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1

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan EAST FORK LEWIS II, 13-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

, incidentally affect ESA-listed East Fork Lewis fish. Key ecological interactions of concern include effects 1902 and 1952, have had lasting effects on basin hydrology, sediment transport, soil conditions, mining, rural residential development, and some timber harvest. The upper portion of the basin, much

2

Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council

Ralph

1995-01-01

3

Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council gave the responsibility of developing this project to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. This Model Watershed Plan is intended to be a dynamic plan that helps address these two tasks. It is not intended to be the final say on either. It is also not meant to establish laws, policies, or regulations for the agencies, groups, or individuals who participated in the plan development.

Swift, Ralph

1995-11-01

4

Hydraulic geometry and sediment data for the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho, 1985-86  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic geometry, suspended-sediment, and bedload samples were collected at three sites in the upper reach of the South Fork Salmon River drainage basin from April 1985 to June 1986. Sites selected were South Fork Salmon River near Krassel Ranger Station, Buckhorn Creek, and North Fork Lick Creek. Results of the data collection are presented in this report.

Williams, Rhea P.; O'Dell, Ivalou; Megahan, Walter F.

1989-01-01

5

STREAM CHANNEL SEDIMENT CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTH FORK SALMON RIVER, IDAHO, PROGRESS REPORT IV, JUNE 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the South Fork Salmon River (17060208) studies is to determine the condition of the aquatic environment and provide measures needed to maintain or enhance this environment. Prior to 1965, the South Fork Salmon River steadily degraded in quality, due to acceleratio...

6

Changes in Salmon Spawning and Rearing Habitat from Increased Delivery of Fine Sediment to the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of surface and subsurface fine sediment (<4.75 mm in diameter) were measured annually from 1965 to 1985 in spawning and rearing areas for chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) in the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Between 1950 and 1965, logging and road construction, in combination with large storm events of 1964 and 1965,

William S. Platts; Richard J. Torquemada; Michael L. McHenry; Charles K. Graham

1989-01-01

7

Needs assessment for the Greenway Grand Forks-East Grand Forks development and public education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the flood of 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks (the Greenway) as a flood control measure for Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It extends along both the Red River of the North and the Red Lake River, encompassing 2200 acres of land. The cities of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks hired consultants to assist with the postflood planning process. The planning process culminated with the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine if the development of the Greenway addressed the objectives of the planning report. The history of the land adjacent to the rivers was reviewed to document the progression of riverfront development. Anecdotal evidence was collected, field observations were made, city council minutes were reviewed, Greenway Technical Committee members were interviewed, Greenway Technical Committee minutes were reviewed, and the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks survey results were reviewed to determine if the objectives of the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report were addressed. A cross section survey was designed by Laura Munski for this dissertation research. The survey was approved by the Greenway Technical Committee. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data from the community. The purpose of the survey portion of the research project was to ascertain how residents were kept informed of activities on the Greenway and what amenities residents were using on the Greenway and to solicit their comments regarding the Greenway. The results of the survey research were used in both marketing and event planning for the Greenway. The singular qualitative survey question gave respondents an opportunity to share their comments regarding the Greenway. The qualitative data analysis provided insight to the amenities and educational programs desired by respondents, their concerns regarding the Greenway, and the limitations of public knowledge regarding the Greenway. The Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998) stated that the Greenway could be an excellent resource for supplementing educational curriculums. Greenways provide outdoor classrooms for both formal and informal education. The educational opportunities of other North American greenways were investigated and compared to the educational opportunities of the Greenway.

Munski, Laura

8

South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment activities that move toward road decommissioning to reduce sediment delivery to spawning gravels and rearing habitats by reducing sedimentation from road related, man-made sources. For FY08, the project included the design and implementation of two fish barrier replacement structures mentioned above, the Salt and Profile Creek Bridges. These work elements were to be implemented on Valley County easements within the Payette National Forest. The existing culverts are full or partial barriers to most aquatic life species and all juvenile anadromous and resident fish species. Implementation will reconnect 9.34 miles of habitat, and provide natural stream channels to facilitate complete passage for all aquatic life forms. All designs were completed and a construction subcontract was awarded to construct free span, pre-cast concrete bridges. For 2008, the project statement of work also included all the necessary work elements to manage, coordinate, plan, and develop continuing strategies for restoration and protection activities.

Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

2009-04-15

9

Anadronous Fish Habitat Enhancement for the Middle Fork and Upper Salmon River, 1988 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The wild and natural salmon and steelhead populations in the Middle Fork and Upper Salmon River are at a critical low. Habitat enhancement through decreasing sediment loads, increasing vegetative cover, removing passage barriers, and providing habitat diversity is imperative to the survival of these specially adapted fish, until passage problems over the Columbia River dams are solved. Personnel from the Boise and Sawtooth National Forests completed all construction work planned for 1988. In Bear Valley, 1573 feet of juniper revetment was constructed at eleven sites, cattle were excluded from 1291 feet of streambanks to prevent bank breakdown, and a small ephemeral gully was filled with juniper trees. Work in the Upper Salmon Drainage consisted of constructing nine rock sills/weirs, two rock deflectors, placing riprap along forty feet of streambank, construction of 2.1 miles of fence on private lands, and opening up the original Valley Creek channel to provide spring chinook passage to the upper watershed. A detailed stream survey of anadromous fish habitat covering 72.0 miles of streams in the Middle Fork Sub-basin was completed.

Andrews, John ( US Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Boise, ID)

1990-01-01

10

Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils  

SciTech Connect

The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child`s digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative.

Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.

1995-05-01

11

Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit.

NONE

1996-04-01

12

Mercury contamination in the riparian zones along the East Fork Poplar Creek at Oak Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak Ridge (Tennessee, USA) has a history of mercury (Hg) contamination in its aquatic and soil environment associated with past nuclear-weapons production activities at its Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Three different riparian zones along the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek were investigated in order to study Hg distribution and transformation in surface soils. The surface soil samples collected from

P. Pant; M. Allen; B. Tansel

2011-01-01

13

Time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River, November 1975; and Elm Fork Trinity River, December 1975; Trinity River Basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In Texas, the time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River and the Elm Fork Trinity River was determined in 1975 by injecting a fluorescent dye (Rhodamine WT, 20-percent solution) that could be detected by fluorometric analysis of water samples collected at selected downstream sites. Plots of dye concentration versus time were made for each injection and sampling site. The graphs were then used to determine arrival times of the leading edge, the peak, and the trailing edge of the dye cloud. The study in November 1975 was conducted on the East Fork Trinity River from just below the Rockwall-Forney Dam at Lake Ray Hubbard to the confluence with the Trinity River, a distance of 27.0 miles. The study in December 1975 was conducted on the Elm Fork Trinity River from just below the dam at Lewisville Lake to the Spur 482 crossing, a distance of 25.7 miles. (Woodard-USGS)

Myers, Dennis R.; Slade, R. M., Jr.

1976-01-01

14

Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Energy conservation and recreation appendix, public involvement appendix. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Corps of Engineers Urban Study Program is to provide planning assistance to local interests in a variety of water resource areas. The St. Paul District conducted the Grand Forks-East Grand Forks (GF/EGF) Urban Water Resources Study which was a cooperative effort among local, state and federal agencies. Primary attention was given to flood control, water supply and wastewater management; supporting investigations addressed recreation and energy conservation. The recreation investigation consists of the leisure time analysis conducted in stage 2 of the urban study by the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Department of the Interior. The leisure time analysis compared the study area's recreational needs to the available and planned facilities and identified unsatisfied needs. The thermography investigation was conducted in spring 1978 in response to the public's growing awareness of energy conservation and the Corps' desire to make the public aware of the urban study in a meaningful, useful fashion. The investigation consisted of aerial infrared photography, public displays of photographs, and distribution of information on energy saving practices. This investigation was a one-time effort with no plans for follow-up.

Not Available

1981-07-01

15

Predicted climate change effects on streambed scour and risks to Chinook salmon survival in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to recent climate warming trends in the Pacific Northwest, the frequency and magnitude of winter floods is expected to increase in some areas where rain-on-snow events occur. Eggs of fall spawning salmonids are incubating in the streambed at this time of year and may be at risk if streambed scour exceeds typical egg burial depths. We investigated how projected trends in streamflow associated with climate change may alter the probability of streambed scour below documented egg burial depths (15-50 cm) for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), central Idaho. Predictions are made for the magnitude and timing of current and future bankfull flows (approximated by the 2-year flood, Q2) at the basin scale by coupling digital elevation models with empirical predictions of grain size and bankfull shear stress, determined from field surveys of 120 channel reaches distributed throughout the basin. Historic and future values of Q2 were derived from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model at the scale of 1/16th degree cells. Future predictions of Q2 were derived from the VIC model using output from an ensemble of Global Climate Models under an A1B emissons scenario for the 2040s and 2080s. Predicted changes in both bankfull flow and the probability of scour to egg burial depths were examined at recent spawning sites (1995-2004 surveys) to assess ecological risk. We found that in the low gradient reaches (Slope <3%) where most spawning occurs, the probability of critical scour was consistently <0.1 under the historic scenario. Future scenarios indicated only a small increase in the length of streams subject to scour in the MFSR, and suggested that this high-elevation system could be largely resistant to climate-driven changes in flow, except under extreme warming scenarios. We are currently extending these analyses to lower elevation basins in rain-dominated and transitional (rain and snow) hydroclimates to assess relative scour sensitivities over a wider range of environmental conditions across the Pacific Northwest.

Goode, J.; Buffington, J. M.; Tonina, D.; Isaak, D.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Wenger, S.; Thurow, R.; Nagel, D.; Luce, C.

2011-12-01

16

Stream-Sediment Geochemistry in Mining-Impacted Drainages of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Custer County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This reconnaissance study was undertaken at the request of the USDA Forest Service, Region 4, to assess the geochemistry, in particular the mercury and selenium contents, of mining-impacted sediments in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River in Custer County Idaho. The Yankee Fork has been the site of hard-rock and placer mining, primarily for gold and silver, starting in the 1880s. Major dredge placer mining from the 1930s to 1950s in the Yankee Fork disturbed about a 10-kilometer reach. Mercury was commonly used in early hard-rock mining and placer operations for amalgamation and recovery of gold. During the late 1970s, feasibility studies were done on cyanide-heap leach recovery of gold from low-grade ores of the Sunbeam and related deposits. In the mid-1990s a major open-pit bulk-vat leach operation was started at the Grouse Creek Mine. This operation shut down when gold values proved to be lower than expected. Mercury in stream sediments in the Yankee Fork ranges from below 0.02 ppm to 7 ppm, with the highest values associated with old mill locations and lode and placer mines. Selenium ranges from below the detection limit for this study of 0.2 ppm to 4 ppm in Yankee Fork sediment samples. The generally elevated selenium content in the sediment samples reflect the generally high selenium contents in the volcanic rocks that underlie the Yankee Fork and the presence of gold and silver selenides in some of the veins that were exploited in the early phases of mining.

Frost, Thomas P.; Box, Stephen E.

2009-01-01

17

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1990 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

Rowe, Mike

1991-12-01

18

Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon?s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

19

An identification of the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The work in this report was conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, during the period November 1991 through July 1992. The purpose of this study is to identify the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain. This information is required as part of the remedial action plans for removal or containment of contamination within the EFPC floodplain. EFPC and a portion of its floodplain have been contaminated as a result of operations and accidental releases at the Department of Energy`s Y-12 Plant. Mercury is the major contaminant found in EFPC and its floodplain.

NONE

1992-12-01

20

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, SALMON RIVER, MAIN STEM (HEADWATERS TO BELOW MIDDLE FORK), IDAHO, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Fifteen water quality stations in the Salmon River Basin (17060201, 17060203) were sampled bi-weekly for a year. Eight of the stations were on the Main Salmon River and the remaining seven represented the major tributaries. This portion of the study extended from Stanley to bel...

21

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-10-01

22

76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...resilient conditions to this fire adapted landscape. This...drainage, and to address forest health conditions that are...gain enrollment as a ``Fire-Wise Community'' in...Salmon-Challis National Forest for this project...

2011-08-03

23

Monitoring, Modeling, and Emergent Toxicology in the East Fork Watershed: Developing a Test Bed for Water Quality Management.  

EPA Science Inventory

Overarching objectives for the development of the East Fork Watershed Test Bed in Southwestern Ohio include: 1) providing research infrastructure for integrating risk assessment and management research on the scale of a large multi-use watershed (1295 km2); 2) Focusing on process...

24

Postremediation monitoring program baseline assessment report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) and its floodplain are contaminated with mercury (Hg) from ongoing and historical releases from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. In response to the Record of Decision, soil contaminated with merc...

M. S. Greeley, T. L. Ashwood, L. A. Kszos, M. J. Peterson, C. D. Rash

1998-01-01

25

The role of episodic fire-related debris flows on long-term (103-104) sediment yields in the Middle Fork Salmon River Watershed, in central Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic fire-related debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment and large woody debris to streams. This study evaluates fire-related sedimentation from small steep tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR) in central Idaho to evaluate the timing, frequency, and magnitude of episodic fire-related sedimentation on long-term (10 3-10 4) sediment yields. The MFSR lies within the Northern Rocky Mountains

K. E. Riley; J. L. Pierce; A. Hopkins

2010-01-01

26

An inventory of wetlands in the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

An inventory of wetlands within the floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee was conducted during October, 1991 through May, 1992 for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District. About 15 miles of EFPC channel and 500 acres of its floodplain are contaminated with mercury and other contaminants released from the Y-12 Plant on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The wetland inventory will serve as baseline information for DOE`s remedial action planning and National Environmental Policy Act compliance efforts related to the contamination. In order to provide broad wetland determinations beyond which future wetland definitions are unlikely to expand, the 1989 Federal Manual for Identifying And Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands was utilized. Using the manual`s methodology in a contaminated system under the approved health and safety plan presented some unique problems, resulting in intrusive sampling for field indicators of hydric soils being accomplished separately from observation of other criteria. Beginning with wetland areas identified on National Wetland Inventory Maps, the entire floodplain was examined for presence of wetland criteria, and 17 wetlands were identified ranging from 0.01 to 2.81 acres in size. The majority of wetlands identified were sized under 1 acre. Some of the wetlands identified were not delineated on the National Wetland Inventory Maps, and much of the wetland area delineated on the maps did not meet the criteria under the 1989 manual.

NONE

1992-12-01

27

Data for calibrating unsteady-flow sediment-transport models, East Fork River, Wyoming, 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1975, data to calibrate a one-dimensional unsteady-flow and sediment-transport routing model were collected on a reach of the East Fork River of western Wyoming. The reach, 3.1 miles in length, was immediately upstream from a previously established bedload sampling station. Nineteen channel cross sections were sounded at regular intervals during the spring-runoff period. Four stage recorders provided continuous records of water-surface elevations. Samples of bed material at most of the cross sections were obtaind prior to high water. Streamflow and sediment-discharge measurements were collected at four of the sections. The physiography and hydrology of the contributing watershed, the study reach, and the equipment and techniques used in data collection are described. The bulk of the report is a presentation of data for late May to early June 1975, for which concurrent water discharge data, bedload transport and size data, and cross-section depth measurements were collected. In addition, some data collected in 1973 and 1974 and before and after the calibration period in 1975 are included. (Woodard-USGS)

Mahoney, Holly A.; Andrews, E.D.; Emmett, W.W.; Leopold, L.B.; Meade, R.W.; Myrick, R.M.; Nordin, C.F.

1976-01-01

28

Distribution of contaminants in aquatic organisms from East Fork Popular Creek.  

PubMed

The ecological risk assessment of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, investigated the nature and magnitude of the observed or expected adverse effects of the site's organic and inorganic contaminants on the ecosystem structure and function. Aquatic biota such as benthic macroinvertebrates, crayfish (Astacidae), redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), and stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum), representative of various habitats, were sampled for whole-body contaminant analysis. The whole-body residue analysis of the representative aquatic organisms revealed the presence of over 50 contaminants in varying proportions. The relative whole-body distribution of organic contaminants such as mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticides was comparable among the indicator organisms. The relative whole-body distribution of inorganic contaminants was, however, less consistent. Physicochemical variables characteristic of organic contaminants--such as long octanol/water partition coefficient (log KOW), log aqueous solubility, and log bioconcentration factors (log BCF), and chemical uptake efficiency (E) unique for the organisms sampled for chemical analysis--were used to explain the observed whole-body distribution of contaminants in the aquatic organisms from EFPC. PMID:8744923

Rao, V R; Mitz, S V; Hadden, C T; Cornaby, B W

1996-02-01

29

Some Effects of Mt. St. Helens Volcanic Ash on Juvenile Salmon Smolts  

E-print Network

East, Seattle, WA981l2. ABSTRA CT-Chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and sockeye, O. nerka, salmon. St. Helens occurred during the seaward migration of juvenile Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp. tshawytscha, smolts (mean fork length = 129 ± 13 mm) were obtained from the Leavenworth Na- tional Fish

30

Those Dammed Flat-bottomed Alpine Valleys III: The East Fork of the San Juan River, Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual field trip takes students to the East Fork of the San Juan River east of Pagosa Springs, Colorado, and west of the Continental Divide. Photos, written narrative, and thought questions for students explain how a landslde once blocked the river, creating a broad floodplain in what is otherwise mountainous terrain. There is also a brief discussion of how the sediments (sands and gravels) in the valley act to moderate the flow of the river by storing water from heavy rains or snowfall, which then drains out during times of drought, keeping water flowing in the stream.

31

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-10-18

32

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-04-18

33

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-07-18

34

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Northern Water Snakes ( Nerodia sipedon ) from East Fork Poplar Creek and the Little River, East Tennessee, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the blood, kidney, liver, muscle, and skin of northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) collected from the upper reach of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the United States Department of Energy’s (USDOE’s) Y-12 National Security Complex with concentrations in tissues of northern water snakes from a

K. R. Campbell; T. S. Campbell; J. Burger

2005-01-01

35

Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

2001-01-19

36

Baseline and Postremediation Monitoring Program Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements to present the plan for baseline and postremediation monitoring as part of the selected remedy. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the requirements to monitor for soil and terrestrial biota in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain; sediment, surface water, and aquatic biota in LEFPC; wetland restoration in the LEFPC floodplain; and human use of shallow groundwater wells in the LEFPC floodplain for drinking water. This document describes the monitoring program that will ensure that actions taken under Phases I and II of the LEFPC remedial action are protective of human health and the environment.

NONE

1996-04-01

37

Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of post-breach reservoir erosion and of geomorphic recovery from the disturbances produced by dam removal has been rapid, far exceeding pre-breach predictions.Table 1: Comparison of Milltown and Condit Dam removals

Wilcox, A. C.

2012-12-01

38

Mercury and selenium concentrations in biofilm, macroinvertebrates, and fish collected in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and their potential effects on fish health.  

PubMed

The Yankee Fork is a large tributary of the Salmon River located in central Idaho, USA, with an extensive history of placer and dredge-mining activities. Concentrations of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in various aquatic trophic levels were measured in the Yankee Fork during 2001 and 2002. Various measurements of fish health were also performed. Sites included four on the mainstem of the Yankee Fork and two off-channel sites in partially reclaimed dredge pools used as rearing habitat for cultured salmonid eggs and fry. Hg concentrations in whole mountain whitefish and shorthead sculpin ranged from 0.28 to 0.56 ?g/g dry weight (dw), concentrations that are generally less than those reported to have significant impacts on fish. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.05 to 0.43 ?g Hg/g dw. Se concentrations measured in biota samples from the Yankee Fork were greater than many representative samples collected in the Snake and Columbia watersheds and often exceeded literature-based toxic thresholds. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.58 to 4.66 ?g Se/g dw. Whole fish ranged from 3.92 to 7.10 ?g Se/g dw, and gonads ranged from 6.91 to 31.84 ?g Se/g dw. Whole-body Se concentrations exceeded reported toxicological thresholds at three of four sites and concentrations in liver samples were mostly greater than concentrations shown to have negative impacts on fish health. Histological examinations performed during this study noted liver abnormalities, especially in shorthead sculpin, a bottom-dwelling species. PMID:23080409

Rhea, Darren T; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; McConnell, Elizabeth; Brumbaugh, William G

2013-01-01

39

Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek remedial action project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has three major operating facilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee: the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the K-25 Site, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed by Lockheed Martin Environmental Research Corporation. All facilities are managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (Energy Systems) for the DOE. The Y-12 Plant is adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge and is also upstream from Oak Ridge along East Fork Poplar Creek. The portion of the creek downstream from the Y-12 Plant is Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC). This project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the LEFPC floodplain, transport the soils to Industrial Landfill V (ILF-V), and restore any affected areas. This project contains areas that were designated in 1989 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site. The site includes DOE property and portions of commercial, residential, agricultural, and miscellaneous areas within the city of Oak Ridge.

NONE

1996-08-01

40

Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The East Fork Regime encompasses several confirmed and suspected sources of groundwater contamination within industrialized areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Groundwater and surface water monitoring in the East Fork Regime are performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the East Fork Regime issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) on August 30, 1996. The post-closure permit addresses post-closure monitoring requirements for two closed RCRA-regulated surface impoundments: the S-3 Ponds and New Hope Pond.

NONE

1997-02-01

41

The 1980 Polallie Creek debris flow and subsequent dam-break flood, East Fork Hood River basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At approximately 9 p.m. on December 25, 1980, intense rainfall and extremely wet antecedent conditions combined to trigger a landslide of approximately 5,000 cubic yards at the head of Polallie Creek Canyon on the northeast flank of Mount Hood. The landslide was transformed rapidly into a debris flow, which surged down the channel at velocities between about 40 and 50 ft/s, eroding and incorporating large volumes of channel fill and uprooted vegetation. When it reached the debris fan at the confluence with the East Fork Hood River, the debris flow deposited approximately 100,000 cubic yards of saturated, poorly sorted debris to a maximum thickness of 35 ft, forming a 750-ft-long temporary dam across the channel. Within approximately 12 minutes, a lake of 85 acre-feet formed behind the blockage, breached the dam, and sent a flood wave down the East Fork Hood River. The combined debris flow and flood resulted in one fatality and over $13 million in damage to a highway, bridges, parks, and a water-supply pipeline. Application of simple momentum- and energy-balance equations, and uniform flow equations resulted in debris flow peak discharges ranging from 50,000 ft3/s to 300,000 ft3/s at different locations in the Polallie Creek Canyon. This wide range is attributed to temporary damming at the boulder- and log-rich flow front in narrow, curving reaches of the channel. When the volume of the solid debris was subtracted out, assuming a minimum peak debris-flow discharge of 100,000 ft3/s at the canyon mouth, a minimum peak-water discharge of 40,000 ft3/s was obtained. A computer dam-break model simulated peak flow for the outbreak flood on the East Fork Hood River in the range of 20,000 to 30,000 ft3/s using various breach shapes and durations of breach between 5 and 15 minutes. A slope conveyance computation 0.25 mi downstream from the dam gave a peak water discharge (solids subtracted out) for the debris-laden flood of 12,000 to 20,000 ft3/s, depending on the channel roughness coefficient selected.

Gallino, Gary L.; Pierson, Thomas C.

1984-01-01

42

Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

NONE

1996-04-01

43

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part III, river hydraulics and sediment transport, 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frequent measurements of river stage, water discharge, sediment-transport rate and particle-size gradation, and river slope were made at 44 cross sections along a 1.83-kilometer reach of East Fork River, Wyoming, during the spring 1980 snowmelt runoff. Data are tabulated and explanatory text facilitates its use for description of river hydraulics and sediment transport. (USGS)

Emmett, W.W.; Myrick, R.M.; Meade, R.H.

1982-01-01

44

Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 5. Appendix V-D  

SciTech Connect

This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 5, Appendix V - D. This appendix includes the final verification run data package (PAH, TCLP herbicides, TCLP pesticides).

NONE

1994-09-01

45

Late Cretaceous Middle Fork caldera and its resurgent granite porphyry intrusion, east-central Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Named for the Middle Fork of the North Fork of the Fortymile River, the Middle Fork caldera encompasses a 10 x 20 km area of rhyolite welded tuff and granite porphyry ~100 km west of the Yukon border. Intracaldera tuff has ?4 mm quartz and feldspar phenocrysts and cm-sized fiamme; its maximum exposed thickness is 850 m. Less densely welded tuff near the caldera margins locally contains 1-2 cm K-feldspar megacrysts and pumice clasts to 6 cm. Zircon from intracaldera tuff yields a SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age of 68.7 ± 1.1 Ma (all ages 95% confidence). Granite porphyry occupies much of an 8 x 12 km area having 650 m of relief within the western part of the caldera fill. Zircon from the porphyry gives a SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age of 68.4 ± 1.0 Ma. These ages agree with a previous 40Ar/39Ar biotite age of 69.1 ± 0.5 Ma for proximal outflow tuff. The crystal-rich intracaldera tuff contains embayed quartz, plagioclase>K-feldspar, biotite, and Fe-Ti oxide phenocrysts in a very fine-grained crystalline groundmass. The porphyry carries 40-50% of larger phenocrysts of the same phases (skeletal quartz to 1 cm; K-feldspar to 2 cm, rarely to 4 cm) in a fine-grained groundmass characterized by abundant 50-100 ?m quartz. Compositions of 3 tuff and 3 porphyry samples overlap, form a limited differentiation series at 69-72% SiO2, have arc geochemical signatures, and yield subparallel chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns with light REE enrichment, concave-upward heavy REE, and small negative Eu anomalies. Although their phenocrysts differ in size (owing to fragmentation of crystals in the tuff) and abundance, the similar mineralogy, composition (in spite of crystal concentration in the tuff), and indistinguishable ages of the tuff and porphyry indicate that the magmas were closely related. A rare magmatic enclave (54% SiO2, arc geochemical signature) in the porphyry may be similar to parental magma and provides evidence of mafic magma and thermal input. The porphyry is interpreted to have been exposed by erosion of thick intracaldera tuff from an asymmetric resurgent dome. The Middle Fork of the North Fork of the Fortymile River cuts an arcuate valley into and around the caldera on the west and north, and may have cut down from an original caldera moat. Proximal outflow tuff, and thus the 69 Ma land surface, remains at the west margin of the caldera structure. The Middle Fork caldera lies within a region of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesozoic plutons bounded by northeast-trending faults. To the northwest, Cretaceous plutonic rocks are widely exposed, indicating greater exhumation. The Middle Fork is a relatively well preserved caldera within a broad region of Alaska and adjacent Yukon that contains Late Cretaceous plutons and, in the less deeply exhumed blocks, silicic volcanic rocks.

Bacon, C. R.; Dusel-Bacon, C.; Aleinikoff, J. N.; Slack, J. F.

2012-12-01

46

Long-Term Water-Quality Changes in East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee: Background, Trends, and Potential Biological Consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review long-term changes that have occurred in factors affecting water quality in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC; in East Tennessee) over a nearly 25-year monitoring period. Historically, the stream has received wastewaters and pollutants from a major United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility on the headwaters of the stream. Early in the monitoring program, EFPC was perturbed chemically, especially within its headwaters; evidence of this perturbation extended downstream for many kilometers. The magnitude of this perturbation, and the concentrations of many biologically significant water-quality factors, has lessened substantially through time. The changes in water-quality factors resulted from a large number of operational changes and remedial actions implemented at the DOE facility. Chief among these were consolidation and elimination of many effluents, elimination of an unlined settling/flow equalization basin, reduction in amount of blow-down from cooling tower operations, dechlorination of effluents, and implementation of flow augmentation. Although many water-quality characteristics in upper EFPC have become more similar to those of reference streams, conditions remain far from pristine. Nutrient enrichment may be one of the more challenging problems remaining before further biological improvements occur.

Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.; Loar, James M.

2011-06-01

47

An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

1989-04-01

48

A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for East Fork White River, Bartholomew County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model calibrated to conditions in East Fork White River, Bartholomew County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that benthic-oxygen demand and the headwater concentrations of carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand, nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration of East Fork White River downstream from the Columbus wastewater-treatment facility. The effect of effluent from the facility on the water quality of East Fork White River was minimal. The model also indicates that, with a benthic-oxygen demand of approximately 0.65 gram per square meter per day, the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity during summer low flows. Regardless of the quality of the Columbus wastewater effluent, the minimum 24-hour average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams, would not be met. Ammonia toxicity is not a limiting water-quality criterion during summer and winter low flows. During winter low flows, the current carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Columbus wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard. (USGS)

Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.; Crawford, Charles G.

1979-01-01

49

First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

1992-07-01

50

Postremediation monitoring program baseline assessment report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) and its floodplain are contaminated with mercury (Hg) from ongoing and historical releases from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A remedial investigation and feasibility study of LEFPC resulted in the signing of a Record of Decision (ROD) in August 1995. In response to the ROD, soil contaminated with mercury above 400 mg/kg was removed from two sites in LEFPC and the floodplain during a recently completed remedial action (RA). The Postremediation Monitoring Program (PMP) outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan was envisioned to occur in two phases: (1) a baseline assessment prior to remediation and (2) postremediation monitoring. The current report summarizes the results of the baseline assessment of soil, water, biota, and groundwater usage in LEFPC and its floodplain conducted in 1995 and 1996 by personnel of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). This report also includes some 1997 data from contaminated sites that did not undergo remediation during the RA (i.e., sites where mercury is greater than 200 mg/kg but less than 400 mg/kg). The baseline assessment described in this document is distinct and separate from both the remedial investigation/feasibility study the confirmatory sampling conducted by SAIC during the RA. The purpose of the current assessment was to provide preremediation baseline data for the LEFPC PMP outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan, using common approaches and techniques, as specified in that plan.

Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Ashwood, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Rash, C.D.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc. (United States)

1998-04-01

51

Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

NONE

1994-09-01

52

Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek  

SciTech Connect

As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

1993-06-01

53

Data that describe at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload; East Fork River, Wyoming, and Fall River, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data from the East Fork River, Wyoming, and the Fall River, Colorado, that document at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload, associated with the downstream migration of dunes, are presented. Bedload sampling was undertaken, using a 76.2 x 76.2 mm Helley-Smith sampler, on three separate occasions at each site in June 1988. In each instance, the sampling time was 30 seconds and the sampling intervals 5 minutes. The sampling period ranged from 4.92 to 8.25 hours. Water stage did not vary appreciably during any of the sampling periods. (USGS)

Gomez, Basil; Emmett, W.W.

1990-01-01

54

A description of the hydrologic system and the effects of coal mining on water quality in the East Fork Little Chariton River and the alluvial aquifer between Macon and Huntsville, north-central Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of surface and groundwater has been affected by abandoned strip mines and by abandoned underground mines in a 110-sq mi subbasin of the East Fork Little Chariton River. More than 14% of the area was strip mined for coal before 1979. The hydrologic system in the area was investigated and the effects of coal mining on quality of water in the river and alluvial aquifer were analyzed, with major emphasis on defining strip-mining effects. The groundwater gradient was from glacial drift or coal spring to alluvium to the East Fork Little Chariton River, and was greatest in spring and least in fall. Seepage from alluvium to the East Fork Little Chariton River occurs throughout the year, except during drought conditions when the only river flow is water released from Long Branch Lake. In the East Fork Little Chariton River median dissolved-solids concentrations increased from 153 mg/L near Macon to 630 mg/L near Huntsville and median sulfate concentrations increased from 36 mg/L near Macon to 360 mg/L near Huntsville. The median dissolved-solids concentration in water from the alluvium increased from 408 mg/L upstream from the strip mines to 641 mg/L near the mines and median dissolved-sulfate concentration increased from 140 to 350 mg/L. The sulfate-to-chloride ratio, used as the most sensitive indicator of strip-mining effects, increased markedly downstream in the East Fork Little Chariton River and nearby Middle Fork Little Chariton River, which also is affected by strip mining. There were no significant increases in sulfate-to-chloride ratio and dissolved-solids concentrations in comparable nearby subbasins of the Grand, Thompson, and Chariton Rivers where there was no mining. (Author 's abstract)

Hall, D. C.

1986-01-01

55

Sources of Mercury to East Fork Poplar Creek Downstream from the Y-12 National Security Complex: Inventories and Export Rates  

SciTech Connect

East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been heavily contaminated with mercury (also referred to as Hg) since the 1950s as a result of historical activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and hereinafter referred to as Y-12). During the period from 1950 to 1963, spills and leaks of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) contaminated soil, building foundations, and subsurface drainage pathways at the site, while intentional discharges of mercury-laden wastewater added 100 metric tons of mercury directly to the creek (Turner and Southworth 1999). The inventory of mercury estimated to be lost to soil and rock within the facility was 194 metric tons, with another estimated 70 metric tons deposited in floodplain soils along the 25 km length of EFPC (Turner and Southworth 1999). Remedial actions within the facility reduced mercury concentrations in EFPC water at the Y-12 boundary from > 2500 ng/L to about 600 ng/L by 1999 (Southworth et al. 2000). Further actions have reduced average total mercury concentration at that site to {approx}300 ng/L (2009 RER). Additional source control measures planned for future implementation within the facility include sediment/soil removal, storm drain relining, and restriction of rainfall infiltration within mercury-contaminated areas. Recent plans to demolish contaminated buildings within the former mercury-use areas provide an opportunity to reconstruct the storm drain system to prevent the entry of mercury-contaminated water into the flow of EFPC. Such actions have the potential to reduce mercury inputs from the industrial complex by perhaps as much as another 80%. The transformation and bioaccumulation of mercury in the EFPC ecosystem has been a perplexing subject since intensive investigation of the issue began in the mid 1980s. Although EFPC was highly contaminated with mercury (waterborne mercury exceeded background levels by 1000-fold, mercury in sediments by more than 2000-fold) in the 1980s, mercury concentrations in EFPC fish exceeded those in fish from regional reference sites by only a little more than 10-fold. This apparent low bioavailability of mercury in EFPC, coupled with a downstream pattern of mercury in fish in which mercury decreased in proportion to dilution of the upstream source, lead to the assumption that mercury in fish would respond to decreased inputs of dissolved mercury to the stream's headwaters. However, during the past two decades when mercury inputs were decreasing, mercury concentrations in fish in Lower EFPC (LEFPC) downstream of Y-12 increased while those in Upper EFPC (UEFPC) decreased. The key assumption of the ongoing cleanup efforts, and concentration goal for waterborne mercury were both called into question by the long-term monitoring data. The large inventory of mercury within the watershed downstream presents a concern that the successful treatment of sources in the headwaters may not be sufficient to reduce mercury bioaccumulation within the system to desired levels. The relative importance of headwater versus floodplain mercury sources in contributing to mercury bioaccumulation in EFPC is unknown. A mercury transport study conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1984 estimated that floodplain sources contributed about 80% of the total annual mercury export from the EFPC system (ORTF 1985). Most of the floodplain inputs were associated with wet weather, high flow events, while much of the headwater flux occurred under baseflow conditions. Thus, day-to-day exposure of biota to waterborne mercury was assumed to be primarily determined by the Y-12 source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of recent studies and monitoring within the EFPC drainage with a focus on discerning the magnitude of floodplain mercury sources and how long these sources might continue to contaminate the system after headwater sources are eliminated or greatly reduced.

Southworth, George R [ORNL; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Floyd, Stephanie B [ORNL

2010-02-01

56

Influence of redox processes and organic carbon on mercury and methylmercury cycling in East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) between 1950- 1963 resulted in contamination of the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) ecosystems. Hg continues to be released into EFPC creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within the Y-12 NSC and outside the facility boundary. In general, methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases. Therefore, our study focuses on ecosystem processes, such as redox driven elemental cycles, sediment characteristics and organic matter quality that favor the production, as well as degradation, of MeHg in the EFPC. Detailed geochemical characterization of the surface water, interstitial pore water, and creek sediments were performed during quarterly sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011 at two locations in EFPC to examine temporal changes in Hg and MeHg concentrations. A longitudinal study of a 20 km portion of the creek and adjacent floodplain was also conducted to examine relationships between Hg, MeHg and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In general, the concentration of Hg decreases downstream as you move away from a know point source of Hg in the system while MeHg concentrations increase in this same reach. Changes in total Hg, both filtered (0.2 ?m) and unfiltered, are not correlated with the concentration or composition of DOM in the system. Significant correlations are observed between dissolved MeHg and absorbent light measurements which reflect the quality of the DOM. The two intensively studied sites in EFPC were located 3.7 km (NOAA) and 20 km (NH) downstream of the headwaters. Vertical profiles of interstitial water collected from fine-grained deposits at the creek margin showed decreases in nitrate, sulfate, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) with depth as well as increases in dissolved manganese, iron, and sulfide. The results indicate the progression of terminal electron accepting processes with depth in the upper 30 cm of these fine grained sediments. Interstitial MeHg concentration also increased with depth suggesting these areas served as a potential source of MeHg to the surface water and biota. In contrast, interstitial water collected from the center channel of the creek did not exhibit these redox gradients. The observed constant or decreasing MeHg concentrations with depth suggest that the interstitial water in the fast flowing sections of the creek is rapidly exchanging with the surface water and these sections do not serve as MeHg sources. Sediment cores were also collected to examine spatial and temporal changes in total Hg and MeHg and ancillary measurements, such as organic carbon, ferrous iron, and sulfide, were performed to examine their correlation with Hg and MeHg in sediments. Large intra- and inter-site variability of Hg distribution in these samples is partly attributed to the very heterogeneous sediment texture that ranged from clay to coarse sand particles. Methylation and demethylation potentials are also being examined using intact sediment cores and enriched stable isotopes to quantify zones of net MeHg production.

Miller, C.; Brooks, S. C.; Kocman, D.; Yin, X.; Bogle, M.

2011-12-01

57

Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

NONE

1995-09-01

58

Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

Konopacky, Richard C.

1986-04-01

59

Post-closure permit application for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime at the Y-12 Plant: New Hope Pond and Eastern S-3 ponds plume. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this Post-Closure, Permit Application (PCPA) is to satisfy the post-closure permitting requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-11. This application is for the entire Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV). This PCPA has been prepared to include the entire East Fork Regime because, although there are numerous contaminant sources within the regime, the contaminant plumes throughout the East Fork Regime have coalesced and can no longer be distinguished as separate plumes. This PCPA focuses on two recognized Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units: New Hope Pond (NHP) and the eastern S-3 Ponds plume. This PCPA presents data from groundwater assessment monitoring throughout the regime, performed since 1986. Using this data, this PCPA demonstrates that NHP is not a statistically discernible source of groundwater contaminants and that sites upgradient of NHP are the likely sources of groundwater contamination seen in the NHP vicinity. As such, this PCPA proposes a detection monitoring program to replace the current assessment monitoring program for NHP.

NONE

1995-02-01

60

An archaeological reconnaissance of a 14 mile section of the East Fork Poplar Creek for the Environmental Restoration Project, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, Nashville, Tennessee, an archaeological reconnaissance of the potential impact areas of the Environmental Restoration Project (ERP) along the East Fork Poplar Creek was conducted during the period December 16, 1991, and March 3, 1992. The reconnaissance was conducted in response to environmental evaluations as a result of the accidental spillage of approximately 293,000 pounds of mercury, radionuclides, heavy metals and other compounds. The reconnaissance to assess adverse impacts to cultural resources located within the boundaries of Federally-licensed, permitted, funded or assisted projects was conducted in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and Executive Order 11593.

DuVall, G.D. [DuVall and Associates, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

1993-01-01

61

Physical Characteristics of Stream Subbasins in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, Southern Minnesota and Northern Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, located in southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

Sanocki, Christopher A.

2000-01-01

62

The role of episodic fire-related debris flows on long-term (103-104) sediment yields in the Middle Fork Salmon River Watershed, in central Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Episodic fire-related debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment and large woody debris to streams. This study evaluates fire-related sedimentation from small steep tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR) in central Idaho to evaluate the timing, frequency, and magnitude of episodic fire-related sedimentation on long-term (10 3-10 4) sediment yields. The MFSR lies within the Northern Rocky Mountains and encompasses a range of ecosystems including high elevation (~3,000 -1,700 m) subalpine pine and spruce forests, mid-elevation (2650 - 1130 m) montane Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine-dominated forests and low elevation (~ 1,800 - 900 m) sagebrush steppe. Recent debris flow events in tributaries of the MFSR appear to primarily result from increased surface runoff, rilling, and progressive sediment bulking following high severity fires. This study estimates: 1) the volume of sediment delivered by four recent (1997-2008) fire-related debris flow events using real time kinematic GPS surveys, and 2) the timing of Holocene fire-related debris flow events determined by 14C dating charcoal fragments preserved in buried burned soils and within fire-related deposits. Our measured volumes of the four recent debris flow events are compared to two empirically derived volume estimates based on remotely sensed spatial data (burn severity and slope), measured geometric data (longitudinal profile, cross sectional area, flow banking angle), and precipitation records. Preliminary stratigraphic profiles in incised alluvial fans suggest that a large percentage of alluvial fan thickness is composed of fire-related deposits suggesting fire-related hillslope erosion is a major process delivering sediment to alluvial fans and to the MFSR. Fire-related deposits from upper basins compose ~71% of total alluvial fan thickness, while fire-related deposits from lower basins make up 36% of alluvial fan thickness. However, lower basins are less densely vegetated with small diameter woody material, which reduces size and preservation of charcoal fragments in lower elevation deposits. We hypothesize that fires burn during dry and/or variable climate conditions; therefore aggradation on alluvial fans, incision and abandonment of fan surfaces, and sediment yields are increased during dry and/or variable climate conditions. Preliminary results indicate that periods of fire and accelerated sedimentation vary with ecosystem type. Lower basins burned ~6500, ~900, and ~400 cal yr BP, while fire in upper basins occurred ~8200, 5400, 3800, 1300, and 500 cal yr BP. These preliminary results suggest different ecosystems respond to different climate drivers. Regional estimates of long-term (6,300 yr) sediment yields derived from cosmogenic nuclides (Kirchner et al., 2001) compared with episodic fire-related sedimentation (Meyer and Pierce 2003) indicate episodic events are orders of magnitude higher than long-term average rates, suggesting that large fire-related debris flows occur on average once every ~400 yr. Determining the timing, frequency, and magnitude of fire-related sedimentation events over the past ~ 8 ka help us assess the impact of episodic fire-related events on long-term (Holocene) average sediment yields in central Idaho.

Riley, K. E.; Pierce, J. L.; Hopkins, A.

2010-12-01

63

SEDIMENT PARTICLE SIZES USED BY SALMON FOR SPAWNING WITH METHODS FOR EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Size composition of substrates used by chinook salmon for spawning in the South Fork Salmon River, the main Salmon River and tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River, ID was determined. Substrates used by resident trout were analyzed for streams in the Boise and Payette River ...

64

Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications  

SciTech Connect

This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites lie within the boundaries of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to ensure protection of local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part I consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part I GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1995 Part I GWQR for the East Fork Regime to the TDEC in February 1996. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality.

NONE

1996-08-01

65

Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several waste-management facilities and a petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) site associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The East Fork Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant, encompasses the Y-12 Plant. The regime extends west from a surface water and shallow groundwater divide located near the west end of the plant to Scarboro Road (directions in this report are in reference to the Y-12 Plant grid system unless otherwise noted). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy.

NONE

1995-02-01

66

Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

None

1999-09-01

67

Field data describing the movement and storage of sediment in the East Fork River, Wyoming; Part I, River hydraulics and sediment transport, 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bed-material gradation and water-surface slope were determined for a 3.3-kilometer reach of East Fork River, Wyo. During peak snowmelt runoff, frequent measurements of water discharge and sediment-transport rate provided data describing the inflow and outflow of water and sediment. In spring 1979, bankfull stage was exceeded on 8 days. Maximum discharge was about 32 cubic meters per second, which has a recurrence interval of about 2 years. The median particle size of bed material is 1.28 millimeters; the 35 and 65 percentiles are represented by diameters of 0.50 and 2.88 millimeters, respectively. The average water-surface slope in the reach is 0.0007 and varies little with river stage. Bedload-transport rates ranged from a little less than 0.001 to a little more than 0.1 kilograms per meter of channel width per second. Median bedload grain size, with several exceptions, ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 millimeters. Gravel-size particles generally constituted 10 to 40% of the bedload. Suspended-sediment concentrations ranged from 6 to 95 milligrams per liter. Suspended sediment smaller than sand constited about half the measured suspended sediment, ranging from 17 to 81%. (USGS)

Emmett, William W.; Myrick, Robert M.; Meade, Robert H.

1980-01-01

68

Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors.

Not Available

1992-02-01

69

Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil.

Morris, M.I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States); Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D. [IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

70

Evaluation of fish kills during November 1986 and July 1987 in upper East Fork Poplar Creek near the Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) investigated two fish kills that occurred on November 21, 1986, and July 9, 1987, in upper East Fork Poplar Creek at the outfall of New Hope Pond (NHP) below the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Investigative procedures included sampling of water at the inlet and outfall of NHP for water quality, examination of operating procedures at the Y-12 Plant and in the biomonitoring program that may have adversely affected the fish populations, review of results of concurrent ambient toxicity tests of the inlet and outfall water of NHP, autopsy investigations of the cause of death of the stonerollers, and laboratory experimentation to evaluate potential causes. The investigations revealed that the cause of death was bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a stress-mediated disease. The specific stressor responsible for the outbreak of the disease was not identified. Several possible stresses were indicated, including elevated concentrations of mercury and chlorine, excessive electroshocking activity, and elevated levels of the pathogen. Cumulative stress due to the combination of several factors was also suggested. Elevated temperatures and overcrowding may have enhanced the spread of the epizootic but were not the primary causes. The impact on the stoneroller population below NHP was not ecologically significant. 23 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Ryon, M.G.; Loar, J.M.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.

1990-09-01

71

Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

Not Available

1993-08-01

72

Geologic map of the Salmon National Forest and vicinity, east-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geology of the Salmon National Forest, Idaho, was compiled from published and unpublished sources and new field mapping by Evans, Lund, Tysdal, and Winkler between 1997 and 2001. The geology was compiled onto 1:100,000-scale topographic base maps for input into a geographic information system (GIS). The digital geologic map database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps.

compiled by Evans, Karl V.; Green, Gregory N.

2003-01-01

73

Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

NONE

1996-08-01

74

Along Middle Fork Road toward North Fork of the Crazy ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Along Middle Fork Road toward North Fork of the Crazy Woman Creek Bridge, view to west - North Fork of Crazy Woman Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Crazy Woman Creek at Middle Fork Road, Buffalo, Johnson County, WY

75

Work plan for support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek east end VOC plumes well installation project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 guidelines and requirements from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the Y-12 Plant initiated investigation and monitoring of various sites within its boundaries in the mid-1980s. The entire Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites within the ORR require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) or an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) of potential remedial actions. Data from monitoring wells at the east end of the Y-12 Plant have identified an area of groundwater contamination dominated by the volatile organic compound (VOC) carbon tetrachloride; other VOCs include chloroform, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene.

NONE

1998-03-01

76

Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications  

SciTech Connect

This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year.

NONE

1994-10-01

77

Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349  

SciTech Connect

In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)] [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

2013-07-01

78

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

79

Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, Basin-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were gathered from May through September 2002 at 76 randomly selected sites in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). Basin characteristics (land use and drainage area) and biolog-ical-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the basin of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Compo-nents Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related using Spearman's rho to the seasonal algal-biomass, basin-charac-teristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, and biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score was not significantly related to the nine habitat or 12 nutrient variables examined. One land-use variable, drainage area, was negatively related to the periphyton PC1. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the periphyton PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent) and one metric score (car-nivore percent metric score). It was positively related to three fish-community attributes (headwater percent, pioneer percent, and simple lithophil percent). The periphyton PC1 was not statistically related to any of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes or metric scores examined. Of the 12 nutrient variables examined two were nega-tively related to the seston PC1 site score in two seasons: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July and September), and TP (May and September). There were no statistically significant relations between the seston PC1 and the five basin-characteristics or nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the seston PC1 was positively related to one attribute (headwater percent) and negatively related to one metric score (large-river percent metric score) . Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metrics exam-ined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one metric score (number of individuals metric score). To understand how the choice of sampling sites might have affected the results, an analysis of the drainage area and land use was done. The sites selected in the Whitewater River Basin were generally small drainage basins; compared to Whitewater River Basin sites, the sites selected in the East Fork White River Basin were generally larger drainage basins. Although both basins were dominated by agricultural land use the Whitewater River Basin sites had more land in agriculture than the East Fork White River Basin sites. The values for nutrients (nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) and chlorophyll a (per-iphyton and seston) were compared to published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) values for Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregions VI and IX and USEPA Level III Ecore-gions 55 and 71. Several nutrient values were greater than the 25th percentile of published USEPA values. Chlorophyll a (periphyton and seston) values were either greater than the 25thpercentile of published USEPA values or they extended data ranges in the Aggregate Nutrient and Level III Ecore-gions. If the values for the 25th percentile as proposes by the USEPA were adopted as nutrient water-quality criteria, many samples in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins would have exceeded the criteria.

Caskey, Brian J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Lowe, B. Scott

2007-01-01

80

Saving the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Students participate in the Salmon in the Schools Program, sponsored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine. Through this collaborative effort, students raise 300 river-specific, wild Atlantic salmon and then release them into the East Machias River at the culminating annual Salmon Release Day Field Trip. In addition to releasing salmon fry into the headwaters of the river, students perform physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the river.

Sprangers, Donald

2004-05-01

81

8. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading crane, manufactured by Cleveland Tramrail, 2-1/2 ton capacity. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

82

9. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading crane, manufactured by Cleveland Tramrail, 2-1/2 ton capacity. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

83

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

Venditti, David A.

2003-10-01

84

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan  

E-print Network

Salmon Subbasin Management Plan May 2004 # # # # # # # # # # # LemhiRiverBig Creek PahsimeroiRiver PantherCreek LittleSalmonRiver RapidRiver E.Fk.SalmonRiver Chamberlain Creek N.Fk. SalmonRiver MidFkSalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver SalmonRiver S.Fk.SalmonRiver Salmon River Salmon River IDAHO LEMHI CUSTER VALLEY

85

1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH FLUME AND CONCRETE DIVERSION DAM SPILLING WATER. CONCRETE ABUTMENTS OF THE ORIGINAL HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE OVER THE NORTH FORK ARE VISIBLE ON EITHER SIDE OF THE DAM. NEW HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE IS VISIBLE ACROSS TOP OF PHOTO. VIEW TO NORTH. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

86

Chapter 6 Chum Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 381  

E-print Network

- Chinook salmon". The category includes chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). As chum salmon represent

87

LIFE HISTORY MONITORING OF SALMONIDS IN THE WEST FORK SMITH RIVER, UMPQUA BASIN, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

As a life-cycle monitoring basin for the Oregon Salmon Plan, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife has estimated adult returns, distribution and smolt outmigration of coho, chinook and winter steelhead in the West Fork Smith River since 1998. In 2001/2002, the Environmenta...

88

Salmon Patch  

MedlinePLUS

... the head. Salmon patches are different from port-wine stains (discussed as a separate topic) in that ... difference between a salmon patch and a port-wine stain. In the past, port-wine stains and ...

89

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

90

SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND MISTAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

91

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

92

Multiscale thermal refugia and stream habitat associations of chinook salmon in northwestern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified distribution and behavior of adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) related to patterns of stream temperature and physical habitat at channel-unit, reach-, and section-level spatial scales in a wilderness stream and a disturbed stream in the John Day River basin in northeastern Oregon. We investigated the effectiveness of thermal remote sensing for analyzing spatial patterns of stream temperature and assessed habitat selection by spring chinook salmon, evaluating whether thermal refugia might be responsible for the persistence of these stocks in rivers where water temperatures frequently exceed their upper tolerance levels (25A?C) during spawning migration. By presenting stream temperature and the ecology of chinook salmon in a historical context, we could evaluate how changes in riverine habitat and thermal spatial structure, which can be caused by land-use practices, may influence distributional patterns of chinook salmon. Thermal remote sensing provided spatially continuous maps of stream temperature for reaches used by chinook salmon in the upper subbasins of the Middle Fork and North Fork John Day River. Electivity analysis and logistic regression were used to test for associations between the longitudinal distribution of salmon and cool-water areas and stream habitat characteristics. Chinook salmon were distributed nonuniformly in reaches throughout each stream. Salmon distribution and cool water temperature patterns were most strongly related at reach-level spatial scales in the warm stream, the Middle Fork (maximum likelihood ratio: P 0.30). Pools were preferred by adult chinook salmon in both subbasins (Bonferroni confidence interval: P a?? 0.05); however, riffles were used proportionately more frequently in the North Fork than in the Middle Fork. Our observations of thermal refugia and their use by chinook salmon at multiple spatial scales reveal that, although heterogeneity in the longitudinal stream temperature profile may be viewed as an ecological warning sign, thermal patchiness in streams also should be recognized for its biological potential to provide habitat for species existing at the margin of their environmental tolerances.

Torgersen, Christian E.; Price, David M.; Li, Hiram W.; McIntosh, B.A.

1999-01-01

93

AL ASK A SALMON alaska Salmon  

E-print Network

189 AL ASK A SALMON UNIT 13 alaska Salmon INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon have played an important and pivotal role in the history of Alaska. Salmon, along with mining, timber, and furs, were the keystone of residents and visitors to Alaska. Alaska native peoples and their heritage have a long, colorful bond

94

PACIFIC COAST SALMON pacific Coast Salmon  

E-print Network

: Chinook, coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon. All are anadromous: they spawn in fresh water and migrate to spawn and complete their life cycle. Coho salmon and most southern U.S. runs of Chinook salmon tend on their spawning migra- tions. Chinook and coho salmon are harvested rec- reationally and commercially

95

Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be intensively monitored. Planners recommended that a combination of natural and hatchery production

Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

2009-06-12

96

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to Eagle Fish Hatchery on September 14, 2004 and later incorporated into hatchery spawn matrices. Nine anadromous females, 102 captive females from brood year 2001, and one captive female from brood year 2000 broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2004. Spawn pairings produced approximately 140,823 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed stage of development averaging 72.8%. Eyed-eggs (49,134), presmolts (130,716), smolts (96), and adults (241) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 2004. Reintroduction strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, five broodstocks and five unique production groups were in culture at Idaho Department of Fish and Game (Eagle Fish Hatchery and Sawtooth Fish Hatchery) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (Oxbow Fish Hatchery) facilities. Two of the five broodstocks were incorporated into the 2004 spawning design.

Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

2006-05-01

97

Directions to the WSU Vancouver campus: 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue  

E-print Network

Directions to the WSU Vancouver campus: Address 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue Vancouver, Washington) and follow 134th Street as it turns into Salmon Creek Avenue. Follow the WSU Vancouver signs to the entrance Street exit. Turn left (east) onto 134th Street and follow as it turns into Salmon Creek Avenue. Follow

Collins, Gary S.

98

Catch Me if You Can: A Projection of Southeast Alaskan Coho Salmon Populations  

E-print Network

Catch Me if You Can: A Projection of Southeast Alaskan Coho Salmon Populations Control Team 51 February 7, 2005 Abstract We model the future of the Coho salmon stock for five rivers in South- east to mimic the Coho life cycle. Our model estimates salmon stocks based on the parameters of initial stock

Morrow, James A.

99

Occurrence and Distribution of Adult Chinook Salmon in the New Zealand Commercial Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the marine distribution of New Zealand adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we analyzed data on chinook salmon taken off the South Island east coast as a bycatch of a commercial fishery dominated by bottom trawling on the continental shelf and slope in depths up to 1,000 m. Chinook salmon, widely but sparsely distributed out to depths of 100

M. J. Unwin; G. D. James

1998-01-01

100

President's House Price's Fork Road  

E-print Network

President's House Price's Fork Road Inn at Virginia Tech and Skelton Conference Center HOKIE BIKE HUB Media Hall Cassell Coliseum Torgersen Hall Center For The Arts Dietrick Hall Rector Field House War Memorial Cowgill Hall Price Hall Life Sciences I Facility Hutcheson Hall Pritchard Hall Hancock Hall Lee Hall

Buehrer, R. Michael

101

Salmon's Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

Shannon, Thomas A.

1994-01-01

102

Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

1997-05-01

103

Areal Distribution of Marked Columbia River Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Recovered in  

E-print Network

.S.S.R. to the Amur River, in- cluding rivers of the continental coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, east and west coastsAreal Distribution of Marked Columbia River Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Recovered in Fisheries of spring chinook salmon of the 1970 and 1971 broods. Anadyr River south along the east coast of the U

104

Abortable Fork-Linearizable Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of emulating a shared read\\/write memory in a message passing system using a storage server prone to\\u000a Byzantine failures. Although cryptography can be used to ensure confidentiality and integrity of the data, nothing can prevent\\u000a a malicious server from returning obsolete data. Fork-linearizability [1] guarantees that if a malicious server hides an update\\u000a of some client

Matthias Majuntke; Dan Dobre; Marco Serafini; Neeraj Suri

2009-01-01

105

6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located on the pipe floor between Unit 3 and Unit 4, the high pressure CO2 tanks are connected to the generator barrel of all four units. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

106

16.-THE SALMON FISHERIES OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN. By MARSHALL McDONALD,  

E-print Network

#12;16.-THE SALMON FISHERIES OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN. By MARSHALL McDONALD, U/titd States, of investigations in the Columbia River Basin. The -first of the provision!'! above referred to authorized be necessary, "In examining the Clarke's Fork of the Columbia River, with the view to ascertain

107

Diel activity pattern of juvenile Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) in early and late winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiotelemetry was used to investigate the diel activity pattern of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in early and late winter. Fish were active throughout the diel cycle. However, there was significantly less daytime than nighttime movement and movement declined significantly with increasing fork length. Maximizing winter growth rate, through an overall increase in foraging activity, may reduce the risk of

M. J. Hiscock; D. A. Scruton; J. A. Brown; C. J. Pennell

2002-01-01

108

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

..................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ...................................................................... 5 2.2 Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).................................................................................... 8 2.3 Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta

109

Assessment of Salmon Stocks  

E-print Network

Annual Assessment of Salmon Stocks and Fisheries in England and Wales 2009 #12;#12;SALMON STOCKS;Acknowledgement: This report has been compiled jointly by staff from the Cefas Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries and assessment of salmon stocks is funded by Defra. Both Cefas and the Environment Agency would like to extend

110

Avoiding chromosome pathology when replication forks collide  

PubMed Central

Chromosome duplication normally initiates via the assembly of replication fork complexes at defined origins1,2. DNA synthesis by any one fork is thought to cease when it meets another travelling in the opposite direction, at which stage the replication machinery may simply dissociate before the nascent strands are finally ligated. But what actually happens is not clear. Here we present evidence consistent with the idea that every fork collision has the potential to threaten genomic integrity. In Escherichia coli this threat is kept at bay by RecG DNA translocase3 and by single-strand DNA exonucleases. Without RecG, replication initiates where forks meet via a replisome assembly mechanism normally associated with fork repair, replication restart and recombination4,5, establishing new forks with the potential to sustain cell growth and division without an active origin. This potential is realised when roadblocks to fork progression are reduced or eliminated. It relies on the chromosome being circular, reinforcing the idea that replication initiation is triggered repeatedly by fork collision. The results reported raise the question of whether replication fork collisions have pathogenic potential for organisms that exploit multiple origins to replicate each chromosome. PMID:23892781

Rudolph, Christian J.; Upton, Amy L.; Stockum, Anna; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Lloyd, Robert G.

2013-01-01

111

Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

None

2010-01-04

112

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assemblage of fossil sockeye salmon was discovered in Pleistocene lake sediments along the South Fork Skokomish River, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The fossils were abundant near the head of a former glacial lake at 115 m elevation. Large adult salmon are concentrated in a sequence of death assemblages that include individuals with enlarged breeding teeth and worn caudal fins indicating migration, nest digging, and spawning prior to death. The specimens were 4 yr old and 45-70 cm in total length, similar in size to modern sockeye salmon, not landlocked kokanee. The fossils possess most of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O. gorbuscha. This suggests the degree of divergence of these species at about 1 million yr ago, when geological evidence indicates the salmon were deposited at the head of a proglacial lake impounded by the Salmon Springs advance of the Puget lobe ice sheet. Surficial geology and topography record a complicated history of glacial damming and river diversion that implies incision of the modern gorge of the South Fork Skokomish River after deposition of the fossil-bearing sediments.

Smith, Gerald R.; Montgomery, David R.; Peterson, N. Phil; Crowley, Bruce

2007-09-01

113

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

114

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

115

Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking west - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

116

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

117

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking southwest - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

118

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

119

Detail perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking southwest - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

120

33 CFR 117.1063 - Willapa River South Fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Willapa River South Fork. 117.1063 Section... § 117.1063 Willapa River South Fork. (a) The draw of the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission bridge across the South Fork Willapa River, mile...

2010-07-01

121

33 CFR 117.1063 - Willapa River South Fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Willapa River South Fork. 117.1063 Section... § 117.1063 Willapa River South Fork. (a) The draw of the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission bridge across the South Fork Willapa River, mile...

2011-07-01

122

9. VIEW EAST, STORAGE BUILDING PIERS Imperial Carbon Black ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW EAST, STORAGE BUILDING PIERS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

123

Effects of Climate Change on White-Water Recreation on the Salmon River, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White-water recreation on the Salmon River generates tens of millions of dollars each summer for central Idaho's economy. This tourism revenue is highly dependent on a healthy snowpack melting throughout the summer to meet minimum streamflow requirements for the rafting industry. A number of previous studies have shown that in a warming climate this vital snowpack will diminish and so will summer streamflows. In areas such as the Middle Fork of the Salmon River this will result in less streamflow in July and August, which are the critical months for the rafting industry. Current estimates approximate that eight percent of scheduled trips are canceled due to low summer streamflows. In this study we project future impacts to white-water recreation in the Salmon River basin, associated with an ensemble of climate change scenarios. The University of Washington's Climate Impacts Group has statistically downscaled 20 GCMs A1B and B1 climate change scenarios from the IPCC 2007 Report. We use these forcings to run the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land-surface model to determine future streamflows for the Pacific Northwest. To verify the likelihood of non-boatable days in the future due to low summer streamflows, we compare this suite of projected results for the Salmon River streamflow to historical streamflows for the Middle Fork and Main Fork Salmon. Preliminary analysis shows a two degree Celsius increase could result in a twenty-five percent cancellation of future Middle Fork trips as a result of low summer streamflows. On the Middle Fork section alone this translates into a two million dollar loss in annual revenue generation for the rafting industry, with impacts stretching deeper into the economy. We also discuss additional costs to the users, the tourist economy and potential analysis for other river systems.

Mickelson, K. E.; Hamlet, A. F.

2008-12-01

124

Salmon Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students infer numbers of a virtual population illustrated within a rectangular sampling grid. They observe the accuracy of the technique in relation to the sample size upon which the estimate is based. This activity offers students an introduction to population sampling, an application of sampling technique, and an opportunity to relate sample size to estimate accuracy. Students learn that much of what is known about salmon and tuna populations is based upon population sampling, and that the assumption that a random sample is representative of the population's overall concentration is key to this strategy.

125

Migration timing of female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka: diel patterns and effects of maturation state.  

PubMed

Diel patterns of migration and migration speed were compared between reproductive timing phenotypes in female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Females of varying degrees of reproductive maturation were captured on their migration route to the Meadow Creek Spawning Channel (British Columbia, Canada), were tagged with passive-integrated transponders (PIT tags) and were subsequently monitored with stationary receivers. Females showed crepuscular migration timing, with approximately equal detections at dawn and dusk. In particular, peaks of movement were associated with the appearance of the sun over the mountains in the east and the disappearance of the sun over the mountains in the west. Over 25 m, migration speed was 1·0 body lengths (measured as fork length; L(F)) s(-1) and did not depend on maturation state. Over 3 km, migration speed was much slower (0·2-0·3 L(F) s(-1)) than over the short distance, with less mature females migrating more slowly than more mature females. Less mature females appeared to be in less of a hurry to reach breeding areas compared with more mature females. PMID:22957867

Warren, M A; Morbey, Y E

2012-09-01

126

Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a baseline release of 1,300 cfs to a maximum release of 25,530 cfs with an overall temperature depression in the lower Clearwater River exceeding 10 C. With continued Dworshak Dam operations as those documented in 1994, there is potential risk to the continued existence of the endangered fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. Additional data and conclusions will be contained in successive years` annual reports.

Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

1995-08-01

127

South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring  

SciTech Connect

There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

1990-06-01

128

DEVILS FORK ROADLESS AREA, VIRGINIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Devils Fork Roadless Area occupies a tract of mountainous terrain in the Jefferson National Forest in southwestern Virginia. A mineral-resource survey indicated that coal is the principal mineral resource of the area, but its distribution, thickness, quantity and quality are conjectural because of the lack of exploratory drilling in the roadless area. However, several coal beds observed in adjacent areas are thick enough and persistent enough to warrant projection into the roadless area. Therefore the area has a probable resource potential and preliminary estimates show 55 million tons of coal resources to be present. Rocks underlying the area have a probable resource potential for gas. There is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or oil resources.

Englund, Kenneth J.; Behum, Paul T.

1984-01-01

129

Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray  

MedlinePLUS

Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

130

SALMON 2100 PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty eight salmon scientists and policy experts have joined forces in an innovative project to identify ways that, if adopted, likely would restore and sustain wild salmon runs in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. ...

131

Forecast and Production Dynamics of the Pink Salmon of Kamchatka  

E-print Network

The importance of pink salmon to the fishery of the Russian Far East can scarcely be exaggerated because this species determines the total catch of Pacific salmon in the region. Fishery science already has provided a wealth of biological data about density and stock abundance of pink salmon during different periods of the life cycle, but often we find ourselves running into something we cannot explain. For example, abrupt transformations in populations when seemingly there is nothing to indicate a forthcoming, and potentially striking, change. It is well known that pink salmon have the simplest lifecycle among Pacific salmon species, but forecasting the stock dynamics of this species is more complicated and results are more uncertain than with other species. For this study we used a cluster analysis to examine the basis of the dynamics of pink salmon escapement in different rivers of West and East Kamchatka. It has been demonstrated that the even- and odd-year lines of pink salmon in West Kamchatka have, at minimum, two well recognized population groups: the southern group that comprises populations from the Ozernaya River to the Kol River, and the northern group that includes populations from the Vorovskaya River to the Pyatibratka River (Fig. 1). In West Kamchatka the boundary between the two groups for both odd- and even-year brood lines is located along 55 ° N latitude. East Kamchatka pink salmon populations are poorly structured. Major pink salmon populations exist in the Karaginsky and Olutorisky Gulfs, and minor populations are located in the Karaginsky, Kronotsky and Avachinsky Gulfs.

Evgeny A. Shevlyakov; Maxim V. Koval

132

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Chinook Salmon Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 245 Final EIS ­ December 2009 5.0 CHINOOK SALMON This chapter provides information on Chinook salmon biology, distribution, and current stock assessments. This chapter then analyzes the impacts of the alternatives on Chinook salmon

133

Replication forks and replication checkpoints in repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells replicate their DNA and coordinate their response to DNA damage and replication\\u000a blocks by activating appropriate repair processes, regulating recombination, chromatin assembly and\\u000a chromosome partitioning. Replication forks stall at specific problematic genomic regions, and forks\\u000a collapse unless protected by replication checkpoint proteins. These events have been associated with\\u000a recombination and chromosomal rearrangements that lead to genomic instability and

Dana Branzei; Marco Foiani

134

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

assessments for lower Columbia River chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmon, steelhead, bull trout.0 WASHOUGAL RIVER SUBBASIN 16.0 WIND RIVER SUBBASIN 17.0 LITTLE WHITE SALMON SUBBASIN 18.0 COLUMBIA GORGELOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD RECOVERY AND SUBBASIN PLAN Technical Foundation Volume II

135

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

136

10. A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE FIRST PIER ON THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE FIRST PIER ON THE EAST END OF THE BRIDGE (NORTH ELEVATION). IT SUPPORTS A SOLID, SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH. CONSIDERABLE SOIL HAS WASHED IN UNDER THE BRIDGE FROM THE BANKS OF THE RAVINE. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Richmond, Wayne County, IN

137

The salmon-forest.  

E-print Network

??Cross-habitat subsidies of nutrients and prey can structure community processes in receiving ecosystems. Every autumn throughout the northern Pacific region, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) return… (more)

Hocking, Morgan David

2005-01-01

138

15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING RIGHT FORK WITH GATE IN PLACE AND A FEW NEEDLES IN PLACE - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

139

Morphometry of olfactory lamellae and olfactory receptor neurons during the life history of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta).  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that anadromous Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) imprint to odorants in their natal streams during their seaward migration and use olfaction to identify these during their homeward migration. Despite the importance of the olfactory organ during olfactory imprinting, the development of this structure is not well understood in Pacific salmon. Olfactory cues from the environment are relayed to the brain by the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the olfactory organ. Thus, we analyzed morphometric changes in olfactory lamellae of the peripheral olfactory organ and in the quantity of ORNs during life history from alevin to mature in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The number of lamellae increased markedly during early development, reached 18 lamellae per unilateral peripheral olfactory organ in young salmon with a 200 mm in body size, and maintained this lamellar complement after young period. The number of ORNs per olfactory organ was about 180,000 and 14.2 million cells in fry and mature salmon, respectively. The relationship between the body size (fork length) and number of ORNs therefore revealed an allometric association. Our results represent the first quantitative analysis of the number of ORNs in Pacific salmon and suggest that the number of ORNs is synchronized with the fork length throughout its life history. PMID:19587025

Kudo, Hideaki; Shinto, Masakazu; Sakurai, Yasunori; Kaeriyama, Masahide

2009-09-01

140

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt August 1, 2006  

E-print Network

Salmon penne and the Salmon of Doubt Les Hatton August 1, 2006 $Date: 2003/01/15 00:05:52 $ 1 pleasure to so many. 2 Exposition It starts quite innocently with a bottle of wine, a plate of salmon penne in a Stockholm restaurant and a copy of "The Salmon of Doubt" by Douglas Adams. Whilst eating the meal with my

Hatton, Les

141

CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING INCLINED STAY CABLES EXTENDING FROM TOP OF TOWER TO DECK. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

142

PriA-directed replication fork restart in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encounter of a replication fork with either a damaged DNA template, a nick in the template strand or a ‘frozen’ protein–DNA complex can stall the replisome and cause it to fall apart. Such an event generates a requirement for replication fork restart if the cell is going to survive. Recent evidence shows that replication fork restart is effected by

Kenneth J Marians

2000-01-01

143

Topographic view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge (located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Topographic view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge (located center of frame), view looking west - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

144

Directed Cycle Double Cover Conjecture: Fork Graphs Andrea Jimenez  

E-print Network

's conjecture holds for the class of lean fork-graphs. The class of lean fork-graphs is rich; namely, for each University. loebl@kam.mff.cuni.cz. Partially supported by the Czech Science Foundation GACR under of all lean fork-graphs is natural and rich. On the one hand this class is inductively defined starting

Loebl, Martin

145

LOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

assessments for lower Columbia River chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmon, steelhead, bull troutLOWER COLUMBIA SALMON AND STEELHEAD RECOVERY AND SUBBASIN PLAN Technical Foundation Volume VI for Recovery and Subbasin Planning prepared under direction of the Washington Lower Columbia River Fish

146

Assessment of Salmon Stocks  

E-print Network

for permission to cite the reports of the ICES Working Group on North Atlantic Salmon, to NASCO for permission;Acknowledgement: This report has been compiled jointly by staff from the Cefas Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries and abbreviations used in this report 85 ANNEX 1 International Organisations and European Directives affecting

147

Saving the Salmon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

Sprangers, Donald

2004-01-01

148

Report to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission  

E-print Network

Study 3: Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon Rivers management Dialogue Group South Fork Dialogue Group DRBC Delaware River Basin Commission EPA U CRM Feather River Coordinated Resource Management Group FIARBC Federal Interagency River Basins

Selker, John

149

Salmon on the Columbia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit explores aspects of the history of salmon in the Columbia Basin. The materials provided for this unit are primarily social studies related, but include topics in both math and science and. Students have the opportunity to explore data using GIS mapping technology. The learning goals include: understanding the historical, cultural, and economic importance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin to both native and European immigrant populations; identifying technological, economic, and environmental factors that contributed to the decline in salmon populations in the Columbia Basin; use GIS and graphing software to analyze and interpret factors related to changes in the Columbia River salmon population over the last century and describe these phenomena in narrative, graphical or mathematical terms as appropriate; and evaluate the effectiveness of recent actions in helping to restore Columbia Basin salmon populations.

Thomas, Rick

150

Maintaining genome stability at the replication fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant DNA replication is a major source of the mutations and chromosome rearrangements that are associated with pathological disorders. When replication is compromised, DNA becomes more prone to breakage. Secondary structures, highly transcribed DNA sequences and damaged DNA stall replication forks, which then require checkpoint factors and specialized enzymatic activities for their stabilization and subsequent advance. These mechanisms ensure that

Dana Branzei; Marco Foiani

2010-01-01

151

Development of the Pintle Release Fork Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

An improved method of attachment of the pintle to the piston in the universal sampler is being developed. The mechanism utilizes a forked release disk which captures two balls in a cavity formed by a hole in the piston and a groove in the pintle rod.

BOGER, R.M.; DALE, R.

1999-08-27

152

www.law.und.edu GRAND FORKS  

E-print Network

, and specialization in such areas as taxation, environmental and Native American law. We o er a solid core curriculumwww.law.und.edu GRAND FORKS 2010-2011 ACADEMIC CATALOG #12;WELCOME FROM THE DEAN Thank you for your interest in the University of North Dakota School of Law. As you weigh choosing among the more than 200 law

Delene, David J.

153

www.law.und.edu GRAND FORKS  

E-print Network

degrees, and specialization in such areas as taxation, environmental and Native American law. We offerwww.law.und.edu GRAND FORKS 2011-2012 ACADEMIC CATALOG #12;WELCOME FROM THE DEAN Thank you for your interest in the University of North Dakota School of Law. As you weigh choosing among the more than 200 law

Delene, David J.

154

Anticipating chromosomal replication fork arrest: SSB targets repair DNA helicases to active forks.  

PubMed

In bacteria, several salvage responses to DNA replication arrest culminate in reassembly of the replisome on inactivated forks to resume replication. The PriA DNA helicase is a prominent trigger of this replication restart process, preceded in many cases by a repair and/or remodeling of the arrested fork, which can be performed by many specific proteins. The mechanisms that target these rescue effectors to damaged forks in the cell are unknown. We report that the single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein is the key factor that links PriA to active chromosomal replication forks in vivo. This targeting mechanism determines the efficiency by which PriA reaches its specific DNA-binding site in vitro and directs replication restart in vivo. The RecG and RecQ DNA helicases, which are involved in intricate replication reactivation pathways, also associate with the chromosomal replication forks by similarly interacting with SSB. These results identify SSB as a platform for linking a 'repair toolbox' with active replication forks, providing a first line of rescue responses to accidental arrest. PMID:17853894

Lecointe, François; Sérèna, Céline; Velten, Marion; Costes, Audrey; McGovern, Stephen; Meile, Jean-Christophe; Errington, Jeffrey; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Noirot, Philippe; Polard, Patrice

2007-10-01

155

Homologous Recombination as a Replication Fork Escort: Fork-Protection and Recovery  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows DNA repair and ensures the efficiency of DNA replication. The substrate initiating the process of homologous recombination is a single-stranded DNA that promotes a strand exchange reaction resulting in a genetic exchange that promotes genetic diversity and DNA repair. The molecular mechanisms by which homologous recombination repairs a double-strand break have been extensively studied and are now well characterized. However, the mechanisms by which homologous recombination contribute to DNA replication in eukaryotes remains poorly understood. Studies in bacteria have identified multiple roles for the machinery of homologous recombination at replication forks. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular pathways involving the homologous recombination machinery to support the robustness of DNA replication. In addition to its role in fork-recovery and in rebuilding a functional replication fork apparatus, homologous recombination may also act as a fork-protection mechanism. We discuss that some of the fork-escort functions of homologous recombination might be achieved by loading of the recombination machinery at inactivated forks without a need for a strand exchange step; as well as the consequence of such a model for the stability of eukaryotic genomes. PMID:24970156

Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A. E.

2012-01-01

156

Phosphorylated RPA recruits PALB2 to stalled DNA replication forks to facilitate fork recovery.  

PubMed

Phosphorylation of replication protein A (RPA) by Cdk2 and the checkpoint kinase ATR (ATM and Rad3 related) during replication fork stalling stabilizes the replisome, but how these modifications safeguard the fork is not understood. To address this question, we used single-molecule fiber analysis in cells expressing a phosphorylation-defective RPA2 subunit or lacking phosphatase activity toward RPA2. Deregulation of RPA phosphorylation reduced synthesis at forks both during replication stress and recovery from stress. The ability of phosphorylated RPA to stimulate fork recovery is mediated through the PALB2 tumor suppressor protein. RPA phosphorylation increased localization of PALB2 and BRCA2 to RPA-bound nuclear foci in cells experiencing replication stress. Phosphorylated RPA also stimulated recruitment of PALB2 to single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a cell-free system. Expression of mutant RPA2 or loss of PALB2 expression led to significant DNA damage after replication stress, a defect accentuated by poly-ADP (adenosine diphosphate) ribose polymerase inhibitors. These data demonstrate that phosphorylated RPA recruits repair factors to stalled forks, thereby enhancing fork integrity during replication stress. PMID:25113031

Murphy, Anar K; Fitzgerald, Michael; Ro, Teresa; Kim, Jee Hyun; Rabinowitsch, Ariana I; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Schildkraut, Carl L; Borowiec, James A

2014-08-18

157

Cooking with Canned Salmon  

E-print Network

1 /2 cup chopped onion 1 teaspoon lemon juice How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Drain the canned salmon, keeping 1 /4 cup of liquid. 3. Remove any skin and bones... that might be in the canned salmon. 4. Mix the salmon, liquid, soup, bread crumbs, eggs, onion and lemon juice. 5. Press the mixture into a greased 9- by 5-inch loaf pan. 6. Bake at 375 degrees F for about 1 hour. Cool it for 10 minutes before removing...

Anding, Jenna

2001-09-10

158

Bull Trout Population and Habitat Surveys in the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

Bull trout in the Willamette River Basin were historically distributed throughout major tributaries including the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie rivers. Habitat degradation, over-harvest, passage barriers, fish removal by rotenone, and hybridization and competition with non-native brook trout are all likely factors that have led to the decline of bull trout in the Willamette Basin (Ratliff and Howell 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act in 1998. Four bull trout populations were isolated in the upper Willamette River following the construction of flood control dams on the South Fork McKenzie River, McKenzie River, and Middle Fork Willamette River that created Cougar, Trail Bridge, and Hills Creek reservoirs. Buchanan et al. (1997) described the population in the main stem McKenzie as 'of special concern', the South Fork McKenzie population as 'high risk of extinction', the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as 'high risk of extinction', and bull trout in the Middle Fork Willamette as 'probably extinct'. Various management efforts such as strict angling regulations and passage improvement projects have been implemented to stabilize and rehabilitate bull trout habitat and populations in the McKenzie River over the past 10 years. Since 1997, bull trout fry from Anderson Creek on the upper McKenzie River have been transferred to the Middle Fork Willamette basin above Hills Creek Reservoir in an attempt to re-establish a reproducing bull trout population. This project was developed in response to concerns over the population status and management of bull trout in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife during the early 1990s. The project was conducted under measure 9.3G(2) of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor the status, life history, habitat needs, and limiting factors for bull trout within sub basins of the Columbia River. Also, this project provides information to develop native fish recovery plans such as the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Bull Trout Recovery Plan.

Seals, Jason; Reis, Kelly

2003-10-01

159

Salmon and trout farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salmon and trout farming industries are relatively new, expanding industries in the UK. Describes their current status and looks to the future by examining areas where progress is currently being made or where problems exist.

Lindsay Laird

1997-01-01

160

Pink salmon..........................................................................................................44  

E-print Network

Chinook salmon review by W. R. Heard Worksheet A – New species-specific habitat information since the EFH EIS 1. Published reports New publications related to Chinook salmon EFH-EIS not in earlier cited references. Ford, J.K.B., and G. M. Ellis.2005. Prey selection and food sharing by fish-eating “resident ’ killer whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia. Can.Sci. Advisory Secretariat. Res. Doc.2005/041. Fisheries

Coho Salmon; Sockeye Salmon

161

The Population of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in the Anadyr River Basin, Chukotka AO, Russia  

E-print Network

The Anadyr basin of Chukotka is the largest producer of chum salmon in the Russian Northeast Pacific coast (Korotaev et al. 2002). On average, the proportion of chum salmon catches in the Anadyr basin is 75.3 % of the catches of all other Pacific salmon in Chukotka. This represents up to 12 % of the biomass for the total annual catch of chum salmon in the Russian Far East (Fig. 1). In addition, the chum salmon fishery plays an important role in the traditional life of the native population in Chukotka. Fig. 1. Proportion of Anadyr basin chum salmon catches by biomass of the total annual catch of chum salmon in the Russian Far East (right y-axis) and the catch (thousand tones) of chum salmon in the Russian Far East (left y-axis), 1971-2012. The annual monitoring of the Anadyr chum salmon stock includes recording of commercial and non-commercial catches and biological data sampling from adult migrants. The harvest of Anadyr chum salmon began about 100 years ago and has been ongoing since 1910 (Fig. 2). The data collected from monitoring programs are essential for accurate estimations of population size and quota limits for chum salmon. In the recent period, the low numbers of adult migrants was observed in 1968 (0.7 million), 1991 (0.7 million), and 2002 (0.8 million; Fig. 3). The maximum number chum salmon migrants to the Anadyr basin was observed in 1983 (7.3 million), and the annual average is 2.8 million fish (Chereshnev 2008). The main chum salmon spawning grounds are concentrated in the middle and upper rivers of the Anadyr basin, principally the Anadyr, Velikaya, and Kanchalan rivers (Putivkin 1994). The quantity of chum salmon on spawning grounds fluctuates over a wide range from 0.234 to 2.81 million fish with an annual average (optimum) of 1.5-2.0 million fish. The number of smolts varies from 34 million in 1992 up to 495 million in 1990, and the average annual catch if 265 million fish

Semyon B. Baranov

162

Bedrock Geology of West Fork Quadrangle, Washington County, Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital geologicmap of WestFork quadranglewas produced at 1:24,000 scale using the geographicinformation system (GIS) softwareMaplnfo. Data regarding stratigraphic relations observed in the field were digitized onto the United States GeologicalSurvey (USGS)digital raster graphic (DRG)of WestFork quadrangle. The geologyof WestFork quadrangle consists of sedimentary rocks of the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian systems. The Fayetteville Shale and Pitkin Formation represent the Mississippian

Jack T. King; Maria E. King; Stephen K. Boss

2002-01-01

163

Salmon lice - impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

2013-01-01

164

PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

165

Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303,769 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2002 survived to the lower trap. Post release survival estimates for hatchery chinook salmon were within the range of past estimates; 88.4% in 1998 to 100.9% in 1994. An estimated 7,646 to 23,249 (95% C.I.) natural chinook salmon smolts migrated past the lower Imnaha River trap from April 4 to April 22. An additional 6,767 to 14,706 (95% C.I.) natural chinook salmon smolts migrated past the lower Imnaha River trap from April 23 to May 14, 2002. Natural chinook salmon captured and tagged at the upper rkm 74 trap survived to Lower Granite Dam (LGR) at a rate of 28.8% during migration year 2001 and 21.9% during migration year 2002. The survival estimate for fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower trap to LGR was 41.9% in 2001 and 33.3% in 2002. Differences between survival from release to LGR for fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower trap have been 5.9% to 16.9% higher than for fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the upper trap from 1994 to 2002. Spring PIT tag release groups of natural chinook salmon, hatchery chinook salmon, and hatchery steelhead produced estimates of survival from the trap to LGR within the range of past estimates since 1993. Estimated survival from release to LGR for 2001 and 2002 were as follows: 83.7% and 86.9% for natural chinook salmon, 80.3% and 77.3% for hatchery chinook salmon, 82.7% and 81.8% for natural steelhead, and 82.0% and 83.0% for hatchery steelhead. Estimates of survival for spring tagged fish from the trap to Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) during the drought of 2001 were the lowest estimates of survival from 1998 to 2002 for natural chinook salmon, and from1997 to 2002 for natural and hatchery steelhead. Estimates of migration year 2001 survival from the trap to LMO were as follows: 65.6% - natural chinook salmon, 68.9% - hatchery chinook salmon, 49.7% natural steelhead, and 42.9% - hatchery steelhead. Estimates of migration year 2002 survival from the trap to LMO were as follows: 76.8% - natural chinook salmon, 68.1% - hatchery chinook salmon, 69.9% natural steelhead, and 78.0%

Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

2003-12-01

166

VOLUNTEER-BASED SALMON RIVER  

E-print Network

VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS Institute Environment Canada VOLUNTEER-BASED MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE SALMON RIVER BASIN: USING BENTHIC INDICATORS TO ASSESS STREAM ECOSYSTEM HEALTH #12;Volunteer-Based Monitoring Program for the Salmon River

167

a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^-'^ "^  

E-print Network

Take a Can of Salmon cwis^^'*^' -'^·-'^ "^ #12;\\ V 4- #12;balmon has been nourishing the human race of the easy-to-store, easy-to- use can are two good reasons for cooking and serving salmon frequently. But there are even better reasons. The protein in salmon is a complete protein, in the same food group as meat

168

Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

2002-01-01

169

77 FR 66541 - Safety Zone; Alliance Road Bridge Demolition; Black Warrior River, Locust Fork; Birmingham, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Alliance Road Bridge Demolition; Black Warrior River, Locust Fork; Birmingham...for a portion of the Locust Fork to the Black Warrior River, Birmingham, AL. This...which crosses the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River, a navigable...

2012-11-06

170

Atlantic Salmon Federation  

E-print Network

As a result of pressures in both freshwater and marine environments, the number of wild Atlantic salmon returning to North American river’s declined from 1.5 million in 1975 to 350,000 in 2000. The situation is particularly acute in Canada’s Bay of Fundy and Downeast Maine, where many of the populations now number fewer than 100 adult fish. Aquaculture, once thought to be the saving grace of declining salmon populations, is now accused of being a significant threat to the restoration of wild salmon stocks in eastern North America. The industry’s exponential growth has resulted in a dense array of coastal farms many of which are in close proximity to the wild salmon rivers. The growing pains of this relatively young industry have included large, documented escapes and disease outbreaks. Given the current vulnerable state of the wild salmon stocks, the potential risk of genetic dilution and disease transmission from farmed fish is a serious concern to the regulators and environmental community. Today competing mandates between governmental agencies and friction between the federal In the past 20 years aquaculture has grown expo-and local jurisdictions are clouding proper regunentially in Canada’s Bay of Fundy and Downeast

unknown authors

171

Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how ‘no effect’ thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

Brauner, C. J.; Sackville, M.; Gallagher, Z.; Tang, S.; Nendick, L.; Farrell, A. P.

2012-01-01

172

Sensing Fork: Eating Behavior Detection Utensil and Mobile  

E-print Network

and chosen food) and a smartphone game to address children's eating problems. This paper describes the design a fork-type sensing device, Sensing Fork, which detects children's eating behavior (eating actions University hchu@csie.ntu.edu.tw #12;targets young children's eating behavior, a most common concern

Ouhyoung, Ming

173

Phenotypic Forking GA with Moving Windows Shigeyoshi Tsutsui*1  

E-print Network

ICONIP-96 Phenotypic Forking GA with Moving Windows Shigeyoshi Tsutsui*1 , Ashish Ghosh*2--- The phenotypic forking GA (p-fGA) which divides the whole search space into sub-spaces using the information in less number of trials than the original p-fGA. 1 Introduction There are many GA-hard problems

Tsutsui, Shigeyoshi

174

33 CFR 117.307 - Miami River, North Fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miami River, North Fork. 117.307 Section 117.307 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Florida § 117.307 Miami River, North Fork. The draw of the FDOT Railroad Bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

175

fork(), exit(), exec() signals, sockets client/server, shared memory  

E-print Network

Makefiles & bash scripting - 13 - #12;- 14 - #12; - sem_open() sem_wait() sem_post() sem_close() sem_unlink() - 15 - #12; : - 16 - #include #include #include /stat.h> sem_t *my_sem; #define SEM_NAME "my_semaphore_name" #12; ( fork()) fork(), my_sem . - 17

Triantafillou, Peter

176

CREEL CENSUS AND EXPENDITURE STUDY, NORTH FORK SUN RIVER,  

E-print Network

CREEL CENSUS AND EXPENDITURE STUDY, NORTH FORK SUN RIVER, MONTANA, 1951 Marine Biological STUDY, NORTH FORK SUN RIVER, MONTANA, 1951 Marine Biological Laboratory JUN16 1954 WOODS HOLE, MASS MAP CREEL CENSUS SUN RIVER MONTANA DRAWN i*^ ^ TRACED- _2£jLt:l SUBMITTED . 1 V N 01 1 VN ei

177

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead  

E-print Network

for Washington lower Columbia River salmon and steelhead: -- Plan Overview Synopsis of the planning process Species overviews and status assessments for lower Columbia River Chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmonPLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead To Healthy, Harvestable Levels Lower Columbia Fish

178

Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments World Salmon Farming Expected to Climb The world production of pen- farmed salmon doubled during 1981-83. Of the 24,500 metric tons (t) of farmed salmon produced in 1983, almost 85 percent was Atlantic salmon, Sa/mo safar (Table 1). While the farming of Pacific salmon, On

179

SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL  

E-print Network

SALMON AND TROUT GO TO SCHOOL An lnstruction Manual for Hatching Salmon and Trout Eggs in Classroom and Game Native Salmonids of California Map \\|/try Hatcheries? Activities Fish Journals Habitats of Salmon and Trout 11 Seagoing Salmon and Steelhead 12 Trout Life Cycle 13 Salmon and Steelhead Life Cycle 14 Making

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

180

Fanconi anemia proteins stabilize replication forks.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to crosslinking agents that has been attributed to defects in DNA repair and/or replication. FANCD2 and the FA core complex bind to chromatin during DNA replication; however, the role of FA proteins during replication is unknown. Using Xenopus cell-free extracts, we show that FANCL depletion results in defective DNA replication restart following treatment with camptothecin, a drug that results in DSBs during DNA replication. This defect is more pronounced following treatment with mitomycin C, presumably because of an additional role of the FA pathway in DNA crosslink repair. Moreover, we show that chromatin binding of FA core complex proteins during DNA replication follows origin assembly and origin firing and is dependent on the binding of RPA to ssDNA while FANCD2 additionally requires ATR, consistent with FA proteins acting at replication forks. Together, our data suggest that FA proteins play a role in replication restart at collapsed replication forks. PMID:18786657

Wang, Lily Chien; Stone, Stacie; Hoatlin, Maureen Elizabeth; Gautier, Jean

2008-12-01

181

Playing Chicken with Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild Atlantic salmon are traditionally harvested from both the sea and spawning rivers during spawning runs. From an economic point of view, the return from sport fishing in rivers is several times higher than marine ‘for meat only’ harvests. This situation calls for a side payment regime where river owners pay marine fishermen not to fish, and where both parties

Jon Olaf Olaussen

2007-01-01

182

Saving Coho Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine biologists say the future looks grim for Coho salmon. In this audio report from QUEST produced by KQED, find out how they’re looking for ways to stop the fish from being sucked into what they call “the vortex of extinction.

Kqed

2012-08-08

183

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies  

E-print Network

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies R. SALESSE, J. GARNIER, B en Josas, France Summary. Pituitary gonadotropins of female and male pacific salmon Oncorhynchus) and in salmon (Donaldson et al., 1972), although physicochemical, biological or immunological evidence for two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON,  

E-print Network

SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, Oncorhynchus nerka Marine Biological #12;#12;SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF POPJLATION OF SOCKEYE SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS

185

Stalled replication forks: making ends meet for recognition and stabilization.  

PubMed

In bacteria, PriA protein, a conserved DEXH-type DNA helicase, plays a central role in replication restart at stalled replication forks. Its unique DNA-binding property allows it to recognize and stabilize stalled forks and the structures derived from them. Cells must cope with fork stalls caused by various replication stresses to complete replication of the entire genome. Failure of the stalled fork stabilization process and eventual restart could lead to various forms of genomic instability. The low viability of priA null cells indicates a frequent occurrence of fork stall during normal growth that needs to be properly processed. PriA specifically recognizes the 3'-terminus of the nascent leading strand or the invading strand in a displacement (D)-loop by the three-prime terminus binding pocket (TT-pocket) present in its unique DNA binding domain. Elucidation of the structural basis for recognition of arrested forks by PriA should provide useful insight into how stalled forks are recognized in eukaryotes. PMID:20658707

Masai, Hisao; Tanaka, Taku; Kohda, Daisuke

2010-08-01

186

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-print Network

the Pahsimeroi and East Fork Salmon River Basins. Later, the entire Upper Salmon River Basin was included Salmon Basin Watershed Program. Officially designated as the Lemhi River Model Watershed Program in June of 1992, its establishment closely followed the listing of Snake River Spring/Summer Run Chinook Salmon

187

25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. The ARU130HK50 battery charger is visible in left foreground of photograph, with the A-40 backup battery charger visible adjacent to and beyond the ARU130HK50. The racks of 60 KCU-7 lead calcium batteries manufactured by C&D Batteries are visible in the center of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

188

40 CFR 131.33 - Idaho.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Creek, Chamberlain Creek, Champion Creek, Cherry Creek, Cinnabar Creek, Cleveland Creek, Coal Creek, Crooked Creek, Darling Creek, Deadwood Creek, Decker Creek, Deer Creek, Dry Creek, Duffy Creek, East Basin Creek, East Fork Salmon...

2013-07-01

189

40 CFR 131.33 - Idaho.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Creek, Chamberlain Creek, Champion Creek, Cherry Creek, Cinnabar Creek, Cleveland Creek, Coal Creek, Crooked Creek, Darling Creek, Deadwood Creek, Decker Creek, Deer Creek, Dry Creek, Duffy Creek, East Basin Creek, East Fork Salmon...

2012-07-01

190

40 CFR 131.33 - Idaho.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Creek, Chamberlain Creek, Champion Creek, Cherry Creek, Cinnabar Creek, Cleveland Creek, Coal Creek, Crooked Creek, Darling Creek, Deadwood Creek, Decker Creek, Deer Creek, Dry Creek, Duffy Creek, East Basin Creek, East Fork Salmon...

2011-07-01

191

The Fight Over Pacific Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the recently heightened, ongoing US-Canada controversy over fishing rights. Since the expiration of the Pacific Salmon Treaty in 1994, the United States and Canada have been unable to agree on salmon catch quotas in the north Pacific. With the opening of the fishing season on July 1, 1998, newspapers reported tension at the docks and rumors of protests in British Colombia. The twelve resources listed offer background information on Pacific Salmon and the salmon fisheries controversy, and include several US and Canadian perspectives.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

192

Review of BASIS Salmon Food Habits Studies  

E-print Network

Abstract: The BASIS food habits studies of sockeye, chum, pink, and Chinook salmon conducted in 2002–2006 were summarized. These studies identified important ( ? 10 % of prey composition by weight) prey taxa of salmon. Salmon diet composition differed between the western region, where diets contained more zooplankton, and the eastern region, where diets contained more ichthyoplankton and nekton. Salmon feeding conditions, growth, and survival in the eastern region were more favorable in relatively warm years, as compared to cool years. However, warmer conditions may not be favorable for all salmon species, such as chum salmon. These studies significantly increased the available information on salmon food habits during the fall in the western, central, and eastern regions. Salmon diet composition shifted from zooplankton to fish and squid, or to larger sizes of fish prey, with increasing salmon body size, age, or maturity. Continued monitoring of salmon food habits will contribute to understanding how future climate changes will affect salmon populations in the Bering Sea.

Nancy D. Davis; Anatoly V. Volkov; Er Ya. Efimkin; Natalia A. Kuznetsova; Janet L. Armstrong; Osamu Sakai

193

Relationship of winter concealment habitat quality on pool use by juvenile spring Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Oregon USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter concealment habitat quality was assessed and its use by juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) quantified in three hatching areas of the Grande Ronde River Basin, Oregon USA. Fish densities were significantly higher\\u000a in pools with a higher winter concealment habitat index than pools with a lower index. The mean fork length and mean growth\\u000a rate of fish did

Erick S. Van Dyke; Dennis L. Scarnecchia; Brian C. Jonasson; Richard W. Carmichael

2009-01-01

194

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 -2008  

E-print Network

Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999 - 2008 Peter Hassemer Idaho Department of Fish Upper Columbia Summer Chinook Salmon Coho Salmon Shad Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead Returns 1999;Sockeye Salmon #12;Sockeye Salmon #12;Spring Chinook Salmon (Includes Snake River Summers) #12;Spring

195

Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the efficacy of using an acoustic camera to count adult migrant Chinook salmon as they make their way to the spawning grounds on the Secesh River and Lake Creek. A phased approach to applying the acoustic camera was proposed, starting with testing and evaluation in spring 2003, followed by a full implementation in 2004 and 2005. The goal of this effort is to better assess the early run components when water clarity and night visibility preclude the use of optical techniques. A single acoustic camera was used to test the technology for enumerating adult salmon passage at the Secesh River. The acoustic camera was deployed on the Secesh at a site engineered with an artificial substrate to control the river bottom morphometry and the passage channel. The primary goal of the analysis for this first year of deployment was to validate counts of migrant salmon. The validation plan involved covering the area with optical video cameras so that both optical and acoustic camera images of the same viewing region could be acquired simultaneously. A secondary test was contrived after the fish passage was complete using a controlled setting at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, in which we tested the detectability as a function of turbidity levels. Optical and acoustic camera multiplexed video recordings of adult Chinook salmon were made at the Secesh River fish counting station from August 20 through August 29, 2003. The acoustic camera performed as well as or better than the optical camera at detecting adult Chinook salmon over the 10-day test period. However, the acoustic camera was not perfect; the data reflected adult Chinook salmon detections made by the optical camera that were missed by the acoustic camera. The conditions for counting using the optical camera were near ideal, with shallow clear water and good light penetration. The relative performance of the acoustic camera is expected to be even better than the optical camera in early spring when water clarity and light penetration are limited. Results of the laboratory tests at the Pacific North

Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

2004-01-01

196

17. DETAIL VIEW OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE STIRRING FORK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL VIEW OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE STIRRING FORK THAT MIXED COFFEE BEANS AS THEY WERE HUSKED - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

197

16 CFR 1512.13 - Requirements for front fork.  

...for strength by application of at least 39.5 J (350 in-lb) of energy in accordance with the fork test, § 1512.18(k)(1), without visible evidence of fracture. Sidewalk bicycles need not meet this...

2014-01-01

198

Replication fork recovery and regulation of common fragile sites stability.  

PubMed

The acquisition of genomic instability is a triggering factor in cancer development, and common fragile sites (CFS) are the preferential target of chromosomal instability under conditions of replicative stress in the human genome. Although the mechanisms leading to CFS expression and the cellular factors required to suppress CFS instability remain largely undefined, it is clear that DNA becomes more susceptible to breakage when replication is impaired. The models proposed so far to explain how CFS instability arises imply that replication fork progression along these regions is perturbed due to intrinsic features of fragile sites and events that directly affect DNA replication. The observation that proteins implicated in the safe recovery of stalled forks or in engaging recombination at collapsed forks increase CFS expression when downregulated or mutated suggests that the stabilization and recovery of perturbed replication forks are crucial to guarantee CFS integrity. PMID:25216703

Franchitto, Annapaola; Pichierri, Pietro

2014-12-01

199

37. BRIDGE 115, SMITH RIVER MIDDLE FORK OREGON STATE HIGHWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. BRIDGE 1-15, SMITH RIVER MIDDLE FORK OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199. JOSEPHINE COUNTY, OREGON. LOOKING SSW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

200

Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

2003-01-01

201

SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

202

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming  

E-print Network

A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming Ida Scheel1 salmon anemia (ISA) is one of the main infectious diseases in Atlantic salmon farming with major, worldwide. We study the data covering salmon farming in Norway from 2002 to 2005 and propose a stochastic

Aldrin, Magne

203

TECHNICAL COMMENT Comment on “Declining Wild Salmon Populations in Relation to Parasites from Farm Salmon  

E-print Network

salmon farms placed wild pink salmon populations “on a trajectory toward rapid local extinction.” Their prediction is inconsistent with observed pink salmon returns and overstates the risks from sea lice and salmon farming. Krkošek et al. (1) reported that sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) spread from salmon farms in the Broughton Archipelago

Brian E. Riddell; Richard J. Beamish; Laura J. Richards; John R. C

204

A micromachined comb-drive tuning fork rate gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of single-crystal and polysilicon tuning fork gyroscopes of very small size and low cost using microfabrication technology is reported. These tuning fork gyroscopes are extremely rugged, inherently balanced, and easy to fabricate. For a 1-mm gyroscope, projected performance is 10 to 100°\\/hr for bias stability and for resolution in a 60-Hz bandwidth. To date, 5000°\\/hr in a 60

J. Bernstein; S. Cho; A. T. King; A. Kourepenis; P. Maciel; M. Weinberg

1993-01-01

205

Non-replicative helicases at the replication fork.  

PubMed

Reactivation of stalled or collapsed replication forks is an essential process in bacteria. Restart systems operate to restore the 5'-->3' replicative helicase, DnaB, to the lagging-strand template. However, other non-replicative 3'-->5' helicases play an important role in the restart process as well. Here we examine the DNA-binding specificity of three of the latter group, PriA, Rep, and UvrD. Only PriA and Rep display structure-specific fork binding. Interestingly, their specificity is opposite: PriA binds a leading-strand fork, presumably reflecting its restart activity in directing loading of DnaB to the lagging-strand template. Rep binds a lagging-strand fork, presumably reflecting its role in partially displacing Okazaki fragments that originate near the fork junction. This activity is necessary for generating a single-stranded landing pad for DnaB. While UvrD shows little structure-specificity, there is a slight preference for lagging-strand forks, suggesting that there might be some redundancy between Rep and UvrD and possibly explaining the observed synthetic lethality that occurs when mutations in the genes encoding these two proteins are combined. PMID:17382604

Heller, Ryan C; Marians, Kenneth J

2007-07-01

206

WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

207

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon  

E-print Network

Ottawa asked to approve genetically modified salmon Last Updated: Wednesday, December 8, 2004 | 9 Canadian diners with genetically modified salmon that grow twice as fast as normal fish. Aqua Bounty Bounty will ask for permission to sell GM salmon for humans to eat. Both salmon are one year old

Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

208

PROGRESS REPORT SPRING CHINOOK SALMON  

E-print Network

existing populations, of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) not only in the Columbia River to determine feasibility of Introducing spring chinook salmon Into Wind River, Washington, has been underway on the Columbia River and transferred to Carson National Fish Hatchery at Wind River, Washington, for subsequent

209

In Asia, there are two distinct types of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus  

E-print Network

- ing Kamchatka, the Sea of Okhotsk, the east coast of Sakhalin Island, and the Amur River. Later in Japan, the southern Kuril Islands, the west coast of Sahkalin Island, and the Amur River (Sano, 1966 autumn chum salmon spawn in areas of groundwater upwelling (Volobuyev et al., 1990). In major river drain

210

78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...

2013-10-22

211

Cyclic Fluctuations in Chum Salmon Abundance along the Pacific Coast of Hokkaido, Japan  

E-print Network

Some chum salmon stocks are known to exhibit a two-year cyclic variation in their biological parameters, such as age at maturity, size, marine survival, and abundance (Salo 1991). Previous studies suggest that this variation appears to be associated with pink salmon, which have a prominent two-year cyclic pattern of abundance (Salo 1991; Ruggerone and Nielsen 2004). On the Pacific coasts of Hokkaido (East Pacific, EP; West Pacific, WP) abundance of adult chum salmon, calculated on the basis of coastal and river catches, shows odd- and even-year fluctuations after the 1998 brood year. A similar fluctuation is also observed in chum salmon caught in the southern region of the Sea of Okhotsk, adjacent to the Nemuro Strait (Nemuro, NE). The objective of this study was to explain a possible mechanism causing the cyclic pattern of returning adult chum salmon. Of 48 chum salmon river-stocks along the Sea of Okhotsk and Pacific coasts of Hokkaido, 11 stocks from the Pacific coast illustrate cyclic fluctuations in abundance for brood-years 1998-2004. Only one stock from the Sea of Okhotsk exhibit these cyclic fluctuations. Findings demonstrated that a few stocks from rivers on the Pacific coast cause the cyclic patterns in brood-year abundance in the NE, EP, and WP regions. In general, mass mortality of chum salmon occurs during early marine residence and frequently affects the brood-year abundance of returning adult salmon (Saito and Nagasawa 2009; Saito et al. 2011). The mass mortality is believed to be associated with biological interactions, like predation (Duffy and Beauchamp 2008), and oceanic conditions (Saito et al. 2011). In this study, effects of Asian pink salmon and sea surface temperature

Toshihiko Saito; Kyuji Watanabe; Kei Sasaki; Shigeto Kogarumai; Shoko H. Morita

212

Quartz Tuning Forks and Acoustic Phenomena: Application to Superfluid Helium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersed mechanical resonators are well suited for probing the properties of fluids, since the surrounding environment influences the resonant characteristics of such oscillators in several ways. Quartz tuning forks have gained much popularity in recent years as the resonators of choice for studies of liquid helium. They have many superior properties when compared to other oscillating bodies conventionally used for this purpose, such as vibrating wires. However, the intricate geometry of a tuning fork represents a challenge for analyzing their behavior in a fluid environment—analytical approaches do not carry very far. In this article the characteristics of immersed quartz tuning fork resonators are studied by numerical simulations. We account for the compressibility of the medium, that is acoustic phenomena, and neglect viscosity, with the aim to realistically model the oscillator response in superfluid helium. The significance of different tuning fork shapes is studied. Acoustic emission in infinite medium and acoustic resonances in confined volumes are investigated. The results can aid in choosing a quartz tuning fork with suitable properties for experiments, as well as interpreting measured data.

Rysti, J.; Tuoriniemi, J.

2014-11-01

213

More forks on the road to replication stress recovery  

PubMed Central

High-fidelity replication of DNA, and its accurate segregation to daughter cells, is critical for maintaining genome stability and suppressing cancer. DNA replication forks are stalled by many DNA lesions, activating checkpoint proteins that stabilize stalled forks. Stalled forks may eventually collapse, producing a broken DNA end. Fork restart is typically mediated by proteins initially identified by their roles in homologous recombination repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In recent years, several proteins involved in DSB repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) have been implicated in the replication stress response, including DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA Ligase IV-XRCC4, Artemis, XLF and Metnase. It is currently unclear whether NHEJ proteins are involved in the replication stress response through indirect (signaling) roles, and/or direct roles involving DNA end joining. Additional complexity in the replication stress response centers around RPA, which undergoes significant post-translational modification after stress, and RAD52, a conserved HR protein whose role in DSB repair may have shifted to another protein in higher eukaryotes, such as BRCA2, but retained its role in fork restart. Most cancer therapeutic strategies create DNA replication stress. Thus, it is imperative to gain a better understanding of replication stress response proteins and pathways to improve cancer therapy. PMID:21278446

Allen, Chris; Ashley, Amanda K.; Hromas, Robert; Nickoloff, Jac A.

2011-01-01

214

Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.  

SciTech Connect

The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done in the Lochsa basin by IDFG. Fish were trucked from the hatcheries to outplant sites.

Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

2002-04-16

215

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY...proposes regulations to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...and California (Salmon FMP). Amendment 17, which was transmitted by the Pacific...

2012-12-19

216

SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

217

Commercially Farmed and Wild-Caught Salmon  

E-print Network

Salmon is the second most popular type of fish eaten in America. It tastes savory and earthy, yet slightly sweet and is among the richest sources of long-chain omega-3 fats. It is also full of high quality protein, vitamins, and minerals. Research shows that eating fish like salmon promotes healthy hearts and brain development. All types of commercial salmon are healthful to eat. The most readily available kinds in the U.S. are wild Pacific and farmed Atlantic salmon. Farmed and wild salmon are similar in many ways. Frequently asked questions about salmon How do farm-raised and wild-caught salmon differ? Farm-raised and wild-caught salmon are usually different species of fish. Most farm-raised salmon are Atlantic salmon. Wild populations of Atlantic salmon are generally at very low levels and their commercial harvest is limited. Farm-raised fish are hatched, raised, and harvested under controlled conditions similar to other farmed animals except they are raised in water. Farmed Atlantic salmon are readily available year-round in fresh or frozen forms. Most wild-caught salmon are one of five species of Pacific salmon. They are harvested by fishing with a variety of gear types mostly in the north Pacific from about June through

unknown authors

218

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic  

E-print Network

..................................12 Salmon is a great warrior. He's going up the Columbia River; Salmon always goes up river. SalmonSalmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic Retold by Rodney Frey 28 September 2000 Salmon of the river, to Spider's camp. Spider is making a dip-net; it's not so good. "What are you doing?" Salmon says

O'Laughlin, Jay

219

A multi-fork z-axis quartz micromachined gyroscope.  

PubMed

A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s. PMID:24048339

Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

2013-01-01

220

Warmer Water Kills Salmon Eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, adapted from a student video produced at Northwest Indian College in Bellingham Washington, Native American elders discuss the impact of climate change on salmon populations and the importance of restoring balance in the natural world.

Wgbh; Domain, Teachers'

221

High Performance Matched-Mode Tuning Fork Gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the perfect matched-mode operation of a type I non-degenerate z-axis tuning-fork gyroscope (i.e., 0 Hz frequency split between high-Q drive and sense modes). The matched-mode tuning fork gyroscope (M2-TFG) is fabricated on 50-µ m thick SOI substrate and displays an overall rate sensitivity of 24.2 mV\\/º\\/s. Allan Variance analysis of the mode-matched device demonstrates an angle random

M. F. Zaman; A. Sharma; F. Ayazi

2006-01-01

222

Subjective assessment of fork-lift truck seats under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subjective assessment of fork-lift truck seats has been carried out to assess the range of preferred seat dimensions and the acceptability of different seat adjustments to fork-lift truck drivers. Twelve fork-lift truck seats fitted to a fixed bench were assessed by twelve fork-lift truck drivers. For each seat, each driver completed a questionnaire that covered the following areas: eleven

P. Donati; J. A. Patel

1999-01-01

223

Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

2013-12-01

224

John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1999-2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest populations of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the entire Columbia River basin. Spring chinook salmon in this basin are therefore, used as an important index stock to measure the effects of future management actions on other salmon stocks in the Columbia basin. To meet the data requirements as an index stock, we estimated annual spawner escapement, age-structure, and smolt-to-adult survival. This information will allow us to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. To estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates, 1,852 chinook smolts were tagged with PIT tags from 3 March to 5 May, 2000. Length of captured smolts varied, ranging from 80 to 147 mm fork length (mean = 113 mm). These fish will be monitored for PIT tags as returning adults at dams and during future spawning ground surveys. During spawning ground surveys, a total of 351.3 km of stream were surveyed resulting in the observation of 478 redds. When expanded, we estimated total number of redds at 481 and total number of spawners at 1,583 fish in the John Day River basin. We estimated that 13% of the redds were in the mainstem John Day, 27% in the Middle Fork, 34% in the North Fork, and 26% were in the Granite Creek basin. Sampled carcasses had a sex ratio comprised of 53% females and 47% males with an age structure comprised of 0.5% age-2, 6.3% age-3, 88.7% age-4, and 4.5% age-5 fish. Five of the 405 carcasses examined had fin clips suggesting they were of hatchery origin. The 1999 index redd count total for the North Fork, Mainstem, and Granite Creek was lower than the 1999 average (535) but well within the range of annual redd counts during this period. The index redd count for the Middle Fork was higher than the 1990's average (92) but considerably lower than the average from 1978-1985 (401). Although quite variable over the past 40 years, the number of redds in the John Day River basin during 1999 was well within the range of redd counts since they were initiated in 1959.

Ruzycki, James R.; Wilson, Wayne H.; Carmichael, Richard W.

2002-01-01

225

Characterization of the ATPase Activity of RecG and RuvAB Proteins on Model Fork Structures Reveals Insight into Stalled DNA Replication Fork Repair*  

PubMed Central

RecG and RuvAB are proposed to act at stalled DNA replication forks to facilitate replication restart. To clarify the roles of these proteins in fork regression, we used a coupled spectrophotometric ATPase assay to determine how these helicases act on two groups of model fork substrates: the first group mimics nascent stalled forks, whereas the second mimics regressed fork structures. The results show that RecG is active on the substrates in group 1, whereas these are poor substrates for RuvAB. In addition, in the presence of group 1 forks, the single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) enhances the activity of RecG and enables it to compete with excess RuvA. In contrast, SSB inhibits the activity of RuvAB on these substrates. Results also show that the preferred regressed fork substrate for RuvAB is a Holliday junction, not a forked DNA. The active form of the enzyme on the Holliday junction contains a single RuvA tetramer. In contrast, although the enzyme is active on a regressed fork structure, RuvB loading by a single RuvA tetramer is impaired, and full activity requires the cooperative binding of two forked DNA substrate molecules. Collectively, the data support a model where RecG is responsible for stalled DNA replication fork regression. SSB ensures that if the nascent fork has single-stranded DNA character RuvAB is inhibited, whereas the activity of RecG is preferentially enhanced. Only once the fork has been regressed and the DNA is relaxed can RuvAB bind to a RecG-extruded Holliday junction. PMID:23893472

Abd Wahab, Syafiq; Choi, Meerim; Bianco, Piero R.

2013-01-01

226

Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

2000-01-01

227

East Timor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News examines the escalation of violence and the proposal for autonomy in the Indonesian province of East Timor. Last weekend, anti-independence militiamen killed dozens of separatist activists in Dili, the East Timorese capital, intensifying the fierce bloodshed and political tumult in the province. The recent massacre is just one of several brutal episodes that have plagued East Timor in the past quarter-century. The people of the embattled island have suffered numerous human rights violations, have endured economic collapse, and have been decimated by guerrilla warfare, famine, and disease. Over 200,000 East Timorese -- or nearly one-fourth of the population -- have died in the troubles, which began in 1975 when Portugal abruptly abandoned East Timor after 400 years of colonial rule. Unstable and vulnerable, the newly independent East Timor was quickly invaded, occupied, and annexed in 1976 by Indonesia, a stronger nation that quashed all subsequent separatist movements. Last January, after years of political oppression, Indonesia's parliament finally succumbed to international pressure and announced that it would grant East Timor either full independence or autonomy within the Indonesian state. The United Nations, although it has never officially recognized Indonesia's sovereignty over East Timor, plans to supervise a vote, tentatively scheduled for July, wherein the East Timorese will determine whether they want full independence or provincial autonomy. Later this week, Foreign Ministers Ali Alatas of Indonesia and Jaime Gama of Portugal are meeting in New York with UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan to discuss the East Timorese autonomy option and plan for the pending UN-monitored poll. However, the recent resurgence of violence between anti- and pro-independence factions in and around Dili threatens the viability of the proposed poll and endangers the stability of East Timor's self-determination. The nine resources discussed offer background information, the latest news, political analysis, and social commentary.

Osmond, Andrew.

1999-01-01

228

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2010-07-01

229

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2014-07-01

230

78 FR 74005 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Grand Forks, ND  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...deg] radial of the Grand Forks VOR/DME extending from the...deg] radial of the Grand Forks VOR/DME extending from the...Airspace Areas Designated as an Extension to a Class D or Class E Surface Area. * * * * * AGL ND E4 Grand Forks, ND [Amended] Grand...

2013-12-10

231

Toward a salmon conjecture  

E-print Network

By using a result from the numerical algebraic geometry package Bertini we show that (with extremely high probability) a set of degree 6 and degree 9 polynomials cut out the secant variety $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{2}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{2} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$. This, combined with an argument provided by Landsberg and Manivel, implies set-theoretic defining equations in degrees 5, 6 and 9 for a much larger set of secant varieties, including $\\sigma_{4}(\\mathbb{P}^{3}\\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3} \\times \\mathbb{P} ^{3})$ which is of particular interest in light of the salmon prize offered by E. Allman for the ideal-theoretic defining equations.

Oeding, Luke

2010-01-01

232

THE KING SALMON OF COOK INLET, ALASKA  

E-print Network

, Alaska ABSTRACT Runs of king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Cook Inlet, Alaska, are de- clining for spawning. INTRODUCTION Historically, the king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is one of the most

233

PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND  

E-print Network

, spinning, or casting. #12;THE PACIFIC SI Five salmon species are native to the Paci- fic coast from San of their birth to spawn and complete their life cycle. All Pacific salmon die after they have spawned. NL

234

Salmon: SIO 212 Chapter 1 Fundamentals  

E-print Network

Salmon: SIO 212 Chapter 1 1 1 Fundamentals This first chapter reviews the fundamental principles of the size of V for a considerable range of sizes, that is, only if the smallest #12;Salmon: SIO 212 Chapter

Salmon, Rick

235

Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation. These fish continued rearing in the outdoor collection basin until release in March 2006. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 12,056 of the smolts released were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 90,450 smolts were released directly into Johnson Creek on March 13 through 15, 2006.

Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

2009-02-19

236

EMPLOYMENT SUMMARY FOR 2011 GRADUATES Grand Forks, ND 58202  

E-print Network

EMPLOYMENT SUMMARY FOR 2011 GRADUATES Grand Forks, ND 58202 Website : www.law.und.edu Phone : 701 Date Deferred 0 Total graduates 81 Unemployed - Not Seeking 0 Employment Status Unknown 2 Unemployed - Seeking 9 Employed - Undeterminable * 0 0 0 0 0 Employed - Bar Passage Required 40 0 1 0 41 Pursuing

Delene, David J.

237

134. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

134. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; VIEW OF LOW LINE AND POWER GATES, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

238

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

239

136. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; HIGH LINE GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

240

132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; POWER GATES FOR HYDRO-ELECTRIC. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

241

133. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

133. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; VIEW OF OUTLET SIDE OF LOW LINE GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

242

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

243

A Polarimetric Target Detector Using the Huynen Fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of synthetic aperture radar polarimetry in target detection is described and found to add valuable information. A new target detection methodology that makes novel use of the polarization fork of the target is described. The detector is based on a correlation procedure in the target space, and other target representations (e.g., Huynen parameters or ?? angle) can be

Armando Marino; Shane R. Cloude; Iain H. Woodhouse

2010-01-01

244

Polymerase Dynamics at the Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork*  

E-print Network

- ing body of evidence specifies Pol as the leading strand DNA polymerase and Pol as the lagging strand polymerase during undisturbed DNA replication. New evidence supporting this model comes from the usePolymerase Dynamics at the Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork* Published, JBC Papers in Press, October

Burgers, Peter M.

245

Note: a transimpedance amplifier for remotely located quartz tuning forks.  

PubMed

The cable capacitance in cryogenic and high vacuum applications of quartz tuning forks imposes severe constraints on the bandwidth and noise performance of the measurement. We present a single stage low noise transimpedance amplifier with a bandwidth exceeding 1 MHz and provide an in-depth analysis of the dependence of the amplifier parameters on the cable capacitance. PMID:23278030

Kleinbaum, Ethan; Csáthy, Gábor A

2012-12-01

246

New histone supply regulates replication fork speed and PCNA unloading  

PubMed Central

Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show that replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and efficient nucleosome assembly. Inhibition of canonical histone biosynthesis impaired replication fork progression and reduced nucleosome occupancy on newly synthesized DNA. Replication forks initially remained stable without activation of conventional checkpoints, although prolonged histone deficiency generated DNA damage. PCNA accumulated on newly synthesized DNA in cells lacking new histones, possibly to maintain opportunity for CAF-1 recruitment and nucleosome assembly. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that PCNA unloading is delayed in the absence of nucleosome assembly. We propose that coupling of fork speed and PCNA unloading to nucleosome assembly provides a simple mechanism to adjust DNA replication and maintain chromatin integrity during transient histone shortage. PMID:24379417

Mejlvang, Jakob; Feng, Yunpeng; Alabert, Constance; Neelsen, Kai J.; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Zhao, Xiaobei; Lees, Michael; Sandelin, Albin; Pasero, Philippe; Lopes, Massimo

2014-01-01

247

LESSONS FROM GRAND FORKS :P LANNING NONSTRUCTURAL FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the flood of 1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota, did not take a single life, the people suffered enormous economic damage and such large intangible losses that the city considered itself damaged to the ''core.'' Losses were exacerbated by five surprises. People working to protect themselves as flood stages rose and then to salvage their possessions as waters

L. Douglas James; Scott F. Korom

248

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume II Final Regulatory Impact Review North Pacific Administration National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Region December 2009 #12;Bering Sea Chinook Salmon effects of alternative measures to minimize Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery

249

-----WESLEy C. SALMON-----Confirmation and Relevance ,  

E-print Network

-----WESLEy C. SALMON----- Confirmation and Relevance , Item: One of the earliest surprises of Probability (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950), sec. 1l0A. ~ Wesley C. Salmon, "Partial Entailment Foundations, secs. 86-88. #12;Wesley C. Salmon that the first edition had been unclear with regard

Fitelson, Branden

250

USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON  

E-print Network

353 USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory LIBRARY Of. zi 1960 WOODS of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director USE OF DYNAMITE TO RECOVER TAGGED SALMON by Richard W Page The effect of dynamite on salmon 2 Description and results of variables tested 3 Effect of water

251

L'originalit de Juglar Pierre Salmon  

E-print Network

L'originalité de Juglar Pierre Salmon Thèse complémentaire soutenue le 28 mars 1966 Université de -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Version verbatim avec quelques corrections de forme mars 2011 Pierre Salmon Université de Bourgogne Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion (UMRS CNRS 5118) pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract This is a version

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE  

E-print Network

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE Marine Biological Laboratory iM0V3Ul953 WOODS HOLE and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director UTILIZATION OP ALASKM SALMON CANlTEaT WASH PAHTS I AHD II, September 1953 #12;#12;UTILIZATION OF AUSKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE y PART I 1. Possibility of Development

253

BLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka  

E-print Network

and Wildlife Service, John L . Farley, Director BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARDBLUEBACK SALMON OiKorhyBchus nerka AGE AND LENGTH AT SEAWARD MIGRATION PAST BONNEVILLE DAM Marine Summary and conclusions 35 Literature cited 36 Appendix 37 #12;#12;BLUEBACK SALMON, ONCOHYNCHUS NERKA AGE

254

Bed stability in unconfined gravel bed mountain streams: With implications for salmon spawning viability in future climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incubating eggs of autumn-spawning Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) could be at risk of midwinter high flows and substrate scour in a changing climate. A high-spatial-resolution multidimensional hydrodynamics model was used to assess the degree of scour risk in low-gradient unconfined gravel bed channels that are the favored environment for autumn-spawning salmon in mountain watersheds such as the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), Idaho. In one of the most important MFSR spawning tributaries, near-bed shear stresses were relatively low at all discharges from base flows to 300% of bankfull. The highest stresses were found only in small areas of the central flow core and not at spawning sites. Median shear stresses did not increase in overbank flow conditions because poor channel confinement released the excess water into adjacent floodplains. Channel and floodplain topography, rather than discharge, control the maximum near-bed shear stresses. Over the modeled range of discharges, ~2% of the total surface area of the main stem channel bed was predicted to be mobile. Even in known spawning areas, where shear stresses are higher, ?20% of the spawning surface area was mobile during overbank flows with a 2 year recurrence interval. Field measurements of little gravel transport during flows that were 93% of bankfull support the numerical model predictions. Regardless of some uncertainty in future climates in these watersheds, there appears to be relatively limited risk of extensive scour at salmon spawning sites in any likely hydrologic regimes.

McKean, Jim; Tonina, Daniele

2013-09-01

255

HOWARD FORK ACID ROCK DRAINAGE SOURCE INTERCEPTION STUDY; HOWARD FORK OF THE SAN MIGUEL RIVER NEAR OPHIR, COLORADO  

EPA Science Inventory

This project proposes to analyze regional hydrogeology as it relates to mine workings which discharge significant heavy metals into the Howard Fork of the San Miguel River and recommend strategies to intercept and divert water away from mineralized zones. The study also includes...

256

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2012 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 89 686 597 13% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 35 1,028 993 3% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 84 562 478 15% 0 BS Chinook Salmon

257

Far East  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum activity throughout the Far East region was on the upswing during 1980. In spite of increased interest in many parts of the Far East, no major new discoveries were reported. From India to Indonesia, old fields are being rehabilitated and previously uneconomic areas are being looked at again. Indonesia set a new record in 1980 for the number of exploratory wells drilled. Peninsular Malaysia set a record for oil production. Overall, however, 1980 was a banner year for petroleum exploration in the Far East. Sri Lanka saw its first foreign contractor interest in several years. India made major moves toward increasing exploration by offering offshore and onshore blocks to foreign contractors . Bangladesh and even Burma signed exploitation contracts with Japanese investors in order to increase production. Malaysia offered new acreage blocks for the first time in several years. Indonesia and the Philippines also actively encouraged exploration by offering new contract areas. One country in the Far East that did not participate in the 1980 oil boom was China. Taiwan also carried on, as in previous years with the Chinese Petroleum Corporation as the only operator. Japanese and South Korean activities were at approximately the same level as in previous years, although drilling did start in the joint development zone. Total production of the Far East reporting region declined slightly. One significant aspect of 1980 petroleum activities throughout the Far East region is the growing acceptance by various Far East countries of Asian investment for developing and exploring for hydrocarbons. Japan is the major investor, but South Korean interests and the Chinese Petroleum Corporation also began to invest in petroleum rights in other Asian countries. The main area for investment continued to be Indonesia. 39 figures, 9 tables.

Fletcher, G.L.

1981-10-01

258

Channelization and floodplain forests: Impacts of accelerated sedimentation and valley plug formation on floodplain forests of the Middle Fork Forked Deer River, Tennessee, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the severe degradation of floodplain habitats resulting from channelization and concomitant excessive coarse sedimentation on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River in west Tennessee from 2000 to 2003. Land use practices have resulted in excessive sediment in the tributaries and river system eventually resulting in sand deposition on the floodplain, increased overbank flooding, a rise in the groundwater

Sonja N. Oswalt; Sammy L. King

2005-01-01

259

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 14.1 Basin Overview The Salmon Creek Basin comprises approximatelyDRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan SALMON CREEK II, 14-1 May 2004 14 Lower Columbia Mainstem Subbasin ­ Salmon Creek Figure 14-1. Location of the Salmon Creek Basin

260

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

Subbasin within the Lower Columbia River Basin. 18.1 Basin Overview The Little White Salmon SubbasinDRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan LITTLE WHITE SALMON II, 18-1 May 2004 18 Little White Salmon Subbasin Figure 18-1. Location of the Little White Salmon River

261

Effects of the exxon valdez oil spill on fork-tailed storm-petrels breeding in the Barren Islands, Alaska. Bird study number 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) at East Amatuli Island, Barren Islands, the largest storm-petrel breeding colony within the trajectory of the oil slick, to determine whether there was evidence of adverse effects, following the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill. Although we were unable to measure all possible indicators, we found insufficient evidence to conclude that there were significant adverse impacts to breeding storm-petrels in 1989.

Nishimoto, M.; Byrd, G.V.

1993-04-01

262

Explorations in Hubble Space: A Quantitative Tuning Fork  

E-print Network

In order to establish an objective framework for studying galaxy morphology, we have developed a quantitative two-parameter description of galactic structure that maps closely on to Hubble's original tuning fork. Any galaxy can be placed in this "Hubble space", where the x-coordinate measures position along the early-to-late sequence, while the y-coordinate measures in a quantitative way the degree to which the galaxy is barred. The parameters defining Hubble space are sufficiently robust to allow the formation of Hubble's tuning fork to be mapped out to high redshifts. In the present paper, we describe a preliminary investigation of the distribution of local galaxies in Hubble space, based on the CCD imaging atlas of Frei et al. (1996). We find that barred, weakly-barred, and unbarred galaxies are remarkably well-separated on this diagnostic diagram. The spiral sequence is clearly bimodal and indeed approximates a tuning fork: strongly-barred and unbarred spirals do not simply constitute the extrema of a smooth unimodal distribution of bar strength, but rather populate two parallel sequences. Strongly barred galaxies lie on a remarkably tight sequence, strongly suggesting the presence of an underlying unifying physical process. Rather surprisingly, weakly barred systems do not seem to correspond to objects bridging the parameter space between unbarred and strongly barred galaxies, but instead form an extension of the regular spiral sequence. This relation lends support to models in which the bulges of late-type spirals originate from secular processes driven by bars.

Roberto G. Abraham; Michael R. Merrifield

2000-08-28

263

Evolution of introduced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Lake Huron  

E-print Network

Evolution of introduced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Lake Huron: emergence divergence; rapid evolution Introduction Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Wal- baum) in Lake Huron October 21, 2011 Abstract ­ Population genetic structure was detected in Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus

Neff, Bryan D.

264

Abstract.-Chinook salmon. Onco-rhynchus tshawytscha, transplanted  

E-print Network

colonizing suitable habitat. Origin and genetic structure of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ofchinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. used in the genetic comparison with New Zealand populations. San506 Abstract.-Chinook salmon. Onco- rhynchus tshawytscha, transplanted from the Sacramento River

265

Survival and behaviour of post-smolt Atlantic salmon in coastal habitat with extreme tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early marine migration of 55 Atlantic salmon post-smolts tagged with acoustic transmitters was automatically monitored using 13 to 25 km long arrays of receivers deployed inside the Bay of Fundy, a coastal system on the east coast of Canada. The survival of post-smolts from groups with short- and long-term transmitters in coastal habitat up to 10 km from the

G. L. L ACROIX; D. K NOX; M. J. W. S TOKESBURY

266

WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

267

PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

268

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon  

E-print Network

) The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect phase, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), have shown depressed productivity [defined as the natural

Dill, Lawrence M.

269

Value engineering study report on Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project. Alternative No. 3  

SciTech Connect

The project under study is Alternative No. 3 as identified in the Feasibility Study dated August 1994. This alternative is identified as Excavation and Disposal of Commercial/DOE, Other, and Residential Remedial Unit Soil. The assumptions used for generating baseline costs are discussed in site associated costs. It is further described as follows: Soils with mercury concentrations greater than 200 ppM in the Commercial/DOE and Other Remedial Units and greater than 180 ppM in the Residential Remedial Unit [41,300m{sup 3} (54,000yd{sup 3} a volume equivalent to approximately 6,750 dump truck loads)] would be excavated and disposed of in an approved, lined landfill at Y-12 with leachate collection and possible pretreatment of the leachate before discharge. Because 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) of wetland would be destroyed, wetlands banking would occur, whereby a 1.8-ha (4.5-acre) wetland would be constructed on DOE-owned land near K-25. Borrow soil would be obtained from the Y-12 West End Borrow Area or from excess soil located at Y-12 landfills to fill the excavation. It is estimated that 7.3 ha (18.2 acres, and area about the size of 17 football fields) of habitat would be adversely affected. This alternative would use BMPs to minimize any adverse affects and to comply substantively with regulatory requirements.

NONE

1995-08-01

270

Recovery of Arrested Replication Forks by Homologous Recombination Is Error-Prone  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology) indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination. PMID:23093942

Pietrobon, Violena; Freon, Karine; Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A. E.

2012-01-01

271

Coho salmon productivity in relation to salmon lice from infected prey and salmon farms  

E-print Network

of pathogen transmission from farmed fish on species interactions or other ecosystem components. Coho salmon. The finding that species interactions may cause the effects of pathogen transmission from farmed to wild fish to intensify pathogen transmission from farmed to wild fish, (ii) the ecosystem impact of louse transmission

Dill, Lawrence M.

272

Quantitative links between Pacific salmon and freshwater ecosystem structure.  

E-print Network

??Spawning Pacific salmon affect freshwater ecosystems through substrate disturbance and the marine-derived nutrient pulse they deliver. I examined relations between a) salmon abundance and stream… (more)

Verspoor, Jan Joel

2010-01-01

273

LOSS OF SALMON FROM HIGH-SEAS GILLNETTING WITH REFERENCE TO THE JAPANESE SALMON  

E-print Network

1ca, and 6% of the chinook, O. tshawytscha, salmon on the Columbia River showed gill net that the percentage of net-marked sockeye salmon in the daily catch below' Hells Gate on the Fraser River during 1943 to 15% of the salmon ascending the Bolshaya River (USSR) in recent years had gill net injuries. She

274

Patterns of covariability among California Current chinook salmon, coho salmon, Dungeness crab, and physical oceanographic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the primary motivations for the GLOBEC NEP program was the apparent inverse relationship between the increase in salmon populations in the Gulf of Alaska since the mid-1970s and concurrent declines in salmon populations in the California Current. The increase in abundance of some salmon species in the Gulf of Alaska can be plausibly explained based on mechanisms involving

L. W Botsford; C. A Lawrence

2002-01-01

275

THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

276

Genetic variation of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) populations in the South Fork Trinity River, California.  

E-print Network

??Electrophoretic methods were used to study the genetic characteristics of steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) from the South Fork Trinity River, California. Genetic variation, partitioned into within… (more)

Baker, Bruce M.

1988-01-01

277

The spatial and temporal variation of the distribution and prevalence of Atlantic salmon reovirus (TSRV) infection in Tasmania, Australia.  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon reovirus (TSRV) has been consistently isolated from Atlantic salmon in Tasmania, since first identification in 1990 under the Tasmanian Salmonid Health Surveillance Program (TSHSP). The distribution and prevalence of TSRV was identified using TSHSP data. A data set of 730 fish submissions tested over a period of 15 years was reviewed and analysed to describe the spatial and temporal variation of TSRV in Tasmanian salmonid aquaculture production units. The virus was present throughout Tasmania with the highest reported prevalence of the virus in the south-east region of Tasmania. PMID:25049086

Carlile, G; East, I J; McColl, K A; Ellard, K; Browning, G F; Crane, M St J

2014-09-01

278

Two-dimensional resistivity investigation along West Fork Trinity River, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, October 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitutes a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and manufacturing processes. Ground water flows from west to east toward the West Fork Trinity River. During October 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity investigation at a site along the West Fork Trinity River at the eastern boundary of NAS-JRB to characterize the distribution of subsurface resistivity. Five 2D resistivity profiles were collected, which ranged from 500 to 750 feet long and extended to a depth of 25 feet. The Goodland Limestone and the underlying Walnut Formation form a confining unit that underlies the alluvial aquifer. The top of this confining unit is the top of bedrock at NAS-JRB. The bedrock confining unit is the zone of interest because of the potential for contaminated ground water to enter the West Fork Trinity River through saturated bedrock. The study involved a capacitively-coupled resistivity survey and inverse modeling to obtain true or actual resistivity from apparent resistivity. The apparent resistivity was processed using an inverse modeling software program. The results of this program were used to generate distributions (images) of actual resistivity referred to as inverted sections or profiles. The images along the five profiles show a wide range of resistivity values. The two profiles nearest the West Fork Trinity River generally showed less resistivity than the three other profiles.

Shah, Sachin D.; Stanton, Gregory P.

2006-01-01

279

East Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

280

Middle East  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

Hemer, D.O. (Mobil Oil Corp., New York, NY); Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

1981-10-01

281

Acoustic tracking of migrating salmon.  

PubMed

Annual salmon migrations vary significantly in annual return numbers from year to year. In order to determine when a species' sustainable return size has been met, a method for counting and sizing the spawning animals is required. This project implements a probability hypothesis density tracker on data from a dual frequency identification sonar to automate the process of counting and sizing the fish crossing an insonified area. Data processing on the sonar data creates intensity images from which possible fish locations can be extracted using image processing. These locations become the input to the tracker. The probability hypothesis density tracker then solves the multiple target tracking problem and creates fish tracks from which length information is calculated using image segmentation. The algorithm is tested on data from the 2010 salmon run on the Kenai river in Alaska and compares favorably with statistical models from sub-sampling and manual measurements. PMID:25324076

Kupilik, Matthew J; Petersen, Todd

2014-10-01

282

Burnup measurements with the Los Alamos fork detector  

SciTech Connect

The fork detector system can determine the burnup of spent-fuel assemblies. It is a transportable instrument that can be mounted permanently in a spent-fuel pond near a loading area for shipping casks, or be attached to the storage pond bridge for measurements on partially raised spent-fuel assemblies. The accuracy of the predicted burnup has been demonstrated to be as good as 2% from measurements on assemblies in the United States and other countries. Instruments have also been developed at other facilities throughout the world using the same or different techniques, but with similar accuracies. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Bosler, G.E.; Rinard, P.M.

1991-01-01

283

2005 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During mid-1990s, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) identified several populations of salmon spawning approximately three miles downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. These populations are exposed to rapidly changing flow regimes associated with Bonneville Dam's operation. This study investigated the relationship between changing water levels and stranding or entrapment of juvenile salmon in the Ives Island area. Walking surveys of the Ives Island and Pierce Island shorelines were conducted every one to three days throughout the juvenile emigration period. The nearby shorelines of the Washington and Oregon mainland were also surveyed. Between January and June of 2005, surveyors examined 21 substantial entrapments and 20 stranding sites. A total of 14,337 salmonids, made up of three species, were found either entrapped or stranded. Nearly 92% of the salmonids were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), 4.5% were federally listed chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), and 3.8% were coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). When compared to the 2004 study year, 2005 showed an 83% increase in the overall number of observed entrapped or stranded juvenile salmon. Much of this increase can be attributed to one entrapment found along the north shore of Pierce Island (identified as E501). E501 has historically been known to contain relatively large numbers of entrapped salmon. Even so, the number of entrapped salmon observed during 2005 was a 732% increase (5926) over any prior study years. Over 83% of all chum, 63.1% of all chinook, and 63.2% of all coho sampled during 2005 were retrieved from entrapments that were likely to have formed when Bonneville Dam tailwater levels dropped to elevations between 11.5 and 12.9 feet. Peak numbers of chum and chinook were sampled in mid-April when tailwater levels ranged between 11.6ft and 15.6ft. Peak numbers of coho were sampled during the last week of February, mid-March, and mid-April when tailwater level ranged between 11.4 and 14.3 feet, 11.5 and 15.3 ft, and 11.6 and 15.6 feet, respectively. The fork length data indicate that the majority of the entrapped and stranded salmon are in the 35-50 mm range. Stranded members of all three salmon species had mean fork lengths that were 8% to 30% shorter than those of their entrapped counterparts. The locations and habitat attributes of entrapments containing the majority of the observed juvenile salmon remain fairly constant from year to year. Changes in entrapment rankings appear to be more reflective of changes in prevailing tailwater levels than they are of changes in geography, vegetation, or fish behavior. Data collected over the past six study years indicates that there are entrapments that are capable of entrapping large numbers of salmon as various tailwater levels. Avoiding specific tailwater ranges may not minimize the impact of juvenile stranding. The only way to substantially minimize the impact of stranding is to allow no tailwater fluctuations or to only allow a steady increase of the tailwater level throughout the juvenile emigration period.

Wilson, Jeremy; Duston, Reed A. (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

2006-01-01

284

Estimated Fall Chinook Salmon Survival to Emergence in Dewatered Redds in a Shallow Side Channel of the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) often spawn in the tailraces of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Redds built in shallow habitats downstream of these dams may be periodically dewatered due to hydropower operations prior to the emergence of fry. To determine whether fall Chinook salmon redds were successful in a shallow area subjected to periodic dewatering downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River, we installed 7 redd caps and monitored fry emergence. Large numbers of live fry were captured from the redds between March 9 and May 18, 2003. Estimated survival from egg to fry for these redds, which were all subjected to some degree of dewatering during the incubation and post-hatch intragravel rearing period, ranged from 16.1 to 63.2 percent and averaged 27.8 percent (assuming 4,500 eggs/redd). The peak emergence date ranged from April 1 to 29, with the average peak about April 14, 2003. Mean fork length of fall Chinook salmon emerging from individual redds ranged from 38.3 to 41.2 mm, and lengths of fish emerging from individual redds increased throughout the emergence period.

McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; James, B B.; Lukas, Joe

2005-08-01

285

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a...

2014-07-01

286

76 FR 50171 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan, Sweetwater and...Statement (EIS) for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan (SCPP). The NRCS...Improvements'' alternative assumes a salinity control project will be...

2011-08-12

287

A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE RELATED TO "CAN FARMED AND WILD SALMON CO-EXIST?"  

E-print Network

2: An Analysis of Annual Trends for Wild Pacific Salmon in British Columbia DECEMBER 2012)................................................................... 10 b) Fraser River Sockeye Salmon............................................................................................. 12 c) Fraser River Pink Salmon

Farrell, Anthony P.

288

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) EFH includes all streams...Conception. (b) Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ) EFH includes...Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) EFH...

2013-10-01

289

THERMAL TOLERANCE OF JUVENILE PACIFIC SALMON AND STEELHEAD TROUT IN RELATION TO SUPERSATURATION OF  

E-print Network

chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (0. kisutch), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri (1952) listed maximum temperatures for survival of young Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) be- tween 23

290

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) EFH includes all streams...Conception. (b) Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ) EFH includes...Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) EFH...

2010-10-01

291

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) EFH includes all streams...Conception. (b) Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ) EFH includes...Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) EFH...

2011-10-01

292

50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) EFH includes all streams...Conception. (b) Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ) EFH includes...Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) EFH...

2012-10-01

293

GENETIC ESTIMATES OF STOCK COMPOSITIONS OF 1983 CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, HARVESTS  

E-print Network

GENETIC ESTIMATES OF STOCK COMPOSITIONS OF 1983 CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA, HARVESTS ofchinook salmon populations. Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, runs returning to Pacific drainages

294

Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, LETF) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult LETF was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class.

Ruggerone, G. T.; Nielsen, J. L.; Agler, B. A.

2009-01-01

295

Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, L(ETF)) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult L(ETF) was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class. PMID:20738615

Ruggerone, G T; Nielsen, J L; Agler, B A

2009-10-01

296

Substrate-selective repair and restart of replication forks by DNA translocases  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Stalled replication forks are sources of genetic instability. Multiple fork remodeling enzymes are recruited to stalled forks, but how they work to promote fork restart is poorly understood. By combining ensemble biochemical assays and single molecule studies with magnetic tweezers, we show that SMARCAL1 branch migration and DNA annealing activities are directed by the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA to selectively regress stalled replication forks caused by blockage to the leading-strand polymerase and to restore normal replication forks with a lagging-strand gap. We unveil the molecular mechanisms by which RPA enforces SMARCAL1 substrate preference. E. coli RecG acts similarly to SMARCAL1 in the presence of E. coli SSB, whereas the highly related human protein ZRANB3 has different substrate preferences. Our findings identify the important substrates of SMARCAL1 in fork repair, suggest that RecG and SMARCAL1 are functional orthologues, and provide a comprehensive model of fork repair by these DNA translocases. PMID:23746452

Bétous, Rémy; Couch, Frank. B.; Mason, Aaron C.; Eichman, Brandt F.

2013-01-01

297

Characterization of ecological risks at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive field and laboratory approach to the ecological risk assessment for the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Site, a Superfund site in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been described in the preceding reports of this series. The risk assessment addresses concerns over the ecological impacts of upstream releases of mining wastes to fisheries of the upper Clark Fork

Gary A. Pascoe; Richard J. Blanchet; Greg Linder; Don Palawski; William G. Brumbaugh; Tim J. Canfield; Nile E. Kemble; Chris G. Ingersoll; Aïda Farag; Julie A. DalSoglio

1994-01-01

298

On the sound field radiated by a tuning fork Daniel A. Russell  

E-print Network

On the sound field radiated by a tuning fork Daniel A. Russell Science and Mathematics Department, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 Received 14 June 1999; accepted 25 April 2000 When a sounding. © 2000 American Association of Physics Teachers. I. INTRODUCTION If one rotates a sounding tuning fork

Russell, Daniel A.

299

Mutual interactions of oscillating quartz tuning forks in superfluid 4He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quartz tuning fork has recently become a popular experimental tool for investigations of both classical and quantum turbulence in cryogenic helium. Its increased use in low-temperature experiments and a number of puzzling results obtained in the past have led to many questions concerning the interaction of multiple tuning forks or the interaction of tuning forks with other oscillators. We report measurements performed in He II at low temperatures around 360 mK, on the mutual interaction of tuning forks placed in the same volume of fluid, and examine the responsible mechanisms in an effort to discriminate between acoustic coupling and interaction via quantized vortices. To this end, the interaction of two tuning forks is investigated by analyzing their recorded resonance curves, looking for any nonelectrical crosstalk. Further, the force-velocity characteristics of a detector tuning fork are measured for different operating velocities of a generator tuning fork. As a complementary measurement, the intensity of sound waves is recorded using a set of miniature receivers. We confirm the current knowledge on acoustic emission by tuning forks in He II and verify properties of their radiation patterns. We conclude that in our experiment the interaction is almost entirely mediated by sound waves.

Sheshin, G.; Gritsenko, I.; Schmoranzer, D.; Skrbek, L.

2013-10-01

300

Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. Junior Web Ranger Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet (or "Junior Ranger Handbook") was designed to help children 4 to 12 years of age learn about the National Park Service and the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (Tennessee). The booklet offers activities and questions about the park; answers may be found by using the Big South Fork Web site (http://www.nps.gov/biso/).…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

301

Flood Obelisk, Red River of the North, Grand Forks, North Dakota  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flood obelisk marking the greatest floods from 1882-1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota. This has become a famous landmark to compare current conditions to past events. This picture was taken on March 15, 2010, just before the Red River began to flood at Grand Forks....

2010-03-19

302

Multi-Degree of Freedom Tuning Fork Gyroscope Demonstrating Shock Rejection  

E-print Network

Multi-Degree of Freedom Tuning Fork Gyroscope Demonstrating Shock Rejection Adam R. Schofield}@uci.edu Abstract-- This paper presents a z-axis MEMS tuning fork rate gyroscope with multi-degree of freedom (DOF in amplitude versus a single output. I. INTRODUCTION For many applications, gyroscopes are subject to a wide

Tang, William C

303

Scaling the Geomorphic and Ecological Consequences of Contemporary Climate Change Within the Salmon River Watershed, Central Idaho: A View From Taylor Ranch Field Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Established in 1970 by the University of Idaho, Taylor Ranch Field Station is located in the Frank Church Wilderness of No Return, along Big Creek, a 1445 km2 tributary to the Middle Fork of the Salmon River. The field station has provided a stable center for terrestrial and aquatic ecological studies within the Salmon River for almost 40 years. Dr. Wayne Minshall began monitoring aquatic ecology indices at numerous sites in the Salmon River basin in the late 1970's. This rare continuum of roughly 30 years of field data can be coupled with publically available hydrologic, geomorphic and meteorological data sets to reveal a rich record of how recent demonstrable changes in climate have affected this wilderness watershed. As a consequence of improved access and automated and telemetered sensors of water quality and quantity, contemporary studies continue through out the watershed at an increasing temporal and spatial resolution. The impetuous is upon current researchers to understand both the role of the basin as a major water source to the Snake and Columbia River systems and also the function of the basin as ideal habitat for threatened native fish. Beyond these applied questions that directly impact management decisions, the pristine nature of much of the Salmon River basin also favors studies of fundamental feedbacks between the physical and biological systems. These interdisciplinary studies are augmented by increasing collections of high resolution spatial data sets such as Hyperspectral Imagery, Distributed Sensor Networks and LiDAR topography. We present a study that explicitly examines the feedbacks between wildfire, sediment production, basin hydrology and aquatic ecosystem function. Because the tributaries to the Salmon River span discrete ranges in elevation across the snow- to rainfall-dominated hydrologic regimes, these studies reveal how sensitive different portions of the Salmon River system are to projected changes in temperature. Depending on the elevation range within a give catchment, these changes will result in different responses in hillslope stability, wildfire susceptibility, stream ecology and channel form.

Crosby, B. T.; Baxter, C. V.

2008-12-01

304

Coastal coho salmon research in the West Fork Smith River: Patterns of coho salmon size and survival within a complex watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective habitat restoration planning requires the ability to anticipate fish population responses to altered habitats. The EPA has conducted network-scale research to document habitat-specific growth and survival of juvenile salmonids in a complex watershed. These findings ha...

305

THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

306

Propagation of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus in cell culture  

E-print Network

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) (ThorudPropagation of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus in cell culture BH Dannevig K Falk CMcL Press Summary ― A long-term cell line supporting growth of the infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus has

Boyer, Edmond

307

Chapter 3 Methodology Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 147  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Methodology Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 147 Final EIS ­ December 2009 3 the quantitative analysis to understand the impacts of alternatives on pollock catch (Chapter 4), Chinook salmon 3. 3.1 Estimating Chinook salmon bycatch in the pollock fishery Overall, salmon bycatch levels

308

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 14-JUN-2014 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 40 686 646 6% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 133 1,028 895 13% 1 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 95 663 568 14% 0 BS Chinook

309

2008 Salmon ICA Report To NPFMC 1 February 4, 2008  

E-print Network

, based on high bycatch rates for chinook or chum salmon, experienced by vessels working in the area salmon" category includes all non-chinook salmon. Observer data for both offshore and shoreside that triggered the closure. The procedure is as follows: Year A pollock A other salmon A chinook B pollock B

310

THE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. By CHARLES H. GILBERT,  

E-print Network

in sufficient numbers to constitute distinct runs. These are the king or chinook salmon, the chum or dog salmonTHE SALMON OF THE YUKON RIVER. ~ By CHARLES H. GILBERT, Professor of Zoology, Stanford University. " .. " .. " .. " .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 The king salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) " , .. .. . 318 Rate of travel

311

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2013 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 35 686 651 5% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 127 1,028 901 12% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 134 560 426 24% 0 BS Chinook

312

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2011 National Marine Allocation Remaining Allocation % Taken Last Week Catch BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 120 686 566 17% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC 164 1,028 864 16% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ CBSFA 76 498 422 15% 0 BS Chinook

313

HOMING AND FISHERIES CONTRIBUTION OF MARKED COHO SALMON,  

E-print Network

AT TWO COLUMBIA RIVER LOCATIONS In 1970 we conducted an experiment to deter- mine if coho salmon salmon fisheries of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California, the Columbia River fisheries White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, located near Cook, Wash., on the Little White Salmon River about 1

314

SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION FEBRUARY 73, 7995  

E-print Network

#12;Al SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 73, 7995 LIONS CLUB HALL, SALMON ARM #12;I SALMON RIVER TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION WORKSHOP FEBRUARY 13, 1995, I DOE FRAP 1995-01 \\ Compiled Salmon River Watershed Ecosystem Goals and Objectives Tyhson Banighen

315

Snake River sockeye salmon estimated adult LGR  

E-print Network

Snake River sockeye salmon # smolts estimated adult LGR migrating from returns returns Valley the understanding of sockeye salmon survival and SAR. For the 2005 outmigration the valley to valley SAR is 0 we estimated that 78% (651) of the returning adults out-migrated in the 2007 juvenile migration

316

Echo characteristics of two salmon species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska Department of Fish and Game relies on split-beam hydroacoustic techniques to estimate Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returns to the Kenai River. Chinook counts are periodically confounded by large numbers of smaller sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Echo target-strength has been used to distinguish fish length classes, but was too variable to separate Kenai River chinook and sockeye distributions. To

Patrick A. Nealson; John K. Horne; Debby L. Burwen

2005-01-01

317

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON  

E-print Network

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory FEB !) ~iy;)9, Commissioner WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF SILVER SALMON By John A. Coates* and John E. Halver Western, John A Wiiti'i-sohilile vitamin ivcjuireineiits of silver sahnon, by John A. CoiUes and John E. Ilalver

318

SALMON: A WORLD AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

319

THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD  

EPA Science Inventory

The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

320

PACIFIC SALMON Hatchery Propagation and Its Role  

E-print Network

(Calif.) Salmon Hatchery of the Fish and Wildlife Service. In foreground, diversion dam in stream, fish interfered with by pollution and by dams that cut off the salmon from their natural spawning grounds-fishery mainte- nance. Streams required for the natural reproduction of the species have been polluted and dammed

321

In Brief . ... Awards, Salmon, and Sea Turtles  

E-print Network

Commission of Oregon reports. Long-range adult chinook salmon escapement goals are on target and the upstreamIn Brief . ... Awards, Salmon, and Sea Turtles · ... Texas' first successful redfish spawns were hatched in late September 1974, perhaps 1,500 survived. About 99 percent of the first spawn were lost

322

Chinook Salmon Recovery in the Stillaguamish Watershed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show explores the threats to the Chinook salmon population in the Stillaguamish River watershed of Snohomish County, Washington. Topics include the status of the present population, factors contributing to the decline of the population, habitat needs for healthy salmon, and steps that are necessary for the recovery of the population.

2003-07-10

323

Camptothecin, a specific inhibitor of type I DNA topoisomerase, induces DNA breakage at replication forks  

SciTech Connect

The structure of replicating simian virus 40 minichromosomes, extracted from camptothecin-treated infected cells, was investigated by biochemical and electron microscopic methods. The authors found that camptothecin frequently induced breaks at replication forks close to the replicative growth points. Replication branches were disrupted at about equal frequencies at the leading and the lagging strand sides of the fork. Since camptothecin is known to be a specific inhibitor of type I DNA topoisomerase, the authors suggest that this enzyme is acting very near the replication forks. This conclusion was supported by experiments with aphidicolin, a drug that blocks replicative fork movement, but did not prevent the camptothecin-induced breakage of replication forks. The drug teniposide, and inhibitor of type II DNA topoisomerase, had only minor effects on the structure of these replicative intermediates.

Avemann, K.; Knippers, R.; Koller, T.; Sogo, J.M.

1988-08-01

324

Chemical sensor based on microfabricated wristwatch tuning forks.  

PubMed

We report here a chemical sensor based on detecting the mechanical response of a thin (approximately 10-microm) polymer wire stretched across the two prongs of a wristwatch quartz tuning fork (QTF). When the fork is set to oscillate, the wire is stretched and compressed by the two prongs. The stretching/compression force changes upon adsorption of analyte molecules onto/into the polymer wire, which is detected by the QTF with pico-Newton force sensitivity. An array of such sensors with different polymer wires is used for simultaneous detection of several analytes and for improvement of pattern recognition. The low cost (approximately 10 cent) of the QTF, together with that an array of QTFs can be driven to oscillate simultaneously and their resonance frequencies detected with the same circuit, promises a high performance, low cost, and portable sensor for detecting various chemical vapors. We demonstrate here detection of parts-per-billion-level water, ethylnitrobenzene, and ethanol vapors using the QTF arrays. PMID:15859583

Ren, Minghan; Forzani, Erica S; Tao, Nongjian

2005-05-01

325

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River...District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River...the Forked River in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Generation Station, bounded by a line beginning at...

2013-07-01

326

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River...District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River...the Forked River in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Generation Station, bounded by a line beginning at...

2012-07-01

327

HIGH PERFORMANCE MATCHED-MODE TUNING FORK GYROSCOPE M.F. Zaman, A. Sharma, and F. Ayazi  

E-print Network

HIGH PERFORMANCE MATCHED-MODE TUNING FORK GYROSCOPE M.F. Zaman, A. Sharma, and F. Ayazi Integrated the perfect matched-mode operation of a type I non-degenerate z-axis tuning-fork gyroscope (i.e., 0 Hz frequency split between high-Q drive and sense modes). The matched-mode tuning fork gyroscope (M2 -TFG

Ayazi, Farrokh

328

Incidence of Hybridization between Naturally Sympatric Westslope Cutthroat Trout and Rainbow Trout in the Middle Fork Salmon River Drainage, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introgressive hybridization has been widely reported for westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi and rainbow trout (RBT) O. mykiss and is often a result of introductions of nonnative RBT into previously allopatric populations of westslope cutthroat trout. The WCT evolved in sympatry with RBT in a portion of its native range. Few studies have evaluated natural hybrid zone structure

Christine C. Kozfkay; Matthew R. Campbell; Steven P. Yundt; Michael P. Peterson; Madison S. Powell

2007-01-01

329

DRAFT Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery and Subbasin Plan UPPER NORTH FORK LEWIS II, 12-1 May 2004  

E-print Network

the mainstem Lewis above Merwin Dam (RM 19.5). The basin contains three major reservoirs (Merwin, Yale of the basin including Merwin and Yale Reservoirs is in Clark and Cowlitz counties. The basin begins within, sediment transport, soil conditions, and riparian function. The largest of these was the Yacolt Burn

330

76 FR 29721 - Lost River and Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon-Challis National Forest; ID; Lost...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Forest; ID; Lost River/Lemhi Grazing Allotments Environmental Impact Statement...Impact Statement for the Lost River/Lemhi Grazing Allotments on National Forest System lands...analysis process for the Lost River/Lemhi Grazing Allotments. DATES: The Notice of...

2011-05-23

331

CtIP mediates replication fork recovery in a FANCD2-regulated manner.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosome instability syndrome characterized by increased cancer predisposition. Within the FA pathway, an upstream FA core complex mediates monoubiquitination and recruitment of the central FANCD2 protein to sites of stalled replication forks. Once recruited, FANCD2 fulfills a dual role towards replication fork recovery: (i) it cooperates with BRCA2 and RAD51 to protect forks from nucleolytic degradation and (ii) it recruits the BLM helicase to promote replication fork restart while suppressing new origin firing. Intriguingly, FANCD2 and its interaction partners are also involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks, hinting that FANCD2 utilizes HR proteins to mediate replication fork recovery. One such candidate is CtIP (CtBP-interacting protein), a key HR repair factor that functions in complex with BRCA1 and MRE11, but has not been investigated as putative player in the replication stress response. Here, we identify CtIP as a novel interaction partner of FANCD2. CtIP binds and stabilizes FANCD2 in a DNA damage- and FA core complex-independent manner, suggesting that FANCD2 monoubiquitination is dispensable for its interaction with CtIP. Following cellular treatment with a replication inhibitor, aphidicolin, FANCD2 recruits CtIP to transiently stalled, as well as collapsed, replication forks on chromatin. At stalled forks, CtIP cooperates with FANCD2 to promote fork restart and the suppression of new origin firing. Both functions are dependent on BRCA1 that controls the step-wise recruitment of MRE11, FANCD2 and finally CtIP to stalled replication forks, followed by their concerted actions to promote fork recovery. PMID:24556218

Yeo, Jung Eun; Lee, Eu Han; Hendrickson, Eric A; Sobeck, Alexandra

2014-07-15

332

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY...Management Act (MSA) to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...Salmon FMP). NMFS approved Amendment 17 on February 5, 2013. Among other...

2013-02-14

333

Contrasting Early Marine Ecology of Chinook Salmon and Coho Salmon in Southeast Alaska: Insight into Factors Affecting Marine Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify processes potentially contributing to the differential marine survival rates of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho salmon O. kisutch originating from Southeast Alaska, we compared the early marine ecology of the two species during the critical first summer in marine waters. We predicted that the higher survival rates for coho salmon relative to Chinook salmon were related to

L. A. Weitkamp; J. A. Orsi; K. W. Myers; R. C. Francis

2011-01-01

334

Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.  

PubMed

Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

Rogers, Luke A; Peacock, Stephanie J; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R M; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G G; Revie, Crawford W; Krkošek, Martin

2013-01-01

335

Calibrating acoustic acceleration transmitters for estimating energy use by wild adult Pacific salmon.  

PubMed

This study is the first to calibrate acceleration transmitters with energy expenditure using a vertebrate model species. We quantified the relationship between acoustic accelerometer output and oxygen consumption across a range of swim speeds and water temperatures for Harrison River adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). First, we verified that acceleration transmitters with a sampling frequency of 10 Hz could be used as a proxy for movement in sockeye salmon. Using a mixed effects model, we determined that tailbeat frequency and acceleration were positively correlated (p<0.0001), independent of tag ID. Acceleration (p<0.0001) was positively related to swim speed while fork length (p=0.051) was negatively related to swim speed. Oxygen consumption and accelerometer output (p<0.0001) had a positive linear relationship and were temperature dependent (p<0.0001). There were no differences in swim performance (F(2,12)=1.023, p=0.820) or oxygen consumption (F(1,12)=0.054, p=0.332) between tagged and untagged individuals. Five tagged fish were released into the Fraser River estuary and manually tracked. Of the five fish, three were successfully tracked for 1h. The above relationships were used to determine that the average swim speed was 1.25±0.03 body lengths s(-1) and cost of transport was 3.39±0.17 mg O(2) kg(-1)min(-1), averaged across the three detected fish. Acceleration transmitters can be effectively used to remotely evaluate fine-scale behavior and estimate energy consumption of adult Pacific salmon throughout their homeward spawning migration. PMID:23247092

Wilson, S M; Hinch, S G; Eliason, E J; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J

2013-03-01

336

WATER QUALITY TREND MONITORING FROM 1979-1985 IN THE STIBNITE MONITORING DISTRICT, VALLEY COUNTY, IDAHO  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stibnite Mining District (17060208) is located in the drainage of the East Fork South Fork Salmon River. The monitoring program was established to document any changes in water quality associated with the initiation of a large scale open pit mine and cyanide leaching plant. ...

337

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

338

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We tested for competition,between,pink salmon,(Oncorhynchus,gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus,tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984–1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years experienced 59% lower survival

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

339

75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the species Atlantic salmon (Salmon Salar) marketed as specified herein; the order excludes all other species of salmon: Danube salmon, Chinook (also called ``king'' or ``quinnat''), Coho (``silver''), Sockeye (``redfish''...

2010-06-08

340

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

E-print Network

of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O to the extinct tusk-tooth salmon group related to sockeye salmon-- Oncorhynchus (Smilodonichthys) rastrosus, from

Montgomery, David R.

341

Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns  

PubMed Central

Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

2013-01-01

342

Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.  

PubMed

Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

2013-01-01

343

Dynamics of quartz tuning fork force sensors used in scanning probe microscopy.  

PubMed

We have performed an experimental characterization of the dynamics of oscillating quartz tuning forks which are being increasingly used in scanning probe microscopy as force sensors. We show that tuning forks can be described as a system of coupled oscillators. Nevertheless, this description requires knowledge of the elastic coupling constant between the prongs of the tuning fork, which has not yet been measured. Therefore, tuning forks have usually been described within the single oscillator or the weakly coupled oscillators approximation that neglects the coupling between the prongs. We propose three different procedures to measure the elastic coupling constant: an opto-mechanical method, a variation of the Cleveland method and a thermal noise based method. We find that the coupling between the quartz tuning fork prongs has a strong influence on the dynamics and the measured motion is in remarkable agreement with a simple model of coupled harmonic oscillators. The precise determination of the elastic coupling between the prongs of a tuning fork allows us to obtain a quantitative relation between the resonance frequency shift and the force gradient acting at the free end of a tuning fork prong. PMID:19423931

Castellanos-Gomez, A; Agraït, N; Rubio-Bollinger, G

2009-05-27

344

Depositional environments of the Red Fork Sandstone in Custer and Roger Mills Counties, southwestern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Desmoinesian Red Fork formation is a prolific, overpressured gas-producing sequence of interbedded sandstones and shales. Total thickness ranges from less than 100 ft (northeast) to more than 1100 ft (south). Isopach maps suggest that syndepositional faulting controlled major depositional trends. The lower Red Fork, whose base is defined by a persistent, hot, black shale (sequence boundary ), is mainly deep-marine shale and siltstone. Two major shallowing-upward deltaic sequences separated by a marine transgression are evident in the middle (50-400-ft thick) and upper (30-250-ft thick) Red Fork. The middle Red Fork is marine dominated and was deposited into a relatively deep basin on a steep, unstable delta-front slope. In contrast, the upper Red Fork deltaic sequence is more fluvial dominated and was deposited in shallower water. The upper Red Fork is overlain by the Pink lime interval which appears to be shallow-marine/lagoonal black shale. The Pink lime contains fish scales, coffee-ground to branch-size lignitic plant debris, and brackish to shallow-marine ostracodes, linguloid brachiopods, Tasmanites algae, and gastropods. Most of the Red Fork has an easterly, possibly Ouachita Mountain area source. The prolific Southwest Leedey field has a different mineral assemblage and diagenetic sequence and may have a northern source.

Tolson, P.M. (Maxus Exploration Company, Amarillo, TX (United States))

1993-09-01

345

Frequency Characteristics of a Quartz Tuning Fork Immersed in He II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of dissipation on frequency characteristics of tuning forks was measured, the dissipation being induced by acoustic radiation of different wavelengths, excited by tuning forks. The tuning forks have been immersed in the superfluid helium. The fork resonance frequencies 32, 77 and 99 kHz have been measured at T=370 mK in the pressure range between SVP and 24.9 atm. Most of the tuning forks have been studied in a commercial can. It is found that at wavelength ?>0.6 cm the frequency dependence is determined by the relationship between density and pressure. It is established that a decrease in wavelength enhances influence of the acoustic radiation on the fork oscillation frequency. In the case where the sound wavelength is equal to the can internal diameter an acoustic resonance occurs. The frequency reaches values higher than the fork frequency in vacuum. Further reduction of the sound wavelength leads to the situation when the resonant frequency is similar to the frequency at long wavelengths.

Gritsenko, I.; Zadorozhko, A.; Sheshin, G.

2013-05-01

346

Replication forks reverse at high frequency upon replication stress in Physarum polycephalum.  

PubMed

The addition of hydroxyurea after the onset of S phase allows replication to start and permits the successive detecting of replication-dependent joint DNA molecules and chicken foot structures in the synchronous nuclei of Physarum polycephalum. We find evidence for a very high frequency of reversed replication forks upon replication stress. The formation of these reversed forks is dependent on the presence of joint DNA molecules, the impediment of the replication fork progression by hydroxyurea, and likely on the propensity of some replication origins to reinitiate replication to counteract the action of this compound. As hydroxyurea treatment enables us to successively detect the appearance of joint DNA molecules and then of reversed replication forks, we propose that chicken foot structures are formed both from the regression of hydroxyurea-frozen joint DNA molecules and from hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks. These experiments underscore the transient nature of replication fork regression, which becomes detectable due to the hydroxyurea-induced slowing down of replication fork progression. PMID:24951952

Maric, Chrystelle; Bénard, Marianne

2014-12-01

347

Wild chinook salmon survive better than hatchery salmon in a period of poor production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Cowichan River on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada are used by the Pacific Salmon Commission as an index\\u000a of the general state of chinook salmon coast wide. In recent years the production declined to very low levels despite the\\u000a use of a hatchery that was intended to increase production by

R. J. Beamish; R. M. Sweeting; C. M. Neville; K. L. Lange; T. D. Beacham; D. Preikshot

348

Quaternary faulting of basalt flows on the Melones and Almanor fault zones, North Fork Feather River, northeastern California  

SciTech Connect

Field relations indicate multiple sequences of late Cenozoic basalt flowed down the canyon of the North Fork Feather River from the Modoc Plateau during the Pliocene and early Quaternary. Remnants of at least three flow sequences are exposed in the canyon, the intermediate one yielding a K/Ar plagioclase date of 1.8 Ma. Topographic profiling of the remnants allows identification of Quaternary tectonic deformation along the northern Plumas trench, which separates the Sierra Nevada from the Diamond Mountains. The authors have identified several vertical displacements of the 1.8-Ma unit in the North Fork canyon and the area NE of Lake Almanor. NE of the lake, three NW-striking faults, each having down-to-the-west displacements of up to 35 m, are related to faulting along the east side of the Almanor tectonic depression. Analysis of the displaced basalt flows suggests that uplift of the Sierra Nevada occurred with canyon development prior to 2 Ma, and has continued coincident with several subsequent episodes of basalt deposition. Quaternary faulting of the basalt is associated with the Melones fault zone and the Plumas trench where they extend northward from the northern Sierra Nevada into the Modoc Plateau and southern Cascades. In contrast to the Mohawk Valley area, where the Plumas trench forms a 5-km-wide graben, faulting in the Almanor region is distributed over a 15-km-wide zone. A change in the strike of faulting occurs at Lake Almanor, from N50W along the Plumas trench to N20W north of the lake. The right-slip component on the fault of the Plums trench may result in a releasing bend at the change in strike and explain the origin of the Almanor depression.

Wakabayashi, J. (Wakabayashi (John), Hayward, CA (United States)); Page, W.D. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States). Geosciences Dept.)

1993-04-01

349

Quartz tuning fork as a viscometer for Helium liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oscillating beams serve as simple systems for measuring effects of energy dissipation as a result of interaction with their environment. Especially in miniature mechanical oscillators, the enhanced surface-to-volume ratio signifies the importance of damping caused by drag force. We have investigated the mechanical response of commercial miniature quartz tuning forks with a natural resonant frequency of 32.768 kHz. The changes in resonance frequency and damping have been measured at various Helium and Nitrogen gas pressures and various temperatures. Our results will be compared with theoretical predictions in order to extend its application to the sub-millikelvin temperature range as an effective thermometer in superfluid ^3He.

Jhaveri, J.; Gonzalez, M.; Bhupathi, P.; Lee, Y.

2008-03-01

350

Finite Element Analysis of Electrically Excited Quartz Tuning Fork Devices  

PubMed Central

Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF)-based Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is an important field of research. A suitable model for the QTF is important to obtain quantitative measurements with these devices. Analytical models have the limitation of being based on the double cantilever configuration. In this paper, we present an electromechanical finite element model of the QTF electrically excited with two free prongs. The model goes beyond the state-of-the-art of numerical simulations currently found in the literature for this QTF configuration. We present the first numerical analysis of both the electrical and mechanical behavior of QTF devices. Experimental measurements obtained with 10 units of the same model of QTF validate the finite element model with a good agreement. PMID:23722828

Oria, Roger; Otero, Jorge; Gonzalez, Laura; Botaya, Luis; Carmona, Manuel; Puig-Vidal, Manel

2013-01-01

351

Using otolith chemical and structural analysis to investigate reservoir habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.  

PubMed

Isotopic composition of (87) Sr:(86) Sr and natural elemental tracers (Sr, Ba, Mg, Mn and Ca) were quantified from otoliths in juvenile and adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to assess the ability of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to reconstruct juvenile O. tshawytscha rearing habitat and growth. Daily increments were measured to assess relative growth between natal rearing habitats. Otolith microchemistry was able to resolve juvenile habitat use between reservoir and natal tributary rearing habitats (within headwater basins), but not among catchments. Results suggest that 90% (n?=?18) of sampled non-hatchery adults returning to the Middle Fork Willamette River were reared in a reservoir and 10% (n?=?2) in natal tributary habitat upstream from the reservoir. Juveniles collected in reservoirs had higher growth rates than juveniles reared in natal streams. The results demonstrate the utility of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to distinguish among rearing habitats, including habitats in highly altered systems. PMID:25229130

Bourret, S L; Kennedy, B P; Caudill, C C; Chittaro, P M

2014-11-01

352

SALMON SPAWNING & REARING HABITAT IN OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Spawning & rearing, rearing only, and essential habitat identified by Oregon Dept. Fish & Wildlife for chum, coho, fall chinook, and spring chinook salmon in Oregon. Each of the species workspaces contains coverages specific to individual USGS hydrologic cataloging unit; each co...

353

Impacts of salmon on riparian plant diversity.  

PubMed

The study of natural gradients in nutrient subsidies between ecosystems allows for predictions of how changes in one system can affect biodiversity in another. We performed a large-scale empirical test of the role of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in structuring riparian plant communities. A comparison of 50 watersheds in the remote Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia's central coast in Canada shows that salmon influence nutrient loading to plants,shifting plant communities toward nutrient-rich species, which in turn decreases plant diversity.These effects are mediated by interactions between salmon density and the physical characteristics of watersheds. Predicting how salmon affect terrestrial ecosystems is central to conservation plans that aim to better integrate ecosystem values into resource management. PMID:21442794

Hocking, Morgan D; Reynolds, John D

2011-03-25

354

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

355

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon  

E-print Network

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD. The equilibrium state resembles the buoyancy structure actually observed. Key words: statistical mechanics, ocean circulation, Monte Carlo method 1. Introduction Equilibrium statistical mechanics applies to systems

Salmon, Rick

356

REVIEW OF 2011 OCEAN SALMON FISHERIES  

E-print Network

, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Mr. Aaron Jenkins and Mr. Eric Schindler, Oregon Department. #12;Review of 2011 Ocean Salmon Fisheries i FEBRUARY 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES....................................................................................................................................... iv LIST OF FIGURES

357

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Regulatory Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Flexibility 2008 ES-1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review

358

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-11-01

359

76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...alternative way to meet the purpose and need for action, including any...hydrologic resources (surface water and groundwater) in the North Fork...effects of well pumping on aquatic habitat and fish (particularly brook trout), downstream recreational...

2011-02-03

360

The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability  

PubMed Central

Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA–protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA–protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability. PMID:22426535

Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

361

HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

362

ADAPTATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE ROARING FORK WATERSHED, COLORADO.  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will assess climate-related impacts to the Roring Fork River (near Aspen, Colorado) and identify adaptive opportunities for surface water users, to support a larger global change assessment by the city of Aspen, CO (the Canary Initiative)....

363

Multiple Genetic Pathways for Restarting DNA Replication Forks in Escherichia coli K-12  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Escherichia coli, the primosome assembly proteins, PriA, PriB, PriC, DnaT, DnaC, DnaB, and DnaG, are thought to help to restart DNA replication forks at recombinational intermediates. Redundant functions between priB and priC and synthetic lethality between priA2::kan and rep3 mutations raise the possibility that there may be multiple pathways for restarting replication forks in vivo. Herein, it is shown

Steven J. Sandler

364

Error sources in in-plane silicon tuning-fork MEMS gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the error sources defining tactical-grade performance in silicon, in-plane tuning-fork gyroscopes such as the Honeywell-Draper units being delivered for military applications. These analyses have not yet appeared in the literature. These units incorporate crystalline silicon anodically bonded to a glass substrate. After general descriptions of the tuning-fork gyroscope, ordering modal frequencies, fundamental dynamics, force, and fluid coupling,

Marc S. Weinberg; Anthony Kourepenis

2006-01-01

365

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon.  

PubMed

The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect wild salmon populations and habitats in several countries. In Canada, much attention has focused on outbreaks of parasitic copepods, sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), on farmed and wild salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Several recent studies have reached contradictory conclusions on whether the spread of lice from salmon farms affects the productivity of sympatric wild salmon populations. We analyzed recently available sea lice data on farms and spawner-recruit data for pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago and nearby regions where farms are not present. Our results show that sea lice abundance on farms is negatively associated with productivity of both pink and coho salmon in the Broughton Archipelago. These results reconcile the contradictory findings of previous studies and suggest that management and policy measures designed to protect wild salmon from sea lice should yield conservation and fishery benefits. PMID:21873246

Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M; Morton, Alexandra; Lewis, Mark A; Dill, Lawrence M; Hilborn, Ray

2011-08-30

366

Sea Louse Infection of Juvenile Sockeye Salmon in Relation to Marine Salmon Farms on Canada's West  

E-print Network

fish either before or after migration past farms. We matched the latter data on wild juveniles with sea salmonis, and changes in their proportions between two years matched changes on the fish farms. MixedSea Louse Infection of Juvenile Sockeye Salmon in Relation to Marine Salmon Farms on Canada's West

Reynolds, John D.

367

Modelling the spread of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) among salmon farms based on  

E-print Network

successfully used to disentangle infection path- ways and risk factors in fish and animal farming. Keeling etModelling the spread of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) among salmon farms based on seaway distances between farms and genetic relationships between ISA virus isolates Aldrin, M.a , Lyngstad, T

Aldrin, Magne

368

Risk factors for outbreaks of infectious salmon anemia in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a viral disease occurring in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that is characterized by lethargy, anorexia, anemia and death. To control the disease in New Brunswick, Canada, 7.5 million fish from outbreak cages have been destroyed since 1997. Despite changes made by farmers, 2002 was the worst year ever for ISA losses in the region.We

Carol A. McClure; K. Larry Hammell; Ian R. Dohoo

2005-01-01

369

Effects of parasites from salmon farms on productivity of wild salmon  

PubMed Central

The ecological risks of salmon aquaculture have motivated changes to management and policy designed to protect wild salmon populations and habitats in several countries. In Canada, much attention has focused on outbreaks of parasitic copepods, sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), on farmed and wild salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Several recent studies have reached contradictory conclusions on whether the spread of lice from salmon farms affects the productivity of sympatric wild salmon populations. We analyzed recently available sea lice data on farms and spawner–recruit data for pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago and nearby regions where farms are not present. Our results show that sea lice abundance on farms is negatively associated with productivity of both pink and coho salmon in the Broughton Archipelago. These results reconcile the contradictory findings of previous studies and suggest that management and policy measures designed to protect wild salmon from sea lice should yield conservation and fishery benefits. PMID:21873246

Krkosek, Martin; Connors, Brendan M.; Morton, Alexandra; Lewis, Mark A.; Dill, Lawrence M.; Hilborn, Ray

2011-01-01

370

Genetic and ecological effects of salmon farming on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hindar, K., Fleming, I. A., McGinnity, P., and Diserud, O. 2006. Genetic and ecological effects of salmon farming on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results. ? ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63: 1234e1247. Cultured salmonids are released or escape into the wild in large numbers and may make up significant proportions of wild salmonid populations in fresh- and saltwater, causing

Kjetil Hindar; Ian A. Fleming; Philip McGinnity; Ola Diserud

2006-01-01

371

PREFERENCES FOR HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ATTRIBUTES OF FARMED SALMON AMONGST SOUTHERN ONTARIO SALMON CONSUMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research was to shed light on the trade-offs that salmon consumers make between five types of production and health attributes of farmed salmon. In Canada, the major southern Ontario market cleaved into five distinct consumer segments that varied according to age and income, ‘tastes’, and threat perceptions. There was strong consumer aversion to increased levels of

Murray A. Rudd; Nathan Pelletier; Peter Tyedmers

2011-01-01

372

Fall Quarter: The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout Larry Dominguez: Salmon and Aquatic Ecologist (e-mail) eldominguez@comcast.net  

E-print Network

Shroder WA Department of Fish and Wildlife Chum salmon, Chinook salmon Sat. Oct 29 Field trip to KennedyFall Quarter: The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout Larry Dominguez: Salmon: The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout, by Thomas P. Quinn. ISBN 0-295-98437 Other Reading

373

Request for a new exempted fishing permit (EFP) to continue research on salmon bycatch reduction devices with a focus on chum salmon bycatch reduction and one  

E-print Network

devices with a focus on chum salmon bycatch reduction and one field season to improve to Chinook salmon success on Chinook salmon bycatch through our previous EFP work on salmon excluders, to date none of our objective under this EFP is to examine two promising ideas to improve the Chinook salmon bycatch reduction

374

Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems. PMID:16620373

Rajasingh, Hannah; ?yehaug, Leiv; Vage, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

2006-01-01

375

RNF4 and PLK1 are required for replication fork collapse in ATR-deficient cells  

PubMed Central

The ATR–CHK1 axis stabilizes stalled replication forks and prevents their collapse into DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that fork collapse in Atr-deleted cells is mediated through the combined effects the sumo targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase RNF4 and activation of the AURKA–PLK1 pathway. As indicated previously, Atr-deleted cells exhibited a decreased ability to restart DNA replication following fork stalling in comparison with control cells. However, suppression of RNF4, AURKA, or PLK1 returned the reinitiation of replication in Atr-deleted cells to near wild-type levels. In RNF4-depleted cells, this rescue directly correlated with the persistence of sumoylation of chromatin-bound factors. Notably, RNF4 repression substantially suppressed the accumulation of DSBs in ATR-deficient cells, and this decrease in breaks was enhanced by concomitant inhibition of PLK1. DSBs resulting from ATR inhibition were also observed to be dependent on the endonuclease scaffold protein SLX4, suggesting that RNF4 and PLK1 either help activate the SLX4 complex or make DNA replication fork structures accessible for subsequent SLX4-dependent cleavage. Thus, replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition is a multistep process that disrupts replisome function and permits cleavage of the replication fork. PMID:24142876

Ragland, Ryan L.; Patel, Sima; Rivard, Rebecca S.; Smith, Kevin; Peters, Ashley A.; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Brown, Eric J.

2013-01-01

376

Human Timeless and Tipin stabilize replication forks and facilitate sister-chromatid cohesion  

PubMed Central

The Timeless-Tipin protein complex has been reported to be important for replication checkpoint and normal DNA replication processes. However, the precise mechanisms by which Timeless-Tipin preserves genomic integrity are largely unclear. Here, we describe the roles of Timeless-Tipin in replication fork stabilization and sister chromatid cohesion. We show in human cells that Timeless is recruited to replication origin regions and dissociate from them as replication proceeds. Cdc45, which is known to be required for replication fork progression, shows similar patterns of origin association to those of Timeless. Depletion of Timeless-Tipin causes chromosome fragmentation and defects in damage repair in response to fork collapse, suggesting that it is required for replication fork maintenance under stress. We also demonstrate that depletion of Timeless-Tipin impairs sister chromatid cohesion and causes a defect in mitotic progression. Consistently, Timeless-Tipin co-purifies with cohesin subunits and is required for their stable association with chromatin during S phase. Timeless associates with the cohesion-promoting DNA helicase ChlR1, which, when overexpressed, partially alleviates the cohesion defect of cells depleted of Timeless-Tipin. These results suggest that Timeless-Tipin functions as a replication fork stabilizer that couples DNA replication with sister chromatid cohesion established at replication forks. PMID:20124417

Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Chiaki; Lee, Candice Y.; Noguchi, Eishi

2010-01-01

377

RNF4 and PLK1 are required for replication fork collapse in ATR-deficient cells.  

PubMed

The ATR-CHK1 axis stabilizes stalled replication forks and prevents their collapse into DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that fork collapse in Atr-deleted cells is mediated through the combined effects the sumo targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase RNF4 and activation of the AURKA-PLK1 pathway. As indicated previously, Atr-deleted cells exhibited a decreased ability to restart DNA replication following fork stalling in comparison with control cells. However, suppression of RNF4, AURKA, or PLK1 returned the reinitiation of replication in Atr-deleted cells to near wild-type levels. In RNF4-depleted cells, this rescue directly correlated with the persistence of sumoylation of chromatin-bound factors. Notably, RNF4 repression substantially suppressed the accumulation of DSBs in ATR-deficient cells, and this decrease in breaks was enhanced by concomitant inhibition of PLK1. DSBs resulting from ATR inhibition were also observed to be dependent on the endonuclease scaffold protein SLX4, suggesting that RNF4 and PLK1 either help activate the SLX4 complex or make DNA replication fork structures accessible for subsequent SLX4-dependent cleavage. Thus, replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition is a multistep process that disrupts replisome function and permits cleavage of the replication fork. PMID:24142876

Ragland, Ryan L; Patel, Sima; Rivard, Rebecca S; Smith, Kevin; Peters, Ashley A; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Brown, Eric J

2013-10-15

378

Salmon 2100: Some recovery strategies that just might work  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

379

ESTIMATING NATURAL AND FISHING MORTALITIES OF CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA,  

E-print Network

ESTIMATING NATURAL AND FISHING MORTALITIES OF CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA for 1961 and 1962 brood Columbia River hatchery fall chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, based, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha,2 from the Columbia River using selected values of natural mortality. Cleaver

380

Towards efficient semantic object storage for the home Brandon Salmon  

E-print Network

Towards efficient semantic object storage for the home Brandon Salmon Steven W. Schlosser1, Gregory Foundation, via grant #CNS-0326453. Brandon Salmon is supported in part by an NSF Fellowship. #12;Keywords

381

MARKING SOCKEYE SALMON SCALES BY SHORT PERIODS OF STARVATION  

E-print Network

that the scale pattern of Columbia River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka can be recognizably modified Seaward migrations of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka 1 from Lake Wenatchee, Wash,, are composed of both

382

Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

2009-10-01

383

Population Viability of the Snake River Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 11 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

A stochastic simulation model of spring chinook population dynamics was parameterized using 36 years of redd count data from five index streams on the middle fork of the Salmon River in Idaho. Two versions of the model, one in which spawning age structure was presumed to follow an evolutionarily stable strategy and another in which spawning age structure was constrained to observed values were examined. The models were then used to generate 1000 statistically representative population projections over the next 100 years to assess risk of extinction and prospects for stock rebuilding. Current levels of production and mortality appear to suffice for maintaining the status quo, virtually assuring persistence over the next 100 years, barring catastophes, but providing no hope for rebuilding. A doubling of the current population level over the next 100 years can be expected to follow an increase in {alpha} (density independent mortality or fry production) of 5 to 25%, but rebuilding to the population levels prevailing in the 1950`s will require an increase in {alpha} of at least 37%.

Emlen, John Merritt

1993-06-01

384

76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Total 2010 ex-vessel value of the Council-managed non-Indian commercial salmon fishery was...California had its first commercial salmon fishery since 2007. The 2010 ex-vessel value of the commercial fishery was 28...

2011-10-24

385

Migration Problems of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Flow  

E-print Network

) and smolts of salmon and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied in the flow controlled areas of two northern#12;Migration Problems of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Flow Regulated Rivers. Peter Rivinoja. 2005. Migration Problems of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Flow Regulated Rivers. Doctor

386

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL  

E-print Network

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL INVESTIGA- TIONSKenian, Director ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOCKEYE SALMON AND RELATED LIMNOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS season 35 Parasites 39 SCUBA 41 Part IV. Limnology and its relation to sockeye salmon 43 Plankton and its

387

Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were

D HERTZLER

1990-01-01

388

Predictors of Chinook salmon extirpation in California's Central Valley  

E-print Network

Predictors of Chinook salmon extirpation in California's Central Valley S . C . Z E U G Department, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Abstract Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus. These results suggest that regional extirpation of Chinook salmon has been driven by multiple forms

Cardinale, Bradley J.

389

The Idaho Update recent trends in salmon and steelhead  

E-print Network

information for Snake River sp/su Chinook, fall Chinook, sockeye, and steelhead 2.Snake River sockeye salmon 2004 2006 2008 S teelhead S p/S u C hinook Adult returns of wild/natural spring/summer Chinook salmon Center (www.fpc.org). Adult returns of wild/natural spring/summer Chinook salmon and steelhead

390

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 14-JUN-2014 National and allocation values are numbers of fish. Report run on: June 19, 2014 4:35 AM CDQ BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 0% 0 Total 40 686 646 6% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC Season Total Catch Allocation Remaining

391

FALL CHINOOK SALMON RETURNS TO HATCHERIES IN THE  

E-print Network

437 E FALL CHINOOK SALMON RETURNS TO HATCHERIES IN THE BONNEVILLE DAM POOL AREA, 1945-60 mame, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director FALL CHINOOK SALMON RETURNS 13 ill #12;#12;FALL CHINOOK SALMON RETURNS TO HATCHERIES IN THE BONNEVILLE DAM POOL AREA, 1945

392

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2011 National and allocation values are numbers of fish. Report run on: March 17, 2014 5:49 AM CDQ BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 48% 0 Total 119 686 567 17% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC Season Total Catch Allocation Remaining

393

Marine growth of Columbia River hatchery Chinook salmon  

E-print Network

Marine growth of Columbia River hatchery Chinook salmon Brian Beckman (presenter) numerous co* are apparent for Columbia River spring Chinook Salmon** *competition may occur between individuals, stocks differences exist between Columbia River Chinook salmon populations **ESA Snake River Spring** Fall** Spring

394

BIOLOGY OF CHINOOK AND BLUEBACK SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

E-print Network

304 BIOLOGY OF CHINOOK AND BLUEBACK SALMON AND STEELHEAD IN THE WENATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM Marine Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Cominissioner BIOLOGY OF CHINOOK AND BLUEBACK SALMON is as follows: French, Robert R Biology of Chinook and blueback salmon and steelhead in the AVenatchee River

395

Bering Sea Non-Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Non-Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Scoping Report United States Department, scoping period for an analysis of Bering Sea Non-Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management. An analytical document non- Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fisheries. This report summarizes the issues

396

Climate, Growth and Population Dynamics of Yukon River Chinook Salmon  

E-print Network

in response to fewer returning salmon. We examined annual growth of age-1.3 and age-1.4 Yukon Chinook salmon scales, 1965–2004, and tested the hypothesis that shifts in Chinook salmon abundance were related to annual growth at sea. Annual scale growth trends were not significantly correlated with salmon abundance indices, sea surface temperature, or climate indices, although growth during the first year at sea appeared to have been affected by the 1977 and 1989 ocean regime shifts. Chinook salmon scale growth was dependent on growth during the previous year, a factor that may have confounded detection of relationships among growth, environmental conditions, and abundance. Scale growth during the second year at sea was greater in oddnumbered years compared with even-numbered years, leading to greater adult length of age-1.3 salmon in oddnumbered years. The alternating-year pattern in Chinook salmon growth was opposite that observed in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon, and it may be related to the higher trophic level of Chinook salmon and indirect competition with pink salmon. This finding highlights the need to investigate alternating-year patterns in salmon growth, prey abundance, and factors that influence these patterns, such as pink salmon.

unknown authors

397

Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Introduction Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch 1 Final EIS ­ December 2009 1 with an evaluation of the predicted environmental effects of alternative measures to minimize Chinook salmon bycatch developed the following problem statement for Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch management: An effective

398

Spring Chinook Salmon Production in the Deschutes Basin Project Narrative  

E-print Network

Spring Chinook Salmon Production in the Deschutes Basin Project Narrative Project Name Spring Chinook Salmon Production in The Deschutes River Basin Project Number 2008-311-00 Proposer Confederated of natural and artificial production of spring Chinook salmon in streams on the Warm Springs Indian

399

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2012 National and allocation values are numbers of fish. Report run on: March 11, 2014 8:28 AM CDQ BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 1% 0 Total 89 686 597 13% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC Season Total Catch Allocation Remaining

400

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ)  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Seasonal Bycatch Report (includes CDQ) Through: 31-DEC-2013 National and allocation values are numbers of fish. Report run on: March 11, 2014 5:05 AM CDQ BS Chinook Salmon PSQ APICDA 2% 0 Total 35 686 651 5% 0 BS Chinook Salmon PSQ BBEDC Season Total Catch Allocation Remaining

401

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Productivity Nez Perce Tribe  

E-print Network

or unutilized. Harvest of Snake River fall Chinook salmon still occurs in ocean and mainstem Columbia RiverSnake River Fall Chinook Salmon Productivity Jay Hesse Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries) remaining critical uncertainties. Historical abundance of fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin

402

SALMON RUNS -UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER, 1956-57  

E-print Network

364; SALMON RUNS - UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER, 1956-57 Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS HOLE, MAt L. McKernan, Director SALMON RUNS - UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER. 1956-57 by R. R. French and R. J. Wahle FIGURES 1. Columbia River watershed between Rock Island and Grand Coulee Dams iv 2. Chinook salmon p

403

STATUS OF COLUMBIA RIVER BLUEBACK SALMON RUNS, 1951  

E-print Network

STATUS OF COLUMBIA RIVER BLUEBACK SALMON RUNS, 1951 Marine Biological Laboratory J'JN13 1952 WOODS AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;STATUS OF COLUMBIA RIVER BLUEBACK SALMON RUNS, 1951 Marine Biological Laboratory J ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Known blueback salmon rearing areas of the Columbia River River System

404

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RETURN OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON  

E-print Network

445 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RETURN OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) TO SPRING THE RETURN OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) TO SPRING CREEK HATCHERY by Charles O. Junge, Jr THE RETURN OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) TO SPRING CREEK HATCHERY by Charles O. Junge, Jr

405

AbstractJuvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from natal  

E-print Network

244 Abstract­Juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from natal streams in California). Physiological ecology of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at the southern end salmon (Oncorhynchus spring run, once forming the dominant tshawytscha) from natal streams in the chinook

406

Modeling juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain  

E-print Network

Modeling juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain E. Ashley Steel Peter Guttorp NRCSET juvenile salmon migration using a simple Markov chain E. Ashley Steel and Peter Guttorp National Research.S.A SUMMARY We describe movement patterns of hatchery-raised, juvenile, spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus

Washington at Seattle, University of

407

North American Pacific Salmon: A Case of Fragile Cooperation  

E-print Network

North American Pacific Salmon: A Case of Fragile Cooperation Paper Prepared for the Norway between cooperating on joint management of Pacific salmon harvests and squabbling over their respective shares of the catch. In June 1999, the two nations signed the Pacific Salmon Agreement, which amends

Miller, Kathleen

408

LIFE AND WORK OF PROVOST GEORGE SALMON FRS  

E-print Network

LIFE AND WORK OF PROVOST GEORGE SALMON FRS 1819-1904 Lecture by Roderick Gow 6 April 2005 1 #12;The of George Salmon, mathematician, theologian and Provost of Trinity College from 1888. We are not aware of any commemoration of Salmon's life and work that occurred in 2004, and it is our intention, somewhat

Gow, Rod

409

FEATURE Connecting Independent Research Surveys of Bering Sea Salmon  

E-print Network

Although chum salmon bycatch has historically remained at low levels relative to their biomass in the Bering Sea, recent increases in chum salmon bycatch have generated concern over bycatch impacts on Alaskan salmon stocks and the effectiveness of regulatory measures used

Populations To Chum Salmon; Bycatch Bering; Sea Groundfish Fisheries; Jim Murphy

410

The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential  

E-print Network

1 In Oregon The wild caught salmon industry: Its challenges and potential A summary overview Bruce Introduction Fisheries in Oregon and wild caught salmon in particular have been critical to many Native American tribes both culturally and economically. Salmon continue to play a central economic role today

411

WalnutCrusted Salmon cup finely chopped Walnuts  

E-print Network

WalnutCrusted Salmon ¼ cup finely chopped Walnuts 1 tablespoon dry bread crumbs 1 teaspoon grated Tablespoon ground flax seed 1 salmon fillets, skin-on 1 teaspoon brown mustard 2 lemon slices (thinly sliced slightly stick together; set aside. 2. Place salmon fillet, skin side down, and brush top with mustard

Jawitz, James W.

412

Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population , John Wakeley*  

E-print Network

Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population Size Can Cenik¤ , John Wakeley* Department Abstract Pacific salmon include several species that are both commercially important and endangered. Here we use a coalescent approach to analyze a model of the complex life history of salmon, and derive

413

Horizontal competition in multilevel governmental settings Pierre Salmon  

E-print Network

May 2013 Horizontal competition in multilevel governmental settings by Pierre Salmon Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion Universit� de Bourgogne and CNRS pierre.salmon@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract Governments the influence of three guiding thoughts. 1 Some other aspects are briefly discussed in Salmon (2006). 2 Several

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

415

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) experience relatively high mortality  

E-print Network

-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Edward V. Farley Jr1 James M. Murphy1 Milo D--We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska121 Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) experience relatively high mortality rates during the first

416

Competition among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for food resources  

E-print Network

(Rogers and Rug- gerone, 1993). Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second355 Competition among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for food resources in the North Pacific

417

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

418

Rapid growth in the early marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effect of early marine entry timing and body size on the marine (smolt-to-adult) survival of Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We used data from coded wire tag release groups of hatchery Chinook salmon to test whether hatchery release date, release size, and size in offshore waters in July and September influenced marine survival. Marine survival was most strongly related to the average body size in July, with larger sizes associated with higher survivals. This relationship was consistent over multiple years (1997–2002), suggesting that mortality after July is strongly size-dependent. Release size and date only slightly improved this relationship, whereas size in September showed little relationship to marine survival. Specifically, fish that experienced the highest marine survivals were released before 25 May and were larger than 17 g (or 120 mm fork length) by July. Our findings highlight the importance of local conditions in Puget Sound (Washington, USA) during the spring and summer, and suggest that declines in marine survival since the 1980s may have been caused by reductions in the quality of feeding and growing conditions during early marine life.

Duffy, Elisabeth J.; Beauchamp, David A.

2011-01-01

419

Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon for stocking in Washington State.  

PubMed

To assess the suitability of water reuse technology for raising Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. for stocking purposes, fish health and welfare were compared between two groups of juvenile Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from the same spawn: one group was reared in a pilot partial water reuse system (circular tanks), and the other group was reared in a flow-through raceway. This observational study was carried out over a 21-week period in Washington State. Reuse and raceway fish were sampled repeatedly for pathogen screening and histopathology; fin erosion and whole-blood characteristics were also evaluated. By the study's end, no listed pathogens were isolated from either cohort, and survival was 99.3% and 99.0% in the reuse and raceway groups, respectively. Condition factor was 1.28 in raceway fish and 1.14 in reuse fish; this difference may have been attributable to occasional differences in feeding rates between the cohorts. Fin indices (i.e., length of the longest dorsal or caudal fin ray, standardized by fork length) were lower in reuse fish than in raceway fish, but fin erosion was not grossly apparent in either cohort. The most consistent histological lesion was gill epithelial hypertrophy in reuse fish; however, blood analyses did not suggest any corresponding physiological imbalances. Overall, results suggest that water reuse technology can be employed in rearing juvenile anadromous salmonids for stocking purposes. PMID:21834328

Good, Christopher; Vinci, Brian; Summerfelt, Steven; Snekvik, Kevin; Adams, Ian; Dilly, Samuel

2011-06-01

420

Rapid growth in the early marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effect of early marine entry timing and body size on the marine (smolt-to-adult) survival of Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We used data from coded wire tag release groups of hatchery Chinook salmon to test whether hatchery release date, release size, and size in offshore waters in July and September influenced marine survival. Marine survival was most strongly related to the average body size in July, with larger sizes associated with higher survivals. This relationship was consistent over multiple years (1997-2002), suggesting that mortality after July is strongly size-dependent. Release size and date only slightly improved this relationship, whereas size in September showed little relationship to marine survival. Specifically, fish that experienced the highest marine survivals were released before 25 May and were larger than 17 g (or 120 mm fork length) by July. Our findings highlight the importance of local conditions in Puget Sound (Washington, USA) during the spring and summer, and suggest that declines in marine survival since the 1980s may have been caused by reductions in the quality of feeding and growing conditions during early marine life.

Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.

2011-01-01

421

Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishm

Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

2004-10-01

422

Factors influencing spawning migration of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the North Fork Skokomish River, Olympic National Park, Washington.  

E-print Network

??Distribution and life history characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were described in the North Fork Skokomish River Basin (including Lake Cushman, a reservoir)… (more)

Brenkman, Samuel J.

1998-01-01

423

Antifreeze protein gene transfer in Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Salmonids freeze to death if they come into contact with ice. Many marine fish species that inhabit icy sea waters synthesize antifreeze proteins (AFP) to protect them from freezing. Production of stable lines of freeze-resistant salmon and other species would greatly facilitate development of sea-pen aquaculture in many regions. We successfully introduced winter flounder AFP genes into Atlantic salmon. Research to date indicates stable genomic integration and low levels of expression of winter flounder AFP genes in a small number (approximately 3%) of salmon developed from microinjected eggs. Inheritance of the AFP gene by offspring (F1) from crosses between transgenic and wild-type salmon revealed that the transgenic flounders (F0) were germ-line mosaics. Low levels of AFP precursors could be detected in the blood of all these transgenic offspring (F1). Approximately 50% of the progeny produced by crosses between transgenic F1 and wild-types contained the AFP genes. These results demonstrate that stable germ-line transformed Atlantic salmon can be produced. PMID:1308821

Hew, C L; Davies, P L; Fletcher, G

1992-01-01

424

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2010-10-01

425

History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

Parsons, John W.

1973-01-01

426

Areas contributing ground water to the Peconic Estuary, and ground-water budgets for the north and south forks and Shelter Island, eastern Suffolk County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Peconic Estuary, at the eastern end of Long Island, has been plagued by a recurrent algal bloom, locally referred to as ?Brown Tide,? that has caused the severe decline of local marine resources. Although the factors that trigger Brown Tide blooms remain uncertain, groundwater discharge has previously been shown to affect surface-water quality in the western part of the estuary. A U.S. Geological Survey groundwater- flow model of the main body of Long Island indicates that a total of about 7.5 x 106 ft3/d (cubic feet per day) of freshwater discharges to the western part of the estuary, but the model does not include the ground-water flow systems on the North and South Forks and Shelter Island, which contribute significant amounts of freshwater to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. The need for information on freshwater discharge to the entire estuary prompted the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate ground-water discharge from the North and South Forks and Shelter Island. Source areas that contribute ground water to the Peconic Estuary were delineated, and groundwater budgets for these areas were developed, to evaluate the distribution and magnitude of ground-water discharge to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. Contributing-area boundaries that were delineated coincide with the hydraulic boundaries of the fresh ground-water-flow systems of the North and South Forks and Shelter Island; these boundaries are of two types? external (saltwater bodies) and internal (groundwater divides). Hydrologic components that were evaluated include recharge from precipitation, public-supply withdrawal and return flow, and agricultural withdrawal. Values for each of these components were calculated or estimated for the individual freshwater flow subsystems that form each ground-water-budget area, then summed to obtain the total discharge of fresh ground water to tidewater. Ground-water discharge to the Peconic Estuary is about 3.8 x 106 ft3/d from the North Fork, 11 x 106 ft3/d from the South Fork, and 1.7 x 106 ft3/d from Shelter Island. The total contribution to the estuary from these areas is about 16 x 106 ft3/d?roughly twice the total contribution from the main body of Long Island. In contrast to the freshwater contribution from the main body of Long Island, which is concentrated near the head of the estuary, the contributions from the North and South Forks and Shelter Island are distributed along the east-west length of the estuary. Changes in water-table altitude and the resulting changes in total discharge to the Peconic Estuary were estimated from the relative changes in annual mean water level at observation wells. The 1985-95 interval included 7 years (1985-88, 1991- 92, 1995) of generally below-average water-table altitudes that presumably caused similar decreases in ground-water discharge to the estuary; intense Brown Tide blooms coincided with six of these years (1985-88, 1991, 1995), and localized blooms coincided with the remaining year (1992). Watertable altitudes in the remaining 4 years of the 1985-95 interval (1989-90, 1993-94) were nearly average or above average, and presumably produced comparably near-average or increased amounts of ground-water discharge to the estuary; none of these years saw any widespread Brown Tide blooms. Fluctuations in the amounts of ground-water discharge to the estuary appear to affect the occurrence of Brown Tide blooms, although the factors that trigger the blooms have not been determined.

Schubert, C.E.

1998-01-01

427

Electroshocking and PIT tagging of juvenile Atlantic salmon: Are there interactive effects on growth and survival?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electroshocking and tagging of fish with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are two commonly used methods for conducting mark-recapture studies in freshwater environments and are frequently used in combination. We conducted an experiment to test for the effects of electroshocking, tagging, and a combination of electroshocking plus tagging on the growth and survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr. We used five treatments that included the presence or absence of PIT tags and electroshocking at 300 or 500 V plus a control group. Fish were measured, weighed, and electroshocked on four occasions separated by approximately 2-month intervals. The average (??1 SD) fork length was 62.1 ?? 1.9 mm and the average weight was 2.5 ?? 0.3 g at the start of the experiment; at the end of the experiment, length averaged 120.5 ?? 11.6 mm and weight averaged 20.9 ?? 6.1 g. We did not detect any significant effects of electroshocking on growth or survival over the course of the experiment. However, there was evidence that tagging negatively influenced survival over the first interval after initial tagging and that survival was positively correlated with fish size. In addition, tagged fish seemed to suffer a minor depression in growth over the first interval, although differences in size among tagged and untagged fish were nonsignificant throughout the course of the experiment. We suggest that the size at tagging may have a greater effect on survival and growth of small (<80-mm) Atlantic salmon parr than the amount of exposure to electroshocking. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Sigourney, D.B.; Horton, G.E.; Dubreuil, T.L.; Varaday, A.M.; Letcher, B.H.

2005-01-01

428

Human influence on the spatial structure of threatened Pacific salmon metapopulations.  

PubMed

To remain viable, populations must be resilient to both natural and human-caused environmental changes. We evaluated anthropogenic effects on spatial connections among populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) (designated as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act) in the lower Columbia and Willamette rivers. For several anthropogenic-effects scenarios, we used graph theory to characterize the spatial relation among populations. We plotted variance in population size against connectivity among populations. In our scenarios, reduced habitat quality decreased the size of populations and hydropower dams on rivers led to the extirpation of several populations, both of which decreased connectivity. Operation of fish hatcheries increased connectivity among populations and led to patchy or panmictic populations. On the basis of our results, we believe recolonization of the upper Cowlitz River by fall and spring Chinook and winter steelhead would best restore metapopulation structure to near-historical conditions. Extant populations that would best conserve connectivity would be those inhabiting the Molalla (spring Chinook), lower Cowlitz, or Clackamas (fall Chinook) rivers and the south Santiam (winter steelhead) and north fork Lewis rivers (summer steelhead). Populations in these rivers were putative sources; however, they were not always the most abundant or centrally located populations. This result would not have been obvious if we had not considered relations among populations in a metapopulation context. Our results suggest that dispersal rate strongly controls interactions among the populations that comprise salmon metapopulations. Thus, monitoring efforts could lead to understanding of the true rates at which wild and hatchery fish disperse. Our application of graph theory allowed us to visualize how metapopulation structure might respond to human activity. The method could be easily extended to evaluations of anthropogenic effects on other stream-dwelling populations and communities and could help prioritize among competing conservation measures. PMID:21797926

Fullerton, Aimee H; Lindley, Steven T; Pess, George R; Feist, Blake E; Steel, E Ashley; McElhany, Paul

2011-10-01

429

Migratory behavior and forebay delay of radio-tagged juvenile fall chinook salmon in a lower snake river impoundment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During July and August 1995-1997, we used radiotelemetry to estimate the migration rate of 405 juvenile fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (mean fork length, 138-144 mm) through Little Goose Reservoir. Migration rates decreased significantly as fish approached the dam. Median migration rates in 1995 were 26.0 km/d through the 45.9-km reach immediately below Lower Granite Dam, 14.9 km/d through the next 14.4 km, and 0.8 km/d in the Little Goose Dam forebay (0.6 km). Median migration rates through the same reaches were consistent among years: 24.8, 13.4, and 0.8 km/d in 1996 and 20.2, 10.2, and 1.0 km/d in 1997. Most fish migrated through the upper 45.9 km within 5 d and through the lower two reaches (15.0 km) within an additional 5 d. However, 10% to 20% of the fish spent a week or more in the forebay and lower reservoir. Radio-tagged smolts displayed two behaviors after entering the forebay: crossing the forebay and upstream excursions. Study fish crossed the forebay an average of 0.6-1.0 time/h, and 157 upstream excursions were identified, 15 of which were at least 14.4 km in length. Fish behavior in the forebay was associated with declining water velocities near the dam. Detections of passive integrated transponder tags suggest that similar delays occur in other lower Snake River reservoirs. Based on studies from the Columbia River, delays for 20% of the juvenile fall chinook salmon outmigrants in each of these forebays may have contributed to high predation losses and pose a serious challenge to efforts aimed at restoring this threatened salmon stock.

Venditti, D.A.; Rondorf, D.W.; Kraut, J.M.

2000-01-01

430

Establishment, maintenance and modifications of the lower jaw dentition of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) throughout its life cycle  

PubMed Central

In this paper we elucidate the pattern of initiation of the first teeth and the pattern of tooth replacement on the dentary of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), throughout nearly all stages of its life cycle, using serially sectioned heads and jaws, cleared and stained animals, and X-rays. The dentary teeth are set in one row. Tooth germs appear around hatching, first in odd positions, followed by even positions. From position 8 further backwards, teeth are added in adjacent positions. The first replacement teeth appear in animals of about 30 mm fork length. On the dentary of early life stages (alevins and fry), every position in the tooth row holds a functional (i.e. attached and erupted) tooth and a replacement tooth. The alternating pattern set up anteriorly in the dentary by the first-generation teeth changes in juveniles (parr) whereby teeth are in a similar functional (for the erupted teeth) or developmental stage (for the replacement teeth) every three positions. This pattern is also observed in marine animals during their marine life phase and in both sexes of adult animals prior to spawning (grilse and salmon), but every position now holds either a functional tooth or a mineralised replacement tooth. This is likely due to the fact that replacement tooth germs have to grow to a larger size before mineralisation starts. In the following spring, the dentary tooth pattern of animals that have survived spawning (kelts) is highly variable. The abundance of functional teeth in post-spawning animals nevertheless indicates that teeth are not lost over winter. We confirm the earlier reported lack of evidence for the existence of an edentulous life phase, preceding the appearance of so-called breeding teeth during upstream migration to the spawning grounds, and consider breeding teeth to be just another tooth generation in a regularly replacing dentition. This study shows how Atlantic salmon maintains a functional adaptive dentition throughout its complex life cycle. PMID:17764526

Huysseune, Ann; Hall, Brian K; Witten, P Eckhard

2007-01-01

431

Regional Ecorisk Field investigation, upper Clark Fork River Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Regional Ecorisk Field Investigation was conducted at the Clark Fork River Superfund Site (Montana) to evaluate the relationships between plant communities and tailings deposits in riparian habitats and to evaluate food-chain transfer of trace elements to selected wildlife species. Stations were selected to represent a range of vegetation biomass (or cover) values and apparent impact of trace elements, with some areas of lush vegetation, some areas of mostly unvegetated soil (e.g., < 30 percent plant cover), and a gradient in between. For the evaluation of risk to wildlife, bioaccumulation of metals was evaluated in native or naturalized plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Potential reproductive effects in the deer mouse were evaluated by direct measurements. For other wildlife species, bioaccumulation data were interpreted in the context of food web exposure models. Total biomass and species richness of riparian plant communities are related to tailings content of soil as indicated by pH and metals concentrations. Risk to populations of omnivorous small mammals such as the deer mouse was not significant. Relative abundance and reproductive condition of the deer mouse were normal, even in areas of high metals enrichment. Based on exposure models and site-specific tissue residue data for dietary species, risk to local populations of predators such as red fox and American kestrel that feed on deer mice and terrestrial invertebrates is not significant. Risk to herbivores related to metals bioaccumulation in plant tissues is not significant. Population level effects in deer and other large wildlife are not expected because of the large home ranges of such species and compensatory demographic factors.

Pastorok, R.; LaTier, A.; Ginn, T. [PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

432

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

Ruggerone, G. T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K. W.; Nielsen, J. L.; Rogers, D. E.

2003-01-01

433

Dynamics of probes attached to quartz tuning forks for the detection of surface forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of force microscopy probes attached to quartz tuning fork piezoelectric sensors has been investigated, by simply modeling the tuning fork/probe system as two coupled damped harmonic oscillators. Depending on how probes are applied to the tuning fork prong, they could show appreciable compliance along the direction of approach to the surface. In particular, buckling or bending deformation of the probe may account for unexpectedly long interaction ranges found in experimental approach curves. Some peculiar curves found in the literature in the case of lateral probe oscillation (shear force) are well reproduced by the present model. In particular, a 'clamping' effect is observed when the probe is substantially more compliant than the tuning fork. By calculating the actual probe motion along with the tuning fork response, the correct distance control operation regimes are pointed out for the shear-force case, even when using compliant probes. The model can be readily extended to the case of normal oscillation, at least for small amplitudes. Furthermore, it could be applied to a 'mixed' case of shear-force detection performed with very compliant probes. The present analysis can help to improve data interpretation and operation conditions in dynamic force microscopy and spectroscopy.

Labardi, M.

2007-10-01

434

South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

NONE

1995-09-01

435

Dynamics of probes attached to quartz tuning forks for the detection of surface forces.  

PubMed

The dynamics of force microscopy probes attached to quartz tuning fork piezoelectric sensors has been investigated, by simply modeling the tuning fork/probe system as two coupled damped harmonic oscillators. Depending on how probes are applied to the tuning fork prong, they could show appreciable compliance along the direction of approach to the surface. In particular, buckling or bending deformation of the probe may account for unexpectedly long interaction ranges found in experimental approach curves. Some peculiar curves found in the literature in the case of lateral probe oscillation (shear force) are well reproduced by the present model. In particular, a 'clamping' effect is observed when the probe is substantially more compliant than the tuning fork. By calculating the actual probe motion along with the tuning fork response, the correct distance control operation regimes are pointed out for the shear-force case, even when using compliant probes. The model can be readily extended to the case of normal oscillation, at least for small amplitudes. Furthermore, it could be applied to a 'mixed' case of shear-force detection performed with very compliant probes. The present analysis can help to improve data interpretation and operation conditions in dynamic force microscopy and spectroscopy. PMID:21730420

Labardi, M

2007-10-01

436

UvrD controls the access of recombination proteins to blocked replication forks.  

PubMed

Blocked replication forks often need to be processed by recombination proteins prior to replication restart. In Escherichia coli, the UvrD repair helicase was recently shown to act at inactivated replication forks, where it counteracts a deleterious action of RecA. Using two mutants affected for different subunits of the polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol IIIh), we show here that the anti-RecA action of UvrD at blocked forks reflects two different activities of this enzyme. A defective UvrD mutant is able to antagonize RecA in cells affected for the Pol IIIh catalytic subunit DnaE. In this mutant, RecA action at blocked forks specifically requires the protein RarA (MgsA). We propose that UvrD prevents RecA binding, possibly by counteracting RarA. In contrast, at forks affected for the Pol IIIh clamp (DnaN), RarA is not required for RecA binding and the ATPase function of UvrD is essential to counteract RecA, supporting the idea that UvrD removes RecA from DNA. UvrD action on RecA is conserved in evolution as it can be performed in E. coli by the UvrD homologue from Bacillus subtilis, PcrA. PMID:17641684

Lestini, Roxane; Michel, Bénédicte

2007-08-22

437

Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites.  

PubMed

The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. PMID:23734489

Peacock, Stephanie J; Krkosek, Martin; Proboszcz, Stan; Orr, Craig; Lewis, Mark A

2013-04-01

438

Evaluation of a chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bioenergetics model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in both the laboratory and the field. Chinook salmon in laboratory tanks were fed alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), the predominant food of chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. Food consumption and growth by chinook salmon during the experiment were measured. To estimate the efficiency with which chinook salmon retain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from their food in the laboratory, PCB concentrations of the alewife and of the chinook salmon at both the beginning and end of the experiment were determined. Based on our laboratory evaluation, the bioenergetics model was furnishing unbiased estimates of food consumption by chinook salmon. Additionally, from the laboratory experiment, we calculated that chinook salmon retained 75% of the PCBs contained within their food. In an earlier study, assimilation rate of PCBs to chinook salmon from their food in Lake Michigan was estimated at 53%, thereby suggesting that the model was substantially overestimating food consumption by chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. However, we concluded that field performance of the model could not be accurately assessed because PCB assimilation efficiency is dependent on feeding rate, and feeding rate of chinook salmon was likely much lower in our laboratory tanks than in Lake Michigan.

Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

2004-01-01

439

HEALTHY STOCKS OF NW SALMON FOR CA, ID, OR, AND WA  

EPA Science Inventory

Geographic distribution of eight species/races of Pacific salmon and steelhead (spring/summer chinook, fall chinook, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, summer steelhead and winter steelhead. The data are based upon the Oregon Trout report Healthy Native Stock...

440

Mixed-Stock Analysis of Yukon River Chum Salmon: Application and Validation in a Complex Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yukon River chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta are managed under the Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST), which requires conservation and equitable sharing of this fishery resource by the USA and Canada. Fall chum salmon are of special concern because they spawn in both the United States and Canada, and the focus of the PST is on Canadian-origin salmon. Yukon River chum salmon

Blair G. Flannery; Terry D. Beacham; John R. Candy; Russell R. Holder; Gerald F. Maschmann; Eric J. Kretschmer; John K. Wenburg

2010-01-01

441

An Exempted Fishing Permit Application To Test A Salmon Excluder Device For Pollock Trawls  

E-print Network

. Salmon bycatch caps are currently very restrictive and in the case of the cap for Chinook salmon, further of the EFP work (970 MT of pollock in fall of 2003) and the Chinook salmon stage (1,300 MT in spring of 2004 for a minimum sample size of 200 chum salmon for the first stage of EFP work and 30 Chinook salmon

442

Comparative genomics identifies candidate genes for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) has been described as the hoof and mouth disease of salmon farming. ISA is caused by a lethal and highly communicable virus, which can have a major impact on salmon aquaculture, as demonstrated by an outbreak in Chile in 2007. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ISA resistance has been mapped to three microsatellite markers on linkage group (LG) 8 (Chr 15) on the Atlantic salmon genetic map. We identified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and three fingerprint contigs from the Atlantic salmon physical map that contains these markers. We made use of the extensive BAC end sequence database to extend these contigs by chromosome walking and identified additional two markers in this region. The BAC end sequences were used to search for conserved synteny between this segment of LG8 and the fish genomes that have been sequenced. An examination of the genes in the syntenic segments of the tetraodon and medaka genomes identified candidates for association with ISA resistance in Atlantic salmon based on differential expression profiles from ISA challenges or on the putative biological functions of the proteins they encode. One gene in particular, HIV-EP2/MBP-2, caught our attention as it may influence the expression of several genes that have been implicated in the response to infection by infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). Therefore, we suggest that HIV-EP2/MBP-2 is a very strong candidate for the gene associated with the ISAV resistance QTL in Atlantic salmon and is worthy of further study. PMID:20396924

Li, Jieying; Boroevich, Keith A; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S

2011-04-01

443

76 FR 70409 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Final Results of Full Third Sunset Review of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the species Atlantic salmon (Salmon Salar) marketed as specified herein; the order excludes all other species of salmon: Danube salmon, Chinook (also called ``king'' or ``quinnat''), Coho (``silver''), Sockeye (``redfish''...

2011-11-14

444

The coefficient of the voltage induced frequency shift measurement on a quartz tuning fork.  

PubMed

We have measured the coefficient of the voltage induced frequency shift (VIFS) of a 32.768 KHz quartz tuning fork. Three vibration modes were studied: one prong oscillating, two prongs oscillating in the same direction, and two prongs oscillating in opposite directions. They all showed a parabolic dependence of the eigen-frequency shift on the bias voltage applied across the fork, due to the voltage-induced internal stress, which varies as the fork oscillates. The average coefficient of the VIFS effect is as low as several hundred nano-Hz per millivolt, implying that fast-response voltage-controlled oscillators and phase-locked loops with nano-Hz resolution can be built. PMID:25414971

Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

2014-01-01

445

Sensitivity of Off-Channel Salmon Rearing Habitats to Changing Base Flows in Low-Gradient Reaches of Central Idaho Mountain Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical rearing habitats for juvenile salmon and trout are frequently in off-channel areas of shallow, low-velocity water. Typically, these are remnants of abandoned channel positions that are still hydraulically connected to the contemporary main channel. However, the size and spatial arrangement of this habitat is strongly dependent on water stage in the main channel. In two salmon-bearing streams in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho, we used a high-resolution channel DEM and a 1D fluid dynamics model to define the location, depth, total area, frequency, and timing and duration of flooding of off-channel habitat. We then predicted changes in water surface elevation in the main channel over a range of low flow discharges and remapped the functional off-channel areas at each flow stage. Measurements at nearby gages indicate that average late summer and autumn low flows in these streams have declined by about 7% per decade over the prior 60 years. Modern off-channel habitat along the 20km of study streams is not uniformly arranged, even at high flows, and the distribution becomes still more restricted in space and time as flows decline. Progeny of summer- and early fall-spawning Chinook salmon rear for up to 2 years in these streams before migrating to the ocean, with much of that time spent in the off-channel habitat. Progeny of spring-spawning steelhead use the same areas for up to 3 years. While much prior research has focused on the effects of climate change on the availability and condition of spawning sites and on water temperatures, this study documents likely changes in the amount and condition of rearing habitat. Further investigation is needed to understand the ecological consequences and whether the declining anadromous fish populations may be at some risk from diminishing rearing habitat during declining base flows caused by external forces, such as a changing climate, dams, or water extractions.

McKean, J. A.; Thurow, R.; Tonina, D.; Isaak, D.; Bohn, C.

2010-12-01

446

Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

Honeyfield, D. C.; Ostrowski, C. S.; Fletcher, J. W.; Mohler, J. W.

2006-01-01

447

RecD2 Helicase Limits Replication Fork Stress in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

DNA helicases have important roles in genome maintenance. The RecD helicase has been well studied as a component of the heterotrimeric RecBCD helicase-nuclease enzyme important for double-strand break repair in Escherichia coli. Interestingly, many bacteria lack RecBC and instead contain a RecD2 helicase, which is not known to function as part of a larger complex. Depending on the organism studied, RecD2 has been shown to provide resistance to a broad range of DNA-damaging agents while also contributing to mismatch repair (MMR). Here we investigated the importance of Bacillus subtilis RecD2 helicase to genome integrity. We show that deletion of recD2 confers a modest increase in the spontaneous mutation rate and that the mutational signature in ?recD2 cells is not consistent with an MMR defect, indicating a new function for RecD2 in B. subtilis. To further characterize the role of RecD2, we tested the deletion strain for sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. We found that loss of RecD2 in B. subtilis sensitized cells to several DNA-damaging agents that can block or impair replication fork movement. Measurement of replication fork progression in vivo showed that forks collapse more frequently in ?recD2 cells, supporting the hypothesis that RecD2 is important for normal replication fork progression. Biochemical characterization of B. subtilis RecD2 showed that it is a 5?-3? helicase and that it directly binds single-stranded DNA binding protein. Together, our results highlight novel roles for RecD2 in DNA replication which help to maintain replication fork integrity during normal growth and when forks encounter DNA damage. PMID:24443534

Walsh, Brian W.; Bolz, Samantha A.; Wessel, Sarah R.; Schroeder, Jeremy W.; Keck, James L.

2014-01-01

448

K-AR DATING OF AUTHIGENIC ILLITES: INTEGRATING THE DIAGENETIC HISTORY OF THE FLUVIAL WILLIAMS FORK FORMATION, MESAVERDE  

E-print Network

K-AR DATING OF AUTHIGENIC ILLITES: INTEGRATING THE DIAGENETIC HISTORY OF THE FLUVIAL WILLIAMS FORK alteration and illitization in the fluvial section of the Williams Fork Formation (Upper Mesaverde), Piceance). Illite from the extracted clays provide K-Ar ages for fifteen samples, revealing a linear increase in age

449

Planning and implementation of a comprehensive ecological risk assessment at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Superfund Site, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated an innovative ecological risk assessment program at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site in 1989. The site is located in the Clark Fork River (CFR) basin of western Montana, and consists of 160 km (100 miles) of the CFR and an 820-acre wetland at Milltown Reservoir. The focus of the assessment

Gary A. Pascoe; Julie A. DalSoglio

1994-01-01

450

Fluvial sediment in Salem Fork watershed, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suspended sediment discharged from the 8.32-square-mile Salem Fork study area in Harrison County, W. Va., averaged 3,500 tons per year during the first 4-year period of investigation and 1,770 tons per year during the second 4-year period. The difference as attributed to increased flow control, effected by the completion of detention structures and other conservation measures, the absence of appreciable sediment-producing construction activities, and a reduction of the amounts of rainfall and runoff during the second 4-year period. Particle-size distribution of the suspended sediment discharged from the watershed remained unchanged during the two 4-year periods. Although sand and some silt were deposited in upstream reservoirs, sands and other sediments were evidently entrained in the flow below the reservoirs. During the 7.75-year period, reservoir 11A had a trap efficiency of 88 percent. The average annual sediment yield of subwatershed 11A was 1.31 tons per acre, or 837 tons per square mile. Outflow from reservoir 11A occurred during 81 percent of the investigation 'period, October 1954 to June 1962, and 78 percent of the sediment discharge from the reservoir occurred during less than 6 percent of the investigation period. A comparison of particle-size distribution of inflow sediment with that of outflow sediment revealed that practically all sands and some silts entering reservoir 11A were deposited in the reservoir. Chemical analyses of inflow water and the particle-size analyses suggested that flocculation of fine sediments occurred in the reservoir. Analysis of the sediment data collected at the outflow of reservoir 9 during 1956-62 revealed that the average annual sediment discharge was 128,000 pounds per year. Limited particle-size data suggested that practically no sand was discharged from reservoir 9, even though the inflow contained sand. Average annual inflow to reservoirs 11A and 9 compared favorably with average annual runoff for the entire watershed-study area.

Flint, R.F.

1972-01-01

451

SALMON RECOVERY: CATEGORIZING AGENTS, DRIVERS, AND DELUSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the downward trajectory for wild sal...

452

In Brief . ... Chum Salmon, Oil Spills,  

E-print Network

incubation for rehabilitating salmon streams has been announced by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game of Michigan research engineers. In test- ing oil barriers, herders, and pickup devices the researchers found that at stream speeds over I-mph, oil starts slipping underneath barriers and oil herding devices, while the U

453

Eco-evolutionary dynamics in Pacific salmon  

PubMed Central

Increasing acceptance of the idea that evolution can proceed rapidly has generated considerable interest in understanding the consequences of ongoing evolutionary change for populations, communities and ecosystems. The nascent field of ‘eco-evolutionary dynamics' considers these interactions, including reciprocal feedbacks between evolution and ecology. Empirical support for eco-evolutionary dynamics has emerged from several model systems, and we here present some possibilities for diverse and strong effects in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We specifically focus on the consequences that natural selection on body size can have for salmon population dynamics, community (bear-salmon) interactions and ecosystem process (fluxes of salmon biomass between habitats). For example, we find that shifts in body size because of selection can alter fluxes across habitats by up to 11% compared with ecological (that is, numerical) effects. More generally, we show that selection within a generation can have large effects on ecological dynamics and so should be included within a complete eco-evolutionary framework. PMID:21224877

Carlson, S M; Quinn, T P; Hendry, A P

2011-01-01

454

Ecoforestry Fall, 2001 13 Salmon nutrients,  

E-print Network

. The most widespread species associated with these formerly immense schools of salmon are black and grizzly bears, which migrate from alpine and distant habitats to congregate along streams and rivers during Charlotte Island black bear, begun in 1992, I found that bears indi- Tom Reimchen vidually captured about

Reimchen, Thomas E.

455

WATERFLOW THROUGH A SALMON SPAWNING RIFFLE IN  

E-print Network

Dissolved oxygen content 2 Variation of dissolved oxygen with depth in the streambed 4 Ground studied in a small salmon stream in South- eastern Alaska from 1956 through 1959: (1) dissolved oxygen content of ground water, (2) variation of dissolved oxygen with depth in streambed, (3) temperature

456

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon  

E-print Network

Statistical mechanics and ocean circulation Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD equilibrium statistical mechanics based upon the conservation of energy and potential enstrophy to the mass. The equilibrium state resembles the buoyancy structure actually observed. Key words: statistical mechanics, ocean

Salmon, Rick

457

Introduction to Ocean Waves Rick Salmon  

E-print Network

cross-ocean trip to San Diego. The energy in these long waves travels at a speed that increasesIntroduction to Ocean Waves Rick Salmon Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego #12;Preface Wind waves, with periods of a few seconds, and the tides, with periods

Salmon, Rick

458

Echo characteristics of two salmon species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Department of Fish and Game relies on split-beam hydroacoustic techniques to estimate Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returns to the Kenai River. Chinook counts are periodically confounded by large numbers of smaller sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Echo target-strength has been used to distinguish fish length classes, but was too variable to separate Kenai River chinook and sockeye distributions. To evaluate the efficacy of alternate echo metrics, controlled acoustic measurements of tethered chinook and sockeye salmon were collected at 200 kHz. Echo returns were digitally sampled at 48 kHz. A suite of descriptive metrics were collected from a series of 1,000 echoes per fish. Measurements of echo width were least variable at the -3 dB power point. Initial results show echo elongation and ping-to-ping variability in echo envelope width were significantly greater for chinook than for sockeye salmon. Chinook were also observed to return multiple discrete peaks from a single broadcast echo. These characteristics were attributed to the physical width of chinook exceeding half of the broadcast echo pulse width at certain orientations. Echo phase variability, correlation coefficient and fractal dimension distributions did not demonstrate significant discriminatory power between the two species. [Work supported by ADF&G, ONR.

Nealson, Patrick A.; Horne, John K.; Burwen, Debby L.

2005-04-01

459

SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

460

WHO BUYS CANNED SALMON, Circular 89  

E-print Network

- motional and merchandising techniques for the marketing of canned salmon. Special emphasis is placed upon merchandising methods. The prime objective of this market research study is to aid the domestic canned fish toward the improvement of promotional and merchandising techniques. However, the study has also a direct

461

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume I Final Environmental Impact Statement North Bycatch Management Volume I FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT December 2009 Abstract: The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides decision-makers and the public with an evaluation of the environmental

462

Endonuclease cleavage of blocked replication forks: An indirect pathway of DNA damage from antitumor drug-topoisomerase complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cytotoxicity of several important antitumor drugs depends on formation of the covalent topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex. However, cellular processes such as DNA replication are necessary to convert the cleavage complex into a cytotoxic lesion, but the molecular mechanism of this conversion and the precise nature of the cytotoxic lesion are unknown. Using a bacteriophage T4 model system, we have previously shown that antitumor drug-induced cleavage complexes block replication forks in vivo. In this report, we show that these blocked forks can be cleaved by T4 endonuclease VII to create overt DNA breaks. The accumulation of blocked forks increased in endonuclease VII-deficient infections, suggesting that endonuclease cleavage contributes to fork processing in vivo. Furthermore, purified endonuclease VII cleaved the blocked forks in vitro close to the branch points. These results suggest that an indirect pathway of branched-DNA cleavage contributes to the cytotoxicity of antitumor drugs that target DNA topoisomerases.

Hong, George; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.

2003-04-01

463

78 FR 25434 - Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Transfer of Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Transfer of Exemption...Associates, Inc. and Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that...from licensing for the Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730,...

2013-05-01

464

76 FR 43650 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Infectious Salmon Anemia; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal...of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia. DATES: We will consider all comments...of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia, contact Dr. William G. Smith,...

2011-07-21

465

76 FR 61985 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National...23,476,500 loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery (Reduction...Services Division, NMFS, Attn.: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Rulemaking, 1315...

2011-10-06

466

76 FR 29707 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National...23.5 million loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery (Reduction...Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Rulemaking,...

2011-05-23

467

77 FR 12800 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the species Atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar) marketed as specified herein; the order excludes all other species of salmon: Danube salmon, Chinook (also called ``king'' or ``quinnat''), Coho (``silver''), Sockeye (``redfish''...

2012-03-02

468

75 FR 32378 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection; Workshop...for evaluating the Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch management program that...plans and operations for avoiding Chinook salmon bycatch. DATES: The public...

2010-06-08

469

Wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho: Some recovery strategies that just might work  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify salmon recovery options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project doe...

470

Juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, growth and diet in riverine habitat  

E-print Network

Juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, growth and diet in riverine habitat engineered invertebrate food resources. K E Y W O R D S : habitat restoration, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are considered. Widespread reduction of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), abundance

Cardinale, Bradley J.

471

Juvenile growth and aggression in diploid and triploid Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)  

E-print Network

Juvenile growth and aggression in diploid and triploid Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha three groups of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha: diploid, triploid and mixed groups., 2003). Indeed, one study on Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum) showed that diploid

Neff, Bryan D.

472

DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN: DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................1 DAMS AS OBSTACLES TO MIGRATIONS OF SALMON..........................................5 DEVELOPMENT..............................................................................................6 MORTALITY OF JUVENILE SALMON IN TURBINES ..........................................7 MORTALITY

473

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

474

40 CFR 408.170 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.170...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.170...description of the Alaskan mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2014-07-01