creek overtime. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur in the upper-Salmon River basin. Subproject III involved fish inventories (pre-treatment) in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River, and habitat problem identification on Fivemile and Ramey Creek. Subproject IV involved baseline habitat and fish inventories on the East Fork of the Salmon River, Herd Creek and Big-Boulder Creek. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the four subproject reports. 20 refs., 37 figs., 22 tabs.

Richards, Carl

1987-03-01

68

Influence of redox processes and organic carbon on mercury and methylmercury cycling in East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) between 1950- 1963 resulted in contamination of the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) ecosystems. Hg continues to be released into EFPC creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within the Y-12 NSC and outside the facility boundary. In general, methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases. Therefore, our study focuses on ecosystem processes, such as redox driven elemental cycles, sediment characteristics and organic matter quality that favor the production, as well as degradation, of MeHg in the EFPC. Detailed geochemical characterization of the surface water, interstitial pore water, and creek sediments were performed during quarterly sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011 at two locations in EFPC to examine temporal changes in Hg and MeHg concentrations. A longitudinal study of a 20 km portion of the creek and adjacent floodplain was also conducted to examine relationships between Hg, MeHg and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In general, the concentration of Hg decreases downstream as you move away from a know point source of Hg in the system while MeHg concentrations increase in this same reach. Changes in total Hg, both filtered (0.2 ?m) and unfiltered, are not correlated with the concentration or composition of DOM in the system. Significant correlations are observed between dissolved MeHg and absorbent light measurements which reflect the quality of the DOM. The two intensively studied sites in EFPC were located 3.7 km (NOAA) and 20 km (NH) downstream of the headwaters. Vertical profiles of interstitial water collected from fine-grained deposits at the creek margin showed decreases in nitrate, sulfate, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) with depth as well as increases in dissolved manganese, iron, and sulfide. The results indicate the progression of terminal electron accepting processes with depth in the upper 30 cm of these fine grained sediments. Interstitial MeHg concentration also increased with depth suggesting these areas served as a potential source of MeHg to the surface water and biota. In contrast, interstitial water collected from the center channel of the creek did not exhibit these redox gradients. The observed constant or decreasing MeHg concentrations with depth suggest that the interstitial water in the fast flowing sections of the creek is rapidly exchanging with the surface water and these sections do not serve as MeHg sources. Sediment cores were also collected to examine spatial and temporal changes in total Hg and MeHg and ancillary measurements, such as organic carbon, ferrous iron, and sulfide, were performed to examine their correlation with Hg and MeHg in sediments. Large intra- and inter-site variability of Hg distribution in these samples is partly attributed to the very heterogeneous sediment texture that ranged from clay to coarse sand particles. Methylation and demethylation potentials are also being examined using intact sediment cores and enriched stable isotopes to quantify zones of net MeHg production.

Miller, C.; Brooks, S. C.; Kocman, D.; Yin, X.; Bogle, M.

2011-12-01

69

Sources of Mercury to East Fork Poplar Creek Downstream from the Y-12 National Security Complex: Inventories and Export Rates  

SciTech Connect

East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been heavily contaminated with mercury (also referred to as Hg) since the 1950s as a result of historical activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and hereinafter referred to as Y-12). During the period from 1950 to 1963, spills and leaks of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) contaminated soil, building foundations, and subsurface drainage pathways at the site, while intentional discharges of mercury-laden wastewater added 100 metric tons of mercury directly to the creek (Turner and Southworth 1999). The inventory of mercury estimated to be lost to soil and rock within the facility was 194 metric tons, with another estimated 70 metric tons deposited in floodplain soils along the 25 km length of EFPC (Turner and Southworth 1999). Remedial actions within the facility reduced mercury concentrations in EFPC water at the Y-12 boundary from > 2500 ng/L to about 600 ng/L by 1999 (Southworth et al. 2000). Further actions have reduced average total mercury concentration at that site to {approx}300 ng/L (2009 RER). Additional source control measures planned for future implementation within the facility include sediment/soil removal, storm drain relining, and restriction of rainfall infiltration within mercury-contaminated areas. Recent plans to demolish contaminated buildings within the former mercury-use areas provide an opportunity to reconstruct the storm drain system to prevent the entry of mercury-contaminated water into the flow of EFPC. Such actions have the potential to reduce mercury inputs from the industrial complex by perhaps as much as another 80%. The transformation and bioaccumulation of mercury in the EFPC ecosystem has been a perplexing subject since intensive investigation of the issue began in the mid 1980s. Although EFPC was highly contaminated with mercury (waterborne mercury exceeded background levels by 1000-fold, mercury in sediments by more than 2000-fold) in the 1980s, mercury concentrations in EFPC fish exceeded those in fish from regional reference sites by only a little more than 10-fold. This apparent low bioavailability of mercury in EFPC, coupled with a downstream pattern of mercury in fish in which mercury decreased in proportion to dilution of the upstream source, lead to the assumption that mercury in fish would respond to decreased inputs of dissolved mercury to the stream's headwaters. However, during the past two decades when mercury inputs were decreasing, mercury concentrations in fish in Lower EFPC (LEFPC) downstream of Y-12 increased while those in Upper EFPC (UEFPC) decreased. The key assumption of the ongoing cleanup efforts, and concentration goal for waterborne mercury were both called into question by the long-term monitoring data. The large inventory of mercury within the watershed downstream presents a concern that the successful treatment of sources in the headwaters may not be sufficient to reduce mercury bioaccumulation within the system to desired levels. The relative importance of headwater versus floodplain mercury sources in contributing to mercury bioaccumulation in EFPC is unknown. A mercury transport study conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1984 estimated that floodplain sources contributed about 80% of the total annual mercury export from the EFPC system (ORTF 1985). Most of the floodplain inputs were associated with wet weather, high flow events, while much of the headwater flux occurred under baseflow conditions. Thus, day-to-day exposure of biota to waterborne mercury was assumed to be primarily determined by the Y-12 source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of recent studies and monitoring within the EFPC drainage with a focus on discerning the magnitude of floodplain mercury sources and how long these sources might continue to contaminate the system after headwater sources are eliminated or greatly reduced.

Southworth, George R [ORNL; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Floyd, Stephanie B [ORNL

2010-02-01

70

Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

NONE

1995-09-01

71

The role of episodic fire-related debris flows on long-term (103-104) sediment yields in the Middle Fork Salmon River Watershed, in central Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Episodic fire-related debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment and large woody debris to streams. This study evaluates fire-related sedimentation from small steep tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR) in central Idaho to evaluate the timing, frequency, and magnitude of episodic fire-related sedimentation on long-term (10 3-10 4) sediment yields. The MFSR lies within the Northern Rocky Mountains and encompasses a range of ecosystems including high elevation (~3,000 -1,700 m) subalpine pine and spruce forests, mid-elevation (2650 - 1130 m) montane Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine-dominated forests and low elevation (~ 1,800 - 900 m) sagebrush steppe. Recent debris flow events in tributaries of the MFSR appear to primarily result from increased surface runoff, rilling, and progressive sediment bulking following high severity fires. This study estimates: 1) the volume of sediment delivered by four recent (1997-2008) fire-related debris flow events using real time kinematic GPS surveys, and 2) the timing of Holocene fire-related debris flow events determined by 14C dating charcoal fragments preserved in buried burned soils and within fire-related deposits. Our measured volumes of the four recent debris flow events are compared to two empirically derived volume estimates based on remotely sensed spatial data (burn severity and slope), measured geometric data (longitudinal profile, cross sectional area, flow banking angle), and precipitation records. Preliminary stratigraphic profiles in incised alluvial fans suggest that a large percentage of alluvial fan thickness is composed of fire-related deposits suggesting fire-related hillslope erosion is a major process delivering sediment to alluvial fans and to the MFSR. Fire-related deposits from upper basins compose ~71% of total alluvial fan thickness, while fire-related deposits from lower basins make up 36% of alluvial fan thickness. However, lower basins are less densely vegetated with small diameter woody material, which reduces size and preservation of charcoal fragments in lower elevation deposits. We hypothesize that fires burn during dry and/or variable climate conditions; therefore aggradation on alluvial fans, incision and abandonment of fan surfaces, and sediment yields are increased during dry and/or variable climate conditions. Preliminary results indicate that periods of fire and accelerated sedimentation vary with ecosystem type. Lower basins burned ~6500, ~900, and ~400 cal yr BP, while fire in upper basins occurred ~8200, 5400, 3800, 1300, and 500 cal yr BP. These preliminary results suggest different ecosystems respond to different climate drivers. Regional estimates of long-term (6,300 yr) sediment yields derived from cosmogenic nuclides (Kirchner et al., 2001) compared with episodic fire-related sedimentation (Meyer and Pierce 2003) indicate episodic events are orders of magnitude higher than long-term average rates, suggesting that large fire-related debris flows occur on average once every ~400 yr. Determining the timing, frequency, and magnitude of fire-related sedimentation events over the past ~ 8 ka help us assess the impact of episodic fire-related events on long-term (Holocene) average sediment yields in central Idaho.

Riley, K. E.; Pierce, J. L.; Hopkins, A.

2010-12-01

72

An archaeological reconnaissance of a 14 mile section of the East Fork Poplar Creek for the Environmental Restoration Project, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, Nashville, Tennessee, an archaeological reconnaissance of the potential impact areas of the Environmental Restoration Project (ERP) along the East Fork Poplar Creek was conducted during the period December 16, 1991, and March 3, 1992. The reconnaissance was conducted in response to environmental evaluations as a result of the accidental spillage of approximately 293,000 pounds of mercury, radionuclides, heavy metals and other compounds. The reconnaissance to assess adverse impacts to cultural resources located within the boundaries of Federally-licensed, permitted, funded or assisted projects was conducted in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and Executive Order 11593.

DuVall, G.D. [DuVall and Associates, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

1993-01-01

73

LAKE FORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...

74

50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook... Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Tolt Dam (S. Fork Tolt R.) 17110011 WA ...and coho salmon Cedar Falls (Masonry) Dam (Cedar R.) 17110013 WA...

2012-10-01

75

50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook... Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Tolt Dam (S. Fork Tolt R.) 17110011 WA ...and coho salmon Cedar Falls (Masonry) Dam (Cedar R.) 17110013 WA...

2011-10-01

76

Evaluation of Calendar Year 1997 Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data For The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

1 1.0 INTRODUCTION This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater quality monitoring data reported in: Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwatw Monitoring Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologtc Rep-meat the US. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (AJA Technical Services, Inc. 1998), which is hereafter referenced as the Annual Monitoring Report. Section 2.0 presents background information for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) that is relevant to data evaluation, including brief descriptions of the geology, the groundwater flow system, the contaminant source areas, and the extent of groundwater contamination in the regime. Section 3.0 provides an overview of the groundwater sampling and analysis activities petiormed during calendar year (CY) 1997, including monitoring well locations, sampling frequency and methods, and laboratory analyses. Evaluation and interpretation of the monitoring da% described in Section 4.0, is generally focused on an overview of data quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), long-term concentration trends for selected inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants, and consistency with applicable site-specific conceptual contaminant transport models described in: Report on the Remedial Investigation of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (U.S. Department of Energy 1998), which is referenced hereafter as the Remedial Investigation @I) Report. Findings of the data evaluations are summarized :in Section 5.0 and a list of technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed irdormation (Section 6.0) concludes the report. All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in the text are presented in Appendm A and Appendix B, respectively. Appendix C provides a summary of the analytical results that meet applicable data quality objectives (DQOS) of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program.

Jones, S.B.

1998-09-01

77

Evaluation of fish kills during November 1986 and July 1987 in upper East Fork Poplar Creek near the Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) investigated two fish kills that occurred on November 21, 1986, and July 9, 1987, in upper East Fork Poplar Creek at the outfall of New Hope Pond (NHP) below the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Investigative procedures included sampling of water at the inlet and outfall of NHP for water quality, examination of operating procedures at the Y-12 Plant and in the biomonitoring program that may have adversely affected the fish populations, review of results of concurrent ambient toxicity tests of the inlet and outfall water of NHP, autopsy investigations of the cause of death of the stonerollers, and laboratory experimentation to evaluate potential causes. The investigations revealed that the cause of death was bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a stress-mediated disease. The specific stressor responsible for the outbreak of the disease was not identified. Several possible stresses were indicated, including elevated concentrations of mercury and chlorine, excessive electroshocking activity, and elevated levels of the pathogen. Cumulative stress due to the combination of several factors was also suggested. Elevated temperatures and overcrowding may have enhanced the spread of the epizootic but were not the primary causes. The impact on the stoneroller population below NHP was not ecologically significant. 23 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Ryon, M.G.; Loar, J.M.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.

1990-09-01

78

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part I, River hydraulics and sediment transport, 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bed-material gradation and water-surface slope were determined for a 3.3-kilometer reach of East Fork River, Wyo. During peak snowmelt runoff, frequent measurements of water discharge and sediment-transport rate provided data describing the inflow and outflow of water and sediment. In spring 1979, bankfull stage was exceeded on 8 days. Maximum discharge was about 32 cubic meters per second, which has a recurrence interval of about 2 years. The median particle size of bed material is 1.28 millimeters; the 35 and 65 percentiles are represented by diameters of 0.50 and 2.88 millimeters, respectively. The average water-surface slope in the reach is 0.0007 and varies little with river stage. Bedload-transport rates ranged from a little less than 0.001 to a little more than 0.1 kilograms per meter of channel width per second. Median bedload grain size, with several exceptions, ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 millimeters. Gravel-size particles generally constituted 10 to 40% of the bedload. Suspended-sediment concentrations ranged from 6 to 95 milligrams per liter. Suspended sediment smaller than sand constited about half the measured suspended sediment, ranging from 17 to 81%. (USGS)

Emmett, William W.; Myrick, Robert M.; Meade, Robert H.

1980-01-01

79

Geologic map of the Salmon National Forest and vicinity, east-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geology of the Salmon National Forest, Idaho, was compiled from published and unpublished sources and new field mapping by Evans, Lund, Tysdal, and Winkler between 1997 and 2001. The geology was compiled onto 1:100,000-scale topographic base maps for input into a geographic information system (GIS). The digital geologic map database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps.

compiled by Evans, Karl V.; Green, Gregory N.

2003-01-01

80

Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

NONE

1996-08-01

81

Work plan for support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek east end VOC plumes well installation project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 guidelines and requirements from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the Y-12 Plant initiated investigation and monitoring of various sites within its boundaries in the mid-1980s. The entire Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites within the ORR require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) or an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) of potential remedial actions. Data from monitoring wells at the east end of the Y-12 Plant have identified an area of groundwater contamination dominated by the volatile organic compound (VOC) carbon tetrachloride; other VOCs include chloroform, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene.

NONE

1998-03-01

82

Water-power resources in upper Carson River basin, California-Nevada, A discussion of potential development of power and reservoir sites on east and west forks, Carson River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Fork Carson River offers the best opportunity for power development in the Carson River basin. The Hope Valley reservoir site could be developed to provide adequate storage regulation and concentration of fall would permit utilization of 1,400 feet of head in 51h miles below the clam site, or 1,900 feet of head in about 972 miles below the dam site; however, the average annual runoff susceptible of development is only about 70,000 acre-feet which limits the power that could be developed continuously in an average year with regulation to about 8,700 kilowatts utilizing 1,400 feet of head, or 12,000 kilowatts utilizing 1,900 feet of head. The method and degree of development will be determined to large extent by the method devised to supplement regulated flows from the Hope Valley reservoir to supply the water already appropriated for irrigation. If the Hope Valley site and the Watasheamu site on East Fork Carson River were developed coordinately water could be transferred to the West Fork for distribution through canals leading from that stream thus satisfying the deficiency due to regulation at Hope Valley and release of stored water on a power schedule. This would permit utilization of the entire 1,900 feet of fall. Independent development of the West Fork for optimum power production would require re-regulation of releases from Hope Valley reservoir and storage of a considerable part of the fall and winter flow for use during the irrigation season. Adequate storage capacity is apparently not available on the West Fork below Hope Valley; but offstream storage may be available in Diamond Valley which could be utilized by diversion from the West Fork near Woodfords. This would limit the utilization of the stream for power purposes to the development of the 1,400 feet of head between the Hope Valley dam site and Wood fords. In a year of average discharge East Fork Carson River and three of its principal tributaries could be developed to produce about 13,500 kilowatts of firm power upstream of the Watasheamu site, which has been proposed as the location of a storage reservoir, the principal use of which would be for irrigation and flood control purposes. Substantial storage regulation would be required because of the seasonal variation in flow; and while sufficient storage capacity is available for such regulation, its value for power development is limited because of the lack of concentration of fall below the storage sites where head could be economically developed. The Watasheamu reservoir with a powerplant near the Horseshoe: Bend site could be operated to develop about 5,400 kilowatts of continuous power in a year of average discharge; however, priority to use of water for irrigation purposes would undoubtedly require operation of the Watasheamu reservoir on a schedule unfavorable to the production of firm power. It is estimated that 47 million kilowatt-hours represents the maximum generation capability of a plant at the Horseshoe Bend site in year of average discharge and a large proportion of this amount would be generated during the period of peak irrigation demand and would be seasonal in nature. Installation of about 7,000 kilowatts of capacity in a plant at the Horseshoe Bend site appears feasible. Annual energy generation would probably be less than the maximum represented by streamflow, depending on the magnitude of releases from the Watasheamu reservoir for irrigation and the demand for seasonal power. It is judged, from a general consideration of the probable cost of the required Structures in relation to the benefits which would accrue from the power that could be produced, that development of East and West Forks Carson River for power purposes only would not be feasible.

Pumphrey, Harold L.

1955-01-01

83

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and survival ranged from 0% to 96%, although there was evidence that some eggs had died after reaching the eyed stage. Six redds were capped in an attempt to document fry emergence, but none were collected. A final hydraulic sampling of the capped redds yielded nothing from five of the six, but 75 dead eggs and one dead fry were found in the sixth. Smothering by fine sediment is the suspected cause of the observed mortality between the eyed stage and fry emergence.

Venditti, David A.

2002-04-01

84

Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artifi...

J. S. Gebhards M. Daniel R. Hill

2009-01-01

85

5. VIEW EAST ACROSS BRIDGE SHOWING RAILING DETAILS AND WATERFALLS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW EAST ACROSS BRIDGE SHOWING RAILING DETAILS AND WATERFALLS OF THE SOUTH FORK OF THE TUOLUMNE. - South Fork Tuolumne River Bridge, Spanning South Fork Tuolumne River on Tioga Road, Mather, Tuolumne County, CA

86

Two Forks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You, the reader, are a medical investigator on vacation in Two Forks, Idaho. You are called in to investigate an outbreak of salmonellosis, an infectious disease, caused by the Salmonella paratyphi, a bacterium, typically spread from human to human by contaminated water or food. You interview people known to have had contact with the victims, and determine the identity of the disease carrier by deductive reasoning. The story has two layers of built-in interactive hint structures. First, after you do your research, you have an option to solve the mystery or continue for a further hint. If you choose the hint, the story progresses a bit further, you receive a helpful hint, and you again have the option to "solve" or "continue for second hint." If you choose to continue, the story progresses yet further and you receive another hint. Once again you choose to solve or to continue. If you continue, the story progresses and gives you a third (and very useful) hint.

Ken Eklund (WriterGuy REV)

2002-02-18

87

Roles of Dissolved Organic Matter in Aqueous Speciation of Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ in East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aqueous speciation of mercury [Hg(II)] and methylmercury (CH3Hg+) in contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is not well understood despite recognition of the important roles played by dissolved organic matter (DOM) in controlling the cycling, transport and bioavailability of Hg in the system. We determined Hg species distributions in the EFPC based on EFPC water chemistry and a selected database of reaction constants of Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ with various organic and inorganic ligands, using the "PHREEQC" geochemical speciation computer code. Results show that DOM affects both Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ speciation by forming strong Hg(II)-DOM and CH3Hg-DOM complexes through reactive sulfur groups or thiol-like functional groups in DOM in EFPC surface waters under conditions of pH = 7.5 to 8.1 and DOM about 3 mg/L. The neutral complexes of Hg(OH)2 and Hg(OH)Cl, and CH3HgCl and CH3HgOH were found to be of secondary importance in EFPC surface water. The competitive effects of co-existing metal ions (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Fe3+ and UO22+) on the Hg(II)-DOM and CH3Hg-DOM complexation in the EFPC surface water were evaluated using analogous model organic compounds (i.e., cysteine and glutathione), because reliable binding constants of these co- existing metal ions with thiol-like functional groups in DOM are scarce in the literature. Results show that only Zn2+ (present at relatively high concentrations in EFPC) competes with Hg(II) for the binding sites (thiol) in DOM and therefore contributes to the decreased distribution of Hg(II)-DOM. The effect of other metal ions on the distribution of Hg(II)-DOM and CH3Hg-DOM complexes are estimated to be minimal. These results provided further understanding of mercury speciation, bioavailability and transformation in the EFPC stream water. A literature review of the conditional formation constants (log K) of Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ with reactive sulfur groups (RS) in DOM gives a broad spread of values of log K from 21 to 40 for Hg(II)-RS complexes and from 10 to 17 for CH3Hg-RS complexes, suggesting that the quantitative characterization of reactive binding sites in DOM and their interactions with Hg(II), CH3Hg+, H+ and other metal ions in environments, remain to be developed. Methodologies to develop these areas of understanding are essential for more accurate modeling of Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ speciation in aquatic ecosystems.

Dong, W.; Liang, L.; Southworth, G.; Gu, B.

2008-12-01

88

South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Crooked and Red Rivers : Annual Report, 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983, the Nez Perce National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an interagency agreement to enhance and improve habitat for two anadromous fish species, spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyscha) and summer steelhead trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss), in the South Fork Clearwater River tributaries. The South Fork Clearwater River was dammed in 1927 for hydroelectric development. Anadromous fish runs

Baer; William H

1990-01-01

89

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, general view in setting showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, general view in setting showing (N) side; view (S) - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

90

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood floor; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

91

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of (W) and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of (W) and (S) sides, view to northeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

92

BALD ROCK AND MIDDLE FORK FEATHER RIVER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bald Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Areas in California indicate several areas within the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area that have probable mineral-resource potential. A probable potential for placer gold exists at various localities, both in areas covered by Tertiary volcanic rocks and in small streams that drain into the Middle Fork of the Feather River. A probable potential for small deposits of chromite exists in tracts underlain by ultramafic rocks in the Melones fault zone. A probable potential for lead-silver deposits is recognized at the east end of the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area.

Sorensen, Martin, L.; Buehler, Alan, R.

1984-01-01

93

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 2000: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 2000-2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artifi...

J. Gebhards M. Daniel R. Hill

2003-01-01

94

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artifi...

J. Gebhards M. Daniel

2003-01-01

95

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

Venditti, David A.

2003-10-01

96

Movements of Adult Chinook Salmon during Spawning Migration in a Metals-Contaminated System, Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning migration of adult male chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was monitored by radio telemetry to determine their response to the presence of metals contamination in the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. The North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River is relatively free of metals contamination and was used as a control. In all, 45 chinook salmon were

J. N. Goldstein; D. F. Woodward; A. M. Farag

1999-01-01

97

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. ...Resources, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, or at the National...

2009-10-01

98

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. ...Resources, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, or at the National...

2010-10-01

99

South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Nez Perce National Forest.  

SciTech Connect

In 1984, the Nez Perce National forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement which provided for improvement of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout habitat in south Fork Clearwater River tributaries. Project work was completed in seven main locations: Crooked River, Red River, Meadow Creek Haysfork Gloryhole, Cal-Idaho Gloryhole, Fisher Placer and Leggett Placer. This report describes restoration activities at each of these sites.

Siddall, Phoebe

1992-04-01

100

Proposed experiment for SnCl{sub 2} treatment of Outfall 200 for the purpose of mercury removal from East Fork Poplar Creek, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Identification and treatment/elimination of point sources of mercury (Hg) to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the Y-12 Plant have reduced base flow mercury concentrations considerably; but, after all such actions are completed, nonpoint sources will continue to add mercury to the creek. Studies conducted in 1996 on the use of air stripping to remove elemental mercury from Outfall 51, a mercury-contaminated natural spring, demonstrated that the addition of trace concentrations of stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) converted a large fraction of the dissolved mercury in the outfall to elemental mercury, which could subsequently be removed by air stripping. Dissolved mercury is the dominant form in EFPC at the north/south (N/S) pipes, where it emerges from the underground storm drain network. More than 50% of that mercury is capable of being rapidly reduced by the addition of a 3--5 fold molar excess of stannous chloride. Upon conversion to the volatile gaseous (elemental) form, mercury would be lost across the air-water interface through natural volatilization. EFPC within the Y-12 Plant is shallow, turbulent, and open to sunlight and wind, providing conditions that facilitate natural evasion of volatile chemicals from the water. Preliminary calculations estimate that 75% or more of the elemental mercury could be removed via evasion between the N/S pipes and the Y-l2 Plant boundary (Station 17). Alternatively, elemental mercury might be removed from EFPC in a short reach of stream below the N/S pipes by an in-situ air stripping system which bubbles air through the water column. The purpose of these proposed experiments is to test whether natural volatilization or in-situ air stripping may be used to further reduce baseflow concentrations of mercury in EFPC. Results of this experiment will be useful for understanding the transport and fate of other volatile chemicals in the upper reaches of EFPC.

Southworth, G.R.

1997-03-01

101

Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring\\/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the

R. Johnson; C. McKinstry; R. Mueller

2004-01-01

102

1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH FLUME AND CONCRETE DIVERSION DAM SPILLING WATER. CONCRETE ABUTMENTS OF THE ORIGINAL HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE OVER THE NORTH FORK ARE VISIBLE ON EITHER SIDE OF THE DAM. NEW HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE IS VISIBLE ACROSS TOP OF PHOTO. VIEW TO NORTH. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

103

New interpretation of Clarks Fork field, northern Bighorn basin, Montana  

SciTech Connect

Clarks Fork field is located at the northern edge of the Bighorn basin (T9S, R22E) in Carbon County, Montana. Production was first established in 1944 by General Petroleum Corporation in the Cretaceous Peay Sandstone (basal Frontier) and was later extended to the Cretaceous Greybull (1949) and Lakota (1956) sandstones by British American. Total cumulative hydrocarbons from this field are 1,1789,193 bbl of oil and 3,061,522 mcf of gas, with Lakota sandstones being most productive. Lakota production occurs from a structural-stratigraphic trap in an east-west-trending channel on the axis of Clarks Fork anticline, geographically near the center of the township. Our structural reinterpretation of Clarks Fork field suggests that Elk Basin anticline is a northwest extension of the Elk Basin field anticline. The Elk Basin thrust truncates the north limb of the fold and does not strike to the northwest, as shown by earlier interpretations. They interpret a northwest-striking thrust in the center of the township as a splay off the Elk Basin thrust, and have named it the Clarks Fork thrust. The Clarks Fork anticline is located on the hanging wall of Clarks Fork thrust. Subsurface maps indicate the Clarks Fork area has not been fully developed. Stratigraphic traps in the Lakota and Greybull sandstones are present in several areas of the township. Structural traps in the center and northwest portions of the township may also exist.

Johnson, J.S.; Lindsley-Griffin, N.

1986-08-01

104

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

105

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND MISTAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

106

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

107

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assemblage of fossil sockeye salmon was discovered in Pleistocene lake sediments along the South Fork Skokomish River, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The fossils were abundant near the head of a former glacial lake at 115 m elevation. Large adult salmon are concentrated in a sequence of death assemblages that include individuals with enlarged breeding teeth and worn caudal fins indicating migration,

Gerald R. Smith; David R. Montgomery; N. Phil Peterson; Bruce Crowley

2007-01-01

108

LIFE HISTORY MONITORING OF SALMONIDS IN THE WEST FORK SMITH RIVER, UMPQUA BASIN, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

As a life-cycle monitoring basin for the Oregon Salmon Plan, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife has estimated adult returns, distribution and smolt outmigration of coho, chinook and winter steelhead in the West Fork Smith River since 1998. In 2001/2002, the Environmenta...

109

Cryptanalysis of FORK256  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a cryptanalysis of a new 256-bit hash function, FORK-256, proposed by Hong et al. at FSE 2006. This cryptanalysis is based on some unexpected differentials existing for the step transformation. We show their possible uses in different attack sce- narios by giving a 1-bit (resp. 2-bit) near collision attack against the full compression function of

Krystian Matusiewicz; Thomas Peyrin; Olivier Billet; Scott Contini; Josef Pieprzyk

2007-01-01

110

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Twenty-six captive-reared females constructed 33 redds in the WFYF in 2002. Eighteen of these were hydraulically sampled, and eggs were collected from 17. The percentage of live eggs ranged from 0-100% and averaged 34.6%. No live eggs were found in redds spawned by brood year 1997 females. Expanding these results to the remaining redds gives an estimate of 22,900 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish in the WFYF. Additionally, 130 mature adults (including 41 precocial males) were released into the EFSR. Almost all of these fish moved out of the areas shoreline observers had access to, so no spawning behavior was observed. Radio-telemetry indicated that most of these fish initially moved downstream (although three females moved upstream as far as 7 km) and then held position.

Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

2003-11-01

111

Development of quartz tuning fork temperature sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A temperature sensing technique taking thermal sensitive quartz tuning fork vibration arm as sensitive components and output of digital frequency is presented. In the design of quartz tuning fork temperature sensor, selecting the cut type of quartz tuning fork according to the each anisotropic nature of quartz tuning fork, so that there is a linear relationship between quartz tuning fork

Jun Xu; Bo You; Xue-fei Zhao; Xin Li

2008-01-01

112

Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

2006-02-01

113

Why farm salmon outcompete fishery salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past quarter century, the salmon aquaculture industry has grown rapidly. Price declines caused by the resulting worldwide increase in salmon production have severely impacted the salmon fishing industry, particularly in Alaska. In this paper, we examine the reasons behind the success of farm salmon. In addition to its inherent market advantages, farm salmon has benefitted from a legal

Josh Eagle; Rosamond Naylor; Whitney Smith

2004-01-01

114

4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shoreof Clark Fork River showing 4 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

115

3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge from north shore of Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

116

2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

117

1. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Panorama ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Panorama showing the entire span of bridge from north shore of the Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

118

7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

119

Tuning Forks and Monitor Screens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defines the vibrations of a tuning fork against a computer monitor screen as a pattern that can illustrate or explain physical concepts like wave vibrations, wave forms, and phase differences. Presents background information and demonstrates the experiment. (Author/YDS)|

Harrison, M. A. T.

2000-01-01

120

Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be intensively monitored. Planners recommended that a combination of natural and hatchery production

Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

2009-06-12

121

Hydraulic Control on the Spatial Distribution of Chinook Salmon Spawning Gravels in Central Idaho: Integrating Reach-Scale Predictions via Digital Elevation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined hydraulic controls on the spatial distribution of chinook salmon spawning gravels in the Middle Fork Salmon River, a mountain basin in the Frank Church Wilderness of central Idaho. Reach-scale predictions of substrate size were integrated via a digital elevation model (DEM) to assess the basin-scale distribution of spawning gravels. Channel reaches were delineated between 40' contour intervals within

J. M. Buffington; D. J. Isaak; R. F. Thurow

2003-01-01

122

Movements of adult chinook salmon during spawning migration in a metals-contaminated system, Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spawning migration of adult male chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was monitored by radio telemetry to determine their response to the presence of metals contamination in the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. The North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River is relatively free of metals contamination and was used as a control. In all, 45 Chinook salmon were transported from their natal stream. Wolf Lodge Creek, tagged with radio transmitters, and released in the Coeur d'Alene River 2 km downstream of the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Fixed telemetry receivers were used to monitor the upstream movement of the tagged chinook salmon through the confluence area for 3 weeks after release. During this period, general water quality and metals concentrations were monitored in the study area. Of the 23 chinook salmon observed to move upstream from the release site and through the confluence area, the majority (16 fish, 70%) moved up the North Fork, and only 7 fish (30%) moved up the South Fork, where greater metals concentrations were observed. Our results agree with laboratory findings and suggest that natural fish populations will avoid tributaries with high metals contamination.

Goldstein, J. N.; Woodward, D. F.; Farag, A. M.

1999-01-01

123

19. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking at north abutment and underside of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

124

18. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking at north concrete abutment and timber stringers. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

125

11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost span. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

126

20. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up. Looking at understructure of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

127

12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach from the north road. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

128

22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing downwest side. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing down-west side. Looking at road deck and vertical laced channel. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

129

21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking at bridge deck, guard rail, juncture of two bridge spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

130

8. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Looking at understructure of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

131

Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

1997-05-01

132

Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

Devaney, Laurel

133

Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

Devaney, Laurel

134

Relationships among Fat Weight, Body Weight, Water Weight, and Condition Factors in Wild Atlantic Salmon Parr  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between fat content and condition indices in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr sampled from a wild population on a seasonal basis. Condition of individual fish was indexed by residuals from the least-squares regressions of fat weight, dry weight, wet weight, and water weight (separately on fork length) as well as by relative condition factor, Fulton's condition

Stephen G. Sutton; Tammo P. Bult; Richard L. Haedrich

2000-01-01

135

Growth of Wild Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth is an important determinant of life history development for juvenile anadromous salmonids. We collected juvenile fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in two reaches of the Snake River to describe growth in fork length (mm\\/d) and to test for a relation between growth and water temperature. Growth rate during shoreline rearing was significantly higher (P = 0.003) for parr in

William P. Connor; Howard L. Burge

2003-01-01

136

Structural geology of Torlesse rocks, Otaki Forks, Tararua Range, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexly deformed Torlesse terrane lithologies of Otaki Forks, North Island, New Zealand, are dominated by very thick bedded sandstone, thinly alternating sandstone and argillite, very thick bedded argillite, with locally important green argillite, rare limestone, and intraformational conglomerate, some of which are Upper Triassic. The strata generally strike north-east-southwest, dipping steeply, but there are significant variations from this trend. The

Mark S. Rattenbury

1986-01-01

137

1. Operating Floor Front (east) Corridor, view to the north. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Operating Floor Front (east) Corridor, view to the north. The wall of turbine Unit 1 is visible in left foreground of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

138

Salmon Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students infer numbers of a virtual population illustrated within a rectangular sampling grid. They observe the accuracy of the technique in relation to the sample size upon which the estimate is based. This activity offers students an introduction to population sampling, an application of sampling technique, and an opportunity to relate sample size to estimate accuracy. Students learn that much of what is known about salmon and tuna populations is based upon population sampling, and that the assumption that a random sample is representative of the population's overall concentration is key to this strategy.

139

20. General east to west elevated view of Moody Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. General east to west elevated view of Moody Bridge placing it within and in relation to the surrounding rural environment. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

140

Avoiding chromosome pathology when replication forks collide.  

PubMed

Chromosome duplication normally initiates through the assembly of replication fork complexes at defined origins. DNA synthesis by any one fork is thought to cease when it meets another travelling in the opposite direction, at which stage the replication machinery may simply dissociate before the nascent strands are finally ligated. But what actually happens is not clear. Here we present evidence consistent with the idea that every fork collision has the potential to threaten genomic integrity. In Escherichia coli this threat is kept at bay by RecG DNA translocase and by single-strand DNA exonucleases. Without RecG, replication initiates where forks meet through a replisome assembly mechanism normally associated with fork repair, replication restart and recombination, establishing new forks with the potential to sustain cell growth and division without an active origin. This potential is realized when roadblocks to fork progression are reduced or eliminated. It relies on the chromosome being circular, reinforcing the idea that replication initiation is triggered repeatedly by fork collision. The results reported raise the question of whether replication fork collisions have pathogenic potential for organisms that exploit several origins to replicate each chromosome. PMID:23892781

Rudolph, Christian J; Upton, Amy L; Stockum, Anna; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Lloyd, Robert G

2013-07-28

141

Salmon Passage through Culverts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this study was to assess the problems associated with salmon passage through hydraulic structures, primarily corrugated culverts, on steep gradient streams in Alaska. The problem is that considerable habitat for juvenile salmon an...

C. E. Behlke D. L. Kane

1994-01-01

142

SALMON 2100 PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty eight salmon scientists and policy experts have joined forces in an innovative project to identify ways that, if adopted, likely would restore and sustain wild salmon runs in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. ...

143

2. PLANK COVERED BRANCH FLUME ON THE SOUTH FORK OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. PLANK COVERED BRANCH FLUME ON THE SOUTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK AND CONCRETE DIVERSION DAM SPILLING WATER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

144

Migration timing of female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka: diel patterns and effects of maturation state.  

PubMed

Diel patterns of migration and migration speed were compared between reproductive timing phenotypes in female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Females of varying degrees of reproductive maturation were captured on their migration route to the Meadow Creek Spawning Channel (British Columbia, Canada), were tagged with passive-integrated transponders (PIT tags) and were subsequently monitored with stationary receivers. Females showed crepuscular migration timing, with approximately equal detections at dawn and dusk. In particular, peaks of movement were associated with the appearance of the sun over the mountains in the east and the disappearance of the sun over the mountains in the west. Over 25 m, migration speed was 1·0 body lengths (measured as fork length; L(F)) s(-1) and did not depend on maturation state. Over 3 km, migration speed was much slower (0·2-0·3 L(F) s(-1)) than over the short distance, with less mature females migrating more slowly than more mature females. Less mature females appeared to be in less of a hurry to reach breeding areas compared with more mature females. PMID:22957867

Warren, M A; Morbey, Y E

2012-08-15

145

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

146

It's a Salmon's Life!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

1998-01-01

147

Tuning fork shear-force feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations have been performed on the dynamics of a distance regulation system based on an oscillating probe at resonance. This was examined at a tuning fork shear-force feedback system, which is used as a distance control mechanism in near-field scanning optical microscopy. In this form of microscopy, a tapered optical fiber is attached to the tuning fork and scanned over

A. G. T. Ruiter; K. O. van der Werf; J. A. Veerman; M. F. Garcia-Parajo; W. H. J. Rensen; N. F. van Hulst

1998-01-01

148

50 CFR 226.212 - Critical habitat for 13 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of salmon and steelhead...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...B) of the ESA to the West Fork Timber Company (formerly Murray Pacific Corporation). (i) Puget Sound Chinook Salmon...endpoint(s) in: Challis Creek (44.573, -114.309); Darling Creek (44.572, -114.252). (xxvi) Morgan...

2010-10-01

149

50 CFR 226.212 - Critical habitat for 13 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of salmon and steelhead...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...B) of the ESA to the West Fork Timber Company (formerly Murray Pacific Corporation). (i) Puget Sound Chinook Salmon...endpoint(s) in: Challis Creek (44.573, -114.309); Darling Creek (44.572, -114.252). (xxvi) Morgan...

2009-10-01

150

CHAPTER 15 History and effects of hatchery salmon in the Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a long history of production of hatchery salmon along the Pacific coast - from California's first efforts in the 1870s using eggs from chinook and rainbow trout to the recent large-scale production hatcheries for pink salmon in Japan and the Russian Far East. The rationale for this production has also varied from replacement of fish lost in

Jennifer Nielsen

151

Comparison between PIT and radio telemetry to evaluate winter habitat use and activity patterns of juvenile Atlantic salmon and brown trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter habitat use and activity patterns of juvenile Atlantic salmon and brown trout were analysed in a comparative study\\u000a between Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) technology, radio telemetry and underwater observation by snorkelling. Two study\\u000a periods were conducted in Stoney River, Newfoundland, Canada. During Study period I, 49 juvenile Atlantic salmon (fork length:\\u000a 11.0–18.0 cm) and 7 brown trout (11.0–17.3 cm)

Eva C. Enders; Keith D. Clarke; Curtis J. Pennell; L. M. Neil Ollerhead; David A. Scruton

152

Comparison between PIT and radio telemetry to evaluate winter habitat use and activity patterns of juvenile Atlantic salmon and brown trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter habitat use and activity patterns of juvenile Atlantic salmon and brown trout were analysed in a comparative study\\u000a between Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) technology, radio telemetry and underwater observation by snorkelling. Two study\\u000a periods were conducted in Stoney River, Newfoundland, Canada. During Study period I, 49 juvenile Atlantic salmon (fork length:\\u000a 11.0–18.0 cm) and 7 brown trout (11.0–17.3 cm)

Eva C. Enders; Keith D. Clarke; Curtis J. Pennell; L. M. Neil Ollerhead; David A. Scruton

2007-01-01

153

14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach from the south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

154

23. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing upwest side. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up-west side. Looking at structural connection of top chord, vertical laced channel and diagonal bars. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

155

13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where strioed traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

156

24. View of one of the plaques from Clark Fork ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. View of one of the plaques from Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge. Presently located at the Bonner County Historical Museum in Sandpoint, Idaho. A plaque was attached at each end of the bridge. Only one remains. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

157

Salmon Population Depleted  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon populations face several serious threats, including pollution, habitat destruction, overfishing, and climate change. In this publication, the reason for the downward spiral of salmon populations is discussed. This video segment features Elders discussing the decline in the local population of salmon, which are at the heart of the cultural identity of the Native American Lummi Nation of Washington State. Fish were very abundant a few decades ago, but now even the fishermen have to buy fish. The background essay explains the many threats that the salmon population faces. There is also a brief description of the salmon lifecycle. The four discussion questions asks the reasons why the salmon population is depleting, and what people can do to help. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

158

Calibration of quartz tuning fork temperature sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results from investigations of thermal sensitivity, thermal response time and long-term stability of a newly miniaturized design of thermal sensitive quartz tuning fork resonator working at flexural mode with ZY-cut at fundamental frequency of 32 kHz. Special attention is given to the methodology and equipment for calibration of quartz tuning fork temperature sensor. To obtain accuracy

Jun Xu; Bo You; Hong-jun Wang; Jing Ma

2008-01-01

159

10. A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE FIRST PIER ON THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE FIRST PIER ON THE EAST END OF THE BRIDGE (NORTH ELEVATION). IT SUPPORTS A SOLID, SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH. CONSIDERABLE SOIL HAS WASHED IN UNDER THE BRIDGE FROM THE BANKS OF THE RAVINE. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Richmond, Wayne County, IN

160

Protandry in Pacific salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protandry, the earlier arrival of males to the spawning grounds than females, has been reported in several studies of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, the reasons for protandry in salmon are poorly understood and little is known about how protandry varies among and within populations. In this study, protandry was quantified in a total of 105 years using gender-specific timing

Yolanda Morbey

2000-01-01

161

Saving the Salmon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public…

Sprangers, Donald

2004-01-01

162

Salmon's Atlantic struggle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of acid rain and overexploitation is seriously reducing the population numbers of Atlantic salmon. Efforts have been made to restore salmon populations in tributaries of the ocean. These programs have been successful, but more work is needed to ensure that catches satisfy global demands. Acid rain must be controlled at its source, primarily industrial emissions of sulfur dioxide,

Deis

1981-01-01

163

The Russian salmon fishery: Alaska's next big threat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent breakup of the Soviet Union has brought hope and opportunity to many Americans. It has also brought the possibility of new competition to some US agricultural and resource-based industries. Recent concern in the western regions of the United States and Canada has centered on the increased possibility of salmon exports from the Russia Far East to traditional Western

Joshua A. Greenberg; Mark Herrman; Terry Johnson; Andrei Streletsky

1994-01-01

164

15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO SETTLING BASIN, SNOWING RIGHT FORK WITH GATE IN PLACE AND A FEW NEEDLES IN PLACE - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

165

Dynamic behaviour of tuning fork shear-force feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of a tuning fork shear-force feedback system, used in a near-field scanning optical microscope, have been investigated, Experiments, measuring amplitude and phase of the tuning fork oscillation as a function of driving frequency and tip-sample distance, reveal that the resonance frequency of the tuning fork changes upon approaching the sample. Either amplitude or phase of the tuning fork

A. G. T. Ruiter; J. A. Veerman; Werf van der K. O; Hulst van N. F

1997-01-01

166

Dynamic behavior of tuning fork shear-force feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of a tuning fork shear-force feedback system, used in a near-field scanning optical microscope, have been investigated. Experiments, measuring amplitude and phase of the tuning fork oscillation as a function of driving frequency and tip-sample distance, reveal that the resonance frequency of the tuning fork changes upon approaching the sample. Either amplitude or phase of the tuning fork

A. G. T. Ruiter; J. A. Veerman; K. O. van der Werf; N. F. van Hulst

1997-01-01

167

33 CFR 117.1063 - Willapa River South Fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Willapa River South Fork. 117.1063 Section 117.1063...Washington § 117.1063 Willapa River South Fork. (a) The draw of the Washington...Recreation Commission bridge across the South Fork Willapa River, mile 0.3,...

2013-07-01

168

Salmon's Atlantic struggle  

SciTech Connect

The combination of acid rain and overexploitation is seriously reducing the population numbers of Atlantic salmon. Efforts have been made to restore salmon populations in tributaries of the ocean. These programs have been successful, but more work is needed to ensure that catches satisfy global demands. Acid rain must be controlled at its source, primarily industrial emissions of sulfur dioxide, and fishing quotas should be implemented. (13 photos)

Deis, R.

1981-02-01

169

Development of the Pintle Release Fork Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

An improved method of attachment of the pintle to the piston in the universal sampler is being developed. The mechanism utilizes a forked release disk which captures two balls in a cavity formed by a hole in the piston and a groove in the pintle rod.

BOGER, R.M.; DALE, R.

1999-08-27

170

Salmon lice--impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture.  

PubMed

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-13

171

PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

172

Salmon lice - impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion.

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-01

173

Selective Breeding of Chinook Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective breeding of plants and animals has been carried on for hundreds of years. Few attempts, however, have been made to breed salmon that have characteristics which would better fit the fish for the needs of modern salmon management. Experiments started in 1949 at the University of Washington to develop a selected stock of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have shown

Lauren R. Donaldson; Deb Menasveta

1961-01-01

174

Bull Trout Population and Habitat Surveys in the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

Bull trout in the Willamette River Basin were historically distributed throughout major tributaries including the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie rivers. Habitat degradation, over-harvest, passage barriers, fish removal by rotenone, and hybridization and competition with non-native brook trout are all likely factors that have led to the decline of bull trout in the Willamette Basin (Ratliff and Howell 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act in 1998. Four bull trout populations were isolated in the upper Willamette River following the construction of flood control dams on the South Fork McKenzie River, McKenzie River, and Middle Fork Willamette River that created Cougar, Trail Bridge, and Hills Creek reservoirs. Buchanan et al. (1997) described the population in the main stem McKenzie as 'of special concern', the South Fork McKenzie population as 'high risk of extinction', the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as 'high risk of extinction', and bull trout in the Middle Fork Willamette as 'probably extinct'. Various management efforts such as strict angling regulations and passage improvement projects have been implemented to stabilize and rehabilitate bull trout habitat and populations in the McKenzie River over the past 10 years. Since 1997, bull trout fry from Anderson Creek on the upper McKenzie River have been transferred to the Middle Fork Willamette basin above Hills Creek Reservoir in an attempt to re-establish a reproducing bull trout population. This project was developed in response to concerns over the population status and management of bull trout in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife during the early 1990s. The project was conducted under measure 9.3G(2) of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor the status, life history, habitat needs, and limiting factors for bull trout within sub basins of the Columbia River. Also, this project provides information to develop native fish recovery plans such as the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Bull Trout Recovery Plan.

Seals, Jason; Reis, Kelly

2003-10-01

175

Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations  

PubMed Central

Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability.

Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

2010-01-01

176

Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

2002-01-01

177

Unusual Esophageal Foreign Body: A Table Fork  

PubMed Central

The presence of an esophageal foreign body (EFB) is a medical emergency requiring urgent evaluation and treatment. Swallowing of foreign bodies is most common in children aged between 6 months and 6 years, in whom it usually occurs during games. In adults, foreign bodies tend to be ingested accidentally together with food. The authors report an unusual case of EFB (a table fork) in an adult and briefly report the clinical presentation and the therapeutic procedures adopted in this case and similar cases.

Mevio, Emilio; Mevio, Niccolo

2013-01-01

178

The Moray Firth Seal Management Plan: an adaptive framework for balancing the conservation of seals, salmon, fisheries and wildlife tourism in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Moray Firth, north-east Scotland, there is a history of conflict between seals and salmon fisheries. Under the UK's Conservation of Seals Act 1970 (CoSA) seals are shot to protect fisheries. In 1999 six rivers in the Moray Firth were designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) for Atlantic salmon under the EU Habitats Directive, and in 2000 an

JAMES R. A. BUTLERa; STUART J. MIDDLEMASb; SIMON A. MCKELVEYc; Iain McMyn; Ben Leyshon; Ian Walker; Paul M. Thompson; Ian L. Boyd; Callan Duck; John D. Armstrong; Isla M. Graham; John M. Baxter

2008-01-01

179

The forked flap repair for hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The “Forked-Flap” repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip–flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit's prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

Chadha, Anil; Singh, Amitabh

2012-01-01

180

Direct observation of stalled fork restart via fork regression in the T4 replication system.  

PubMed

The restart of a stalled replication fork is a major challenge for DNA replication. Depending on the nature of the damage, different repair processes might be triggered; one is template switching, which is a bypass of a leading-strand lesion via fork regression. Using magnetic tweezers to study the T4 bacteriophage enzymes, we have reproduced in vitro the complete process of template switching. We show that the UvsW DNA helicase in cooperation with the T4 holoenzyme can overcome leading-strand lesion damage by a pseudostochastic process, periodically forming and migrating a four-way Holliday junction. The initiation of the repair process requires partial replisome disassembly via the departure of the replicative helicase. The results support the role of fork regression pathways in DNA repair. PMID:23197534

Manosas, Maria; Perumal, Senthil K; Croquette, Vincent; Benkovic, Stephen J

2012-11-30

181

Impacts of multispecies parasitism on juvenile Oregon coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We are studying the impacts of parasites on threatened stocks of Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In our previous studies, we have found high infections of digeneans and myxozoans in coho salmon parr from the lower main stem of West Fork Smith River (WFSR), Oregon. In contrast parr from tributaries of this river, and outmigrating smolts, harbor considerably less parasites. Thus, we have hypothesized that heavy parasite burdens in parr from this river are associated with poor overwintering survival. The objective of the current study was to ascertain the possible effects these parasites have on smolt fitness. We captured parr from the lower main stem and tributaries of WFSR and held them in the laboratory to evaluate performance endpoints of smolts with varying degrees of infection by three digeneans (Nanophyetus salmincola, Apophallus sp., and neascus) and one myxozoan (Myxobolus insidiosus). The parameters we assessed were weight, fork length, growth, swimming stamina, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. We repeated our study on the subsequent year class and with hatchery reared coho salmon experimentally infected with N. salmincola. The most significant associations between parasites and these performance or fitness endpoints were observed in the heavily infected groups from both years. We found that all parasite species, except neascus, were negatively associated with fish fitness. This was corroborated for N. salmincola causing reduced growth with our experimental infection study. Parasites were most negatively associated with growth and size, and these parameters likely influenced the secondary findings with swimming stamina and ATPase activity levels.

Ferguson, Jayde A.; Romer, Jeremy; Sifneos, Jean C.; Madsen, Lisa; Schreck, Carl B.; Glynn, Michael; Kent, Michael L.

2011-01-01

182

Design of an advanced fork system for assembly burnup measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Advanced Fork System has been designed to add gamma-ray collimation and spectroscopy capability to the Fork measurement system, which has been used for burnup verification at pressurized water reactors (PWR). The Advanced Fork System measures the neutron and gamma-ray yields and the energy spectnum of gamma-rays from spent fuel assemblies. A cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) crystal permits the identification of the

R. I. Ewing; K. D. Seager

1996-01-01

183

Pink and Chum Salmon Prediction Studies, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue consists of the following reports: Puget Sound Pink Salmon forecast for 1971, hydraulic sampling technique; Puget Sound Chum Salmon forecast for 1972, hydraulic sampling technique; Puget Sound Pink Salmon forecast for 1971, juvenile abusdance te...

R. C. Johnson D. W. Heiser R. J. Gerke S. B. Mathews

1972-01-01

184

Rescue of arrested replication forks by homologous recombination  

PubMed Central

DNA synthesis is an accurate and very processive phenomenon; nevertheless, replication fork progression on chromosomes can be impeded by DNA lesions, DNA secondary structures, or DNA-bound proteins. Elements interfering with the progression of replication forks have been reported to induce rearrangements and/or render homologous recombination essential for viability, in all organisms from bacteria to human. Arrested replication forks may be the target of nucleases, thereby providing a substrate for double-strand break repair enzyme. For example in bacteria, direct fork breakage was proposed to occur at replication forks blocked by a bona fide replication terminator sequence, a specific site that arrests bacterial chromosome replication. Alternatively, an arrested replication fork may be transformed into a recombination substrate by reversal of the forked structures. In reversed forks, the last duplicated portions of the template strands reanneal, allowing the newly synthesized strands to pair. In bacteria, this reaction was proposed to occur in replication mutants, in which fork arrest is caused by a defect in a replication protein, and in UV irradiated cells. Recent studies suggest that it may also occur in eukaryote organisms. We will review here observations that link replication hindrance with DNA rearrangements and the possible underlying molecular processes.

Michel, Benedicte; Flores, Maria-Jose; Viguera, Enrique; Grompone, Gianfranco; Seigneur, Marie; Bidnenko, Vladimir

2001-01-01

185

Cultivation of Salmon Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HOPE we may assume, from the paragraph which appears among the ``Notes'' in your issue of last Thursday (p. 129), that the Fishery Board for Scotland is about to take some active course towards the removal of obstructions to the ascent of salmon up Scottish rivers. When you say the Board ``is specially desirous to introduce as soon as

Mark Heron

1884-01-01

186

Saving Coho Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how they’re looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call “the vortex of extinction.

Kqed

2012-08-08

187

Ocean Salmon Fishery Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

California ocean salmon fisheries are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) under the federal Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. This chapter describes the ocean fisheries impacting California Central Valley (CV) chinook stocks, the federal regulatory process that is followed in managing these ocean fisheries, and discusses alternative management mea- sures for protecting valuable natural resources. The CV

L. B. Boydstun

188

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

2003-05-01

189

Oblique perspective, due east by 70 degrees. Note concrete pier, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique perspective, due east by 70 degrees. Note concrete pier, added CA. 1930's. Other piers and abutments are heavily mortared rubble stone. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

190

Unusual esophageal foreign body: a table fork.  

PubMed

The presence of an esophageal foreign body (EFB) is a medical emergency requiring urgent evaluation and treatment. Swallowing of foreign bodies is most common in children aged between 6 months and 6 years, in whom it usually occurs during games. In adults, foreign bodies tend to be ingested accidentally together with food. The authors report an unusual case of EFB (a table fork) in an adult and briefly report the clinical presentation and the therapeutic procedures adopted in this case and similar cases. PMID:23634316

Mevio, Emilio; Mevio, Niccolò

2013-03-24

191

The Fight Over Pacific Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

192

33 CFR 117.315 - New River, South Fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New River, South Fork. 117.315 Section 117.315 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Florida § 117.315 New River, South Fork. (a) The draw of the Davie Boulevard...

2013-07-01

193

Design of a tuning-fork gyro made of quartz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on piezoelectric effect of quartz, a design of tuning- fork gyroscopes made of quartz was presented in this paper. The gyroscope is a kind of micro-machined quartz angular rate sensor. Its structure is similar to a tuning fork in quartz watch. In the gyroscope, the piezoelectric effect in quartz is used both to excite a reference vibration in the

Yubin Jia; Yunan Sun; Bingkun Qin; Fang Cui; Gang Chen

1998-01-01

194

Fracture analysis of forks of a heavy duty lift truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture of the two forks of a heavy duty lift truck in operation at a harbour is described and discussed. The failure analysis included: mechanical tests for characterisation of the material, including tensile and Charpy tests; the study of a previous repair by welding carried out in one of the forks and the identification of consequential weld defects; the

M. V Figueiredo; F. M. F Oliveira; J. P. M Gonçalves; P. M. S. T de Castro; A. A Fernandes

2001-01-01

195

The Fork+ burnup measurement system: Design and first measurement campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work with the original Fork detector showed that burnup as determined by reactor records could be accurately allocated to spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The original Fork detector, designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, used an ion chamber to measure gross gamma count and a fission chamber to measure neutrons from an activation source, ²⁴⁴Cm. In its review of the

C. E. Olson; D. R. Bronowski; W. McMurtry; R. Ewing; R. Jordan; D. Rivard

1998-01-01

196

Design of a tuning-fork gyro made of quartz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on piezoelectric effect of quartz, a design of tuning- fork gyroscopes made of quartz was presented in this paper. The gyroscope is a kind of micro-machined quartz angular rate sensor. Its structure is similar to a tuning fork in quartz watch. In the gyroscope, the piezoelectric effect in quartz is used both to excite a reference vibration in the plane of tuning fork and to detect a vibration normal to this plane due to an externally applied rotation. The amplitude of the second vibration is directly proportional to the angular velocity of the applied rotation. In contrast to ordinary types of tuning fork gyroscopes, this gyroscope uses a single piece of quartz, the sensor element is of a design in which the only vibrationally, active areas are the tines of the tuning fork.

Jia, Yubin; Sun, Yunan; Qin, Bingkun; Cui, Fang; Chen, Gang

1998-08-01

197

Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the efficacy of using an acoustic camera to count adult migrant Chinook salmon as they make their way to the spawning grounds on the Secesh River and Lake Creek. A phased approach to applying the acoustic camera was proposed, starting with testing and evaluation in spring 2003, followed by a full implementation in 2004 and 2005. The goal of this effort is to better assess the early run components when water clarity and night visibility preclude the use of optical techniques. A single acoustic camera was used to test the technology for enumerating adult salmon passage at the Secesh River. The acoustic camera was deployed on the Secesh at a site engineered with an artificial substrate to control the river bottom morphometry and the passage channel. The primary goal of the analysis for this first year of deployment was to validate counts of migrant salmon. The validation plan involved covering the area with optical video cameras so that both optical and acoustic camera images of the same viewing region could be acquired simultaneously. A secondary test was contrived after the fish passage was complete using a controlled setting at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, in which we tested the detectability as a function of turbidity levels. Optical and acoustic camera multiplexed video recordings of adult Chinook salmon were made at the Secesh River fish counting station from August 20 through August 29, 2003. The acoustic camera performed as well as or better than the optical camera at detecting adult Chinook salmon over the 10-day test period. However, the acoustic camera was not perfect; the data reflected adult Chinook salmon detections made by the optical camera that were missed by the acoustic camera. The conditions for counting using the optical camera were near ideal, with shallow clear water and good light penetration. The relative performance of the acoustic camera is expected to be even better than the optical camera in early spring when water clarity and light penetration are limited. Results of the laboratory tests at the Pacific North

Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

2004-01-01

198

Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aquaculture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored. PMID:14575369

Rolland, J B; Winton, J R

2003-09-01

199

SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

200

Variability in scale growth rates of chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) in relation to climate changes in the late 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish scales were used to investigate the interannual variability in chum salmon growth rates at specific ages in relation to climatic\\/environmental changes during the 1980s–1990s. Scales were obtained from adult salmon returning to the east coast of Korea between 1984 and 1998. Assuming proportionality between scale size increments and fish length, distances between scale annuli were regarded as the growth

Hyunju Seo; Suam Kim; Kibeik Seong; Sukyung Kang

2006-01-01

201

MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL  

EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

202

25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. The ARU130HK50 battery charger is visible in left foreground of photograph, with the A-40 backup battery charger visible adjacent to and beyond the ARU130HK50. The racks of 60 KCU-7 lead calcium batteries manufactured by C&D Batteries are visible in the center of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

203

76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the State of Idaho. Lemhi County's Wildfire Prevention Plan has designated the North...for large-scale, high-intensity wildfires that threaten human life, property...from uncharacteristic high-intensity wildfires and landscape restoration needs in...

2011-08-03

204

Estimating Post-Wildfire Catchment Sediment Budgets, South Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is an important agent of hydrological, biological and geomorphological change in Idaho forests. Vegetation mortality, loss of root strength, and increased soil hydrophobicity contribute to increase post-fire hillslope erosion rates. Over longer time scales, warmer, drier periods are linked to more frequent forest fires, which in turn helps to drive long-term sediment flux. Increasing annual temperature and drought occurrence

L. M. Perreault; E. M. Yager; R. E. Aalto

2009-01-01

205

77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EEZ in the Gulf of Alaska east of Cape Suckling (143[deg]53.6' West Longitude...off the coast of Alaska west of Cape Suckling. The FMP manages commercial salmon...vast majority of the EEZ west of Cape Suckling and would maintain the prohibition...

2012-04-11

206

77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EEZ in the Gulf of Alaska east of Cape Suckling (143[deg]53.6'' West Longitude...off the coast of Alaska west of Cape Suckling. The FMP manages commercial salmon...vast majority of the EEZ west of Cape Suckling and would maintain the prohibition...

2012-04-02

207

Replication fork barriers in the Xenopus rDNA.  

PubMed

To investigate replication fork progression along the tandemly repeated rRNA genes of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis, rDNA replication intermediates from dividing tissue culture cells were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the direction of replication in the rRNA coding regions revealed replication forks moving in both directions. However, in both frog species, polar replication fork barriers (RFB) arresting forks approaching the rRNA transcription units from downstream were identified. Whereas in X. borealis the RFB maps to a defined site close to the transcription terminator, in X. laevis the arrest of fork movement can occur at multiple positions throughout a 3' flanking repetitive spacer region. A short DNA element located near the respective RFB sites is shared between these two related frog species, suggesting its possible involvement in the arrest of replication fork movement. In a subset of rDNA repeats, these barriers cause an absolute block to replication fork progression, defining the sites where replicon fusion occurs, whereas in the remainder repeats, most probably in the non-transcribed gene copies, the replication machinery can pass the RFB sequences and replicate the rRNA transcription unit in a 3'-to-5' direction. PMID:7800497

Wiesendanger, B; Lucchini, R; Koller, T; Sogo, J M

1994-11-25

208

ATR phosphorylates SMARCAL1 to prevent replication fork collapse.  

PubMed

The DNA damage response kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) coordinates much of the cellular response to replication stress. The exact mechanisms by which ATR regulates DNA synthesis in conditions of replication stress are largely unknown, but this activity is critical for the viability and proliferation of cancer cells, making ATR a potential therapeutic target. Here we use selective ATR inhibitors to demonstrate that acute inhibition of ATR kinase activity yields rapid cell lethality, disrupts the timing of replication initiation, slows replication elongation, and induces fork collapse. We define the mechanism of this fork collapse, which includes SLX4-dependent cleavage yielding double-strand breaks and CtIP-dependent resection generating excess single-stranded template and nascent DNA strands. Our data suggest that the DNA substrates of these nucleases are generated at least in part by the SMARCAL1 DNA translocase. Properly regulated SMARCAL1 promotes stalled fork repair and restart; however, unregulated SMARCAL1 contributes to fork collapse when ATR is inactivated in both mammalian and Xenopus systems. ATR phosphorylates SMARCAL1 on S652, thereby limiting its fork regression activities and preventing aberrant fork processing. Thus, phosphorylation of SMARCAL1 is one mechanism by which ATR prevents fork collapse, promotes the completion of DNA replication, and maintains genome integrity. PMID:23873943

Couch, Frank B; Bansbach, Carol E; Driscoll, Robert; Luzwick, Jessica W; Glick, Gloria G; Bétous, Rémy; Carroll, Clinton M; Jung, Sung Yun; Qin, Jun; Cimprich, Karlene A; Cortez, David

2013-07-15

209

The Fork+ burnup measurement system: Design and first measurement campaign  

SciTech Connect

Previous work with the original Fork detector showed that burnup as determined by reactor records could be accurately allocated to spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The original Fork detector, designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, used an ion chamber to measure gross gamma count and a fission chamber to measure neutrons from an activation source, {sup 244}Cm. In its review of the draft Topical Report on Burnup Credit, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission indicated it felt uncomfortable with a measurement system that depended on reactor records for calibration. The Fork+ system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute with the aim of providing this independent measurement capability. The initial Fork+ prototype was used in a measurement campaign at the Maine Yankee reactor. The campaign confirmed the applicability of the sensor approach in the Fork+ system and the efficiency of the hand-portable Fork+ prototype in making fuel assembly measurements. It also indicated potential design modifications that will be necessary before the Fork+ can be used effectively on high-burnup spent fuel.

Olson, C.E.; Bronowski, D.R.; McMurtry, W. [Sandia National Labs. (United States); Ewing, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (United States); Jordan, R.; Rivard, D. [Maine Yankee Atomic Power Co., Westboro, MA (United States)

1998-12-31

210

Cleavage of a model DNA replication fork by a Type I restriction endonuclease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cleavage of a DNA replication fork leads to fork restoration by recombination repair. In prokaryote cells carrying restriction-modification systems, fork passage reduces genome methylation by the modification enzyme and exposes the chromosome to attack by the restriction enzyme. Various obser- vations have suggested a relationship between the fork and Type I restriction enzymes, which cleave DNA at a distance from

Ken Ishikawa; N. Handa; Ichizo Kobayashi

2009-01-01

211

XRCC3 and Rad51 Modulate Replication Fork Progression on Damaged Vertebrate Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which the progression of eukaryotic replication forks is controlled after DNA damage are unclear. We have found that fork progression is slowed by cisplatin or UV treatment in intact vertebrate cells and in replication assays in vitro. Fork slowing is reduced or absent in irs1SF CHO cells and XRCC3?\\/? chicken DT40 cells, indicating that fork slowing is

Judith Henry-Mowatt; Dean Jackson; Jean-Yves Masson; Penny A Johnson; Paula M Clements; Fiona E Benson; Larry H Thompson; Shunichi Takeda; Stephen C West; Keith W Caldecott

2003-01-01

212

17. DETAIL VIEW OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE STIRRING FORK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL VIEW OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE STIRRING FORK THAT MIXED COFFEE BEANS AS THEY WERE HUSKED - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

213

Interfacial instability and DNA fork reversal by repair proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A repair protein like RecG moves the stalled replication fork in the direction from the zipped to the unzipped state of DNA. It is proposed here that a softening of the zipped-unzipped interface at the fork results in the front propagating towards the unzipped side. In this scenario, an ordinary helicase destabilizes the zipped state locally near the interface and the fork propagates towards the zipped side. The softening of the interface can be produced by the aromatic interaction, predicted from the crystal structure, between RecG and the nascent broken base pairs at the Y-fork. A numerical analysis of the model also reveals the possibility of a stop and go type motion.

Bhattacharjee, Somendra M.

2010-04-01

214

8. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING N. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

215

9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING W. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

216

Little Known Facts about the Common Tuning Fork.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the physical principles of the tuning fork which has a common use in teaching laboratories. Includes information on its vibration, frequency of vibration, elasticity, and reasons for having two prongs. (YDS)|

Ong, P. P.

2002-01-01

217

Spent-fuel verification with the Los Alamos fork detector  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos fork detector for the verification of spent-fuel assemblies has generated precise, reproducible data. The data analyses have now evolved to the point of placing tight restrictions on a diverter's actions.

Rinard, P.M.; Bosler, G.E.

1987-01-01

218

16 CFR 1512.13 - Requirements for front fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.13 Requirements for front fork...k)(1), without visible evidence of fracture. Sidewalk bicycles need not meet this...

2013-01-01

219

SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

220

Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.  

SciTech Connect

The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done in the Lochsa basin by IDFG. Fish were trucked from the hatcheries to outplant sites.

Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

2002-04-16

221

Infectious salmon anaemia virus.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a commercially important orthomyxovirus causing disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. The cumulative mortality in a net pen during an outbreak may vary from insignificant to more than 90%. The infection is spread by management activity such as well-boat traffic, but possibly also through contact with wild fish. In many of its aspects, including the structure of the virus particle and replication strategy, the ISAV is similar to the influenza viruses. Variations between ISAV and the influenza viruses can mostly be related to differences in the temperature at which replication occurs and the immune response of their respective host animals. ISAV shows both haemagglutinating and receptor-destroying activity. The variability of the ISAV haemagglutinin molecule is concentrated around a small domain close to the transmembrane region. The function of this variable region is unknown, but it may be related to a recent or ongoing crossing of a species barrier. Alignment studies based on genetic data indicate that the phylogenetic relationship to the influenza viruses is distant, and that ISAV therefore could possibly warrant a new genus within Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:12076262

Rimstad, Espen; Mjaaland, Siri

2002-04-01

222

Novel Distribution of Influenza Vaccine in Grand Forks, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISSUE: In 2001, only 56.2% of Grand Forks (GF) County residents >65 years of age received influenza vaccination (Medicare data).PROJECT: Vaccine availability, parking, appointments, waiting, and weather are barriers to influenza vaccination. For 2 years, the Greater Grand Forks Immunization Coalition has collaborated with its partners, including GF Public Health and Altru Health System, to sponsor Drive-Through Flu Shot Clinics.

K. Dunn

2004-01-01

223

Scanning Probe Microscopy of DNA with a Quartz Tuning Fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quartz tuning-forks have recently been put to use as highly sensitive force detectors in atomic force microscopy (AFM).(F.J.Giessibl et al.), Science 289, 422 (2000). In this study we have applied a home-built, tuning-fork based AFM to the investigation of single and double stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA). We operate the microscope in the non-contact mode (typical tip amplitude ~1 nm)

G. M. King; G. Nunes Jr.

2001-01-01

224

Developmentally Regulated Drosophila Gene Family Encoding the Fork Head Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated seven Drosophila genes by means of low-stringency hybridization to a DNA probe containing the coding sequence for the protein domain shared by the rodent hepatocyte-enriched nuclear transcription factor HNF3A(alpha) and the product of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene fork head (fkh). The previously unreported genes encode a 110-amino acid conserved sequence, which we call the fork head

Udo Hacker; Ueli Grossniklaus; Walter J. Gehring; Herbert Jackle

1992-01-01

225

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.

Wgbh; Domain, Teachers'

226

Stock Origins of Chinook Salmon in the Area of the Japanese Mothership Salmon Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The record catch of 704,000 chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by the Japanese mothership salmon fishery in 1980 intensified concern about the effect of high seas interceptions of salmon reared in North America. The goal of this study was to update and refine estimates of the relative proportions of Asian and North American chinook salmon stocks in the mothership fishery area

Katherine W. Myers; Colin K. Harris; Curtis M. Knudsen; Robert V. Walker; Nancy D. Davis; Donald E. Rogers

1987-01-01

227

John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1999-2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest populations of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the entire Columbia River basin. Spring chinook salmon in this basin are therefore, used as an important index stock to measure the effects of future management actions on other salmon stocks in the Columbia basin. To meet the data requirements as an index stock, we estimated annual spawner escapement, age-structure, and smolt-to-adult survival. This information will allow us to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. To estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates, 1,852 chinook smolts were tagged with PIT tags from 3 March to 5 May, 2000. Length of captured smolts varied, ranging from 80 to 147 mm fork length (mean = 113 mm). These fish will be monitored for PIT tags as returning adults at dams and during future spawning ground surveys. During spawning ground surveys, a total of 351.3 km of stream were surveyed resulting in the observation of 478 redds. When expanded, we estimated total number of redds at 481 and total number of spawners at 1,583 fish in the John Day River basin. We estimated that 13% of the redds were in the mainstem John Day, 27% in the Middle Fork, 34% in the North Fork, and 26% were in the Granite Creek basin. Sampled carcasses had a sex ratio comprised of 53% females and 47% males with an age structure comprised of 0.5% age-2, 6.3% age-3, 88.7% age-4, and 4.5% age-5 fish. Five of the 405 carcasses examined had fin clips suggesting they were of hatchery origin. The 1999 index redd count total for the North Fork, Mainstem, and Granite Creek was lower than the 1999 average (535) but well within the range of annual redd counts during this period. The index redd count for the Middle Fork was higher than the 1990's average (92) but considerably lower than the average from 1978-1985 (401). Although quite variable over the past 40 years, the number of redds in the John Day River basin during 1999 was well within the range of redd counts since they were initiated in 1959.

Ruzycki, James R.; Wilson, Wayne H.; Carmichael, Richard W.

2002-01-01

228

Magnitude and Trends in Abundance of Hatchery and Wild Pink Salmon, Chum Salmon, and Sockeye Salmon in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance estimates of wild and hatchery Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. are important for evaluation of stock status and density-dependent interactions at sea. We assembled available salmon catch and spawning abundance data for both Asia and North America and reconstructed total abundances of pink salmon O. gorbuscha, chum salmon O. keta, and sockeye salmon O. nerka during 1952–2005. Abundance trends were

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Randall M. Peterman; Brigitte Dorner; Katherine W. Myers

2010-01-01

229

RMI1 promotes DNA replication fork progression and recovery from replication fork stress.  

PubMed

RMI1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved complex composed of BLM and topoisomerase III? (TopoIII?). This complex exhibits strand passage activity in vitro, which is likely important for DNA repair and DNA replication in vivo. The inactivation of RMI1 causes genome instability, including elevated levels of sister chromatid exchange and accelerated tumorigenesis. Using molecular combing to analyze DNA replication at the single-molecule level, we show that RMI1 is required to promote normal replication fork progression. The fork progression defect in RMI1-depleted cells is alleviated in cells lacking BLM, indicating that RMI1 functions downstream of BLM in promoting replication elongation. RMI1 localizes to subnuclear foci with BLM and TopoIII? in response to replication stress. The proper localization of the complex requires a BLM-TopoIII?-RMI1 interaction and is essential for RMI1 to promote recovery from replication stress. These findings reveal direct roles of RMI1 in DNA replication and the replication stress response, which could explain the molecular basis for its involvement in suppressing sister chromatid exchange and tumorigenesis. PMID:22645306

Yang, Jay; O'Donnell, Lara; Durocher, Daniel; Brown, Grant W

2012-05-29

230

Potential for Salmon Aquaculture in Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference on salmon aquaculture and the Alaskan fishing community addresses a broad spectrum of technical and social issues which relate to artificial recruitment of salmon and ocean ranching. This report discusses the number of spawners required for...

W. J. McNeil

1976-01-01

231

Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation. These fish continued rearing in the outdoor collection basin until release in March 2006. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 12,056 of the smolts released were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 90,450 smolts were released directly into Johnson Creek on March 13 through 15, 2006.

Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

2009-02-19

232

Japan's Salmon Supply, 1974-83.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan's salmon supply has more than doubled during the decade from 1974 to 1983, and hatchery-produced salmon are contributing an increasingly larger portion of the salmon consumed in Japan. The Japan Fisheries Agency estimated that hatchery-produced salm...

A. G. Herrfurth

1984-01-01

233

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

US DOE

1999-01-01

234

Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

US DOE

1999-01-01

235

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

236

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

237

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

USDOE NV

1999-01-01

238

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

US DOE

1999-01-01

239

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

US DOE

1999-01-01

240

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

241

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

242

More forks on the road to replication stress recovery  

PubMed Central

High-fidelity replication of DNA, and its accurate segregation to daughter cells, is critical for maintaining genome stability and suppressing cancer. DNA replication forks are stalled by many DNA lesions, activating checkpoint proteins that stabilize stalled forks. Stalled forks may eventually collapse, producing a broken DNA end. Fork restart is typically mediated by proteins initially identified by their roles in homologous recombination repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In recent years, several proteins involved in DSB repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) have been implicated in the replication stress response, including DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA Ligase IV-XRCC4, Artemis, XLF and Metnase. It is currently unclear whether NHEJ proteins are involved in the replication stress response through indirect (signaling) roles, and/or direct roles involving DNA end joining. Additional complexity in the replication stress response centers around RPA, which undergoes significant post-translational modification after stress, and RAD52, a conserved HR protein whose role in DSB repair may have shifted to another protein in higher eukaryotes, such as BRCA2, but retained its role in fork restart. Most cancer therapeutic strategies create DNA replication stress. Thus, it is imperative to gain a better understanding of replication stress response proteins and pathways to improve cancer therapy.

Allen, Chris; Ashley, Amanda K.; Hromas, Robert; Nickoloff, Jac A.

2011-01-01

243

Red Fork sandstone of Oklahoma: depositional history and reservoir distribution  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian Red Fork sandstone formed as a result of progradation across eastern Kansas and most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork is one of several transgressive-regressive sequences (cyclothems) developed within the Desmoinesian Cherokee Group. Sea level changes, together with varying subsidence, were dominant factors controlling the general stratigraphic (correlative) characteristics of the Red Fork interval. Progradation was episodic, with sand deposition in the more active part of the basin during lower sea level stands and valley-fill deposition in the more stable areas during sea level rises. A map of Red Fork sand trends reveals an alluvial-deltaic complex covering most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork consists primarily of alluvial-valley and plain (fluvial) bodies in the northernmost part of northeastern Oklahoma, alluvial-deltaic bodies in most of the remaining parts of the shelf area, and off-shelf submarine-fan and slope basinal-floor complexes within the deeper part of the Anadarko basin. Determination of reservoir trend and genesis requires integration of rock and log data. Logs need to be calibrated to cores in order to estimate depositional environments accurately and to make a reasonable assessment of diagenetic overprints. Much of the oil and gas has been trapped in stratigraphic traps, and a significant amount of oil is in channel sandstones with trends at high angles to the structural grain. In some areas, secondary clay, in particular chloritic clay, has resulted in microporosity, high water saturation, and correspondingly low resistivities in oil reserves.

Shelton, J.W.; Fritz, R.D.; Johnson, C.

1989-03-01

244

East Timor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News examines the escalation of violence and the proposal for autonomy in the Indonesian province of East Timor. Last weekend, anti-independence militiamen killed dozens of separatist activists in Dili, the East Timorese capital, intensifying the fierce bloodshed and political tumult in the province. The recent massacre is just one of several brutal episodes that have plagued East Timor in the past quarter-century. The people of the embattled island have suffered numerous human rights violations, have endured economic collapse, and have been decimated by guerrilla warfare, famine, and disease. Over 200,000 East Timorese -- or nearly one-fourth of the population -- have died in the troubles, which began in 1975 when Portugal abruptly abandoned East Timor after 400 years of colonial rule. Unstable and vulnerable, the newly independent East Timor was quickly invaded, occupied, and annexed in 1976 by Indonesia, a stronger nation that quashed all subsequent separatist movements. Last January, after years of political oppression, Indonesia's parliament finally succumbed to international pressure and announced that it would grant East Timor either full independence or autonomy within the Indonesian state. The United Nations, although it has never officially recognized Indonesia's sovereignty over East Timor, plans to supervise a vote, tentatively scheduled for July, wherein the East Timorese will determine whether they want full independence or provincial autonomy. Later this week, Foreign Ministers Ali Alatas of Indonesia and Jaime Gama of Portugal are meeting in New York with UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan to discuss the East Timorese autonomy option and plan for the pending UN-monitored poll. However, the recent resurgence of violence between anti- and pro-independence factions in and around Dili threatens the viability of the proposed poll and endangers the stability of East Timor's self-determination. The nine resources discussed offer background information, the latest news, political analysis, and social commentary.

Osmond, Andrew.

1999-01-01

245

Review of Potential Impacts of Atlantic Salmon Culture on Puget Sound Chinook Salmon and Hood Canal Summer-Run Chum Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document examines the potential of Atlantic salmon farming in Puget Sound to impose adverse impacts on the Puget Sound chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Hood Canal summer-run chum salmon (O. keta) evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), ...

2002-01-01

246

The Replication Checkpoint Protects Fork Stability by Releasing Transcribed Genes from Nuclear Pores  

PubMed Central

Summary Transcription hinders replication fork progression and stability, and the Mec1/ATR checkpoint protects fork integrity. Examining checkpoint-dependent mechanisms controlling fork stability, we find that fork reversal and dormant origin firing due to checkpoint defects are rescued in checkpoint mutants lacking THO, TREX-2, or inner-basket nucleoporins. Gene gating tethers transcribed genes to the nuclear periphery and is counteracted by checkpoint kinases through phosphorylation of nucleoporins such as Mlp1. Checkpoint mutants fail to detach transcribed genes from nuclear pores, thus generating topological impediments for incoming forks. Releasing this topological complexity by introducing a double-strand break between a fork and a transcribed unit prevents fork collapse. Mlp1 mutants mimicking constitutive checkpoint-dependent phosphorylation also alleviate checkpoint defects. We propose that the checkpoint assists fork progression and stability at transcribed genes by phosphorylating key nucleoporins and counteracting gene gating, thus neutralizing the topological tension generated at nuclear pore gated genes.

Bermejo, Rodrigo; Capra, Thelma; Jossen, Rachel; Colosio, Arianna; Frattini, Camilla; Carotenuto, Walter; Cocito, Andrea; Doksani, Ylli; Klein, Hannah; Gomez-Gonzalez, Belen; Aguilera, Andres; Katou, Yuki; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Foiani, Marco

2011-01-01

247

South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program: Final Environmental Impact Statement (FONSI).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In cooperation with MFWP, BPA is proposing to implement a conservation program to preserve the genetic purity of the westslope cutthroat trout populations in the South Fork of the Flathead River drainage. The South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthr...

2005-01-01

248

Environmental Impact Study of the Elm Fork Region of the Trinity River.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flood-control plan encompassing levee construction and channelization along the Elm Fork of the Trinity River from Lewisville Dam to the confluence with the West Fork would result in the destruction of archeological sites, paleontological sites, deterio...

T. R. Hays T. R. Hellier T. E. Kennerly

1972-01-01

249

16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig...SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512âBicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test...

2009-01-01

250

16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig...SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512âBicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test...

2013-01-01

251

A multi-fork z-axis quartz micromachined gyroscope.  

PubMed

A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s. PMID:24048339

Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

2013-09-17

252

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation of Replication Factors Moving with the Replication Fork  

PubMed Central

Summary Replication of chromosomes involves a variety of replication proteins including DNA polymerases, DNA helicases, and other accessory factors. Many of these proteins are known to localize at replication forks and travel with them as components of the replisome complex. Other proteins do not move with replication forks but still play an essential role in DNA replication. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms of DNA replication and its controls, it is important to examine localization of each replication factor. Here we describe a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) method to locate a replication factor at the replication fork. Defining the localization of replication proteins should provide important insight into mechanistic understanding of the regulation of the DNA replication process.

Rapp, Jordan B.; Ansbach, Alison B.; Noguchi, Chiaki; Noguchi, Eishi

2013-01-01

253

Temperature effects in tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Temperature dependent measurements with a compact fiber coupled sensor for trace gas detection in the near-infrared based on tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy are presented. The temperature effects on the sensor have been investigated in a range from T = -41°C to T = 107°C, in particular the influence on the resonance frequency and the Q-factor of the micro tuning fork. The refined sensor head contains a combination of a silicon tuning fork and an acoustic off-beam resonator and permits methane detection with a detection limit of S = (3.85 ± 0.01) ppm. The functional capability of a numerical model for the optimization of acoustic off-beam resonators in COMSOL Multiphysics® is presented. PMID:24103964

Köhring, M; Böttger, S; Willer, U; Schade, W

2013-09-01

254

Deoxyribonuclease from Salmon Testes  

PubMed Central

A procedure is described for the purification of salmon testis deoxyribonuclease II by means of acid extraction, fractional precipitation with ammonium sulfate, heat denaturation of extraneous proteins, and ethanol fractionation. This process separates the deoxyribonuclease activity from that of ribonuclease, phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, and protease. Over 50 per cent of the activity is retained with an over-all enrichment of 20,000-fold. The enzyme degrades both native and heat-denatured DNA, but the rate of degradation of the latter is only one-tenth that of the former. It does not hydrolyze apurinic acid. The enzyme is most stable in the pH range 4 to 5. Electrolytes are essential for the expression of its activity: monovalent ions satisfy the requirement, but divalent ones are much more effective. Above a certain optimum concentration, each electrolyte is inhibitory. The pH of maximal activity, under conditions of optimal ionic strength, is 4.8; the temperature optimum is near to 55°C.

McDonald, Margaret R.

1962-01-01

255

PRE-FORK SYNTHESIS: A MODEL FOR DNA REPLICATION*  

PubMed Central

A model of DNA replication is presented in which DNA synthesis is continuously initiated from parental strand nicks and occurs, with conservation of helix winding number, ahead of the so-called replicating fork. The fork in this model is the locus of unwinding of already replicated, but presumably unstable, DNA. The model, involving Okazaki's notion of multiple initiation, is based upon the properties of Kornberg's DNA polymerase and accounts for the presence of single-stranded nascent DNA fragments in cell lysates. In addition to acting as sites of initiation, the parental strand nicks are implicated as sites of free rotation allowing unwinding of the replicated DNA.

Haskell, Edwin H.; Davern, Cedric I.

1969-01-01

256

Spawning Habitat Segregation of Sympatric Sockeye and Pink Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatiotemporal distributions and microhabitat use of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and sockeye salmon O. nerka were studied in Lake Creek, southeast Alaska, during three spawning seasons. Sockeye salmon migrated approximately 1 week earlier than pink salmon and spawned 250–350 m upstream from pink salmon. Habitat overlap measured with proportional similarity index monotonically increased with increasing spawner densities. Multidimensional niche spaces

Michio Fukushima; William W. Smoker

1998-01-01

257

Characterization of the ATPase Activity of RecG and RuvAB Proteins on Model Fork Structures Reveals Insight into Stalled DNA Replication Fork Repair.  

PubMed

RecG and RuvAB are proposed to act at stalled DNA replication forks to facilitate replication restart. To clarify the roles of these proteins in fork regression, we used a coupled spectrophotometric ATPase assay to determine how these helicases act on two groups of model fork substrates: the first group mimics nascent stalled forks, whereas the second mimics regressed fork structures. The results show that RecG is active on the substrates in group 1, whereas these are poor substrates for RuvAB. In addition, in the presence of group 1 forks, the single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) enhances the activity of RecG and enables it to compete with excess RuvA. In contrast, SSB inhibits the activity of RuvAB on these substrates. Results also show that the preferred regressed fork substrate for RuvAB is a Holliday junction, not a forked DNA. The active form of the enzyme on the Holliday junction contains a single RuvA tetramer. In contrast, although the enzyme is active on a regressed fork structure, RuvB loading by a single RuvA tetramer is impaired, and full activity requires the cooperative binding of two forked DNA substrate molecules. Collectively, the data support a model where RecG is responsible for stalled DNA replication fork regression. SSB ensures that if the nascent fork has single-stranded DNA character RuvAB is inhibited, whereas the activity of RecG is preferentially enhanced. Only once the fork has been regressed and the DNA is relaxed can RuvAB bind to a RecG-extruded Holliday junction. PMID:23893472

Abd Wahab, Syafiq; Choi, Meerim; Bianco, Piero R

2013-07-27

258

A study of a quartz tuning fork as a force sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Force sensing cantilevers used for dynamic force microscopy (DFM) should have a high quality factor, stiffness, and resonant frequency. Quartz tuning forks (used in watches) satisfy these conditions well. Following the work of Giessibl [1], we are developing a force sensor based upon a quartz tuning fork. The displacement of the piezoelectric tuning fork is sensed using a Wein bridge

Dong Jun Kim; Clayton C. Williams

2002-01-01

259

Replication Terminator Protein-Based Replication Fork-Arrest Systems in Various Bacillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replication terminator protein (RTP) of Bacillus subtilis interacts with its cognate DNA terminators to cause replication fork arrest, thereby ensuring that the forks approaching one another at the conclusion of a round of replication meet within a restricted terminus region. A similar situation exists in Escherichia coli, but it appears that the fork-arrest systems in these two organisms have

A. A. GRIFFITHS; P. A. ANDERSEN; R. G. WAKE

1998-01-01

260

76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY AGENCY: National Park...South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY...SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public notice is hereby...South Fork National Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky,...

2011-06-20

261

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 2000: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 2000-2002.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon trapping, broodstock selection, and spawning was first implemented in 1998, did not occur in 1999, and was resumed in 2000. A total of 152 salmon were trapped in Johnson Creek in 2000, of which 73 (25 males, 16 females, and 32 jacks) fish were transported to Idaho Fish and Game=s South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility for artificial propagation purposes. The remaining 79 (29 males, 16 females, and 24 jacks) fish were released above the weir to spawn naturally. A total of 65,060 green eggs were taken from 16 female salmon and transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for incubation and rearing. Egg counts indicated an average eye-up rate of 86.0% for 55,971 eyed eggs. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,066 eggs per female. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery through November 2001. These fish were transferred to outdoor rearing facilities in December 2001 where they remained until release in March 2002. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 9,987 were also PIT tagged. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 57,392 smolts were released into a temporary acclimation channel in Johnson Creek on March 18, 19, 20, 2002. These fish were held in this facility until a fish screen was removed on March 22, 2002 and the fish were allowed to emigrate.

Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John; Hill, Robert

2003-05-01

262

Note: a transimpedance amplifier for remotely located quartz tuning forks.  

PubMed

The cable capacitance in cryogenic and high vacuum applications of quartz tuning forks imposes severe constraints on the bandwidth and noise performance of the measurement. We present a single stage low noise transimpedance amplifier with a bandwidth exceeding 1 MHz and provide an in-depth analysis of the dependence of the amplifier parameters on the cable capacitance. PMID:23278030

Kleinbaum, Ethan; Csáthy, Gábor A

2012-12-01

263

Secure Pre-forking - A Pattern for Performance and Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multi-tasking environment, the standard practices for performance improvement are pre-forking and resource pooling (11) of processes. However, if the processes in the resource pool have infinite life- time, a malicious attacker can utilize this feature by compromising one process and then using it to attack and compromise other processes. This paper presents a performance and security pattern for

Munawar Hafiz

264

First trimester diagnosis of forked cord in monoamniotic twin pregnancy.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old healthy woman at 10 weeks gestation was suspected for monoamniotic twin pregnancy, thus referred for evaluation and treatment. Ultrasound examination confirmed intrauterine monoamniotic twin gestation with central insertion of both umbilical cords by brief conjoined part (9 mm) - comprising a forked umbilical cord. Early diagnosis, planned prenatal care and close surveillance allowed preventing perinatal mortality. PMID:21959059

Frisch, L; Groisman, G; Hallak, M

2011-09-28

265

82. Laurel Fork Creek Bridge #2. Visitor's view of bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

82. Laurel Fork Creek Bridge #2. Visitor's view of bridge and its stone railings and wood guide rails which provide views of the stream below. Facing north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

266

LESSONS FROM GRAND FORKS :P LANNING NONSTRUCTURAL FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the flood of 1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota, did not take a single life, the people suffered enormous economic damage and such large intangible losses that the city considered itself damaged to the ''core.'' Losses were exacerbated by five surprises. People working to protect themselves as flood stages rose and then to salvage their possessions as waters

L. Douglas James; Scott F. Korom

267

Topological challenges to DNA replication: Conformations at the fork  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unwinding of the parental DNA duplex during replication causes a positive linking number difference, or superhelical strain, to build up around the elongating replication fork. The branching at the fork and this strain bring about different conformations from that of () supercoiled DNA that is not being replicated. The replicating DNA can form (+) precatenanes, in which the daughter DNAs are intertwined, and (+) supercoils. Topoisomerases have the essential role of relieving the superhelical strain by removing these structures. Stalled replication forks of molecules with a (+) superhelical strain have the additional option of regressing,forming a four-way junction at the replication fork. This four-way junction can be acted on by recombination enzymes to restart replication. Replication and chromosome folding are made easier by topological domain barriers, which sequester the substrates for topoisomerases into defined and concentrated regions. Domain barriers also allow replicated DNA to be (-) supercoiled. We discuss the importance of replicating DNA conformations and the roles of topoisomerases, focusing on recent work from our laboratory.

Postow, Lisa; Crisona, Nancy J.; Peter, Brian J.; Hardy, Christine D.; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R.

2001-07-01

268

27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the North Fork of Roanoke viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. Virginia, 7.5 minute series maps. They are: (1) McDonalds Mill Quadrangle, 1965; (2) Glenvar Quadrangle, 1965; (3) Elliston Quadrangle, 1965; (4) Ironto...

2010-04-01

269

27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the North Fork of Roanoke viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. Virginia, 7.5 minute series maps. They are: (1) McDonalds Mill Quadrangle, 1965; (2) Glenvar Quadrangle, 1965; (3) Elliston Quadrangle, 1965; (4) Ironto...

2013-04-01

270

27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the North Fork of Roanoke viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. Virginia, 7.5 minute series maps. They are: (1) McDonalds Mill Quadrangle, 1965; (2) Glenvar Quadrangle, 1965; (3) Elliston Quadrangle, 1965; (4) Ironto...

2009-04-01

271

Tuning fork filter design for hand scribe tuning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a design technique for high-performance planar filters. The technique provides tuning elements that enable filter tuning by hand scribing, and a parameter extraction based technique to determine what should be scribed. Each resonator has a tuning element, the tuning fork that provides shunt capacitance to ground and is coupled to the resonator by means of a series

Genichi Tsuzuki; Matthew P. Hernandez; Balam A. Willemsen

2005-01-01

272

Marine Growth and Morphometrics for Three Populations of Atlantic Salmon from Eastern Maine, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant differences in growth and prespawning body morphology were detected among three stocks of Atlantic salmon reared in a common marine environment. Smolts originating from river-specific broodstock of the Machias, East Machias, and Dennys populations were reared at two marine net-pen facilities for 25 months. Significant differences in stock-specific growth were observed among two stocks at both sites, suggesting a

Timothy F. Sheehan; John F. Kocik; Steven X. Cadrin; Christopher M. Legault; Ernest Atkinson; David Bengtson

2005-01-01

273

Contemporary Pacific Salmon Fisheries Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful salmon fisheries management requires effective data systems, advance planning, well-supported spawning escapement objectives, dependable population-size determinations and recognition of practical differences between recreational and commercial fisheries. Ocean fisheries must be managed to ensure an escapement from the ocean that will support viable inside fisheries as well as meet spawning requirements, while the key to commercial net fisheries management inside

Sam Wright

1981-01-01

274

Mechanism of DNA Replication in Drosophila Chromosomes: Structure of Replication Forks and Evidence for Bidirectionality  

PubMed Central

The replicating chromosomal DNA in Drosophila melanogaster cleavage nuclei has been visualized in the electron microscope as a serial array of closely spaced replicated regions created by pairs of diverging replication forks. The fine structure of the forks is very similar to that observed for the replication forks of bidirectionally replicating bacteriophage DNAs. However, the mean length of the single-stranded gaps in Drosophila forks is less than 200 nucleotide residues, much shorter than the gaps in phage forks. This difference in gap length corresponds to the observed difference in the size of Okazaki fragments from Drosophila and phage. Images

Kriegstein, Henry J.; Hogness, David S.

1974-01-01

275

PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

276

WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

277

Mechanisms of dissipation of an oscillating quartz tuning fork immersed in He II at high pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissipative processes that occur with immersing a vibrating tuning fork in superfluid helium are investigated. The tuning forks resonance width ?f of frequencies from 32 to 97 kHz was measured in the temperature range from 0.2 to 2.5 K and He II pressure from SVP to 24.9 atm. Some of the tuning forks were in the original can (closed tuning fork), and for some tuning forks the can was either completely or partially removed (opened fork). We found that for the open tuning forks two dissipation mechanisms are clearly revealed in the temperature dependence of ?f, namely, acoustic radiation and scattering of ballistic thermal excitations at low temperatures, and viscous friction at high temperatures. At low temperatures (below ~ 0.8 K) acoustic dissipation dominates, and the model of quadrupole oscillator for a tuning fork can be applied. We found that acoustic radiation for closed tuning forks is less effective and appears at lower temperatures. The first experimental data on dissipative processes in the quartz tuning fork-He II system at increased liquid pressures are obtained. It is shown that, for high frequency tuning forks the resonance bandwidth decreases with increasing pressure, i.e., with increasing wavelength of sound ?, according to the law ?-5. At low frequencies and low temperatures, with increasing mean free path of thermal excitations the resonance bandwidth is well described by the model of ballistic scattering.

Gritsenko, I. A.; Zadorozhko, A. A.; Sheshin, G. A.

2012-12-01

278

XRCC3 and Rad51 modulate replication fork progression on damaged vertebrate chromosomes.  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which the progression of eukaryotic replication forks is controlled after DNA damage are unclear. We have found that fork progression is slowed by cisplatin or UV treatment in intact vertebrate cells and in replication assays in vitro. Fork slowing is reduced or absent in irs1SF CHO cells and XRCC3(-/-) chicken DT40 cells, indicating that fork slowing is an active process that requires the homologous recombination protein XRCC3. The addition of purified human Rad51C-XRCC3 complex restores fork slowing in permeabilized XRCC3(-/-) cells. Moreover, the requirement for XRCC3 for fork slowing can be circumvented by addition of human Rad51. These data demonstrate that the recombination proteins XRCC3 and Rad51 cooperatively modulate the progression of replication forks on damaged vertebrate chromosomes. PMID:12718895

Henry-Mowatt, Judith; Jackson, Dean; Masson, Jean-Yves; Johnson, Penny A; Clements, Paula M; Benson, Fiona E; Thompson, Larry H; Takeda, Shunichi; West, Stephen C; Caldecott, Keith W

2003-04-01

279

Far East  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum activity throughout the Far East region was on the upswing during 1980. In spite of increased interest in many parts of the Far East, no major new discoveries were reported. From India to Indonesia, old fields are being rehabilitated and previously uneconomic areas are being looked at again. Indonesia set a new record in 1980 for the number of exploratory wells drilled. Peninsular Malaysia set a record for oil production. Overall, however, 1980 was a banner year for petroleum exploration in the Far East. Sri Lanka saw its first foreign contractor interest in several years. India made major moves toward increasing exploration by offering offshore and onshore blocks to foreign contractors . Bangladesh and even Burma signed exploitation contracts with Japanese investors in order to increase production. Malaysia offered new acreage blocks for the first time in several years. Indonesia and the Philippines also actively encouraged exploration by offering new contract areas. One country in the Far East that did not participate in the 1980 oil boom was China. Taiwan also carried on, as in previous years with the Chinese Petroleum Corporation as the only operator. Japanese and South Korean activities were at approximately the same level as in previous years, although drilling did start in the joint development zone. Total production of the Far East reporting region declined slightly. One significant aspect of 1980 petroleum activities throughout the Far East region is the growing acceptance by various Far East countries of Asian investment for developing and exploring for hydrocarbons. Japan is the major investor, but South Korean interests and the Chinese Petroleum Corporation also began to invest in petroleum rights in other Asian countries. The main area for investment continued to be Indonesia. 39 figures, 9 tables.

Fletcher, G.L.

1981-10-01

280

Persistent Reproductive Isolation between Sympatric Lineages of Fall Chinook Salmon in White Salmon River, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River are divided among two evolutionarily significant units: lower Columbia River fall Chinook salmon (or “tules”) in the lower portion of the river and upriver “brights” (URBs) in the upper portion. The two lineages migrate together through portions of the lower Columbia River but spawn allopatrically. Little White Salmon National

Christian T. Smith; Rod Engle

2011-01-01

281

THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

282

Effects of the exxon valdez oil spill on fork-tailed storm-petrels breeding in the Barren Islands, Alaska. Bird study number 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state\\/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) at East Amatuli Island, Barren Islands, the largest storm-petrel breeding colony within the trajectory of the oil slick, to determine whether there was evidence of adverse effects, following the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill. Although we were unable to measure all possible indicators, we found insufficient evidence to conclude that there were significant adverse

M. Nishimoto; G. V. Byrd

1993-01-01

283

Scanning Probe Microscopy of DNA with a Quartz Tuning Fork  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz tuning-forks have recently been put to use as highly sensitive force detectors in atomic force microscopy (AFM).(F.J.Giessibl et al.), Science 289, 422 (2000). In this study we have applied a home-built, tuning-fork based AFM to the investigation of single and double stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA). We operate the microscope in the non-contact mode (typical tip amplitude ~1 nm) with a variety of tips (e.g. Si, Si_3N_4, W). Here we report on recent results showing that the apparent height of plasmid dsDNA on mica substrates depends on both the tip material and imaging frequency shift. This talk will also review our efforts to probe ssDNA with a chemically functionalized tip. Current and future prospects for this dynamic-mode, chemically-sensitive force microscopy technique will be discussed.

King, G. M.; Nunes, G., Jr.

2001-03-01

284

Synthetic Lethality of Cohesins with PARPs and Replication Fork Mediators  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethality has been proposed as a way to leverage the genetic differences found in tumor cells to affect their selective killing. Cohesins, which tether sister chromatids together until anaphase onset, are mutated in a variety of tumor types. The elucidation of synthetic lethal interactions with cohesin mutants therefore identifies potential therapeutic targets. We used a cross-species approach to identify robust negative genetic interactions with cohesin mutants. Utilizing essential and non-essential mutant synthetic genetic arrays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we screened genome-wide for genetic interactions with hypomorphic mutations in cohesin genes. A somatic cell proliferation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that the majority of interactions were conserved. Analysis of the interactions found that cohesin mutants require the function of genes that mediate replication fork progression. Conservation of these interactions between replication fork mediators and cohesin in both yeast and C. elegans prompted us to test whether other replication fork mediators not found in the yeast were required for viability in cohesin mutants. PARP1 has roles in the DNA damage response but also in the restart of stalled replication forks. We found that a hypomorphic allele of the C. elegans SMC1 orthologue, him-1(e879), genetically interacted with mutations in the orthologues of PAR metabolism genes resulting in a reduced brood size and somatic cell defects. We then demonstrated that this interaction is conserved in human cells by showing that PARP inhibitors reduce the viability of cultured human cells depleted for cohesin components. This work demonstrates that large-scale genetic interaction screening in yeast can identify clinically relevant genetic interactions and suggests that PARP inhibitors, which are currently undergoing clinical trials as a treatment of homologous recombination-deficient cancers, may be effective in treating cancers that harbor cohesin mutations.

Barrett, Irene; Ferree, Elizabeth; van Pel, Derek M.; Ushey, Kevin; Sipahimalani, Payal; Bryan, Jennifer; Rose, Ann M.; Hieter, Philip

2012-01-01

285

New interpretation of Clarks Fork field, northern Bighorn basin, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clarks Fork field is located at the northern edge of the Bighorn basin (T9S, R22E) in Carbon County, Montana. Production was first established in 1944 by General Petroleum Corporation in the Cretaceous Peay Sandstone (basal Frontier) and was later extended to the Cretaceous Greybull (1949) and Lakota (1956) sandstones by British American. Total cumulative hydrocarbons from this field are 1,1789,193

J. S. Johnson; N. Lindsley-Griffin

1986-01-01

286

Replication Fork Reversal after Replication-Transcription Collision  

PubMed Central

Replication fork arrest is a recognized source of genetic instability, and transcription is one of the most prominent causes of replication impediment. We analyze here the requirement for recombination proteins in Escherichia coli when replication–transcription head-on collisions are induced at a specific site by the inversion of a highly expressed ribosomal operon (rrn). RecBC is the only recombination protein required for cell viability under these conditions of increased replication-transcription collisions. In its absence, fork breakage occurs at the site of collision, and the resulting linear DNA is not repaired and is slowly degraded by the RecJ exonuclease. Lethal fork breakage is also observed in cells that lack RecA and RecD, i.e. when both homologous recombination and the potent exonuclease V activity of the RecBCD complex are inactivated, with a slow degradation of the resulting linear DNA by the combined action of the RecBC helicase and the RecJ exonuclease. The sizes of the major linear fragments indicate that DNA degradation is slowed down by the encounter with another rrn operon. The amount of linear DNA decreases nearly two-fold when the Holliday junction resolvase RuvABC is inactivated in recB, as well as in recA recD mutants, indicating that part of the linear DNA is formed by resolution of a Holliday junction. Our results suggest that replication fork reversal occurs after replication–transcription head-on collision, and we propose that it promotes the action of the accessory replicative helicases that dislodge the obstacle.

De Septenville, Anne L.; Michel, Benedicte

2012-01-01

287

A plate tuning fork shaped tactile display using elastic waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the present study, the tactile display for representing surface roughness by using a Langevin-type piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is developed. We draw reference from the tuning fork and the ancient Chinese Chime-bell in order to enhance the vibration amplitude and make the modal figures of the device adequately complex. A U-shape aluminum plate is utilized as the touch interface on

Chaodong Li; Hua Yao; Jingjing Xu; Yanyan Zhang; Boqian Kuang

2008-01-01

288

2005 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During mid-1990s, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) identified several populations of salmon spawning approximately three miles downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. These populations are exposed to rapidly changing flow regimes associated with Bonneville Dam's operation. This study investigated the relationship between changing water levels and stranding or entrapment of juvenile salmon in the Ives Island area. Walking surveys of the Ives Island and Pierce Island shorelines were conducted every one to three days throughout the juvenile emigration period. The nearby shorelines of the Washington and Oregon mainland were also surveyed. Between January and June of 2005, surveyors examined 21 substantial entrapments and 20 stranding sites. A total of 14,337 salmonids, made up of three species, were found either entrapped or stranded. Nearly 92% of the salmonids were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), 4.5% were federally listed chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), and 3.8% were coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). When compared to the 2004 study year, 2005 showed an 83% increase in the overall number of observed entrapped or stranded juvenile salmon. Much of this increase can be attributed to one entrapment found along the north shore of Pierce Island (identified as E501). E501 has historically been known to contain relatively large numbers of entrapped salmon. Even so, the number of entrapped salmon observed during 2005 was a 732% increase (5926) over any prior study years. Over 83% of all chum, 63.1% of all chinook, and 63.2% of all coho sampled during 2005 were retrieved from entrapments that were likely to have formed when Bonneville Dam tailwater levels dropped to elevations between 11.5 and 12.9 feet. Peak numbers of chum and chinook were sampled in mid-April when tailwater levels ranged between 11.6ft and 15.6ft. Peak numbers of coho were sampled during the last week of February, mid-March, and mid-April when tailwater level ranged between 11.4 and 14.3 feet, 11.5 and 15.3 ft, and 11.6 and 15.6 feet, respectively. The fork length data indicate that the majority of the entrapped and stranded salmon are in the 35-50 mm range. Stranded members of all three salmon species had mean fork lengths that were 8% to 30% shorter than those of their entrapped counterparts. The locations and habitat attributes of entrapments containing the majority of the observed juvenile salmon remain fairly constant from year to year. Changes in entrapment rankings appear to be more reflective of changes in prevailing tailwater levels than they are of changes in geography, vegetation, or fish behavior. Data collected over the past six study years indicates that there are entrapments that are capable of entrapping large numbers of salmon as various tailwater levels. Avoiding specific tailwater ranges may not minimize the impact of juvenile stranding. The only way to substantially minimize the impact of stranding is to allow no tailwater fluctuations or to only allow a steady increase of the tailwater level throughout the juvenile emigration period.

Wilson, Jeremy; Duston, Reed A. (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

2006-01-01

289

Estimated Fall Chinook Salmon Survival to Emergence in Dewatered Redds in a Shallow Side Channel of the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) often spawn in the tailraces of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Redds built in shallow habitats downstream of these dams may be periodically dewatered due to hydropower operations prior to the emergence of fry. To determine whether fall Chinook salmon redds were successful in a shallow area subjected to periodic dewatering downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River, we installed 7 redd caps and monitored fry emergence. Large numbers of live fry were captured from the redds between March 9 and May 18, 2003. Estimated survival from egg to fry for these redds, which were all subjected to some degree of dewatering during the incubation and post-hatch intragravel rearing period, ranged from 16.1 to 63.2 percent and averaged 27.8 percent (assuming 4,500 eggs/redd). The peak emergence date ranged from April 1 to 29, with the average peak about April 14, 2003. Mean fork length of fall Chinook salmon emerging from individual redds ranged from 38.3 to 41.2 mm, and lengths of fish emerging from individual redds increased throughout the emergence period.

McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; James, B B.; Lukas, Joe

2005-08-01

290

THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

291

Effective Size of Fluctuating Salmon Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon are semelparous but have overlapping year classes, which presents special challenges for the application of standard population genetics theory to these species. This article examines the relation- ship between the effective number of breeders per year (Nb) and single-generation and multigeneration effective population size (Ne) in salmon populations that fluctuate in size. A simple analytical model is developed

Robin S. Waples

292

Salmon River Restoration Monitoring and Education Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Salmon River Restoration Council (SRRC) met its goals under this contract and established itself as a technological leader in the Klamath Basin. SRRC has been a major contributor to KRIS and has recently totally reworked the Salmon River Subbasin segm...

2001-01-01

293

Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

294

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

295

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

296

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

297

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

298

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

299

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

300

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

301

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These r...

1999-01-01

302

Human RECQ1 promotes restart of replication forks reversed by DNA topoisomerase I inhibition.  

PubMed

Topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitors are an important class of anticancer drugs. The cytotoxicity of TOP1 inhibitors can be modulated by replication fork reversal through a process that requires poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. Whether regressed forks can efficiently restart and what factors are required to restart fork progression after fork reversal are still unknown. We have combined biochemical and EM approaches with single-molecule DNA fiber analysis to identify a key role for human RECQ1 helicase in replication fork restart after TOP1 inhibition that is not shared by other human RecQ proteins. We show that the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity of PARP1 stabilizes forks in the regressed state by limiting their restart by RECQ1. These studies provide new mechanistic insights into the roles of RECQ1 and PARP in DNA replication and offer molecular perspectives to potentiate chemotherapeutic regimens based on TOP1 inhibition. PMID:23396353

Berti, Matteo; Ray Chaudhuri, Arnab; Thangavel, Saravanabhavan; Gomathinayagam, Shivasankari; Kenig, Sasa; Vujanovic, Marko; Odreman, Federico; Glatter, Timo; Graziano, Simona; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Marino, Francesca; Lucic, Bojana; Biasin, Valentina; Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi; Sidorova, Julia M; Monnat, Raymond J; Lopes, Massimo; Vindigni, Alessandro

2013-02-10

303

Middle East  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

Hemer, D.O. (Mobil Oil Corp., New York, NY); Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

1981-10-01

304

Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon  

PubMed Central

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkosek, Martin

2013-01-01

305

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

306

Return of salmon-derived nutrients from the riparian zone to the ...  

Treesearch

Description: Spawning salmon deliver nutrients (salmon-derived nutrients, SDN) ... can be incorporated into terrestrial and aquatic food webs, potentially increasing ... salmon, salmon-derived nutrients, riparian zone, dissolved organic matter, ...

307

Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.  

PubMed

Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

2013-01-11

308

Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns  

PubMed Central

Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

2013-01-01

309

Behavioral and Genetic Interactions Between Escaped Farm Salmon and Wild Atlantic Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) dwarfs the wild salmon fishery by two orders of magnitude. Throughout the North Atlantic region, large numbers of aquacultured\\u000a (farm) fish escape and invade rivers that contain native salmon. This causes considerable concern, because interactions between\\u000a escaped farm fish and native fish can cause a decline in the fitness and productivity of the

Kjetil Hindar; IAN A. FLEMING

310

Wild chinook salmon survive better than hatchery salmon in a period of poor production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Cowichan River on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada are used by the Pacific Salmon Commission as an index\\u000a of the general state of chinook salmon coast wide. In recent years the production declined to very low levels despite the\\u000a use of a hatchery that was intended to increase production by

R. J. Beamish; R. M. Sweeting; C. M. Neville; K. L. Lange; T. D. Beacham; D. Preikshot

311

Patterns of Chinook salmon migration and residency in the Salmon River estuary (Oregon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined variations in the juvenile life history of fall-spawning Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, for evidence of change in estuarine residency and migration patterns following the removal of dikes from 145 ha of former salt-marsh habitat in the Salmon River estuary (Oregon). Mark-recapture studies and abundance patterns in the estuary during 2000–2002 describe the following life-history types among Chinook salmon:

Daniel L. Bottom; Kim K. Jones; Trevan J. Cornwell; Ayesha Gray; Charles A. Simenstad

2005-01-01

312

Burnup measurements with the Los Alamos fork detector  

SciTech Connect

The fork detector system can determine the burnup of spent-fuel assemblies. It is a transportable instrument that can be mounted permanently in a spent-fuel pond near a loading area for shipping casks, or be attached to the storage pond bridge for measurements on partially raised spent-fuel assemblies. The accuracy of the predicted burnup has been demonstrated to be as good as 2% from measurements on assemblies in the United States and other countries. Instruments have also been developed at other facilities throughout the world using the same or different techniques, but with similar accuracies. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Bosler, G.E.; Rinard, P.M.

1991-01-01

313

76 FR 50171 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan, Sweetwater and...Statement (EIS) for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan (SCPP). The NRCS...Improvements'' alternative assumes a salinity control project will be...

2011-08-12

314

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a...

2013-07-01

315

Thin-skinned shortening geometries of the South Fork fault: Bighorn basin, Park County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new interpretation of the South Fork fault in light of thin-skinned thrust theory. Cross sections and seismic data are presented which indicate that the South Fork fault is an allochthonous salient which was emplaced in the Bighorn basin during the early to middle Eocene. All observed structural geometries can be interpreted as developing under a compressional

Clarey

1990-01-01

316

Cultural Resources Survey of the Fifth Water Alternative, Diamond Fork Power System, Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MESA Corporation conducted a Class III cultural resources survey of 900 acres in the pool areas of the proposed Monks Hollow and Fifth Water Reservoirs, and a 200 foot by 8 mile corridor for the Diamond Fork Pipeline, Diamond Fork Power System, Bonneville...

D. B. Merrill A. S. Neilson

1981-01-01

317

Substrate-selective repair and restart of replication forks by DNA translocases  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Stalled replication forks are sources of genetic instability. Multiple fork remodeling enzymes are recruited to stalled forks, but how they work to promote fork restart is poorly understood. By combining ensemble biochemical assays and single molecule studies with magnetic tweezers, we show that SMARCAL1 branch migration and DNA annealing activities are directed by the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA to selectively regress stalled replication forks caused by blockage to the leading-strand polymerase and to restore normal replication forks with a lagging-strand gap. We unveil the molecular mechanisms by which RPA enforces SMARCAL1 substrate preference. E. coli RecG acts similarly to SMARCAL1 in the presence of E. coli SSB, whereas the highly related human protein ZRANB3 has different substrate preferences. Our findings identify the important substrates of SMARCAL1 in fork repair, suggest that RecG and SMARCAL1 are functional orthologues, and provide a comprehensive model of fork repair by these DNA translocases.

Betous, Remy; Couch, Frank. B.; Mason, Aaron C.; Eichman, Brandt F.

2013-01-01

318

EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN THE CLARK FORK-PEND OREILLE WATERSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

(1) Analyze the nutrient concentration and algal standing crop trend in the Clark Fork River portion of the watershed; (2) Provide a web-based data access system for reporting Clark Fork River monitoring information; and (3) Evaluate the effectiveness of current nutrient reductio...

319

DNA Replication Origin Plasticity and Perturbed Fork Progression in Human Inverted Repeats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of metazoan genomes during their duplication depends on the spatiotemporal activation of origins and the progression of forks. Human rRNA genes represent a unique challenge to DNA replication since a large proportion of them exist as noncanonical palindromes in addition to canonical tandem repeats. Whether origin usage and\\/or fork elongation can cope with the variable structure of these

Ronald Lebofsky; Aaron Bensimon

2005-01-01

320

The relationship between eye diameter and fork length in the spiny oreo dory, Allocyttus sp. (note)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regression analysis of eye diameter and fork length was conducted on measurements from 143 spiny oreo dories, Allocyttus sp. (Oreosomatidae). A statistically significant relationship between eye diameter (x) and fork length (y) was found: y = 131 + 3.56.x (r = 0.811).

S. A. Crane; J. M. Fenaughty; R. W. Gauldie

1987-01-01

321

Replication fork stalling by bulky DNA damage: localization at active origins and checkpoint modulation  

PubMed Central

The integrity of the genome is threatened by DNA damage that blocks the progression of replication forks. Little is known about the genomic locations of replication fork stalling, and its determinants and consequences in vivo. Here we show that bulky DNA damaging agents induce localized fork stalling at yeast replication origins, and that localized stalling is dependent on proximal origin activity and is modulated by the intra–S–phase checkpoint. Fork stalling preceded the formation of sister chromatid junctions required for bypassing DNA damage. Despite DNA adduct formation, localized fork stalling was abrogated at an origin inactivated by a point mutation and prominent stalling was not detected at naturally-inactive origins in the replicon. The intra–S–phase checkpoint contributed to the high-level of fork stalling at early origins, while checkpoint inactivation led to initiation, localized stalling and chromatid joining at a late origin. Our results indicate that replication forks initially encountering a bulky DNA adduct exhibit a dual nature of stalling: a checkpoint-independent arrest that triggers sister chromatid junction formation, as well as a checkpoint-enhanced arrest at early origins that accompanies the repression of late origin firing. We propose that the initial checkpoint-enhanced arrest reflects events that facilitate fork resolution at subsequent lesions.

Minca, Eugen C.; Kowalski, David

2011-01-01

322

Replication fork movement and methylation govern SeqA binding to the Escherichia coli chromosome  

PubMed Central

In Escherichia coli, the SeqA protein binds specifically to GATC sequences which are methylated on the A of the old strand but not on the new strand. Such hemimethylated DNA is produced by progression of the replication forks and lasts until Dam methyltransferase methylates the new strand. It is therefore believed that a region of hemimethylated DNA covered by SeqA follows the replication fork. We show that this is, indeed, the case by using global ChIP on Chip analysis of SeqA in cells synchronized regarding DNA replication. To assess hemimethylation, we developed the first genome-wide method for methylation analysis in bacteria. Since loss of the SeqA protein affects growth rate only during rapid growth when cells contain multiple replication forks, a comparison of rapid and slow growth was performed. In cells with six replication forks per chromosome, the two old forks were found to bind surprisingly little SeqA protein. Cell cycle analysis showed that loss of SeqA from the old forks did not occur at initiation of the new forks, but instead occurs at a time point coinciding with the end of SeqA-dependent origin sequestration. The finding suggests simultaneous origin de-sequestration and loss of SeqA from old replication forks.

Waldminghaus, Torsten; Weigel, Christoph; Skarstad, Kirsten

2012-01-01

323

Analysis and Simulation for a Mean Response Time Hybrid Solution to Homogeneous Fork\\/Join Queues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we simulate and analyze general K-queue HFJ (Homogeneous Fork\\/Join) systems with 100 thousand parallel queues for the mean response time, which we denote by TK. Jobs arrive with mean rate ? and a general arrival distribution. Upon arrival, a job forks into K tasks. Task k, k = 1, 2, ..., K, is assigned to the kth

Ray Jinzhu Chen; Muchenxuan Tong

2010-01-01

324

Continued DNA Synthesis in Replication Checkpoint Mutants Leads to Fork Collapse  

PubMed Central

Hydroxyurea (HU) treatment activates the intra-S phase checkpoint proteins Cds1 and Mrc1 to prevent replication fork collapse. We found that prolonged DNA synthesis occurs in cds1? and mrc1? checkpoint mutants in the presence of HU and continues after release. This is coincident with increased DNA damage measured by phosphorylated histone H2A in whole cells during release. High-resolution live-cell imaging shows that mutants first accumulate extensive replication protein A (RPA) foci, followed by increased Rad52. Both DNA synthesis and RPA accumulation require the MCM helicase. We propose that a replication fork “collapse point” in HU-treated cells describes the point at which accumulated DNA damage and instability at individual forks prevent further replication. After this point, cds1? and mrc1? forks cannot complete genome replication. These observations establish replication fork collapse as a dynamic process that continues after release from HU block.

Green, Marc D.

2012-01-01

325

FANCJ couples replication past natural fork barriers with maintenance of chromatin structure  

PubMed Central

Defective DNA repair causes Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare childhood cancer–predisposing syndrome. At least 15 genes are known to be mutated in FA; however, their role in DNA repair remains unclear. Here, we show that the FANCJ helicase promotes DNA replication in trans by counteracting fork stalling on replication barriers, such as G4 quadruplex structures. Accordingly, stabilization of G4 quadruplexes in ?FANCJ cells restricts fork movements, uncouples leading- and lagging-strand synthesis and generates small single-stranded DNA gaps behind the fork. Unexpectedly, we also discovered that FANCJ suppresses heterochromatin spreading by coupling fork movement through replication barriers with maintenance of chromatin structure. We propose that FANCJ plays an essential role in counteracting chromatin compaction associated with unscheduled replication fork stalling and restart, and suppresses tumorigenesis, at least partially, in this replication-specific manner.

Schwab, Rebekka A.; Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Shin-ya, Kazuo

2013-01-01

326

Improve performance of scanning probe microscopy by balancing tuning fork prongs.  

PubMed

This paper presents an approach for improving the Q-factor of tuning fork probe used in scanning probe microscopes. The improvement is achieved by balancing the fork prongs with extra mass attachment. An analytical model is proposed to characterize the Q-factor of a tuning fork probe with respect to the attachment of extra mass on the tuning fork prongs, and based on the model, the Q-factors of the unbalanced and balanced tuning fork probes are derived and compared. Experimental results showed that the model fits well the experimental data and the approach can improve the Q-factor by more than a factor of three. The effectiveness of the approach is further demonstrated by applying the balanced probe on an atomic force microscope to obtain improved topographic images. PMID:19193492

Ng, Boon Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wei Kok, Shaw; Chai Soh, Yeng

2008-12-24

327

Deletions at stalled replication forks occur by two different pathways.  

PubMed

Replication blockage induces non-homologous deletions in Escherichia coli. The mechanism of the formation of these deletions was investigated. A pBR322-mini-oriC hybrid plasmid carrying two E. coli replication terminators (Ter sites) in opposite orientations was used. Deletions which remove at least the pBR322 blocking site (named Ter1) occurred at a frequency of 2 x 10(-6) per generation. They fall into two equally large classes: deletions that join sequences with no homology, and others that join sequences of 3-10 bp of homology. Some 95% of the deletions in the former class resulted from the fusion of sequences immediately preceding the two Ter sites, indicating a direct role for blocked replication forks in their formation. These deletions were not found in a topA10 mutant, suggesting a topoisomerase I-mediated process. In contrast, deletions joining short homologous sequences were not affected by the topA10 mutation. However, the incidence of this second class of deletions increased 10-fold in a recD mutant, devoid of exonuclease V activity. This indicates that linear molecules are intermediates in their formation. In addition, approximately 50% of these deletions were clustered in the region flanking the Ter1 site. We propose that they are produced by repair of molecules broken at the blocked replication forks. PMID:9214648

Bierne, H; Ehrlich, S D; Michel, B

1997-06-01

328

Coupling of a Replicative Polymerase and Helicase: A ?–DnaB Interaction Mediates Rapid Replication Fork Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E. coli replication fork synthesizes DNA at the rate of nearly 1000 nt\\/s. We show here that an interaction between the ? subunit of the replicative polymerase (the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme) and the replication fork DNA helicase (DnaB) is required to mediate this high rate of replication fork movement. In the absence of this interaction, the polymerase follows

Sungsub Kim; H. Garry Dallmann; Charles S McHenry; Kenneth J Marians

1996-01-01

329

Depositional environments, reservoir trends, and diagenesis of Red Fork sandstones in parts of Blaine, Caddo, and Custer counties, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Red Fork sandstone was divided into the upper and lower Red Fork which are separated by a consistent marker bed. The Red Fork interval thickens markedly across the study area from 250 ft (75 m) in the northeast to over 1300 ft (400 m) in the southwest. Most of the thickening is within the lower Red Fork. The lower Red Fork is believed to have been deposited in shelf-to-basin transitional terrain. Sands were located in delta-front, submarine-channel-fill, and possible submarine-fan terrain. The upper Red Fork is believed to represent the maximum progradation of a deltaic complex. Sandstones of the lower Red Fork are sublithic to lithic arenites; the upper Red Fork is sublithic arenite. The dominant lithic fraction is mudstone fragments. The main diagenetic alterations of both the upper and lower Red Fork sandstones were destruction of primary porosity by compaction and cementation. Dissolution chiefly of mud fragments has produced well-developed secondary porosity. Clays of the lower Red Fork mainly are authigenic chlorite; clays of the upper Red Fork primarily are authigenic kaolinite. Present oil and gas production from Red Fork sandstones is most abundant from localities on the paleoshelf.

Johnson, C.L.

1984-04-01

330

75 FR 41237 - Public Land Order No. 7746; Withdrawal of Public Lands, South Fork of the American River; California  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...scenic, cultural, and recreational values along the...Fork of the American River. DATES...scenic, cultural, and recreational values along the...Fork of the American River. Order...scenic, cultural, and recreational values along the...Fork of the American River:...

2010-07-15

331

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

332

Geomorphology and the Restoration Ecology of Salmon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and anthropogenic influences on watershed processes affect the distribution and abundance of salmon across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from differences in species use and density between individual pools and riffles to regional patterns of threatened, endangered, and extinct runs. The specific impacts of human activities (e.g., mining, logging, and urbanization) vary among regions and watersheds, as well as between different channel reaches in the same watershed. Understanding of both disturbance history and key biophysical processes are important for diagnosing the nature and causes of differences between historical and contemporary fluvial and watershed conditions based on evaluation of both historical and spatial contexts. In order to be most effective, the contribution of geomorphologic insight to salmon recovery efforts requires both assessment protocols commensurate with providing adequate knowledge of historical and spatial context, and experienced practitioners well versed in adapting general theory to local settings. The historical record of salmon management in Europe, New England and the Pacific Northwest indicates that there is substantial need to incorporate geomorphic insights on the effects of changes in watershed processes on salmon habitat and salmon abundance into salmon recovery efforts.

Montgomery, D. R.

2005-05-01

333

Infectious salmon anaemia virus infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, infects and causes disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Previous studies have shown Atlantic salmon endothelial cells to be the primary targets of ISAV infection. However, it is not known if cells other than endothelial cells play a role in ISAV tropism. To further assess cell tropism, we examined ISAV infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ISAV infection. On comparison of primary gill epithelial cell cultures with ISAV permissive fish cell cultures, we found the virus yield in primary gill epithelial cells to be comparable with that of salmon head kidney (SHK)-1 cells, but lower than TO or Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK)-II cells. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the primary gill cells possessed characteristics consistent with epithelial cells. Virus histochemistry showed that gill epithelial cells expressed 4-O-acetylated sialic acid which is recognized as the ISAV receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ISAV infection in Atlantic salmon primary gill epithelial cells. This study thus broadens our understanding of cell tropism and transmission of ISAV in Atlantic salmon. PMID:23282149

Weli, Simon Chioma; Aamelfot, Maria; Dale, Ole Bendik; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Falk, Knut

2013-01-02

334

Salmon Farming and Salmon People: Identity and Environment in the Leggatt Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon…

Schreiber, Dorothee

2003-01-01

335

Infectious salmon anaemia virus infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, infects and causes disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Previous studies have shown Atlantic salmon endothelial cells to be the primary targets of ISAV infection. However, it is not known if cells other than endothelial cells play a role in ISAV tropism. To further assess cell tropism, we examined ISAV infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ISAV infection. On comparison of primary gill epithelial cell cultures with ISAV permissive fish cell cultures, we found the virus yield in primary gill epithelial cells to be comparable with that of salmon head kidney (SHK)-1 cells, but lower than TO or Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK)-II cells. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the primary gill cells possessed characteristics consistent with epithelial cells. Virus histochemistry showed that gill epithelial cells expressed 4-O-acetylated sialic acid which is recognized as the ISAV receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ISAV infection in Atlantic salmon primary gill epithelial cells. This study thus broadens our understanding of cell tropism and transmission of ISAV in Atlantic salmon.

2013-01-01

336

Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

2004-12-01

337

On the decline of Pacific salmon and speculative links to salmon farming in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon abundance along the West Coast of Canada has been in sharp decline since the early 1990s. Declines have been most severe for coho and chinook salmon despite large additions of hatchery-reared fry and smolts. There is particular concern for populations of wild coho because, in addition to low abundance, up to 80% of the juvenile coho in the

Donald J. Noakes; Richard J. Beamish; Michael L. Kent

2000-01-01

338

Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

Rajasingh, Hannah; ?yehaug, Leiv; Vage, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

2006-01-01

339

Arcata Integrated Wastewater Treatment, Reclamation, and Salmon Ranching Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pacific salmon smolts have been reared in saline ponds fertilized with domestic wastewaters. An artificial homestream is to be created from the discharge of a marsh-lake system to be developed with reclaimed wastewater. This proposed salmon ranching metho...

G. H. Allen R. A. Gearheart

1978-01-01

340

Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska  

Treesearch

Title: Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska ... fishing, sport fishing, hunting, and nonconsumptive wildlife viewing and tourism. ... million estimated direct economic impact associated with wild salmon ecosystem services.

341

Salmon 2100: Some recovery strategies that just might work  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

342

Lactate Dehydrogenase Polymorphism of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of sockeye salmon from the Naknek River system, Alaska, exhibited marked heterogeneity in LDH phenotype. Similar, though less marked, heterogeneity is apparent in sockeye salmon samples from other Bristol Bay area rivers. The B allele was almost e...

H. O. Hodgins F. M. Utter

1971-01-01

343

Dynamics of quartz tuning fork force sensors used in scanning probe microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed an experimental characterization of the dynamics of oscillating quartz tuning forks which are being increasingly used in scanning probe microscopy as force sensors. We show that tuning forks can be described as a system of coupled oscillators. Nevertheless, this description requires knowledge of the elastic coupling constant between the prongs of the tuning fork, which has not yet been measured. Therefore, tuning forks have usually been described within the single oscillator or the weakly coupled oscillators approximation that neglects the coupling between the prongs. We propose three different procedures to measure the elastic coupling constant: an opto-mechanical method, a variation of the Cleveland method and a thermal noise based method. We find that the coupling between the quartz tuning fork prongs has a strong influence on the dynamics and the measured motion is in remarkable agreement with a simple model of coupled harmonic oscillators. The precise determination of the elastic coupling between the prongs of a tuning fork allows us to obtain a quantitative relation between the resonance frequency shift and the force gradient acting at the free end of a tuning fork prong.

Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Agraït, N.; Rubio-Bollinger, G.

2009-05-01

344

Separate roles for the DNA damage checkpoint protein kinases in stabilizing DNA replication forks  

PubMed Central

The DNA damage checkpoint plays a crucial role in maintaining functional DNA replication forks when cells are exposed to genotoxic agents. In budding yeast, the protein kinases Mec1 (ATR) and Rad53 (Chk2) are especially important in this process. How these kinases act to stabilize DNA replication forks is currently unknown but is likely to have important implications for understanding how genomic instability is generated during oncogenesis and how chemotherapies that interfere with DNA replication could be improved. Here we show that the sensitivity of rad53 mutants to DNA-damaging agents can be almost completely suppressed by deletion of the EXO1 gene, which encodes an enigmatic flap endonuclease. Deletion of EXO1 also suppresses DNA replication fork instability in rad53 mutants. Surprisingly, deletion of EXO1 is completely ineffective in suppressing both the sensitivity and replication fork breakdown in mec1 mutants, indicating that Mec1 has a genetically separable role in replication fork stabilization from Rad53. Finally, our analysis indicates that a second downstream effector kinase, Chk1, can stabilize replication forks in the absence of Rad53. These results reveal previously unappreciated complexity in the downstream targets of the checkpoint kinases and provide a framework for elucidating the mechanisms of DNA replication fork stabilization by these kinases.

Segurado, Monica; Diffley, John F.X.

2008-01-01

345

Molecular anatomy and regulation of a stable replisome at a paused eukaryotic DNA replication fork  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells regulate the progression and integrity of DNA replication forks to maintain genomic stability and couple DNA synthesis to other processes. The budding yeast proteins Mrc1 and Tof1 associate with the putative MCM–Cdc45 helicase and limit progression of the replisome when nucleotides are depleted, and the checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53 stabilize such stalled forks and prevent disassembly of the replisome. Forks also pause transiently during unperturbed chromosome replication, at sites where nonnucleosomal proteins bind DNA tightly. We describe a method for inducing prolonged pausing of forks at protein barriers assembled at unique sites on a yeast chromosome, allowing us to examine for the first time the effects of pausing upon replisome integrity. We show that paused forks maintain an intact replisome that contains Mrc1, Tof1, MCM–Cdc45, GINS, and DNA polymerases ? and ? and that recruits the Rrm3 helicase. Surprisingly, pausing does not require Mrc1, although Tof1 and Csm3 are both important. In addition, the integrity of the paused forks does not require Mec1, Rad53, or recombination. We also show that paused forks at analogous barriers in the rDNA are regulated similarly. These data indicate that paused and stalled eukaryotic replisomes resemble each other but are regulated differently.

Calzada, Arturo; Hodgson, Ben; Kanemaki, Masato; Bueno, Avelino; Labib, Karim

2005-01-01

346

Endocrine effects of growth hormone overexpression in transgenic coho salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-transgenic (wild-type) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), growth hormone (GH) transgenic salmon (with highly elevated growth rates), and GH transgenic salmon pair fed a non-transgenic ration level (and thus growing at the non-transgenic rate) were examined for plasma hormone concentrations, and liver, muscle, hypothalamus, telencephalon, and pituitary mRNA levels. GH transgenic salmon exhibited increased plasma GH levels, and enhanced liver, muscle

P. A. Raven; M. Uh; D. Sakhrani; B. R. Beckman; K. Cooper; J. Pinter; E. H. Leder; J. Silverstein; R. H. Devlin

2008-01-01

347

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

348

Fisheries Management Costs: The Case of Baltic Salmon Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to examine the costs of managing the Baltic salmon fishery. To achieve we first review the theoretical framework about the costs of managing fisheries. Second, we describe the management system governing the Baltic salmon fishery. Finally, we estimate the costs of managing the Baltic salmon fishery based on the available data.

Aleksandar Shivarov; Soile Kulmala; Marko Lindroos

2005-01-01

349

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix B (Part 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

350

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix B (Part 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon

1999-01-01

351

Measuring the Orbital Angular Momentum of Electron Vortex Beams Using a Forked Grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study experimentally examines how an electron vortex beam with orbital angular momentum (OAM) undergoes diffraction through a forked grating. The nth-order diffracted electron vortex beam after passing through a forked grating with a Burgers vector of 1 shows an OAM transfer of n?. Hence, the diffraction patterns become mirror asymmetric owing to the size difference between the electron beams. Such a forked grating, when used in combination with a pinhole located at the diffraction plane, could act as an analyzer to measure the OAM of input electrons.

Saitoh, Koh; Hasegawa, Yuya; Hirakawa, Kazuma; Tanaka, Nobuo; Uchida, Masaya

2013-08-01

352

Measuring the orbital angular momentum of electron vortex beams using a forked grating.  

PubMed

The present study experimentally examines how an electron vortex beam with orbital angular momentum (OAM) undergoes diffraction through a forked grating. The nth-order diffracted electron vortex beam after passing through a forked grating with a Burgers vector of 1 shows an OAM transfer of n?. Hence, the diffraction patterns become mirror asymmetric owing to the size difference between the electron beams. Such a forked grating, when used in combination with a pinhole located at the diffraction plane, could act as an analyzer to measure the OAM of input electrons. PMID:23992070

Saitoh, Koh; Hasegawa, Yuya; Hirakawa, Kazuma; Tanaka, Nobuo; Uchida, Masaya

2013-08-14

353

An improved dynamic model of tuning fork probe for scanning probe microscopy.  

PubMed

This paper presents a two coupled oscillators model to describe the dynamics of a tuning fork with a probe attached. The two coupled oscillators are unbalanced only in their effective masses and the damping ratios. By applying a frequency domain system identification approach in experimental investigation of various probe attachment cases, a good accuracy of the model is demonstrated. The effectiveness of the model is further demonstrated in quantitative analysis of the noise performance and the sensitivity of force sensing with a tuning fork probe. Compared with existing models, the proposed model can more accurately characterize the dynamics of a tuning fork probe. PMID:19397747

Ng, B P; Zhang, Y; Kok, S W; Soh, Y C

2009-05-01

354

Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishm

Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

2004-10-01

355

Population Viability of the Snake River Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 11 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

A stochastic simulation model of spring chinook population dynamics was parameterized using 36 years of redd count data from five index streams on the middle fork of the Salmon River in Idaho. Two versions of the model, one in which spawning age structure was presumed to follow an evolutionarily stable strategy and another in which spawning age structure was constrained to observed values were examined. The models were then used to generate 1000 statistically representative population projections over the next 100 years to assess risk of extinction and prospects for stock rebuilding. Current levels of production and mortality appear to suffice for maintaining the status quo, virtually assuring persistence over the next 100 years, barring catastophes, but providing no hope for rebuilding. A doubling of the current population level over the next 100 years can be expected to follow an increase in {alpha} (density independent mortality or fry production) of 5 to 25%, but rebuilding to the population levels prevailing in the 1950`s will require an increase in {alpha} of at least 37%.

Emlen, John Merritt

1993-06-01

356

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2007-10-01

357

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2006-10-01

358

Isolation and identification of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) from Coho salmon in Chile.  

PubMed

The isolation of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) from asymptomatic wild fish species including wild salmon, sea trout and eel established that wild fish can be a reservoir of ISAV for farmed Atlantic salmon. This report characterizes the biological properties of ISAV isolated from a disease outbreak in farmed Coho salmon in Chile and compares it with ISAV isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon in Canada and Europe. The virus that was isolated from Coho salmon tissues was initially detected with ISAV-specific RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). The ability of the virus to grow in cell culture was poor, as cytopathology was not always conspicuous and isolation required passage in the presence of trypsin. Virus replication in cell culture was detected by RT-PCR and IFAT (indirect fluorescent antibody test), and the virus morphology was confirmed by positive staining electron microscopy. Further analysis of the Chilean virus revealed similarities to Canadian ISAV isolates in their ability to grow in the CHSE-214 cell line and in viral protein profile. Sequence analysis of genome segment 2, which encodes the viral RNA polymerase PB1, and segment 8, which encodes the nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2, showed the Chilean virus to be very similar to Canadian strains of ISAV. This high sequence similarity of ISAV strains of geographically distinct origins illustrates the highly conserved nature of ISAV proteins PB1, NS1 and NS2 of ISAV. It is noteworthy that ISAV was associated with disease outbreaks in farmed Coho salmon in Chile without corresponding clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. This outbreak, which produced high mortality in Coho salmon due to ISAV, is unique and may represent the introduction of the virus to a native wild fish population or a new strain of ISAV. PMID:11411649

Kibenge, F S; Gárate, O N; Johnson, G; Arriagada, R; Kibenge, M J; Wadowska, D

2001-05-01

359

Infestations of wild adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by the ectoparasitic copepod sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer: prevalence, intensity and the spatial distribution of males and [2pt] females on the host fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer is a specific ectoparasite of North Atlantic and Pacific salmonids in their marine phases. We compared infestations of L. salmonis on wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) captured in estuarine (Firth of Tay, east Scotland; 1995, 1996) and marine coastal waters (Strathy Point, north Scotland; 1998, 1999). Host fish from the Tay were caught by sweep

Christopher D. Todd; Alan M. Walker; Jane E. Hoyle; Sally J. Northcott; Andrew F. Walker; Michael G. Ritchie

2000-01-01

360

The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability  

PubMed Central

Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA–protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA–protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability.

Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

361

Hysteresis, Switching and Anomalous Behaviour of a Quartz Tuning Fork in Superfluid 4He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying the behaviour of commercial quartz tuning forks immersed in superfluid 4He and driven at resonance. For one of the forks we have observed hysteresis and switching between linear and non-linear damping regimes at temperatures below 10 mK. We associate linear damping with pure potential flow around the prongs of the fork, and non-linear damping with the production of vortex lines in a turbulent regime. At appropriate prong velocities, we have observed metastability of both the linear and the turbulent flow states, and a region of intermittency where the flow switched back and forth between each state. For the same fork, we have also observed anomalous behaviour in the linear regime, with large excursions in both damping, resonant frequency, and the tip velocity as a function of driving force.

Bradley, D. I.; Fear, M. J.; Fisher, S. N.; Guénault, A. M.; Haley, R. P.; Lawson, C. R.; Pickett, G. R.; Schanen, R.; Tsepelin, V.; Wheatland, L. A.

2013-10-01

362

Production and Engineering Methods for Carb-Tek (Trade Name) Batteries in Fork Lift Trucks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the technological development of the Carb-Tek Molten Salt Li/Cl system toward prototype production for eventual assembly into fork lift truck batteries. Engineering developments, cost reductions, and pilot line operations are describ...

J. C. Schaefer

1976-01-01

363

South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program. Record of Decision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After careful consideration of the potential impacts of the management activities analyzed and documented in the South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (Notice of Availabili...

C. Barbouletos

2006-01-01

364

South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program. Environmental Impact Statement. Record of Decision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interdisciplinary team involving Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the United States Forest Service (USFS) completed the Environmental Impact Statement for the South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cut...

2006-01-01

365

South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program. Final Environmental Impact Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) for the proposed South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program. This document has been prepared as an abbreviated FEIS pursuant to the Council on Environmental Qualitys...

2005-01-01

366

Artemis-dependent DNA double-strand break formation at stalled replication forks.  

PubMed

Stalled replication forks undergo DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) under certain conditions. However, the precise mechanism underlying DSB induction and the cellular response to persistent replication fork stalling are not fully understood. Here we show that, in response to hydroxyurea exposure, DSBs are generated in an Artemis nuclease-dependent manner following prolonged stalling with subsequent activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling pathway. The kinase activity of the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase, a prerequisite for stimulation of the endonuclease activity of Artemis, is also required for DSB generation and subsequent ATM activation. Our findings indicate a novel function of Artemis as a molecular switch that converts stalled replication forks harboring single-stranded gap DNA lesions into DSBs, thereby activating the ATM signaling pathway following prolonged replication fork stalling. PMID:23465063

Unno, Junya; Takagi, Masatoshi; Piao, Jinhua; Sugimoto, Masataka; Honda, Fumiko; Maeda, Daisuke; Masutani, Mitsuko; Kiyono, Tohru; Watanabe, Fumiaki; Morio, Tomohiro; Teraoka, Hirobumi; Mizutani, Shuki

2013-04-15

367

Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of natural resources at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO). It also addresses sets of stressors that threaten these resources and the biological integrity of habitats in th...

G. Grossman G. Sundin L. Worsham M. T. Mengak N. P. Nibbelink

2013-01-01

368

75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Hazard Reduction Project...prepare an environmental impact statement for the Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Reduction Project (Salt Project). A supplemental environmental...

2010-05-07

369

Ecology and Management of the South Fork Snake River Cottonwood Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes an investigation of the cottonwood ecosystem along with the South Fork Snake River from Palisades Dam to Heise, Idaho. Vegetation dynamics in time and space, with an emphasis on the cottonwood component, was the primary focus. Becau...

M. F. Merigliano

1996-01-01

370

16 CFR 1512.14 - Requirements for fork and frame assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.14 Requirements for fork and frame...steering angle over which the wheel can be turned. Sidewalk bicycles are exempt from this...

2013-01-01

371

Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In general, upriver brights differ from tules by at least one locus. Steelhead stocks can be divided into two main groups: (1) those stocks found east of the Cascades; and (2) those stocks found west of the Cascade Mountains. Steelhead from west of the Cascades are divisable into three subgroups of closely related stocks: (1) a group comprised mainly of wild winter steelhead from the lower Columbia River; (2) Willamette River hatchery and wild winter steelhead; and (3) summer and winter hatchery steelhead stocks from both the lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers. Steelhead from east of the Cascades are separable into three subgroups of closely related stocks: (1) wild summer steelhead; (2) a group comprised mainly of hatchery summer steelhead stocks; and (3) other hatchery and wild steelhead from Idaho. Streams east and west of the Cascades can be differentiated using characters including precipitation, elevation, distance from the mouth of the Columbia, number of frost-free days and minimum annual air temperature. There are significant differences among the stocks of chinook salmon and steelhead trout for each of the meristic and body shape characters. Between year variation does not account for differences among the stocks for the meristic and body shape characters with the exception of pelvic fin ray number in steelhead trout. Characters based on body shape are important for discriminating between the groups of hatchery and wild steelhead stocks. We could not determine whether the basis for the differences were genetic or environmental. The reason for the variation of the characters among stocks is as yet unclear. Neutrality or adaptiveness has not been firmly demonstrated.

Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

1986-08-01

372

Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites.  

PubMed

The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. PMID:23734489

Peacock, Stephanie J; Krkosek, Martin; Proboszcz, Stan; Orr, Craig; Lewis, Mark A

2013-04-01

373

HEALTHY STOCKS OF NW SALMON FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Geographic distribution of eight species/races of Pacific salmon and steelhead (spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, summer steelhead and winter steelhead. The data are based upon the Oregon Trout report Healthy Native Stock...

374

Archaeal Hel308 helicase targets replication forks in vivo and in vitro and unwinds lagging strands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in mammalian and Drosophila Hel308 and PolQ paralogues cause genome instability but their helicase functions are mysterious. By in vivo and in vitro analysis, we show that Hel308 from archaea (Hel308a) may act at stalled replication forks. Introducing hel308a into Escherichia coli dnaE strains that conditionally accumulate stalled forks caused synthetic lethality, an effect indistinguishable from E.coli RecQ. Further

Colin P. Guy; Edward L. Bolt

2005-01-01

375

Chronology of Deformation Near the Iditarod-Nixon Fork Fault, West-Central Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nixon Fork Mine is a Cu-Au deposit located 7 km south of the Iditarod-Nixon Fork (I-NF) fault. This fault strikes at ~060°, and can be traced for ~400 km, with a minimum dextral displacement of ~90 km. Proximity to the I-NF fault suggests it would be a dominant influence on deformation of the deposit, but the extent and timing

B. K. Perttu; W. K. Wallace; R. J. Newberry; P. W. Layer

2010-01-01

376

A variable fork rate affects timing of origin firing and S phase dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Activation (in the following referred to as firing) of replication origins is a continuous and irreversible process regulated by availability of DNA replication molecules and cyclin-dependent kinase activities, which are often altered in human cancers. The temporal, progressive origin firing throughout S phase appears as a characteristic replication profile, and computational models have been developed to describe this process. Although evidence from yeast to human indicates that a range of replication fork rates is observed experimentally in order to complete a timely S phase, those models incorporate velocities that are uniform across the genome. Taking advantage of the availability of replication profiles, chromosomal position and replication timing, here we investigated how fork rate may affect origin firing in budding yeast. Our analysis suggested that patterns of origin firing can be observed from a modulation of the fork rate that strongly correlates with origin density. Replication profiles of chromosomes with a low origin density were fitted with a variable fork rate, whereas for the ones with a high origin density a constant fork rate was appropriate. This indeed supports the previously reported correlation between inter-origin distance and fork rate changes. Intriguingly, the calculated correlation between fork rate and timing of origin firing allowed the estimation of firing efficiencies for the replication origins. This approach correctly retrieved origin efficiencies previously determined for chromosome VI and provided testable prediction for other chromosomal origins. Our results gain deeper insights into the temporal coordination of genome duplication, indicating that control of the replication fork rate is required for the timely origin firing during S phase. PMID:23850861

Supady, Adriana; Klipp, Edda; Barberis, Matteo

2013-07-09

377

Vibration sensitivity testing with tuning fork—256 Hz or 512 Hz?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome measures of vibratory sensitivity using a 256-Hz tuning fork depend on the perception of vibration by the patient\\u000a and qualitative comparison with sensory threshold on the examiner. The authors present their experience of comparison of vibratory\\u000a sensation using a 512-Hz tuning fork with the conventional 256-Hz counterpart in normal volunteers. The median visual analogue\\u000a score achieved by the 512-Hz

A. Juma; A. Mandal

2007-01-01

378

Molecular anatomy and regulation of a stable replisome at a paused eukaryotic DNA replication fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells regulate the progression and integrity of DNA replication forks to maintain genomic stability and couple DNA synthesis to other processes. The budding yeast proteins Mrc1 and Tof1 associate with the putative MCM-Cdc45 helicase and limit progression of the replisome when nucleotides are depleted, and the checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53 stabilize such stalled forks and prevent disassembly of

Arturo Calzada; Ben Hodgson; Masato Kanemaki; Avelino Bueno; Karim Labib

2006-01-01

379

A Fast Simulation for Thousands of M\\/2M\\/2 Parallel Homogeneous Fork\\/Join Pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a parallel K-pipeline HFJ (Homogeneous Fork\\/Join queueing) system in which each pipeline has two identical exponential first-in-first-out services where each service has an infinite capacity queue. Jobs arrive with Poisson arrival distribution. Upon arrival, a job forks into K tasks. Task k, k = 1, 2, …, K, is assigned to the kth pipeline. A job leaves the

Ray Jinzhu Chen; Muchenxuan Tong; Chuan Jiang

2011-01-01

380

A Hybrid Solution of Fork\\/Join Synchronization in Parallel Queues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract? new analysis technique, dynamic-bubblesort analysis, is introduced for general K-queue first-in-first-out HFJ (homogenous fork\\/join queuing) systems of $K \\\\geq 2$. The dynamic-bubblesort model dynamically sorts the branches of the queues based on the number of the tasks waiting for synchronization in each branch. Jobs arrive with mean rate $\\\\lambda$ and a general arrival distribution. Upon arrival, a job forks

Ray Jinzhu Chen

2001-01-01

381

Scanning optical homodyne detection of high-frequency picoscale resonances in cantilever and tuning fork sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher harmonic modes in nanoscale silicon cantilevers and microscale quartz tuning forks are detected and characterized using a custom scanning optical homodyne interferometer. Capable of both mass and force sensing, these resonators exhibit high-frequency harmonic motion content with picometer-scale amplitudes detected in a 2.5 MHz bandwidth, driven by ambient thermal radiation. Quartz tuning forks additionally display both in-plane and out-of-plane

Gabriel Zeltzer; Jason C. Randel; A. K. Guptaa; Rashid Bashir; Sang-Hun Song; Hari C. Manoharan

2007-01-01

382

Establishment, maintenance and modifications of the lower jaw dentition of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) throughout its life cycle  

PubMed Central

In this paper we elucidate the pattern of initiation of the first teeth and the pattern of tooth replacement on the dentary of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), throughout nearly all stages of its life cycle, using serially sectioned heads and jaws, cleared and stained animals, and X-rays. The dentary teeth are set in one row. Tooth germs appear around hatching, first in odd positions, followed by even positions. From position 8 further backwards, teeth are added in adjacent positions. The first replacement teeth appear in animals of about 30 mm fork length. On the dentary of early life stages (alevins and fry), every position in the tooth row holds a functional (i.e. attached and erupted) tooth and a replacement tooth. The alternating pattern set up anteriorly in the dentary by the first-generation teeth changes in juveniles (parr) whereby teeth are in a similar functional (for the erupted teeth) or developmental stage (for the replacement teeth) every three positions. This pattern is also observed in marine animals during their marine life phase and in both sexes of adult animals prior to spawning (grilse and salmon), but every position now holds either a functional tooth or a mineralised replacement tooth. This is likely due to the fact that replacement tooth germs have to grow to a larger size before mineralisation starts. In the following spring, the dentary tooth pattern of animals that have survived spawning (kelts) is highly variable. The abundance of functional teeth in post-spawning animals nevertheless indicates that teeth are not lost over winter. We confirm the earlier reported lack of evidence for the existence of an edentulous life phase, preceding the appearance of so-called breeding teeth during upstream migration to the spawning grounds, and consider breeding teeth to be just another tooth generation in a regularly replacing dentition. This study shows how Atlantic salmon maintains a functional adaptive dentition throughout its complex life cycle.

Huysseune, Ann; Hall, Brian K; Witten, P Eckhard

2007-01-01

383

Symmetrically arranged quartz tuning fork with soft cantilever for intermittent contact mode atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-sensing and -actuating probe for dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) based on a commercial quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever is presented. The U-shaped cantilever, exhibiting a sharp tip, is combined with the tuning fork in a symmetrical arrangement, such that each of the two legs of the cantilever is fixed to one of the prongs of the tuning fork. The tuning fork is used as an oscillatory force sensor. Its frequency and amplitude govern that of the tip vibration, while the cantilever determines the spring constant of the whole probe. The frequency of the tip vibration for AFM operations can be much higher than the resonance frequency of the cantilever. A probe comprising a silicon nitride cantilever (0.1 N/m) is used to image monoatomic terraces of graphite in the intermittent contact mode. A much softer cantilever (0.01 N/m) is used to analyze the topography of a microelectronic chip in the same mode. Moreover, a bacterial surface layer hexagonally packed intermediate layer of Deinococcus radiodurans is imaged in a buffer solution. The tip vibration was again generated by the tuning fork while the sample interaction was measured using the standard optical detection scheme in this experiment. These probes are suited for batch fabrication and assembly and, therefore, enlarge the applications for the tuning fork based AFM.

Akiyama, T.; Staufer, U.; de Rooij, N. F.; Frederix, P.; Engel, A.

2003-01-01

384

RNF4 and PLK1 are required for replication fork collapse in ATR-deficient cells.  

PubMed

The ATR-CHK1 axis stabilizes stalled replication forks and prevents their collapse into DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that fork collapse in Atr-deleted cells is mediated through the combined effects the sumo targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase RNF4 and activation of the AURKA-PLK1 pathway. As indicated previously, Atr-deleted cells exhibited a decreased ability to restart DNA replication following fork stalling in comparison with control cells. However, suppression of RNF4, AURKA, or PLK1 returned the reinitiation of replication in Atr-deleted cells to near wild-type levels. In RNF4-depleted cells, this rescue directly correlated with the persistence of sumoylation of chromatin-bound factors. Notably, RNF4 repression substantially suppressed the accumulation of DSBs in ATR-deficient cells, and this decrease in breaks was enhanced by concomitant inhibition of PLK1. DSBs resulting from ATR inhibition were also observed to be dependent on the endonuclease scaffold protein SLX4, suggesting that RNF4 and PLK1 either help activate the SLX4 complex or make DNA replication fork structures accessible for subsequent SLX4-dependent cleavage. Thus, replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition is a multistep process that disrupts replisome function and permits cleavage of the replication fork. PMID:24142876

Ragland, Ryan L; Patel, Sima; Rivard, Rebecca S; Smith, Kevin; Peters, Ashley A; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Brown, Eric J

2013-10-15

385

SMARCAL1 catalyzes fork regression and Holliday junction migration to maintain genome stability during DNA replication  

PubMed Central

SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like1) maintains genome integrity during DNA replication. Here we investigated its mechanism of action. We found that SMARCAL1 travels with elongating replication forks, and its absence leads to MUS81-dependent double-strand break formation. Binding to specific nucleic acid substrates activates SMARCAL1 activity in a reaction that requires its HARP2 (Hep-A-related protein 2) domain. Homology modeling indicates that the HARP domain is similar in structure to the DNA-binding domain of the PUR proteins. Limited proteolysis, small-angle X-ray scattering, and functional assays indicate that the core enzymatic unit consists of the HARP2 and ATPase domains that fold into a stable structure. Surprisingly, SMARCAL1 is capable of binding three-way and four-way Holliday junctions and model replication forks that lack a designed ssDNA region. Furthermore, SMARCAL1 remodels these DNA substrates by promoting branch migration and fork regression. SMARCAL1 mutations that cause Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia or that inactivate the HARP2 domain abrogate these activities. These results suggest that SMARCAL1 continuously surveys replication forks for damage. If damage is present, it remodels the fork to promote repair and restart. Failures in the process lead to activation of an alternative repair mechanism that depends on MUS81-catalyzed cleavage of the damaged fork.

Betous, Remy; Mason, Aaron C.; Rambo, Robert P.; Bansbach, Carol E.; Badu-Nkansah, Akosua; Sirbu, Bianca M.; Eichman, Brandt F.; Cortez, David

2012-01-01

386

Salmon for New England Fisheries, Part III: Developing a Coastal Fishery for Pacific Salmon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past year the staff of the National Marine Fisheries Service's Division of Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies at the Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, has considered the problem of increasing the yield of salmon from New England. Despite the...

C. Mahnken T. Joyner

1973-01-01

387

Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon’s plastic life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered

Nadia Aubin-Horth; Benjamin H. Letcher; Hans A. Hofmann

2009-01-01

388

Patterns of Chinook salmon migration and residency in the Salmon River estuary (Oregon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined variations in the juvenile life history of fall-spawning Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, for evidence of change in estuarine residency and migration patterns following the removal of dikes from 145 ha of former salt-marsh habitat in the Salmon River estuary (Oregon). Mark-recapture studies and abundance patterns in the estuary during 2000 2002 describe the following life-history types among Chinook

Daniel L. Bottom; Kim K. Jones; Trevan J. Cornwell; Ayesha Gray; Charles A. Simenstad

2005-01-01

389

A Comparison of Atlantic Salmon Embryo and Fry Stocking in the Salmon River, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the feasibility of restoring an extirpated species, it is crucial to identify the method of reintroduction that optimizes juvenile survival and growth so that adequate adult populations may be established. Because Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry are relatively expensive to rear, we compared the efficacies of two embryo-stocking methods and one fry-stocking method in producing age-0 Atlantic salmon

Stephen M. Coghlan Jr; Neil H. Ringler

2004-01-01

390

Dietary Calcein Marking of Brook Trout, Atlantic Salmon, Yellow Perch, and Coho Salmon Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7–10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93–98% in Atlantic

Dale C. Honeyfield; Christian S. Ostrowski; John W. Fletcher; Jerre W. Mohler

2006-01-01

391

Demonstration of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) endocytosis in erythrocytes of Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. It possesses the major functional characteristics of the virus family including haemagglutinating, receptor destroying enzyme (RDE), and fusion activities associated with the virion surface proteins. It is generally accepted that ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of several fish species and that the ISAV RDE activity dissolves this haemagglutination reaction except for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) erythrocytes. We used electron microscopy to examine the physical interaction between ISAV and erythrocytes from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during haemagglutination. We present evidence that ISAV enters into Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. Atlantic salmon erythrocytes incubated with ISAV for 4 hours showed endocytosis of the virus particles, which is consistent with virus infection. These observations suggest that the lack of dissolution of ISAV-induced haemagglutination of Atlantic salmon erythrocytes favours virus infection of the erythrocytes. Moreover, such a haemagglutination-infection phenotype is fundamentally different from haemagglutination by avian and mammalian orthomyxoviruses, and is indicative of a different pathogenesis for the fish orthomyxovirus.

Workenhe, Samuel T; Wadowska, Dorota W; Wright, Glenda M; Kibenge, Molly JT; Kibenge, Frederick SB

2007-01-01

392

Demonstration of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) endocytosis in erythrocytes of Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. It possesses the major functional characteristics of the virus family including haemagglutinating, receptor destroying enzyme (RDE), and fusion activities associated with the virion surface proteins. It is generally accepted that ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of several fish species and that the ISAV RDE activity dissolves this haemagglutination reaction except for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) erythrocytes. We used electron microscopy to examine the physical interaction between ISAV and erythrocytes from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during haemagglutination. We present evidence that ISAV enters into Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. Atlantic salmon erythrocytes incubated with ISAV for 4 hours showed endocytosis of the virus particles, which is consistent with virus infection. These observations suggest that the lack of dissolution of ISAV-induced haemagglutination of Atlantic salmon erythrocytes favours virus infection of the erythrocytes. Moreover, such a haemagglutination-infection phenotype is fundamentally different from haemagglutination by avian and mammalian orthomyxoviruses, and is indicative of a different pathogenesis for the fish orthomyxovirus. PMID:17254352

Workenhe, Samuel T; Wadowska, Dorota W; Wright, Glenda M; Kibenge, Molly J T; Kibenge, Frederick S B

2007-01-25

393

Basis of acoustic discrimination of Chinook salmon from other salmons by echolocating Orcinus orca.  

PubMed

The "resident" ecotype of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the waters of British Columbia and Washington State have a strong preference for Chinook salmon even in months when Chinook comprise less than about 10% of the salmon population. The foraging behavior of killer whales suggests that they depend on echolocation to detect and recognize their prey. In order to determine possible cues in echoes from salmon species, a series of backscatter measurements were made at the Applied Physics Laboratory (Univ. of Wash.) Facility on Lake Union, on three different salmon species using simulated killer whale echolocation signals. The fish were attached to a monofilament net panel and rotated while echoes were collected, digitized and stored on a laptop computer. Three transducer depths were used; same depth, 22° and 45° above the horizontal plane of the fish. Echoes were collected from five Chinook, three coho and one sockeye salmon. Radiograph images of all specimens were obtained to examine the swimbladder shape and orientation. The results show that echo structure from similar length but different species of salmon were different and probably recognizable by foraging killer whales. PMID:20968392

Au, Whitlow W L; Horne, John K; Jones, Christopher

2010-10-01

394

Sensitivity of Off-Channel Salmon Rearing Habitats to Changing Base Flows in Low-Gradient Reaches of Central Idaho Mountain Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical rearing habitats for juvenile salmon and trout are frequently in off-channel areas of shallow, low-velocity water. Typically, these are remnants of abandoned channel positions that are still hydraulically connected to the contemporary main channel. However, the size and spatial arrangement of this habitat is strongly dependent on water stage in the main channel. In two salmon-bearing streams in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho, we used a high-resolution channel DEM and a 1D fluid dynamics model to define the location, depth, total area, frequency, and timing and duration of flooding of off-channel habitat. We then predicted changes in water surface elevation in the main channel over a range of low flow discharges and remapped the functional off-channel areas at each flow stage. Measurements at nearby gages indicate that average late summer and autumn low flows in these streams have declined by about 7% per decade over the prior 60 years. Modern off-channel habitat along the 20km of study streams is not uniformly arranged, even at high flows, and the distribution becomes still more restricted in space and time as flows decline. Progeny of summer- and early fall-spawning Chinook salmon rear for up to 2 years in these streams before migrating to the ocean, with much of that time spent in the off-channel habitat. Progeny of spring-spawning steelhead use the same areas for up to 3 years. While much prior research has focused on the effects of climate change on the availability and condition of spawning sites and on water temperatures, this study documents likely changes in the amount and condition of rearing habitat. Further investigation is needed to understand the ecological consequences and whether the declining anadromous fish populations may be at some risk from diminishing rearing habitat during declining base flows caused by external forces, such as a changing climate, dams, or water extractions.

McKean, J. A.; Thurow, R.; Tonina, D.; Isaak, D.; Bohn, C.

2010-12-01

395

Wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho: Some recovery strategies that just might work  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify salmon recovery options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project doe...

396

76 FR 43650 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Infectious Salmon Anemia; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal...of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia. DATES: We will consider all comments...of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia, contact Dr. William G. Smith,...

2011-07-21

397

76 FR 329 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Reporting Requirements for the Ocean Salmon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reporting Requirements for the Ocean Salmon Fishery Off the Coasts of Washington...areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of Washington...manner. The requirements to land salmon within specific time frames...

2011-01-04

398

SALMON RECOVERY: CATEGORIZING AGENTS, DRIVERS, AND DELUSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the downward trajectory for wild sal...

399

Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our…

Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

400

Animal navigation: salmon track magnetic variation.  

PubMed

How animals navigate long distances to specific targets remains enigmatic. For Pacific salmon, new evidence suggests fish imprint on the magnetic coordinates of their home river and use this information to guide their return from distant open-ocean feeding areas. PMID:23428320

Hays, Graeme C

2013-02-18

401

Prioritizing Pacific Salmon Stocks for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 300 native stocks of Pacific salmon, steelhead, and coastal cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus spp.) are at risk of extinction in the Pacific Northwest. With only limited resources available for conservation and recovery, prioritization of these stocks may become necessary if meaningful measures are to be imple- mented. We propose criteria by which prioritization may be guided. First, we rank

FRED W. ALLENDORF; DAVID BAYLES; DANIEL L. BOTTOM; KENNETH P. CURRENS; CHRISTOPHER A. FRISSELL; DAVID HANKIN; JAMES A. LICHATOWICH; WILLA NEHLSEN; PATRICK C. TROTTER; THOMAS H. WILLIAMS

1997-01-01

402

Effective size of fluctuating salmon populations.  

PubMed

Pacific salmon are semelparous but have overlapping year classes, which presents special challenges for the application of standard population genetics theory to these species. This article examines the relationship between the effective number of breeders per year (N(b)) and single-generation and multigeneration effective population size (N(e)) in salmon populations that fluctuate in size. A simple analytical model is developed that allows calculation of N(e) on the basis of the number of spawners in individual years and their reproductive contribution (productivity) to the next generation. Application of the model to a 36-year time series of data for a threatened population of Snake River chinook salmon suggests that variation in population dynamic processes across years reduced the multigeneration N(e) by approximately 40-60%, and reductions may have been substantially greater within some generations. These reductions are comparable in magnitude to, and in addition to, reductions in N(b) within a year due to unequal sex ratio and nonrandom variation in reproductive success. Computer simulations suggest that the effects of variable population dynamics on N(e) observed in this dataset are not unexpected for species with a salmon life history, as random variation in productivity can lead to similar results. PMID:12072473

Waples, Robin S

2002-06-01

403

SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

404

Dams and Salmon: A Northwest Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an experiential exercise in which participants assume the roles of various stakeholder groups in the controversy surrounding possible dam removal to revive northwestern U. S. salmon populations. The role-play (a) increases environmental awareness in the context of the competing interests various stakeholders have in our…

Tucker, Michael; Tromley, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

405

Fish farms, parasites, and predators: implications for salmon population dynamics.  

PubMed

For some salmon populations, the individual and population effects of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transmission from sea cage salmon farms is probably mediated by predation, which is a primary natural source of mortality of juvenile salmon. We examined how sea lice infestation affects predation risk and mortality of juvenile pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon, and developed a mathematical model to assess the implications for population dynamics and conservation. A risk-taking experiment indicated that infected juvenile pink salmon accept a higher predation risk in order to obtain foraging opportunities. In a schooling experiment with juvenile chum salmon, infected individuals had increased nearest-neighbor distances and occupied peripheral positions in the school. Prey selection experiments with cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) predators indicated that infection reduces the ability of juvenile pink salmon to evade a predatory strike. Group predation experiments with coho salmon (O. kisutch) feeding on juvenile pink or chum salmon indicated that predators selectively consume infected prey. The experimental results indicate that lice may increase the rate of prey capture but not the handling time of a predator. Based on this result, we developed a mathematical model of sea lice and salmon population dynamics in which parasitism affects the attack rate in a type II functional response. Analysis of the model indicates that: (1) the estimated mortality of wild juvenile salmon due to sea lice infestation is probably higher than previously thought; (2) predation can cause a simultaneous decline in sea louse abundance on wild fish and salmon productivity that could mislead managers and regulators; and (3) compensatory mortality occurs in the saturation region of the type II functional response where prey are abundant because predators increase mortality of parasites but not overall predation rates. These findings indicate that predation is an important component of salmon-louse dynamics and has implications for estimating mortality, reducing infection, and developing conservation policy. PMID:21639053

Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M; Ford, Helen; Peacock, Stephanie; Mages, Paul; Ford, Jennifer S; Morton, Alexandra; Volpe, John P; Hilborn, Ray; Dill, Lawrence M; Lewis, Mark A

2011-04-01

406

Ova fecundity in Scottish Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: predictions, selective forces and causal mechanisms.  

PubMed

Ova fecundities of Scottish Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, predicted from log(10) regression of ova numbers and female fork length (L(F)), differed widely between upland and lowland stocks within the same river, whereas sea-age, river and year factors had insignificant effects on fecundity once L(F) was accounted for. For upland fish, the relationship between log(10)L(F) and log(10) ova mass (M(O)) was stable between two datasets collected 40 years apart. Although upland and lowland females both produced comparable log(10)M(O) (log(10)L(F))(-1), lowland females partitioned this into 45% more, but smaller ova, whereas upland females produced fewer, but larger, eggs. The possible causes and implications of this are discussed for evolutionary perspectives (lifetime production), population structure (local tributary v. large catchments; environmental effects), population dynamics and stability (density-dependent control mechanisms) and fisheries management (stock-recruitment; short and long-term stock sustainability). PMID:22880727

Bacon, P J; MacLean, J C; Malcolm, I A; Gurney, W S C

2012-06-11

407

[Heritability of body weight and fork length for Oncorhynchus masou masou].  

PubMed

Body weight and body length have been considered as the most important production traits for the fish genetic improvement. For cold-water fish, body length was usually substituted by fork length. In order to estimate the heritability of body weight and fork length of the sixth generation Oncorhynchus masou masou, which was introduced into China, the method of unbalanced nest design and an artificial insemination technigue were used. Twenty-nine full-sib families and fourteen half-sib families were obtained. Body weight and fork length of O. masou masou were measured in 12 and 24 months after fertilization. Based on full-sib and half-sib families data, the causal components of phenotypic variance were calculated. The results showed that, (1) during the whole growth phase of O. masou masou, the coefficient variation (CV) of fork length was higher than body weight, and CV of 12-month old was higher than that of 24-month old; (2) body weight and fork length of O. masou masou among sires and dams among sires were significant difference (P<0.01) both at 12 months and at 24 months; (3) the maternal component estimates were significantly larger than those of paternal ones for body weight and fork length traits both at 12 months and at 24 months; (4) for 12 months of O. masou masou the heritabilities of body weight and fork length were 0.41~0.51 and 0.46~0.54, respectively. For 24 months the values were 0.55~0.60 and 0.53~0.59, respectively; and (5) it was concluded that the heritability of growth traits in O. masou masou was relatively high and this highlights the potential to improve its growth through selective breeding. This study shows important data supporting for further genetic improvement of O. masou masou. PMID:23448933

Zhang, Yu-Yong; Jia, Zhi-Ying; Bai, Qing-Li; Chen, Shu-Qiang; Shi, Lian-Yu; Wang, Bing-Qian

2013-02-01

408

BLM SUMOylation regulates ssDNA accumulation at stalled replication forks.  

PubMed

Polymerase stalling results in uncoupling of DNA polymerase and the replicative helicase, which generates single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). After stalling, RAD51 accumulates at stalled replication forks to stabilize the fork and to repair by homologous recombination (HR) double-strand breaks (DSBs) that accumulate there. We showed recently that SUMO modification of the BLM helicase is required in order for RAD51 to accumulate at stalled forks. In order to investigate how BLM SUMOylation controls RAD51 accumulation, we characterized the function of HR proteins and ssDNA-binding protein RPA in cells that stably expressed either normal BLM (BLM+) or SUMO-mutant BLM (SM-BLM). In HU-treated SM-BLM cells, mediators BRCA2 and RAD52, which normally substitute RAD51 for RPA on ssDNA, failed to accumulate normally at stalled forks; instead, excess RPA accumulated. SM-BLM cells also exhibited higher levels of HU-induced chromatin-bound RPA than BLM+ cells did. The excess RPA did not result from excessive intrinsic BLM helicase activity, because in vitro SUMOylated BLM unwound similar amounts of replication-fork substrate as unSUMOylated BLM. Nor did BLM SUMOylation inhibit binding of RPA to BLM in vitro; however, in immunoprecipitation experiments, more BLM-RPA complex formed in HU-treated SM-BLM cells, indicating that BLM SUMOylation controls the amount of BLM-RPA complex normally formed at stalled forks. Together, these results showed that BLM SUMOylation regulates the amount of ssDNA that accumulates during polymerase stalling. We conclude that BLM SUMOylation functions as a licensing mechanism that permits and regulates HR at damaged replication forks. PMID:24027577

Ouyang, Karen J; Yagle, Mary K; Matunis, Michael J; Ellis, Nathan A

2013-09-04

409

BLM SUMOylation regulates ssDNA accumulation at stalled replication forks  

PubMed Central

Polymerase stalling results in uncoupling of DNA polymerase and the replicative helicase, which generates single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). After stalling, RAD51 accumulates at stalled replication forks to stabilize the fork and to repair by homologous recombination (HR) double-strand breaks (DSBs) that accumulate there. We showed recently that SUMO modification of the BLM helicase is required in order for RAD51 to accumulate at stalled forks. In order to investigate how BLM SUMOylation controls RAD51 accumulation, we characterized the function of HR proteins and ssDNA-binding protein RPA in cells that stably expressed either normal BLM (BLM+) or SUMO-mutant BLM (SM-BLM). In HU-treated SM-BLM cells, mediators BRCA2 and RAD52, which normally substitute RAD51 for RPA on ssDNA, failed to accumulate normally at stalled forks; instead, excess RPA accumulated. SM-BLM cells also exhibited higher levels of HU-induced chromatin-bound RPA than BLM+ cells did. The excess RPA did not result from excessive intrinsic BLM helicase activity, because in vitro SUMOylated BLM unwound similar amounts of replication-fork substrate as unSUMOylated BLM. Nor did BLM SUMOylation inhibit binding of RPA to BLM in vitro; however, in immunoprecipitation experiments, more BLM-RPA complex formed in HU-treated SM-BLM cells, indicating that BLM SUMOylation controls the amount of BLM-RPA complex normally formed at stalled forks. Together, these results showed that BLM SUMOylation regulates the amount of ssDNA that accumulates during polymerase stalling. We conclude that BLM SUMOylation functions as a licensing mechanism that permits and regulates HR at damaged replication forks.

Ouyang, Karen J.; Yagle, Mary K.; Matunis, Michael J.; Ellis, Nathan A.

2013-01-01

410

Areas contributing ground water to the Peconic Estuary, and ground-water budgets for the north and south forks and Shelter Island, eastern Suffolk County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Peconic Estuary, at the eastern end of Long Island, has been plagued by a recurrent algal bloom, locally referred to as ?Brown Tide,? that has caused the severe decline of local marine resources. Although the factors that trigger Brown Tide blooms remain uncertain, groundwater discharge has previously been shown to affect surface-water quality in the western part of the estuary. A U.S. Geological Survey groundwater- flow model of the main body of Long Island indicates that a total of about 7.5 x 106 ft3/d (cubic feet per day) of freshwater discharges to the western part of the estuary, but the model does not include the ground-water flow systems on the North and South Forks and Shelter Island, which contribute significant amounts of freshwater to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. The need for information on freshwater discharge to the entire estuary prompted the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate ground-water discharge from the North and South Forks and Shelter Island. Source areas that contribute ground water to the Peconic Estuary were delineated, and groundwater budgets for these areas were developed, to evaluate the distribution and magnitude of ground-water discharge to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. Contributing-area boundaries that were delineated coincide with the hydraulic boundaries of the fresh ground-water-flow systems of the North and South Forks and Shelter Island; these boundaries are of two types? external (saltwater bodies) and internal (groundwater divides). Hydrologic components that were evaluated include recharge from precipitation, public-supply withdrawal and return flow, and agricultural withdrawal. Values for each of these components were calculated or estimated for the individual freshwater flow subsystems that form each ground-water-budget area, then summed to obtain the total discharge of fresh ground water to tidewater. Ground-water discharge to the Peconic Estuary is about 3.8 x 106 ft3/d from the North Fork, 11 x 106 ft3/d from the South Fork, and 1.7 x 106 ft3/d from Shelter Island. The total contribution to the estuary from these areas is about 16 x 106 ft3/d?roughly twice the total contribution from the main body of Long Island. In contrast to the freshwater contribution from the main body of Long Island, which is concentrated near the head of the estuary, the contributions from the North and South Forks and Shelter Island are distributed along the east-west length of the estuary. Changes in water-table altitude and the resulting changes in total discharge to the Peconic Estuary were estimated from the relative changes in annual mean water level at observation wells. The 1985-95 interval included 7 years (1985-88, 1991- 92, 1995) of generally below-average water-table altitudes that presumably caused similar decreases in ground-water discharge to the estuary; intense Brown Tide blooms coincided with six of these years (1985-88, 1991, 1995), and localized blooms coincided with the remaining year (1992). Watertable altitudes in the remaining 4 years of the 1985-95 interval (1989-90, 1993-94) were nearly average or above average, and presumably produced comparably near-average or increased amounts of ground-water discharge to the estuary; none of these years saw any widespread Brown Tide blooms. Fluctuations in the amounts of ground-water discharge to the estuary appear to affect the occurrence of Brown Tide blooms, although the factors that trigger the blooms have not been determined.

Schubert, C. E.

1998-01-01

411

Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

412

Spring Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

For the fourth consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A screw trap was used to collect emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Uncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 25 to June 27, 1997. A total of 270 natural chinook salmon, 10,616 hatchery chinook salmon, 864 natural steelhead trout (and 13 natural steelhead parr), and 7,345 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during emigration studies on the Imnaha River. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low: 0.37% for natural chinook, 0.11% for hatchery chinook, 0.11% for natural steelhead, and 0.39% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Natural chinook salmon smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River from February 25 to June 10 and had a mean length of 108 mm, average weight of 13 g, and mean condition factor of 1.02. The peak period of natural chinook smolt emigration, based on number of fish collected, occurred between March 25 and April 30. Hatchery reared chinook salmon smolts were collected from April 9 to May 9, with 99% of the smolts being caught within 10 days after release. Hatchery chinook smolts mean length, weight, and condition factor were 131 mm, 25.4 g, and 1.12, respectively. Emigration of natural steelhead smolts in the Imnaha River occurred between March 14 and June 25. Peak emigration occurred from May 1 to May 15. Natural steelhead smolts averaged 175 mm in fork length, 55.8 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 1 .OO. Hatchery steelhead smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River between April 15 and June 27. Hatchery steelhead smolts averaged 210 mm in fork length, 88 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 0.93. Spring runoff water conditions in 1997 provided above average flows for emigrating anadromous salmonid smolts. Imnaha River mean daily discharge during spring emigration ranged from 7.4 cms (260 cfs) on March 9 to 96.6 cms (3,410 cfs) on April 20 at USGS gauge 13292000, Imnaha, OR. Snake River discharge measured at the Anatone gauge station, ranged from 61.1 to 152 kcfs from April 15 to May 18. River discharge at LGR ranged from 79.6 kcfs on March 6 to 225.3 kcfs on May 18. Flows at LGR were generally greater than 100 kcfs during most of the spring runoff period, and discharge exceeded 120 kcfs from March 20-31 and April 19 to June 24. The water spill period at LGR occurred continuously from April 10 to June 29 with peak spill of 101.9 kcfs occurring on May 17.

Blenden, Michael L.; Veach, Eric R.; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

1998-10-01

413

CENP-B preserves genome integrity at replication forks paused by Retrotransposon LTR  

PubMed Central

Centromere-binding protein B (CENP-B) is a widely conserved DNA binding factor associated with heterochromatin and centromeric satellite repeats1. In fission yeast, CENP-B homologs have been shown to silence Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons by recruiting histone deacetylases2. However, CENP-B factors also have unexplained roles in DNA replication3, 4. Here, we show that a molecular function of CENP-B is to promote replication fork progression through the LTR. Mutants have increased genomic instability caused by replication fork blockage that depends on the DNA binding factor Switch Activating Protein 1 (Sap1), which is directly recruited by the LTR. The loss of Sap1-dependent barrier activity allows the unhindered progression of the replication fork, but results in rearrangements deleterious to the retrotransposon. We conclude that retrotransposons influence replication polarity through recruitment of Sap1 and transposition near replication fork blocks, while CENP-B counteracts this activity and promotes fork stability. Our results may account for the role of LTR in fragile sites, and for the association of CENP-B with pericentromeric heterochromatin and tandem satellite repeats.

Zaratiegui, Mikel; Vaughn, Matthew W.; Irvine, Danielle V.; Goto, Derek; Watt, Stephen; Bahler, Jurg; Arcangioli, Benoit; Martienssen, Robert A.

2010-01-01

414

Human RECQ5? helicase promotes strand exchange on synthetic DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork  

PubMed Central

The role of the human RECQ5? helicase in the maintenance of genomic stability remains elusive. Here we show that RECQ5? promotes strand exchange between arms of synthetic forked DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork in a reaction dependent on ATP hydrolysis. BLM and WRN can also promote strand exchange on these structures. However, in the presence of human replication protein A (hRPA), the action of these RecQ-type helicases is strongly biased towards unwinding of the parental duplex, an effect not seen with RECQ5?. A domain within the non-conserved portion of RECQ5? is identified as being important for its ability to unwind the lagging-strand arm and to promote strand exchange on hRPA-coated forked structures. We also show that RECQ5? associates with DNA replication factories in S phase nuclei and persists at the sites of stalled replication forks after exposure of cells to UV irradiation. Moreover, RECQ5? is found to physically interact with the polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggest that RECQ5? may promote regression of stalled replication forks to facilitate the bypass of replication-blocking lesions by template-switching. Loss of such activity could explain the elevated level of mitotic crossovers observed in RECQ5?-deficient cells.

Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Saydam, Nurten; Garcia, Patrick L.; Zheng, Lu; Janscak, Pavel

2006-01-01

415

South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

NONE

1995-09-01

416

Distinct roles for Sld3 and GINS during establishment and progression of eukaryotic DNA replication forks  

PubMed Central

The Cdc45 protein is crucial for the initiation of chromosome replication in eukaryotic cells, as it allows the activation of prereplication complexes (pre-RCs) that contain the MCM helicase. This causes the unwinding of origins and the establishment of DNA replication forks. The incorporation of Cdc45 at nascent forks is a highly regulated and poorly understood process that requires, in budding yeast, the Sld3 protein and the GINS complex. Previous studies suggested that Sld3 is also important for the progression of DNA replication forks after the initiation step, as are Cdc45 and GINS. In contrast, we show here that Sld3 does not move with DNA replication forks and only associates with MCM in an unstable manner before initiation. After the establishment of DNA replication forks from early origins, Sld3 is no longer essential for the completion of chromosome replication. Unlike Sld3, GINS is not required for the initial recruitment of Cdc45 to origins and instead is necessary for stable engagement of Cdc45 with the nascent replisome. Like Cdc45, GINS then associates stably with MCM during S-phase.

Kanemaki, Masato; Labib, Karim

2006-01-01

417

Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

Waythomas, C. F.

1994-01-01

418

Inorganic Pyrophosphatase: A New Polymorphic Allozyme Locus in Pacific Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic polymorphism of inorganic pyrophosphatase was investigated in 2799 individuals in four species of Pacific salmon: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), kokanee (O. nerka), and steelhead(O. mykiss), using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. This enzyme system appears to be an isolocus system with electrophoretically indistinguishable allozymes encoded by two loci (PP-1,2*) expressed in retinal tissue. Mendelian inheritance was

David R. Kuligowski; Gary A. Winans

2002-01-01

419

Does increased intake of salmon increase markers of oxidative stress in pregnant women? The salmon in pregnancy study.  

PubMed

The Salmon in Pregnancy Study provided two meals of salmon per week to pregnant women from week 20 of gestation; the control group maintained their habitual diet low in oily fish. Salmon is a rich source of marine n-3 fatty acids. Since marine n-3 fatty acids may increase oxidative stress, we investigated whether increased salmon consumption could affect markers of oxidative stress in mid and late pregnancy. Urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2?), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and plasma lipid peroxide concentrations did not change from week 20 to 38 of pregnancy and were not altered by increased consumption of salmon. Thus, increased intake of salmon during pregnancy does not increase oxidative stress, as judged by the markers of oxidative damage to lipids and DNA measured herein. PMID:21689025

García-Rodríguez, Cruz E; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Mesa, María Dolores; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Vlachava, Maria; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Gil, Angel; Basu, Samar

2011-07-22

420

Effect of inclusion of salmon roe on characteristics of salmon baby food products.  

PubMed

Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree + chunks, puree + pink row, puree + pink row + chunks, puree + red row, puree + red roe + chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristics were determined. Samples containing roe were lighter and less red (by approximately 3 to 4 a* units) than formulations without roe regardless of the type of roe added. Visual pink color followed the same trend. Formulations with roe, both pink and sockeye, were almost twice as fibrous as formulations without roe. Salmon flavor was stronger in samples containing roe from sockeye salmon. In the 2nd study, retort processed samples were stored at room temperature for 6 mo. Sweaty odor decreased over storage time. Visual cream-brown color correlated with L*, a*, b*, and chroma values (r =-0.80, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively). TBARS values of all samples were < 0.35 mg MDA/kg and declined after month 0 indicating that these products were oxidatively stable. Overall, adding roe to these products lightened them and increased fibrous texture. Samples containing sockeye salmon roe had stronger salmon flavor. Once retort processed, these products were quite stable in terms of color, odor, and TBARS. Potential nutrient contributions of this type of product to the infant diet warrant additional research. PMID:20546426

DeSantos, F A; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

2010-05-01

421

Rapid liquid chromatographic method to distinguish wild salmon from aquacultured salmon fed synthetic astaxanthin.  

PubMed

Analytical methods are needed to determine the presence of color additives in fish. We report a liquid chromatographic (LC) method developed to identify the synthetic form of the color additive astaxanthin in salmon, based on differences in the relative ratios of the configurational isomers of astaxanthin. The distributions of configurational isomers of astaxanthin in the flesh of wild Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon are similar, but significantly different from that in aquacultured salmon. Astaxanthin is extracted from the flesh of salmon, passed through a silica gel Sep-Pak cartridge, and analyzed directly by LC on a Pirkle covalent L-leucine column. No derivatization of the astaxanthin is required-an important advantage of our approach, which is a modification of our previously described method. This method can be used to distinguish between aquacultured and wild salmon. The method has general applicability and can also be used to identify astaxanthins derived from other sources such as Phaffia yeast and Haematococcus pluvialis algae. PMID:9170658

Turujman, S A; Wamer, W G; Wei, R R; Albert, R H

422

Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interbreeding between artificially-selected and wild organisms can have negative fitness consequences for the latter. In the Northwest Atlantic, farmed Atlantic salmon recurrently escape into the wild and enter rivers where small, declining populations of wild salmon breed. Most farmed salmon in the region derive from an ancestral source population that occupies a nonacidified river (pH 6.0-6.5). Yet many wild populations

Dylan J. Fraser; Adam M. Cook; James D. Eddington; Paul Bentzen; Jeffrey A. Hutchings

2008-01-01

423

Dysregulation of DNA polymerase ? recruitment to replication forks results in genomic instability  

PubMed Central

Translesion synthesis polymerases (TLS Pols) are required to tolerate DNA lesions that would otherwise cause replication arrest and cell death. Aberrant expression of these specialized Pols may be responsible for increased mutagenesis and loss of genome integrity in human cancers. The molecular events that control the usage of TLS Pols in non-pathological conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we show that aberrant recruitment of TLS Pol? to replication forks results in genomic instability and can be mediated through the loss of the deubiquitinase USP1. Moreover, artificial tethering of Pol? to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) circumvents the need for its ubiquitin-binding domain in the promotion of genomic instability. Finally, we show that the loss of USP1 leads to a dramatic reduction of replication fork speed in a Pol?-dependent manner. We propose a mechanism whereby reversible ubiquitination of PCNA can prevent spurious TLS Pol recruitment and regulate replication fork speed to ensure the maintenance of genome integrity.

Jones, Mathew JK; Colnaghi, Luca; Huang, Tony T

2012-01-01

424

Are "knife and fork" good enough for day case surgery of resistant tennis elbow?  

PubMed

This observational retrospective study was performed on 22 consecutive patients treated surgically in a day surgery unit for resistant tennis elbow to ascertain the effectiveness of the "knife and fork" procedure. All patients had an unfavourable response to nonsurgical treatment lasting at least six months. A simple and inexpensive "knife and fork" technique yielded excellent results in 90.5% of patients and a high percentage (95.2%) of satisfied patients at an average follow-up of two years. There were no fair or poor results and no complications. We conclude that the "knife and fork" technique is a simple and dependable day case procedure. In the present National Health Service (NHS) era of tariff and "payment by results", this approach is more cost effective than an arthroscopic alternative. PMID:19096844

Dwyer, Amitabh J; Govindaswamy, Raja; Elbouni, Tariq; Chambler, Andrew F W

2008-12-19

425

FANCD2 regulates BLM complex functions independently of FANCI to promote replication fork recovery.  

PubMed

Fanconi Anemia (FA) and Bloom Syndrome share overlapping phenotypes including spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities and increased cancer predisposition. The FA protein pathway comprises an upstream core complex that mediates recruitment of two central players, FANCD2 and FANCI, to sites of stalled replication forks. Successful fork recovery depends on the Bloom's helicase BLM that participates in a larger protein complex ('BLMcx') containing topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1, RMI2 and replication protein A. We show that FANCD2 is an essential regulator of BLMcx functions: it maintains BLM protein stability and is crucial for complete BLMcx assembly; moreover, it recruits BLMcx to replicating chromatin during normal S-phase and mediates phosphorylation of BLMcx members in response to DNA damage. During replication stress, FANCD2 and BLM cooperate to promote restart of stalled replication forks while suppressing firing of new replication origins. In contrast, FANCI is dispensable for FANCD2-dependent BLMcx regulation, demonstrating functional separation of FANCD2 from FANCI. PMID:23658231

Chaudhury, Indrajit; Sareen, Archana; Raghunandan, Maya; Sobeck, Alexandra

2013-05-08

426

A study of a quartz tuning fork as a force sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Force sensing cantilevers used for dynamic force microscopy (DFM) should have a high quality factor, stiffness, and resonant frequency. Quartz tuning forks (used in watches) satisfy these conditions well. Following the work of Giessibl [1], we are developing a force sensor based upon a quartz tuning fork. The displacement of the piezoelectric tuning fork is sensed using a Wein bridge circuit. We have characterized the properties of the force sensor. The frequency f0 is 32768 Hz, the stiffness k is 1800 Nt/m and the Q factor is approximately 3000. The minimum detectable sensor displacement and force at the resonance frequency will be discussed in terms of thermal and system noise. A comparison between the measured and simulated response will be presented. [1]F.J.Giessibl Appl.Phys.Lett. 76, 1470 (2000)

Kim, Dong Jun; Williams, Clayton C.

2002-10-01

427

Ground-water aspects of the lower Henrys Fork region, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Henrys Fork region includes the plains and low benches between Ashton and the junction of Henrys Fork and Snake River in eastern Idaho. The northwestern and western parts of the area are part of the Snake River lava plain. The central part of the area is occupied by alluvial plains of the Snake, Teton, and Falls Rivers, and Henrys Fork. The southeastern part of the area is a bench (Rexburg Bench), chiefly on silicic and basaltic volcanic rocks, which rises gradually to mountain peaks southeast of the area. The basalt, and the sand and gravel under the alluvial plains are good aquifers and yield large amounts of water with small drawdowns. The silicic volcanic rocks and the interbedded ash, pyroclastics, and sedimentary deposits generally yield much less water than the basalt and alluvium.

Crosthwaite, E. J.; Mundorff, M. J.; Walker, E. H.

1967-01-01

428

Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) Population and Habitat Survey in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our study area includes the three McKenzie populations, and a reintroduced population in the Middle Fork Willamette and tributaries above Hills Creek Reservoir. We monitored bull trout populations in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette basins using a ...

G. Taylor

2000-01-01

429

Human RECQ5b helicase promotes strand exchange on synthetic DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the human RECQ5b helicase in the maintenance of genomic stability remains elusive. Here we show that RECQ5b promotes strand exchange between arms of synthetic forked DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork in a reaction dependent on ATP hydrolysis. BLM and WRN can also promote strand exchange on these structures. However, in the presence of human replication

Radhakrishnan Kanagaraj; Nurten Saydam; Patrick L. Garcia; Lu Zheng; Pavel Janscak

430

Dissolved-Solids Load in Henrys Fork Upstream from the Confluence with Antelope Wash, Wyoming, Water Years 1970-2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Annual dissolved-solids load at the mouth of Henrys Fork was estimated by using data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 09229500, Henrys Fork near Manila, Utah. The annual dissolved-solids load for water years 19702009 ranged from 18,30...

K. Foster T. A. Kenney

2010-01-01

431

Chemical characterization of sediments and pore water from the upper Clark Fork River and Milltown Reservoir, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Clark Fork River basin in western Montana is widely contaminated by metals from past mining, milling, and smelting activities. As part of a comprehensive ecological risk assessment for the upper Clark Fork River, the authors measured physical and chemical characteristics of surficial sediment samples that were collected from depositional zones for subsequent toxicity evaluations. Sampling stations included five

W. G. Brumbaugh; C. G. Ingersoll; N. E. Kemble; T. W. May; J. L. Zajicek

1994-01-01

432

Chinook salmon invade southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document the invasion of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to southern South America providing historical, current and future perspectives. We conducted field sampling, angler surveys,\\u000a and analyzed all written records, and found evidence of reproductive populations in more than ten Andean (and many more coastal)\\u000a watersheds draining mainly to the Pacific Ocean in Chile (39°–53° S), but also to the Atlantic

Cristián Correa; Mart R. Gross

2008-01-01

433

Applications of the quartz tuning fork in classical and superfluid hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a short review of the multitude of applications of the commercially produced quartz tuning fork in cryogenic ?uid dynamics, using cold gaseous, normal liquid and super?uid 4He as working ?uids with extraordinary, but well-known and tunable physical properties. While the central focus of this work is the use of the tuning fork as a detector of classical and quantum turbulence, we also report other studies and applications, mainly on cavitation, pressure-, thermo- and viscosimetry. Finally, we mention brie?y our recent studies of the acoustic emission due to these high-Q oscillators and its effect on the characteristics of their resonance.

Schmoranzer, David; La Mantia, Marco; Skrbek, Ladislav

2012-04-01

434

X-cut miniature tuning forks realized by ion track lithography.  

PubMed

With the recently developed ion track lithography based on the selective etching, widening, and merging of ion-induced defects collectively resembling a superimposed anisotropy in certain areas as defined by a stencil mask, 39-kHz x-cut miniature tuning forks with a tine size of 331x2, 500x42 mum and a Q-value of up to 42 000 were fabricated from single crystalline quartz mostly to demonstrate this new technique's ability to structure difficult cuts, but also to benefit from the much simpler electrode configuration possible with this cut in comparison with ordinary z-cut watch tuning forks. PMID:18238513

Thornell, G; Rapp, H; Hjort, K

2000-01-01

435

Low-noise variable-temperature preamplifier for piezoelectric tuning fork force sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a low-noise variable-temperature preamplifier for self-sensing piezoelectric tuning fork force sensors is presented. The preamplifier utilizes a pair of commercially available GaAs field effect transistors to achieve high impedance and low noise over a wide range of temperatures. Using a standard 32 kHz quartz tuning fork, the base noise level achieved is 20 dB below the thermal noise resonance at room temperature and at 4.2 K. The circuit diagram, biasing points, and noise specifications are presented, and the application for variable temperature scanning probe microscopy is discussed.

Patil, N. G.; Levy, J.

2002-02-01

436

Replication Fork Stability Is Essential for the Maintenance of Centromere Integrity in the Absence of Heterochromatin  

PubMed Central

Summary The centromere of many eukaryotes contains highly repetitive sequences marked by methylation of histone H3K9 by Clr4KMT1. This recruits multiple heterochromatin proteins including Swi6 and Chp1 to form a rigid centromere and ensure accurate chromosome segregation. In the absence of heterochromatin, cells show increased rate of recombination in the centromere, and chromosome loss. These defects are severely aggravated by loss of replication fork stability. Thus, heterochromatin proteins and replication fork protection mechanisms work in concert to prevent abnormal recombination, preserve centromere integrity, and ensure faithful chromosome segregation.

Li, Pao-Chen; Petreaca, Ruben C.; Jensen, Amanda; Yuan, Ji-Ping; Green, Marc D.; Forsburg, Susan L.

2013-01-01

437

JPRS Report, East Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring, Catastrophic Condition, Computer Production, edit...

1988-01-01

438

Modeling stream network-scale variation in Coho salmon overwinter ...  

Treesearch

Forest Service National Links, Forest Service Home, Employment, Fire and Aviation ... Contributing basin area explained the majority of spatial variation (R2 ... including fall parr fork length, condition factor, and parasite infestation rates, were ...

439

Channelization and floodplain forests: Impacts of accelerated sedimentation and valley plug formation on floodplain forests of the Middle Fork Forked Deer River, Tennessee, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the severe degradation of floodplain habitats resulting from channelization and concomitant excessive coarse sedimentation on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River in west Tennessee from 2000 to 2003. Land use practices have resulted in excessive sediment in the tributaries and river system eventually resulting in sand deposition on the floodplain, increased overbank flooding, a rise in the groundwater table, and ponding of upstream timber. Our objectives were to: (1) determine the composition of floodplain vegetation communities along the degraded river reach, (2) to isolate relationships among these communities, geomorphic features, and environmental variables and (3) evaluate successional changes based on current stand conditions. Vegetation communities were not specifically associated with predefined geomorphic features; nevertheless, hydrologic and geomorphic processes as a result of channelization have clearly affected vegetation communities. The presence of valley plugs and continued degradation of upstream reaches and tributaries on the impacted study reach has arrested recovery of floodplain plant communities. Historically common species like Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Quercus spp. L. were not important, with importance values (IV) less than 1, and occurred in less than 20% of forested plots, while Acer rubrum L., a disturbance-tolerant species, was the most important species on the site (IV = 78.1) and occurred in 87% of forested plots. The results of this study also indicate that channelization impacts on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River are more temporally and spatially complex than previously described for other river systems. Rehabilitation of this system necessitates a long-term, landscape-scale solution that addresses watershed rehabilitation in a spatially and temporally hierarchical manner. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Oswalt, S. N.; King, S. L.

2005-01-01

440

Evidence of a Lunar Gravitation Cue on Timing of Estuarine Entry by Pacific Salmon Smolts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a 4-year tagging study of the migration behavior of Pacific salmon smolts indicate an effect of lunar gravitation on the time of saltwater entry at an artificial tidal barrier. We used passive integrated transponders to tag several populations of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, coho salmon O. kisutch, and sockeye salmon O. nerka, including hatchery and wild Chinook

Paul DeVries; Fred Goetz; Kurt Fresh; David Seiler

2004-01-01

441

WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR LOCAL COHO SALMON ENHANCEMENT IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmon restoration and enhancement are dominant environmental policy issues in Oregon and Washington. In response to salmon species listings under the Endangered Species Act, salmon protection and recovery actions are being implemented throughout the Pacific Northwest at substantial opportunity costs. In this paper, we examine the willingness to pay (WTP) of coastal residents for local coho salmon enhancement programs. A

Rebecca L. Johnson; Daniel D. Huppert; Kathleen P. Bell

2003-01-01

442

8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, METAL RAILINGS, AND PORTION OF EAST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

443

55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER HOUSE AND FLUME VISIBLE TO RIGHT, TAILRACE RUNNING THROUGH CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. CRADLE TO INCLINED PLANE 3 EAST IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

444

Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

US DOE /Nevada Operations Office

1999-09-01

445

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

USDOE NV

1999-09-01

446

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

USDOE /NV

1999-09-01

447

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 1  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

USDOE /NV

1999-09-01

448

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 3  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

USDOE /NV

1999-09-01

449

Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 4  

SciTech Connect

This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the installation of a water supply system that will provide potable water to the site and residence in the proximity to the site; (2) continued maintenance of surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions; and (3) continue to implement the long-term hydrologic monitoring program. The Salmon Site will be relinquished the State of Mississippi as mandated by Public Law 104-201-September 23, 1996, to be used as a demonstration forest/wildlife refuge. Should the land use change in the future and/or monitoring information indicates a change in the site conditions, the DOE will reassess the risk impacts to human health and the environment.

USDOE /NV

1999-09-01

450

Pathogenesis of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis in Atlantic Salmon ('Salmo salar').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry and yearling were found to undergo an active but subclinical infection following exposure to infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus. Eight-week-old Atlantic salmon fry were fed live virus and the mortality and virus c...

R. N. Swanson J. H. Gillespie

1979-01-01

451

Scour of Chinook Salmon Redds on Suction Dredge Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured scour of the redds of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on dredge tailings and natural substrates in three tributaries of the Klamath River, California. We measured maximum scour with scour chains and net scour by surveying before and after high winter flows. Scour of chinook salmon redds lo- cated on dredge tailings exceeded scour of redds on natural substrates,

Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

1999-01-01

452

Pacific Northwest Salmon: Forecasting Their Status in 2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a “population”) have declined and some have disappeared. Substantial efforts have been made to restore some runs of wild salmon, but few have shown much success. Society's failure to

Robert T. Lackey

2003-01-01

453

Evaluating Benchmarks of Population Status for Pacific Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is developing an indicator approach for assessing the biological status of conservation units of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. under its Wild Salmon Policy that is based, in part, on the abundance of adult fish. Two benchmarks will be used to place populations in one of three abundance categories. The lower benchmark is proposed to be at a level that

Carrie A. Holt; Michael J. Bradford

2011-01-01

454

Reproductive Performance of Growth-Enhanced Transgenic Coho Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive performances of growth-enhanced transgenic, hatchery, and cultured nontransgenic coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were examined to investigate the consequences of reproductive interaction between growth hormone (GH)–transgenic fish and wild fish that may occur if transgenic salmon escaped into the natural environment. We examined adult morphological phenotypes, gamete quantity and quality, in vitro offspring production, courtship and spawning behavior, male

Cindy Bessey; Robert H. Devlin; N. Robin Liley; Carlo A. Biagi

2004-01-01

455

ESTIMATING THE SIZE OF HISTORICAL COASTAL OREGON SALMON RUNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Increasing the abundance of salmon in Oregon's rivers and streams is a high priority public policy objective. Salmon runs have been reduced from pre-development conditions (typically defined as prior to the 1850s), but it is unclear by how much. Considerable public and private ...

456

UTILIZATION OF SALMON BY-PRODUCTS IN RURAL ALASKA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marine fishing operations in Alaska may be discarding up to 60% of their landed weight as processing waste. Solutions to this problem may be found by examining traditional Alaskan methods for utilizing salmon by-products. This preliminary Salmon By-Product survey was conducted at the 2005 Yukon 800 ...

457

Salmon spawning migration: Metabolic shifts and environmental triggers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale functional genomics study revealed shifting metabolic processes in white muscle during the final 1300 km migration of wild sockeye salmon to their spawning grounds in the Fraser River, British Columbia. In 2006, Lower Adams stock sockeye salmon ceased feeding after passing the Queen Charlotte Islands, 850 km from the Fraser River. Enhanced protein turnover and reduced transcription of actin, muscle

Kristina M. Miller; Angela D. Schulze; Norma Ginther; Shaorong Li; David A. Patterson; Anthony P. Farrell; Scott G. Hinch

2009-01-01

458

Impaired health of juvenile Pacific salmon migrating through contaminated estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and other chemical contaminants in tissues, fluids and stomach contents while utilizing contaminated estuaries of Puget Sound during their out-migration from fresh water to open ocean. Field studies show that they have impaired health (reduced immunocompetence, increased mortality after disease challenge, reduced growth) resulting

T. Collier; M. Arkoosh; E. Casillas; M. Myers; C. Stehr; J. Meador; J. Stein

2000-01-01

459

RESTORING SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: LEGACIES, CHOICES, AND TRAJECTORIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The general policy goal of protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's fou...

460

Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Juvenile and adult chum salmon were monitored in fiscal year 2001 to continue evaluating factors limiting production. Total adult salmon caught (in weirs or by carcass surveys) in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs in 2000 was 25 and 130 fish, respectively....

T. A. Hoffman

2001-01-01