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Sample records for east german regions

  1. Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP): a health survey in an East German region. Objectives and design of the oral health section.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Elke; Gesch, Dietmar; Biffar, Reiner; Bernhardt, Olaf; Kocher, Thomas; Splieth, Christian; Born, Gabriele; John, Ulrich

    2003-05-01

    The goal of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) was to estimate the prevalence of diseases, identify potential risk factors in a defined region in northeast Germany, and examine the particular living situation of this population after the reunification of East and West Germany. One of the main concerns of the SHIP design is the analysis of the relationships between dental, medical, social, and environmentally and behaviorally determined health factors. SHIP is a cross-sectional study (clinical findings and sociologic interviews). The sample was drawn in two steps: Thirty-two communities in the region were selected, and within these communities, a simple random sample was drawn from residence registries, stratified by gender and age. The final sample included 4,310 males and females, aged 20 to 79 years. This is equivalent to a participation rate of 68.8%. Data collection was completed in May 2001. The data collection and items comprised four parts: oral health examination, medical examination, health-related interview, and a health- and risk-factor-related questionnaire. The oral health examination included the teeth, periodontium, oral mucosa, morphology and function of the craniomandibular system, and prosthodontics. The medical examination included blood pressure measurements; electrocardiography; echocardiography; carotid, thyroid, and liver ultrasound examinations; neurologic screening; and blood and urine sampling. The computer-assisted interview consisted of questions on symptoms of disease, utilization of medical and dental services, self-assessment of general and oral health, health behavior and knowledge, and socioeconomic variables. The self-administered questionnaire comprised housing conditions, social network, work conditions, subjective well-being, and individual consequences of the German reunification. PMID:12795357

  2. [Relations of German anesthesiology to east European societies of anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Benad, G

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the "German Society of Anaesthesiology" (DGA)--later called "German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine" (DGAI)--which was founded on 10 April 1953, and in memory of the foundation of the "Section of Anaesthesiology", which was founded in East-Berlin ten years later on 25 October 1963 and later called "Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of the GDR" (GAIT), the development of relations between German anaesthetists and anaesthesiological societies in East Europe are described. The limited economic base of the medical-technical and pharmaceutical industries, a chronic lack of hard currencies and economic and political restrictions on travel activities by East German and East European anaesthetists to West European countries resulted in improved contacts between East German and East European anaesthesiological societies. This, in turn, led to the holding of "International Anaesthesiological Congresses" of the so-called socialist countries and "Bilateral Symposia of the Anaesthesiological Societies of Czechoslovakia and the GDR" and also bilateral meetings of nurses of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy from both countries. These congresses and in particular the "3rd European Congress of Anaesthesiology", which was hosted by the "Czechoslovak Society of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation" in Prague in 1970, were of high value for the further development of anaesthesiology in these countries. Furthermore, congresses held in East Europe but outside the GDR, were especially important for meetings between East German anaesthetists and their West German colleagues, who regularly took part in these congresses as invited speakers, because West German anaesthetists were not allowed to participate in East German anaesthesia congresses, on the one hand, and East Germans were not allowed to attend West German anaesthesia congresses, on the other. There were also regular meetings of the

  3. East German Teacher Reactions to Reunification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that reunification allowed teacher unions of the former West Germany to move into the former East Germany, filling a structural void left by the dissolution of the Communist Party. Specifically examines the reactions of newly elected teacher union leaders from the former East Germany to subsequent events in the education and political…

  4. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  5. After the Wall: The Remaking of East German Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Huge changes are taking place throughout the former East German society. Comments from students, teachers, and administrators at Potsdam's William and Alexander Humboldt High School, just outside Berlin, highlight the difficult tasks involved in reforming an impoverished and repressive school system. (MLF)

  6. East German Children's and Adolescents' Friendship and Moral Reasoning before and after German Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship…

  7. East German children's and adolescents' friendship and moral reasoning before and after German reunification.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship concept) as well as their moral decisions and reasoning in a friendship dilemma. Overall, results show that in 2005, East German participants referred to normative and interpersonal-altruistic-empathic concerns significantly more often than participants interviewed in 1990. Reference to relationship concerns decreased from 1990 to 2005. With few exceptions, these cohort effects were equally found in younger (children) and older (adolescents) age groups. PMID:23264994

  8. Child-Free and Unmarried: Changes in the Life Planning of Young East German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Marina A.

    2004-01-01

    Using evidence from demographic and survey data, this research examines how one decade of post-socialism has changed the life planning of young East German women. Aggregate data reflect marriage and fertility postponement and increased nonmarital birth rates and cohabitation. The analysis shows East German women's stubbornness (Dolling, 2003) in…

  9. The Legacy of Nazism and the History Curriculum in the East German Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the Marxist-Leninist curriculum assumptions about history instruction in East German schools on the legacy of Nazism. Suggests that questions raised to legitimize history instruction for East German students are relevant for students in capitalist countries. Discusses Hitler's rise to power, Soviet contributions to defeat fascism,…

  10. Reunification of East and West German School Systems and the Big Fish Little Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept. German Reunification and Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Koller, Olaf; Baumert, Jurgen

    This paper examines the educational results of the reunification of East and West Germany. Specifically, it discusses what happened to students' self-concept when the East German system, which was highly standardized, was combined with the West German schools, which were highly differentiated and based on achievement. To study this result,…

  11. German: The German Language in Education in Alsace, France. 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Schaaf, Alie, Comp.; Morgen, Daniel, Comp.

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of the European Union-- Alsace, a part of France along the German border. Details about the features of the educational system, recent educational policies, divisions of responsibilities,…

  12. Lifelong Learning in German Learning Cities/Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reghenzani-Kearns, Denise; Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces the policies and lessons learned from two consecutive German national programs aimed at developing learning cities/regions. Known as Learning Regions Promotion of Networks, this first program transitioned into the current program, Learning on Place. A case study chosen is from the Tolzer region where a network has self-sustained…

  13. Rebooting the East: Automation in University Libraries of the Former German Democratic Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seadle, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Provides a history of the automation efforts at former East German libraries that have made their resources available for the first time. Highlights include World Wide Web home page addresses; library problems, including censorship; automation guidelines, funding, and cooperation; online catalogs; and specific examples of university libraries'…

  14. Semantic Change in the German of East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Richard E.

    The language of East Germany has undergone distinct semantic change since the arrival of the Soviet occupation forces in 1945, especially in the areas of politics, philosophy, and social organization. This is evident in governmental publications and in the shortwave transmissions of the official broadcasting station. Four sources of the change can…

  15. Regional Studies for International Business: A German Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Content and boundaries of business-oriented regional studies are considered, focusing on Germany. Issues discussed include the distinction between explicit business studies and implicit, non-business materials and content in the study of business; relationship between regional studies and cross-cultural management; role of German language training…

  16. Proceedings Region East Perceptual Motor Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This book of conference proceeding presents speeches and panel discussions from the Region East Perceptual-Motor Conference. The purpose of the conference was to seek an understanding of children and their perceptual-motor development through (a) exchange of knowledge and practices in perceptual-motor development, (b) examination of program…

  17. East Asia Regionalization Based on Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat, C. S.; Maceira, M.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Chai, C.; Ammon, C. J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present here a first step toward a model of the seismic velocity structure through stochastic full waveform tomography of East Asia. Such inversion typically requires exploring thousands of variations of each parameter that is inverted to ensure reliable probabilistic inferences. Here we explore regionalization in order to reduce the dimension of the parameter space and identify regions with similar seismic characteristics that can be treated as a common block in the subsequent stochastic inversion. We follow the approach of Lekic and Romanowicz (2011) in which regionalization is performed through a cluster analysis of tomographic velocity models. Our analysis is based on teleseismic P-wave Receiver Functions (RFTNs) instead. We apply a K-means algorithm minimizing a distance metrics defined in the vector space of RFTNs. Different metrics have been tested to optimize the clustering. Coherence and association with known tectonic and physiographic features and/or established geophysical information is also tested. We first validate our clustering analysis with two different receiver functions datasets from USArray stations. A first set was built by stacking EARS receiver functions for each available station across all azimuths and with a Gaussian filter width of 2.5 Hz and small ray parameters (0.038 to 0.05 s/km). The second dataset was built by interpolation of the receiver function wavefield (Chai et al, 2015). The agreement with geological and tectonic regions of western US is better for the latter dataset. Our future inversion region is East Asia where remarkable instrumentation efforts open the door to high-resolution tomography studies at the continental scale. Our collaborators provided teleseismic P-wave receiver functions for 785 stations. Clustering results show agreement with known tectonic features of the area, and we will show our attempts of regionalization based on this information.

  18. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  19. Desertification risk in Kakheti Region, East Georgia.

    PubMed

    Basialashvili, Tsisana; Matchavariani, Lia; Lagidze, Lamzira

    2015-01-01

    Desertification or land degradation in drylands is caused by various factors. The most important of these is climate change, a significant global ecological problem. Desertification, like erosion, as an environmental process of ecosystem degradation, is often caused by human activity. It is a common misconception that droughts cause desertification. Well-managed lands can recover from drought if the rains return. These practices help to control erosion and maintain productivity during periods when moisture is available. Traditionally, the most vulnerable territories considered under the threat of desertification in Georgia is Kakheti region (East Georgia), which has been selected as one of the priority investigation area. In Eastern Georgia, intervals of atmospheric precipitation do not coincide with the phases of water demand of plants. In recent decades as a result of more frequent droughts in Kakheti, the region has already lost hundreds, thousands of hectares of fertile land. Based on the contemporary climate warming projections, the temperature is expected to increase and precipitation to decrease. This will lead to an increase in evaporation and reduction of river flow. Under such conditions the danger of desertification is evident. To mitigate the negative effects of desertification, it is recommended to put forward set of adaptation activities through rehabilitation of water use systems, prevention of loss of water, reconstruction and expansion of irrigation canals, accumulation of unused autumn-winter river water and spring floods in reservoirs, developing an optimal scheme of distributing water resources among water users, device windbreaks and work on breeding of drought resistant varieties, preparation of water volume forecasts of rivers and their role in planning of water use; application of apply drip and sprinkler irrigation, using artificial precipitation following increase as a result of active influence on clouds. All these activities will provide

  20. German, Polish, and Czech School Cooperation in the Neisse-Nisa-Nysa EuroRegion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubeck, Kirsti; Schulz, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    The Euroregions are a form of border and cross-border cooperation. The Euroregion Neisse (D)-Nisa (CZ)-Nysa (PL) is one of four Euroregions along the German-Polish border. It was established in 1991 by the Union of Polish Communities (ERN), The Union of German communities (ERN), and the Regional Community Union of the Cities and Communities of the…

  1. Pasture Names with Romance and Slavic Roots Facilitate Dissection of Y Chromosome Variation in an Exclusively German-Speaking Alpine Region

    PubMed Central

    Niederstätter, Harald; Rampl, Gerhard; Erhart, Daniel; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert; Neuhuber, Franz; Hausner, Isolde; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    The small alpine district of East Tyrol (Austria) has an exceptional demographic history. It was contemporaneously inhabited by members of the Romance, the Slavic and the Germanic language groups for centuries. Since the Late Middle Ages, however, the population of the principally agrarian-oriented area is solely Germanic speaking. Historic facts about East Tyrol's colonization are rare, but spatial density-distribution analysis based on the etymology of place-names has facilitated accurate spatial mapping of the various language groups' former settlement regions. To test for present-day Y chromosome population substructure, molecular genetic data were compared to the information attained by the linguistic analysis of pasture names. The linguistic data were used for subdividing East Tyrol into two regions of former Romance (A) and Slavic (B) settlement. Samples from 270 East Tyrolean men were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal microsatellites (Y-STRs) and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs). Analysis of the probands' surnames revealed no evidence for spatial genetic structuring. Also, spatial autocorrelation analysis did not indicate significant correlation between genetic (Y-STR haplotypes) and geographic distance. Haplogroup R-M17 chromosomes, however, were absent in region A, but constituted one of the most frequent haplogroups in region B. The R-M343 (R1b) clade showed a marked and complementary frequency distribution pattern in these two regions. To further test East Tyrol's modern Y-chromosomal landscape for geographic patterning attributable to the early history of settlement in this alpine area, principal coordinates analysis was performed. The Y-STR haplotypes from region A clearly clustered with those of Romance reference populations and the samples from region B matched best with Germanic speaking reference populations. The combined use of onomastic and molecular genetic data revealed and mapped the marked structuring of the distribution of Y

  2. Pasture names with Romance and Slavic roots facilitate dissection of Y chromosome variation in an exclusively German-speaking alpine region.

    PubMed

    Niederstätter, Harald; Rampl, Gerhard; Erhart, Daniel; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert; Neuhuber, Franz; Hausner, Isolde; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    The small alpine district of East Tyrol (Austria) has an exceptional demographic history. It was contemporaneously inhabited by members of the Romance, the Slavic and the Germanic language groups for centuries. Since the Late Middle Ages, however, the population of the principally agrarian-oriented area is solely Germanic speaking. Historic facts about East Tyrol's colonization are rare, but spatial density-distribution analysis based on the etymology of place-names has facilitated accurate spatial mapping of the various language groups' former settlement regions. To test for present-day Y chromosome population substructure, molecular genetic data were compared to the information attained by the linguistic analysis of pasture names. The linguistic data were used for subdividing East Tyrol into two regions of former Romance (A) and Slavic (B) settlement. Samples from 270 East Tyrolean men were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal microsatellites (Y-STRs) and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs). Analysis of the probands' surnames revealed no evidence for spatial genetic structuring. Also, spatial autocorrelation analysis did not indicate significant correlation between genetic (Y-STR haplotypes) and geographic distance. Haplogroup R-M17 chromosomes, however, were absent in region A, but constituted one of the most frequent haplogroups in region B. The R-M343 (R1b) clade showed a marked and complementary frequency distribution pattern in these two regions. To further test East Tyrol's modern Y-chromosomal landscape for geographic patterning attributable to the early history of settlement in this alpine area, principal coordinates analysis was performed. The Y-STR haplotypes from region A clearly clustered with those of Romance reference populations and the samples from region B matched best with Germanic speaking reference populations. The combined use of onomastic and molecular genetic data revealed and mapped the marked structuring of the distribution of Y

  3. Simulated East-west differences in F-region peak electron density at Far East mid-latitude region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Libo; Wan, Weixing; Zhao, Biqiang

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, using Three-Dimensional Theoretical Ionospheric Model of the Earth in Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (TIME3D-IGGCAS), we simulated the east-west differences in F-region peak electron density (NmF2) at Far East mid-latitude region. We found that, after removing the longitudinal variations of neutral parameters, TIME3D-IGGCAS can better represent the observed relative east-west difference (Rew) features. Rew is mainly negative (West NmF2 > East NmF2) at noon and positive (East NmF2 > West NmF2) at evening-night. The magnitude of daytime negative Rew is weak at local winter and strong at local summer, and the daytime Rew show two negative peaks around two equinoxes. With the increasing of solar flux level, the magnitude of Rew mainly become larger, and two daytime negative peaks slight shifts to June Solstice. With the decreasing of geographical latitude, Rew mainly become positive, and two daytime negative peaks slight shifts to June Solstice. Our simulation also suggested that the thermospheric zonal wind combined with the geomagnetic field configuration play a pivotal role in the formation of the ionospheric east-west differences at Far East mid-latitude region.

  4. Alsatian versus Standard German: Regional Language Bilingual Primary Education in Alsace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Michelle Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the current situation of regional language bilingual primary education in Alsace and contends that the regional language presents a special case in the context of France. The language comprises two varieties: Alsatian, which traditionally has been widely spoken, and Standard German, used as the language of reference and…

  5. New magnetic anomaly map of East Antarctica and surrounding regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golynsky, A.; Blankenship, D.; Chiappini, M.; Damaske, D.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Golynsky, D.; Goncharov, A.; Ishihara, T.; Ivanov, S.; Jokat, W.; Kim, H.R.; König, M.; Masolov, V.; Nogi, Y.; Sand, M.; Studing, M.; ADMAP Working Group

    2007-01-01

    community over East Antarctica and surrounding regions, significantly upgrade the Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP) compilation and lead to substantial improvements in magnetic anomaly pattern recognition. New data have been matched in one inverse operation by minimizing the data differences for the areas of overlap. The aeromagnetic data show many previously unknown magnetic patterns, lineaments and trends, defining the spatial extent of Ferrar volcanics and plutonic Granite Harbour Intrusives in the Transantarctic Mountains and previously unknown tectonic trends of the East Antarctic craton. Regional aeromagnetic investigations have successfully delineated Early Paleozoic inherited crustal features along the flanks of the West Antarctic Rift System and the southern boundary of the Archean Ruker Terrane in the Prince Charles Mountains. Magnetic records along the East Antarctic continental margin provide new constraints on the breakup of Gondwana.

  6. Indoctrination and Moral Reasoning: A Comparison between Dutch and East German Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mey, Langha de; Schulze, Hans-J.

    1996-01-01

    Questions Lawrence Kohlberg's complexity hypothesis that individuals exhibit higher stages of moral judgement in complex socio-political surroundings. Tests the moral judgements of adolescent students from The Netherlands and the former German Democratic Republic. Results of the tests failed to support Kohlberg's hypothesis. (MJP)

  7. The IAU's East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard

    2014-09-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world.

  8. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST -AIRC): An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhangqing, Li; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-01-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  9. Reunification of East and West German School Systems: Longitudinal Multilevel Modeling Study of the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Koller, Olaf; Baumert, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from large cohorts of East and West German students, 2,778 seventh graders in 161 classrooms, to evaluate how the reunification of Germany affects self-concept formation. Results show how system-wide educational policy differences, the initiation of a selective school system and the institutionalization of different…

  10. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  11. [Surgery in the regional and district hospitals of German Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Lanz, R; Hegglin, J; Zimmerli, W

    1979-12-01

    The Regional Hospital is the hub in the surgical service for the broad population. According to its importance, it has furthermore an eminent role in instruction and postgraduate teaching. The requirements and profile for such competent medical chiefs are delineated. The broad surgical requirements, the executive duties in hospital administration, which are shared with the nursing and administration services, and the permanent personal education make it mandatory, that the position of the head surgeon be partitioned by two equally competent and polyvalent general surgeons. The ultimate responsibility for such adequate positioning rests with the political authority. PMID:549885

  12. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    PubMed

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples. PMID:26292165

  13. Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project: Active Fault Database for the Middle East Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülen, L.; Wp2 Team

    2010-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the umbrella GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). EMME project region includes Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project will use PSHA approach and the existing source models will be revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. More importantly the most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones will be its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that will permit continuous update, refinement, and analysis. A digital active fault map of the Middle East region is under construction in ArcGIS format. We are developing a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. Similar to the WGCEP-2007 and UCERF-2 projects, the EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a “Fault Section Database”. The “Fault Section” concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far over 3,000 Fault Sections have been defined and parameterized for the Middle East region. A separate “Paleo-Sites Database” includes information on the timing and amounts of fault displacement for major fault zones. A digital reference library that includes the pdf files of the relevant papers, reports is also being prepared. Another task of the WP-2 of the EMME project is to prepare

  14. Regional Climate Service in Northern Germany -The North German Climate Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, I.; Von Storch, H.

    2012-12-01

    The North German Climate Office was established in 2006 at the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany as consequence of an increased public information need regarding coastal climate change and its impacts in Northern Germany. The service is characterized by an intensive dialogue between regional climate research and stakeholders in Northern Germany. About once a week scientists of the North German climate office are invited to contribute to public dialogue events. Also numerous direct inquiries are answered and expert interviews are conducted. From this dialogue process specific stakeholder information needs are localized and analysed to develop tailored information products. To provide easy and user specific access to research results interactive web tools are developed. One example is the North German climate atlas, an interactive web tool on possible future climate change in Northern Germany. Another interactive web tool is informing on present and future coastal protection needs in Northern Germany. Another aim of our information products is to assess and summarize the existing scientific knowledge on climate, climate change and impacts in Northern Germany. A mini IPCC-like regional assessment report has been published in 2010, which is summarizing, discussing and assessing the scientific knowledge on regional climate, climate change and impacts as well as possible adaptation strategies in the metropolitan region of Hamburg.

  15. Medical Aid, Repression, and International Relations: The East German Hospital at Metema.

    PubMed

    Borowy, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1988, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) built a hospital in a remote part of Ethiopia, close to the Sudanese border. The project evolved in a complex combination of contexts, including the general foreign policy goals of the GDR, its specific alliance with Ethiopia, the famine of 1984-85, civil war in Ethiopia, and a controversial resettlement program by the government of Mengistu Haile Mariam. Though almost unknown today, it was a high-profile project at the time, which received the personal support both by Erich Honecker in the GDR and Mengistu Haile Mariam in Ethiopia. However, their interest was directed more at the political goals the project was expected to serve than at the hospital itself. Both the preparation and the implementation of the project were extremely difficult and almost failed due to problems of transportation, of red tape, and of security. The operation of the hospital was also not ideal, involving frustrated personnel and less than complete acceptance by the local population. Ironically, for all its practical difficulties, the hospital has outlived both governments and their political goals, surviving as a medical institution. PMID:26037639

  16. Youth Research in West and East. Special Report. German Youth Institute Offers Benefit of Its Experience. Sozial-Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maertens, Rita

    This social report concerns the efforts of the German Youth Institute in working with other institutes and with other countries to develop youth policies and programs. It begins by describing German and Soviet youth researchers working together to develop a concept for a long-term youth policy based on democratic structures. The German approach to…

  17. Spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

    2014-07-01

    Droughts in the East Asian region (105-150°E, 20-50°N) are quantified using the effective drought index (EDI) over a period of 43 years, from 1962 to 2004, and the East Asian region was classified into six subregions on the basis of similarity in drought climate: (D1) South China; (D2) lower region of the Yangtze River, South Korea, and Central/South Japan; (D3) Central China and North Korea; (D4) Northwest China and middle region of the Yangtze River; (D5) North China; and (D6) Northeast China and North Japan. The EDI time series was then summarized for the different drought subregions and a drought map was created that shows the spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia. The map shows that in subregions, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and D6, there were 50 (11.63 per decade), 36 (8.37 per decade), 30 (6.98 per decade), 28 (6.51 per decade), 29 (6.74 per decade), and 33 (7.67 per decade) drought occurrences, respectively. The most common characteristic of droughts in the subregions is that short-term droughts (<200 days) which mainly occur in spring and summer, whereas long-term droughts (≥200 days) mainly occur in autumn and winter. D1 shows the highest frequency of short-term droughts. Short-term droughts occur more frequently than long-term droughts in D2 and D3, but D4 and D6 showed a higher frequency of long-term droughts than short-term droughts. D5 showed a similar frequency of short- and long-term droughts. Drought onset dates are evenly distributed throughout the year for D1, D2, and D3, but distributed mostly in spring and summer in D4, D5, and D6. All the differences are linked to variations in the precipitation cycle of each subregion. In terms of annual variations in drought occurrence, D2 showed weakening droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a positive trend), whereas the other subregions showed intensifying droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a negative trend). The greatest intensifying trend was observed in D5, followed

  18. The Dynamics of Ionospheric D Region over East Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Some main results of experimental investigations of the dynamical regime of the ionospheric D-region over East Siberia are presented. Regular measurements of horizontal ionospheric drifts by the radio method of closely spaced receivers, using a long wavelength transmitter operating at a frequency of 200 kHz, were carried out near Irkutsk, USSR, since 1975. The seasonal and inter-annual variations of prevailing wind (zonal and meridional), and amplitudes and phases of semi-diurnal tides are investigated. Evidence is presented to show the response of D-region dynamics to stratospheric warmings. Planetary and gravity waves are found in the wind field. Comparison with results of analogous measurements in Central Europe (Collm, GDR) reveals a longitudinal effect on the dynamical regime of the mid-latitude lower thermosphere.

  19. [Protozoological stool examinations from 1980 to 1985 in the East German district of Rostock].

    PubMed

    Petersen, K

    1988-04-01

    Between 1980 and 1985 a total of 17,290 faecal specimens were examined for intestinal Protozoa at the Institute of Hygiene, District of Rostock, GDR. The samples were taken from GDR citizens travelling to tropical or semitropical regions, from foreigners from these regions visiting Rostock District, and from the local population. Intestinal Protozoa were found in 5.78%, 20.80% and 6.43%, respectively. 9 different species were diagnosed: Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, E. histolytica, Endolimax nana, Jodamoeba buetschlii, Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnili, Trichomonas hominis. PMID:3415039

  20. Economic and ecological transformation processes in East German water management regimes: the role of property rights and governance structures.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, Christian

    2004-08-01

    As in many fen land regions in East Germany, long-standing intensive arable farming--enabled by reclamation--has caused soil deterioration and high water runoff in the Schraden region. The more than ten years of economic and political transformation that followed the breakdown of the socialist regime has worsened the situation and even added new problems. The visible consequences are droughts in the summer, waterlogged plots in the spring, and worn-down water management facilities that operate in an uncoordinated or even unauthorized way. Given the local public-good character of some features of the fen land, the common-pool character of the ecosystem's intermittently scarce resource water, and the conflicting interests of regional stakeholders, it is argued that the reallocation of property rights over reclamation systems, together with ineffective coordination mechanisms, have caused the physical and institutional failure of the water management system and so impeded appropriate land use. PMID:14994161

  1. Pliocene Basaltic Volcanism in The East Anatolia Region (EAR), Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyan, Vural; Özdemir, Yavuz; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    East Anatolia Region (EAR) is one of the high Plateau which is occurred with north-south compressional regime formed depending on continent-continent collision between Eurasia and Arabia plates (Şengör and Kidd, 1979). Recent studies have revealed that last oceanic lithosphere in the EAR have completely depleted to 20 million years ago based on fission track ages (Okay et al. 2010). Our initial studies suggest that extensively volcanic activity in the EAR peaked in the Pliocene and continued in the same productivity throughout Quaternary. Voluminous basaltic lava plateaus and basaltic lavas from local eruption centers occurred as a result of high production level of volcanism during the Pliocene time interval. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations in Pliocene basaltic volcanism and to reveal isotopic composition, age and petrologic evolution of the basaltic volcanism, we have started to study basaltic volcanism in the East Anatolia within the framework of a TUBITAK project (project number:113Y406). Petrologic and geochemical studies carried out on the Pliocene basaltic lavas indicate the presence of subduction component in the mantle source, changing the character of basaltic volcanism from alkaline to subalkaline and increasing the amount of spinel peridotitic melts (contributions of lithospheric mantle?) in the mantle source between 5.5-3.5 Ma. FC, AFC and EC-AFC modelings reveal that the while basaltic lavas were no or slightly influenced by crustal contamination and fractional crystallization, to more evolved lavas such as bazaltictrachyandesite, basalticandesite, trachybasalt might have been important processes. Results of our melting models and isotopic analysis data (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, 18O) indicate that the Pliocene basaltic rocks were derived from both shallow and deep mantle sources with different melting degrees ranging between 0.1 - 4 %. The percentage of spinel seems to have increased in the mantle source of the basaltic

  2. Regional aspects of the energy crisis: East European case study

    SciTech Connect

    Merkin, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    The energy crisis occurring in Eastern Europe owes much to the Stalinist model of energy-intensive industrialization applied to a basically energy short region still partially isolated from the world energy market. Systemic factors are thus much more important than in the West. Due to this, solutions to the energy crisis in the East of Europe, be it through supply augmentation or conservation, belong as much in the sphere of politics and ideology as they do in the sphere of economics. The dissertation examines in a systematic manner the evolution and prospects of the energy economy in the region (Chapter 1), the present sectoral pattern of energy consumption (Chapter 2), and conversion (thermo-electric conversion in Chapter 3 and oil refining in Chapter 4). Four subsequent chapters are devoted to individual energy-consuming sectors such as industry, transportation, agriculture, and households. Finally, the potential and problems of energy conservation in Eastern Europe are analyzed in the context of broader economic policies and concerns of the states of the region. In the conclusion, topics in the energy economy of Eastern Europe requiring further study are outlined.

  3. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  4. The Ohio Partnership for the Far East Region Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Raymond; Sturrus, W. Gregg

    2008-03-01

    The Ohio Partnership for Far East Region Science Teachers (OPFERST) is a three-year project funded by Federal Math Science Partnership Funds through a grant to the Ohio Dept. of Education. OPFERST is a partnership (opferst.ysu.edu) of Youngstown State University science and education faculty, trained facilitators and the county and city science consultants. Every (47) school district in the region signed on and during the first year 32 districts participated. During the first two years, 198 teachers representing Ashtabula, Columbiana, Mahoning and Trumbull Counties, as well as Warren City and Youngstown City schools have participated. The vision of OPFERST is to improve the teaching and learning of the Ohio Science Academic Content Standards. Project goals are: 1) Increase science content knowledge of teachers; 2) Implement effective instructional practices; 3) Improve students performance in science; and 4) Develop professional learning communities which will lead to programmatic changes within districts. Goals one through three are met by modeling inquiry-based methods for teaching science content standards. Goal four is met by ongoing meetings through-out the school year, classroom visits by YSU faculty and fieldtrips to the YSU Campus by classes led by OPFERST teachers. Evaluation of OPFERST includes demographic and classroom practice data, pre- and post-tests of participants, journals, homework and the administration of evaluation instruments with some OPFERST participants' students.

  5. Regional High Resolution Reanalysis Covered European North East Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Benkiran, M.; Chanut, J.; Drillet, Y.; Reffray, G.

    2011-12-01

    Mercator-Ocean has developed a regional forecasting system at 1/12° resolution over the North East Atlantic (IBI: Iberia, Biscay and Irish), taking advantage of the recent developments in NEMO. This regional forecasting system uses boundary conditions from the Mercator-Ocean global reanalysis (GLORYS: Global Ocean ReanalYses and Simulations). The assimilation component of the Mercator Ocean system, is based on a reduced-order Kalman filter (the SEEK or Singular Extended Evolutive Kalman filter). An IAU method (Incremental Analysis Updates) is used to apply the increments in the system. The error statistics are represented in a sub-space spanned by a small number of dominant 3D error directions. The data assimilation system allows to constrain the model in a multivariate way with Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR + Multi-satellite High resolution), together with all available satellite Sea Level Anomalies, and with in situ observations from the CORA-03 data base, including ARGO floats temperature and salinity measurements. This reanalysis covers the period from January 2002 to December 2009. In this presentation, the results obtained with this reanalysis system (1/12°) are compared to the GLORYS ones. A special focus will be made on the gain thanks to the higher resolution of the model and higher resolution of the SST assimilated in this reanalysis.

  6. Regional TEMPEST survey in north-east Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geoffrey; Street, Gregory; Kahimise, Ivor; Hutchins, David

    2015-09-01

    A regional scale TEMPEST208 airborne electromagnetic survey was flown in north-east Namibia in 2011. With broad line spacing (4 km) and a relatively low-powered, fixed-wing system, the approach was intended to provide a regional geo-electric map of the area, rather than direct detection of potential mineral deposits. A key component of the geo-electric profiling was to map the relative thickness of the Kalahari sediments, which is up to 200 m thick and obscures most of the bedrock in the area. Knowledge of the thickness would allow explorers to better predict the costs of exploration under the Kalahari. An additional aim was to determine if bedrock conductors were detectable beneath the Kalahari cover. The system succeeded in measuring the Kalahari thickness where this cover was relatively thin and moderately conductive. Limitations in depth penetration mean that it is not possible to map the thickness in the centre of the survey area, and much of the northern half of the survey area. Additional problems arise due to the variable conductivity of the Kalahari cover. Where the conductivity of the Kalahari sediment is close to that of the basement, there is no discernable contrast to delineate the base of the Kalahari. Basement conductors are visible beneath the more thinly covered areas such as in the north-west and south of the survey area. The remainder of the survey area generally comprises deeper, more conductive cover and for the most part basement conductors cannot be detected. A qualitative comparison with VTEM data shows comparable results in terms of regional mapping, and suggests that even more powerful systems such as the VTEM may not detect discrete conductors beneath the thick conductive parts of the Kalahari cover.

  7. Reconstructing the Past? Low German and the Creating of Regional Identity in Public Language Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reershemius, Gertrud

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with language contact between a dominant standard language--German--and a lesser-used variety--Low German--in a situation in which the minoritised language is threatened by language shift and language loss. It analyses the application of Low German in forms of public language display and the self-presentation of the community in…

  8. Crustal Structure of the Middle East from Regional Seismic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, Roland; Sibol, Matthew; Caron, Pierre; Ghalib, Hafidh; Chen, Youlin

    2010-05-01

    We present results of crustal studies obtained with seismic data from the Northern Iraq Seismic Network (NISN). NISN has operated ten broadband stations in north-eastern Iraq since late 2005. This network was supplemented by the five-element broadband Iraq Seismic Array (KSIRS) in 2007. More recently, the former Iraq Seismic Network (ISN), destroyed during the war with Iran, was reestablished with the deployment of six broadband stations throughout Iraq. The aim of the present study is to derive models of the local and regional crustal structure of the Middle East, including Eastern Turkey, Iraq and Iran. To achieve this goal, we derive crustal velocity models using receiver function, surface wave and body wave analyses. These refined velocity models will eventually be used to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. Our analysis of preliminary hypocenter locations produced a clearer picture of the seismicity associated with the tectonics of the region. The largest seismicity rate is confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases in the Bandar Abbas region again. Additionally, the rift zones in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are clearly demarked by high seismicity rates. Surface wave velocity analysis resulted in a clear demarcation of the tectonic features in the region. The Arabian shield, Zagros thrust zone and the Red Sea are apparent through distinct velocity distributions separating them from each other. Furthermore, the shear wave velocity of the crust in North Iraq appears to be 10% higher than that of the Iranian plateau. The velocity anomaly of the Zagros mountains appears to be present into the upper mantle beyond the resolving limit of our model. Analysis of waveform data for obstructed pathways indicates clear propagation paths from the west or south-west across the Arabian shield as well as from the north and east into NISN. Phases

  9. Holocene biome shifts in the East Asian monsoon margin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmeyer, Anne; Claussen, Martin; Ni, Jian; Wang, Yongbo; Cao, Xianyong; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    East Asia is affected by three major atmospheric circulation systems determining the regional climate and vegetation distribution: The moisture advected by the Indian and East Asian monsoon support the growing of forest in large parts of Eastern China. The influence of the monsoon gets weaker further on the continent yielding a transition of forest to steppe and of steppe to desert in Central East Asia (e.g. Inner Mongolia) where the dry westerly winds prevail. Particularly in these transition zones, vegetation is supposed to be very sensitive to climate change and strong feedbacks are expected in case of climate and vegetation shifts due to large environmental changes (Feng et al., 2006). During mid-Holocene, cyclic variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun led to an enhancement of the Asian monsoon system probably causing strong shifts in the biome distribution. According to reconstructions, the steppe-forest margin moved to the northwest by about 500km (Yu et al., 2000) and the desert area in China and Inner Mongolia was substantially reduced compared to today (Feng et al., 2006). However, in the complex environment of Asia, the locally limited reconstructions may not portray the general vegetation change. To get a systematic overview on the spatial pattern of biome shifts in the Asian monsoon - westerly wind transition zone since mid-Holocene, we use the diagnostic vegetation model BIOME4 and force this model with climate anomalies from different transient Holocene climate simulations performed in coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation models. The main aims of this study are to a) get a consistent ensemble of possible changes in biome distribution since the mid-Holocene b) test the robustness of the simulated vegetation changes and quantify the differences between the models, and c) allow for a better comparison of simulated and reconstructed vegetation changes. Preliminary results confirm the general trend seen in the reconstructions. The simulations reveal

  10. German translation and external validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire in patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome commonly complain of substantial limitations in their activities of daily living. The Radboud Skills Questionnaire measures alterations in the level of disability of patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, but this instrument is currently not available in German. The goals of our study were to translate the Dutch Radboud Skills Questionnaire into German and to assess its external criterion validity with the German version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. Methods We translated the Radboud Skills Questionnaire according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 57 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the upper extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event was obtained. We assessed the external criterion validity by comparing the German Radboud Skills Questionnaire and the German Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire and calculated the prediction intervals. Results Score values ranged from 55.4 ± 22.0 for the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire score and 140.1 ± 39.2 for the Radboud Skills Questionnaire. We found a high correlation between the Radboud Skills Questionnaire and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (R2 = 0.83). Conclusion This validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire demonstrates that this German version is a simple and accurate instrument to assess and quantify disabilities of patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the upper extremity for clinical and research purposes PMID:20515455

  11. How strong ist the impact of changing topography of the East African Rift System on regional climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prömmel, Kerstin; Kaspar, Frank; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of the East African Rift System (EARS) leads to a topography change at the surface and the impact of this change on climate in this region can easily be analysed with climate models. In the present study both global and regional climate models are applied. The global climate model is the coupled atmosphere ocean general circulation model ECHO-G and the regional climate model is the non-hydrostatic CLM, which is the climate version of the numerical weather prediction model of the German Meterorological Service. At the lateral boundaries the regional model is driven by the simulations performed with the global model. Different topographical situations representing possible conditions in the past, are simulated with the global and the regional climate model. One assumption affects only the highest peaks of the EARS south of the Turkana Channel by reducing them to 1200 m. The other assumptions affect a much larger area covering the whole of Southern and Eastern Africa. Over this region topography is reduced by 25%, 50%, 75% and 95%. These different topography reductions have an impact on circulation and therefore also on moisture transport. This leads to changes in the precipitation patterns over Africa. One strong effect is the decrease in orographic precipitation windward of the mountains. Wetter conditions can be found over the east coast of Africa, where moisture is transported from the Indian Ocean farther into the continent due to the lower barrier. Both global and regional models show similar results on the continental scale, however the results of the regional model are much more detailed due to the higher horizontal resolution (50 km) compared to the global model (~350 km).

  12. Incidence and control of brucellosis in the Near East region.

    PubMed

    Refai, Mohamed

    2002-12-20

    In countries of the Near East region, brucellosis was reported in almost all domestic animals, particularly cattle, sheep and goats. Brucellosis in camels has been reported in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Iraq, Iran, Sudan, Egypt, Libya and Somalia. It has been reported even in racing camels in the United Arab Emirates. In Egypt, brucellosis has been reported also in buffaloes, equines and swine. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 is the most commonly isolated species from animals in Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Tunisia and Turkey. B. melitensis biovar 2 was reported in Turkey and Saudi Arabia, and B. melitensis biovar 1 in Libya, Oman and Israel. B. abortus biovar 1 was reported in Egypt, biovar 2 in Iran, biovar 3 in Iran and Turkey, and biovar 6 in Sudan. The countries with the highest incidence of human brucellosis are Saudi Arabia, Iran, Palestinian Authority, Syria, Jordan and Oman. Bahrain is reported to have zero incidence. Most human cases are caused by B. melitensis, particularly biovar 3. However, B. abortus has been responsible for an increasing number of cases in recent years, e.g. in Yemen, where B. abortus was identified in 45 cases and B. melitensis in 7 cases out of 330 cultures performed in 1995. Concerning control of brucellosis in animals, there is a controversy on the choice of policy. In some countries, the test and slaughter policy together with the vaccination of young females is adopted, in others, particularly with regard to sheep and goats; mass vaccination has been recently started. The most commonly used vaccines are B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccines. B. abortus RB51 vaccine is used in some countries on small scale. Vaccination is limited to cattle and small ruminants. PMID:12414137

  13. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC): An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhanqing; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S. C.; Holben, B. N.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Yun; Shi, Guangyu; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-02-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas. Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC). The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF10 China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE). The former two are US-China collaborative projects and the latter is a part of the China’s National Basic Research program (or often referred to as “973 project”). Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies. The wealth of general and specialized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system. Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc. In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  14. Active Faults and Seismic Sources of the Middle East Region: Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; EMME WP2 Team*

    2011-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). The EMME project covers Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project consists of three main modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic modules. The EMME project uses PSHA approach for earthquake hazard and the existing source models have been revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. The most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones is its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that permits continuous update, refinement, and analysis. An up-to-date earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been prepared and declustered by the WP1 team. EMME WP2 team has prepared a digital active fault map of the Middle East region in ArcGIS format. We have constructed a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. The EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a "Fault Section Database", which contains 36 entries for each fault section. The "Fault Section" concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far 6,991 Fault Sections have been defined and 83,402 km of faults are fully parameterized in the Middle East region. A separate "Paleo-Sites Database" includes information on the timing and amounts of fault

  15. The Science Education of the East Asian Regions--What We Can Learn from PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-01-01

    The study has integrated the data from PISA 2006 to 2012 to give an overall picture of the cognitive and affective performances and pedagogy of East Asian regions on PISA scientific literacy. Attempts are made to account for their performances based on the PISA data and cultural characteristics. The cognitive science performance of East Asian…

  16. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…

  17. German Minority Children in the Danish Border Region: Code-Switching and Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Karen Margrethe

    1987-01-01

    Children from the German minority in Denmark were studied as part of a longitudinal sociolinguistic research project. Most spoke the Jutland (a Danish) dialect and picked up German as a second language when they started preschool, resulting in code-switching and interference in some cases, which appear to be manifestations of linguistic creativity…

  18. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively. PMID:26856446

  19. Hot and Saline Spring Behaviour in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and the North-East German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, M.; Kissling, W.

    2012-04-01

    Hot springs occur in geothermal regions worldwide, and often have important economic or cultural values which can be threatened by geothermal developments. In this paper we describe models of hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, and of saline springs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). In New Zealand, the operation of the Wairakei geothermal power station in the 1950's and early 1960's lead to the collapse of the thermal area known as 'Geyser Valley', and more recently, the spring and Geyser activity in Rotorua was threatened by the widespread and uncontrolled drawoff of geothermal water for domestic use. Similarly, in the NEGB, discharge of saline springs poses serious challenges for groundwater management for agricultural and domestic use, having additional implications for future geothermal energy projects. Despite their obviously very different nature the springs in NEGB and TVZ do have some common characteristics: they both feed fluid to the surface from deeper (geothermal) aquifers through embedded hydrogeological heterogeneities (e.g. fracture systems, erosional gaps and unconformities in the internal stratigraphic sequence), and data shows that they both exhibit irregular flowrates, temperatures and chemistries. Currently used models of hot/saline springs do not show these types of behaviour and offer no understanding of the mechanisms of variability in either setting, or indeed the nature of the connections to deeper aquifers. In this paper we present early results from a study aimed at identifying the most important physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of these systems. We use the simulation code NaCl-Tough2 (Kissling, 2005a,b) to accurately represent the thermodynamics of fluids in both systems. Though relatively simplistic in terms of the modelled geometry these models provide new important insights into the variability of the observed flow dynamics as well as in their causative processes at depths. The results obtained

  20. Treatment Pattern of Type 2 Diabetes Differs in Two German Regions and with Patients' Socioeconomic Position

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Teresa; Claessen, Heiner; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Maier, Werner; Schunk, Michaela; Meisinger, Christine; Mielck, Andreas; Holle, Rolf; Thorand, Barbara; Narres, Maria; Moebus, Susanne; Mahabadi, Amir-Abbas; Pundt, Noreen; Krone, Bastian; Slomiany, Uta; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Icks, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes treatment may differ by region and patients' socioeconomic position. This may be particularly true for newer drugs. However, data are highly limited. Methods We examined pooled individual data of two population-based German studies, KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg, south), and the HNR (Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, west) both carried out 2006 to 2008. To ascertain the association between region and educational level with anti-hyperglycemic medication we fitted poisson regression models with robust error variance for any and newer anti-hyperglycemic medication, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle, and insurance status. Results The examined sample comprised 662 participants with self-reported type 2 diabetes (KORA F4: 83 women, 111 men; HNR: 183 women, 285 men). The probability to receive any anti-hyperglycemic drug as well as to be treated with newer anti-hyperglycemic drugs such as insulin analogues, thiazolidinediones, or glinides was significantly increased in southern compared to western Germany (prevalence ratio (PR); 95% CI: 1.12; 1.02–1.22, 1.52;1.10–2.11 respectively). Individuals with lower educational level tended to receive anti-hyperglycemic drugs more likely than their better educated counterparts (PR; 95% CI univariable: 1.10; 0.99–1.22; fully adjusted: 1.10; 0.98–1.23). In contrast, lower education was associated with a lower estimated probability to receive newer drugs among those with any anti-hyperglycemic drugs (PR low vs. high education: 0.66; 0.48–0.91; fully adjusted: 0.68; 0.47–0.996). Conclusions We found regional and individual social disparities in overall and newer anti-hyperglycemic medication which were not explained by other confounders. Further research is needed. PMID:24915157

  1. The Transformation of East German Education--A Comparison between the Federal States of Berlin and Brandenburg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambach, Jurgen

    1993-01-01

    Identifies issues related to educational reform in the former East Germany. Compares changes in the educational systems of the states of Berlin and Brandenburg and points out that the two entities are growing closer together. (CFR)

  2. Assessment of production risks for winter wheat in different German regions under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersebaum, K. C.; Gandorfer, M.; Wegehenkel, M.

    2012-04-01

    The study shows climate change impacts on wheat production in selected regions across Germany. To estimate yield and economic effects the agro-ecosystem model HERMES was used. The model performed runs using 2 different releases of the model WETTREG providing statistically downscaled climate change scenarios for the weather station network of the German Weather Service. Simulations were done using intersected GIS information on soil types and land use identifying the most relevant sites for wheat production. The production risks for wheat yields at the middle of this century were compared to a reference of the present climate. The irrigation demand was determined by the model using an automatic irrigation mode. Production risks with and without irrigation were assessed and the economic feasibility to reduce production risks by irrigation was evaluated. Costs and benefits were compared. Additionally, environmental effects, e.g. groundwater recharge and nitrogen emissions were assessed for irrigated and rain fed systems. Results show that positive and negative effects of climate change occur within most regions depending on the site conditions. Water holding capacity and groundwater distance were the most important factors which determined the vulnerability of sites. Under climate change condition in the middle of the next century we can expect especially at sites with low water holding capacity decreasing average gross margins, higher production risks and a reduced nitrogen use efficiency under rainfed conditions. Irrigation seems to be profitable and risk reducing at those sites, provided that water for irrigation is available. Additionally, the use of irrigation can also increase nitrogen use efficiency which reduced emissions by leaching. Despite the site conditions results depend strongly on the used regional climate scenario and the model approach to consider the effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere.

  3. Toward a Sustainable Society in the Mena (Middle East and North Africa) Region: Roadmap and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bassiouny, Noha

    2012-01-01

    The Business and Society Research Cluster (BSRC) at the German University in Cairo, the El-Khazindar Business Research and Case Center at the American University in Cairo and Misr El-Kheir (MEK) Foundation, Egypt, hosted the region's first sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) case studies conference, entitled "Toward a…

  4. Culture and Civilization of the German Speaking States. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Iowa Regional AATG Workshop, University of Northern Iowa, March 21-22, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odwarka, Karl, Ed.

    These Proceedings include 26 addresses and papers on culture and civilization in German-speaking countries. Papers on politics and culture in Switzerland, East and West Germany, and Austria begin the book. These papers were written by Gerhard Weiss, Franz Lehner, Eduard Adler, Sonja Elm and Karl Borchard. Three sections on teaching culture and…

  5. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Management Regional Water Exercise, East Passage, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary..., Washington for a Regional Water Rescue Exercise near Browns Point. A safety zone is necessary to ensure the... participants in the Regional Water Rescue Exercise. Basis and Purpose The Pierce County, Washington,...

  6. Seasonal Scale Water Deficit Forecasting in East Africa and the Middle East Region Using the NMME Models Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Narapusetty, B.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we report on our ongoing efforts to provide seasonal scale water deficit forecasts in East Africa and the Middle East regions. First, we report on the skill of the seasonal climate forecasts from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) models over this region. We evaluated deterministic (anomaly correlation), categorical (the equitable threat score) and probabilistic (the ranked probabilistic skill score) skill of the NMME models forecasts over the hindcast period of 1982-2010, focusing on the primary rainy seasons of March-May (MAM), July-September (JAS) and October-December (OND). We also examined the potential predictability of the NMME models using the anomaly correlation between the ensemble mean forecasts from a given model against a single ensemble member of the same model (homogenous predictability) and rest of the models (heterogeneous predictability), and observations (forecast skill). Overall, we found precipitation forecast skill in this region to be sparse and limited (up to three month of lead) to some locations and seasons, and temperature forecast skill to be much more skillful than the precipitation forecast skill. Highest level of skill exists over equatorial East Africa (OND season) and over parts of northern Ethiopia and southern Sudan (JAS season). Categorical and probabilistic forecast skills are also higher in those regions. We found the homogeneous predictability to be greater than the forecast skill indicating potential for forecast skill improvement. In the rest of the presentation we describe implementation and evaluation of a hybrid approach (that combines statistical and dynamical approaches) of downscaling climate forecasts to improve the precipitation forecast skill in this region. For this part of the analysis we mainly focus on two of the NMME models (NASA's GMAO and NCEP's CFSv2). Past research on a hybrid approach focusing only over equatorial East Africa has shown promising results. We found that MAM

  7. Training the East German Labour Force. Microeconometric Evaluations of Continuous Vocational Training after Unification. Studies in Contemporary Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, Michael

    This book presents empirical evaluations of the effects of different types of training programs in East Germany. Chapter 1 presents an overview of labor, the study objectives and results, and discussion of causality and the identification problem in evaluation studies. Chapter 2 examines point estimates of the effects of two types of continuous…

  8. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  9. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-11-26

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse. PMID:24829628

  10. Tobacco and youth in the South East Asian region.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Tobacco use among youth in South-East asian countries was reviewed using available literature. Youth who are out-out-of school, earning, less educated and live in rural areas are more likely to use tobacco and start during the Preteen years. Better educated youth may know the health effects of smoking but the dangers of passive smoking are generally unknown. Youth are fairly unconcerned about the present or future effect of tobacco use on health but do favour tobacco control measures. Children and youth are more responsive than adults to tobacco education. In India, a manufactured smokeless tobacco product, gutkha, has been targeted toward youth and has become extremely popular. An evolving epidemic of oral submucous fibrosis attributed to to gutkha use has been documented among youth, with a resultant increase in oral cancer in lower age groups. Children in India are often illegally employed in bidi manufacturing. This review points out the need for specific actions. PMID:12931709

  11. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  13. Training Rural Youth for Farming in the Asia and Far East Region. Report No. RAFE 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, G. N.

    In response to the Tenth Food and Agricultural Regional Conference for Asia and the Far East (August/September 1970), a comparative study of the different approaches already tried in the Region was conducted, and as the product of that study, this report briefly describes projects currently operating in India; Ceylon; Thailand; Malaysia;…

  14. Preliminary regional magnitude in the Middle East Region using narrowband Lg coda envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K.; Walter, W.R.

    1997-07-01

    Because many regional seismic discriminants are functions of magnitude, it is important to obtain a stable measurement especially for smaller events that will likely have very limited station coverage. We have collected and analyzed regional broad band waveforms from stations in the middle east region for the purpose of calibrating a stable regional magnitude scale that can be applied to events that are too small to detect teleseismically. Our approach is to obtain frequency-dependent empirical Greens function coda envelopes for narrow frequency bands that can be used to correct for gross path effects. We make the assumption that the moment-rate spectra are generally flat below{approximately}2 Hz for these events smaller than Mw{approximately}3.5. In a least squares sense, we obtain frequency-dependent corrections to the Lg coda measurements to fit the scalar moment estimates. These frequency-dependent corrections remove the effects of the S-to-Lg coda transfer function, thus correcting back to the S-wave source spectra. Due to the averaging nature of Lg coda waves we are then able to obtain a stable single-station estimate of the source spectra.To avoid regional biases we tie our coda envelope amplitude measurements to seismic moments obtained from long period 1-D waveform modeling for moderate sized earthquakes (A4w-3.5.- 4.5). Most importantly, we can now apply the same corrections to significantly smaller events that cannot be observed teleseismically. Our empirical approach takes into account scattering,absorption, and waveguide losses as well as frequency-dependent site effects.Moreover, the use of the coda envelope mitigates the undesirable effects of source anisotropy, random site interference, path variability, and directivity that plague direct wave measurements. This approach was successfully applied to other regions where it was observed that the coda-derived Mw estimates showed significantly smaller dependence on lateral path variation and source

  15. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  16. Expanding the forensic German mitochondrial DNA control region database: genetic diversity as a function of sample size and microgeography.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, H; Brinkmann, B; Hühne, J; Rolf, B; Morris, A A; Steighner, R; Holland, M M; Forster, P

    1999-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were determined in 109 unrelated German Caucasoid individuals from north west Germany for both hypervariable regions 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) and 100 polymorphic nucleotide positions (nps) were found, 63 in HV1 and 37 in HV2. A total of 100 different mtDNA lineages was revealed, of which 7 were shared by 2 individuals and 1 by 3 individuals. The probability of drawing a HV1 sequence match within the north west Germans or within published sets of south Germans and west Austrians is similar (within a factor of 2) to drawing a sequence match between any two of these three population samples. Furthermore, HV1 sequences of 700 male inhabitants of one village in Lower Saxony were generated and these showed a nearly linear increase of the number of different haplotypes with increasing number of individuals, demonstrating that the commonly used haplotype diversity measure (Nei 1987) for population samples tends to underestimate mtDNA diversity in the actual population. PMID:10460419

  17. St. Louis Metro East region sediment and geomorphic study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, T.D.

    2004-01-01

    Judy's Branch, a small basin (8.64 mi2) near Glen Carbon, Illinois, is selected as a pilot site to determine sediment yield and channel erosion of streams draining the bluffs of the American Bottoms in the Metro East area of Illinois. This paper presents results of an on-going sediment and geomorphic study in Judy's Branch. The average suspended-sediment yield from two upland sub-basins (drainage area equals 0.23 and 0.40 miles2) is 851 tons/mile2-year between October 2000 and September 2003. The suspended-sediment yield at the Route 157 gage (2,188 tons/mile 2-year) (near outlet of the watershed; drainage area = 8.33 miles2) is approximately 1300 tons/mile2-year greater than the average of the upland gages for the same time period. This result is unexpected in that generally the suspended-sediment yield decreases as the watershed area increases because of sediment being stored in the channel and floodplain. The difference indicates a possible increase in yield from a source, such as streambank erosion, and supports the theory that land-use changes increase streamflows that may result in higher rates of streambank erosion. The best estimate of sediment yield from streambank erosion is 1,009 tons/mile 2-year at Route 157. This value is obtained utilizing both bank-rod data and resurveyed cross-section data.

  18. Regional scale modeling of atmospheric CO2 over East Asia and comparison with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.

    2012-12-01

    East Asia is now the most important regions in terms of CO2 emissions and the analyzing accurate CO2 budget is critical issue for low-carbon policy. He we show the simulated regional scale CO2 distribution. The regional scale chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) was used with 50km x 50km resolution. The lateral boundary conditions were from GEOS-Chem CO2 simulations (with 2x2.5 degree resolution) where the chemical CO2 production and 3-D emissions from aviation were included. It is clear that the seasonal changes in north-south gradient of CO2 concentration over East Asia is shown by the model. In spring, the westerly transport of CO2 from north-east China is dominant, which increases the higher CO2 concentration in northern part of East Asia in the lower troposphere (< 2km). In contrast, the strong CO2 sink of vegetation from northern part of Asia and Siberia reduces CO2 concentration significantly in northern part of East Asia. The modeling results represent that the seasonal CO2 changes in the spatial distribution are affected by both the Chinese CO2 emissions and CO2 sinks from the vegetation. The modeling results are compared with the recent GOSAT CO2 column observations and stationary data. The regional CO2 modeling study will help the global low carbon policy for responding to recent climate change.

  19. Cooperative Regional Bibliographic Projects in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hwa-Wei

    1977-01-01

    Seven projects operating in five countries (Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia) are described in terms of development, current status, and activities. Most notable are the Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre (AMIC) and the International Serials Data System Regional Centre (ISDS). (JAB)

  20. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  1. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  2. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives, post-secondary…

  3. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  4. Trends in Articulation Arrangements for Technical and Vocational Education in the South East Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Adrian R.

    Trends in articulation arrangements for technical and vocational education (TVE) in the South East Asia region were studied. A key feature of articulation is the existence of pathways that allow graduates of one course of study to progress to other courses. Effective articulation opens up advancement for individuals and helps to create a flexible…

  5. 40 CFR 81.130 - Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  6. Catastrophic drought in East Asian monsoon region during Heinrich event 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Sun, Liguang; Chu, Yangxi; Xia, Zehui; Zhou, Xinying; Li, Xiangzhong; Chu, Zhuding; Liu, Xiangjun; Shao, Da; Wang, Yuhong

    2016-06-01

    Heinrich event 1 (H1) is an important millennial climate event during the last deglaciation. The substantial decreasing of monsoon strength in the East Asian monsoon region during the H1, as shown by stalagmite δ18O records, has been attributed to the southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which is caused by the slowdown/collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, records from different Asian monsoon regions show various trends in precipitation changes during the H1, and these trends cannot be solely interpreted by the southward shift of the ITCZ. In the present study, we reconstructed time-series of East Asian monsoon precipitation between 25,000 and 10,000 a BP from floodplain sediments in the Huai River Basin. A white sediment layer, distinct from other layers in the profile, contains significantly low TOC, tree pollen and fern spore contents, and more positive δ13Corg, and it is deposited during the H1 event. The determined TOC, pollen and δ13Corg time-series, together with previously reported stalagmite δ18O, indicate a catastrophic (severe) drought in Jianghuai Region, one of the East Asian monsoon regions, during the H1. The La Niña condition in tropical Pacific likely also contributes to the catastrophic drought in Jianghuai Region and the precipitation variations in the Asian monsoon region during the H1.

  7. 2011 Operations and Maintenance Activities in the East Region of UNAVCO's Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Kasmer, D.; Jenkins, F.; Mencin, D.

    2011-12-01

    2011 marked Year 3 of Operations and Maintenance of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). In the East Region of PBO, it was a year characterized by several major projects as well as scheduled ongoing maintenance activities. The most significant major project was a USGS/ARRA funded communications upgrade in Yellowstone National Park. This upgrade consisted of bringing 8 existing PBO stations within the Yellowstone volcanic region to near real-time communications. This work will be completed on time and in collaboration with the National Park Service. The upgrade promises to provide much faster latency for invaluable data being recorded for one of the most geodetically critical regions of the current PBO network. Another significant ongoing project in the East Region has been supporting the community that continues to use PBO data. In particular, support of Kristine Larson (Univ of CO) both in installing webcams at PBO sites for monitoring snow depth as well as supporting vegetative surveys at current PBO sites. Similarly, the East Region responded promptly to the community with requests for data quality issues that are station hardware related, including replacing GPS antennae and receivers. With regards to ongoing operations and maintenance projects, reasons for site visits in 2011 were dominated by two significant situations: battery replacement and CDMA modem swaps. 83 site visits were required as part of the Operations and Maintenance strategic battery plan of 5 year battery replacements. This proved to be a considerable challenge due to the scale and geography of the scheduled replacements- the sites were spread throughout the entire network, east to west and north to south. 20 station visits were required due to a Verizon upgrade of the older Alltel network purchased by Verizon. These stations are predominantly in the Rocky Mountain region, but often times had limited access to due weather. Overall, despite record snowfalls throughout the west, state of health

  8. Observation-based Understanding of the Cloud Properties over East China Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud properties over East China are described based on observations from satellite (MODIS), ground site and aircraft. Based on satellite observations, 10-year averaged cloud fraction over the whole China region is around 66%, similar to the average value of global, with the largest cloud occurrence in Summer; the cloud fraction increases slightly during last 10 years; more clouds are found at southeast region than at northwest region; cloud droplet effective radius shows the smallest values around 10 um at mid-latitude regions and largest values at high latitude regions; further PDF analysis shows that cloud droplet effective radius demonstrates a bimodal distribution with maximum occurrences around 10-16 um. Ground site observations show that cloud fraction at Taihu site is around 65% for 2013, consistent with that found by MODIS at the closest grid to the site; more clouds are found at night than during day. In-situ aircraft observations over Huanghua city show that cloud droplet effective radius increases with height, with values from 3-5 um at low altitude, 7-9 um at mid altitude, to 10-13 um at high altitude. While the aircraft observation sample volume is limited, the in-situ observed cloud properties demonstrate that cloud droplet re increases with height, consistent with many findings by in-situ aircraft at other locations. The consistency of satellite observed cloud droplet re between East China and other regions is likely caused by the fact that the cloud properties observed by satellite is more representative of those clouds at high altitudes which are weakly affected by the aerosols within the boundary layers. On the other hand, the cloud droplet re at the cloud bases over East China is much smaller than those found at other locations, likely demonstrating the significant impacts by the heavy aerosol loadings at this region. Further studies with more site and aircraft observations over East China are needed.

  9. The relative importance of various source regions on East Asian surface ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, T.; Ohara, T.; Sudo, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2010-11-01

    We estimated the source-receptor relationship for surface O3 in East Asia during the early 2000s using a method that tags O3 tracers according to their region of chemical production (tagged tracer method) with a global chemical transport model. The estimation demonstrated the importance of intracontinental transport of O3 inside East Asia as well as of the transport of O3 from distant source regions. The model well simulated the absolute concentration and seasonal variation of surface O3 in East Asia and demonstrated significant seasonal differences in the origin of surface O3. In the cold season (October to March), more than half of surface O3 in East Asia is attributable to the O3 transported from distant sources outside of East Asia. In the warm season (April to September), most of the surface O3 is attributable to O3 created within East Asia in most areas of East Asia. In spring the contribution of domestically created O3 accounted for 20% of the surface O3 in Japan and the Korean Peninsula, 40% in the North China Plain, and around 50% in the southern part of China, and the domestic contribution increased greatly in summer. The contributions of O3 created in China and the Korean Peninsula to O3 in Japan were estimated at about 10% and 5%, respectively. We also demonstrated a large contribution (20%) from China to the Korean Peninsula. In the northern and southern parts of China, large contributions of over 10% from East Siberia and the Indochina Peninsula, respectively, were identified. The contribution from intercontinental transport increased with latitude; it was 21% in Northeast China and 13% in Japan and the Korean Peninsula in spring. As for the hourly mean of surface O3, domestically created O3 was the main contributor in most areas of East Asia, except for the low O3 class (<30 ppbv), and accounted for more than 50% in the very high O3 class (>90 ppbv). The mean relative contribution of O3 created in China to O3 in central Japan was about 10% in every

  10. On the intonation of German intonation questions: the role of the prenuclear region.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural productions of such 'intonation questions', two perception experiments were run. Experiment 1 is based on a gating paradigm, which was applied to naturally produced questions and statements. Experiment 11 includes two indirect-identification tasks. Resynthesized stimuli were judged in relation to two context utterances, each of which was compatible with only one sentence mode interpretation. Results show that utterances with a finally falling nuclear pitch-accent contour can also trigger question perception. An utterance-final rise is not mandatory. Also, question and statement cues are not restricted to the intonational nucleus. Rather, listeners can refer to shape, slope, and alignment differences of the preceding prenuclear pitch accent to identify sentence mode. These findings are in line with studies suggesting that the utterance-final rise versus fall contrast is not directly related to sentence modality, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning. PMID:24754223

  11. Soviet perceptions of the oil factor in US foreign policy: the Middle East-Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this book is to understand Moscow's convictions regarding recent events in the Middle East-Persian Gulf region and the motivations underlying US policy there. It identifies and analyzes the Soviet view of how America's energy problem has influenced US-Soviet relations in that area. Some attention also goes to the implications for American policy in the region. Key topics include Soviet perceptions of American foreign policy aims, US goals in the Middle East, US-Iranian relations during the Shah's region and after his fall, and the negative aspects of the energy problems for Moscow. Some speculative remarks are made regarding likely future directions of Soviet policies and the implications of such policies for the US. 95 references.

  12. Spatial analysis of future East Asian seasonal temperature using two regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yura; Jun, Mikyoung; Min, Seung-Ki; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    CORDEX-East Asia, a branch of the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX) initiative, provides high-resolution climate simulations for the domain covering East Asia. This study analyzes temperature data from regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX - East Asia region, accounting for the spatial dependence structure of the data. In particular, we assess similarities and dissimilarities of the outputs from two RCMs, HadGEM3-RA and RegCM4, over the region and over time. A Bayesian functional analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach is used to simultaneously model the temperature patterns from the two RCMs for the current and future climate. We exploit nonstationary spatial models to handle the spatial dependence structure of the temperature variable, which depends heavily on latitude and altitude. For a seasonal comparison, we examine changes in the winter temperature in addition to the summer temperature data. We find that the temperature increase projected by RegCM4 tends to be smaller than the projection of HadGEM3-RA for summers, and that the future warming projected by HadGEM3-RA tends to be weaker for winters. Also, the results show that there will be a warming of 1-3°C over the region in 45 years. More specifically, the warming pattern clearly depends on the latitude, with greater temperature increases in higher latitude areas, which implies that warming may be more severe in the northern part of the domain.

  13. Temperature field and heat flow of the Danish-German border region - borehole measurements and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    2016-04-01

    We present a regional 3D numerical crustal temperature model and analyze the present-day conductive thermal field of the Danish-German border region located in the North German Basin. A comprehensive analysis of borehole and well-log data on a regional scale is conducted to derive both the model parameterization with a spatial distribution of rock thermal conductivity and new heat-flow values. The latter one are used to setup the numerical lower boundary condition. Measured heat flow and borehole temperature observations (59 values from 24 wells) are used to constrain the modelling results (calibration and validation). The prediction uncertainties between observed and modelled temperatures at deep borehole sites are small (rms = 3.5°C). For eight deep boreholes, new values of terrestrial surface heat flow are derived, ranging between 72 and 84 mW/m² (mean of 80 ± 5 mW/m²). Those values are up to 20 mW/m² higher than low values reported in some previous studies for this region. Heat flow from the mantle is estimated to be between 33 and 40 mW/m² (q1-q3; mean of 37 ± 7 mW/m²). Pronounced lateral temperature variations are caused mainly by complex geological structures, including a large amount of salt structures and marked lateral variations in the thickness of basin sediments. The associated variations in rock thermal conductivity generate significant variations in model heat flow and large variations in temperature gradients. Major geothermal sandstone reservoirs (e.g. Rhaetian and Middle Buntsandstein) are mainly found with temperatures within the range of 40-80°C, which is suitable for low enthalpy heating purposes in most of the area. Higher temperatures of up to 120-160°C, of interest for the production of electricity, are observed only in the very south-eastern part of the study area (Glückstadt-Graben area). In combination with the structural geological model and information on reservoir hydraulic properties, the presented temperature model will

  14. The relative importance of various source regions on East Asian surface ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, T.; Ohara, T.; Sudo, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2010-04-01

    The Source-Receptor (S-R) relationship for surface O3 in East Asia is estimated for recent years in this study utilizing the tagged tracer method with a global chemical transport model. The estimation shows the importance of intra-continental transport of O3 inside East Asia as well as the transport of O3 from distant source regions. The model well simulated the absolute concentration and seasonal variation of surface O3 in the East Asian region, and demonstrated significant seasonal difference in the origin of surface O3. More than half of surface O3 is attributable to the O3 transported from distant sources outside of East Asia in the cold season (October to March). In the warm season (April to September), most of the surface O3 is attributed to O3 created within East Asia in most areas of East Asia. The contribution of domestically-created O3 accounts for 20% of surface O3 in Japan and the Korean Peninsula, 40% in North China Plain and around 50% in the southern part of China in spring, which increase greatly in summer. The contribution of China and the Korean Peninsula to Japan are estimated at about 10% and 5%, respectively. A large contribution (20%) of China to the Korean Peninsula is also demonstrated. In the northern and southern part of China, large contribution of over 10% from East Siberia and the Indochina Peninsula are identified, respectively. The contribution of intercontinental transport increases with latitude; it is 21% in Northeast China and 13% in Japan and the Korean Peninsula in spring. As for one-hourly mean surface O3, domestically-created O3 is the main contributor in most areas of East Asia, except for the low O3 class (<30 ppbv), and accounts for more than 50% in very high O3 class (>90 ppbv). The mean relative contribution of China to central Japan was about 10% in every class, but that from the Korean Peninsula is important in all expect the low O3 class. Substantial impact of foreign sources on the exceedance of Japan's AAQS is

  15. Seasonal drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Greg; Funk, Chris

    2014-05-01

    In East Africa, agriculture is mostly rainfed and hence sensitive to interannual rainfall variability, and the increasing food and water demands of a growing population place further stresses on the water resources of this region. Skillful seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform timely water and agricultural management decisions, support the proper allocation of the region's water resources, and help mitigate socio-economic losses. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal drought forecast system that is being used for providing seasonal outlooks of agricultural drought in East Africa. We present a test case of the evaluation and applicability of this system for March-April-May growing season over equatorial East Africa (latitude 20 south to 80 North and 360 E to 460E) that encompasses one of the most food insecure and climatically and socio-economically vulnerable regions in East Africa. This region experienced famine as recently as in 2011. The system described here combines advanced satellite and re-analysis as well as station-based long term and real-time observations (e.g. NASA's TRMM, Infra-red remote sensing, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis), state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system (NCEP's Climate Forecast System Verison-2) and large scale land surface models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity, NASA's Land Information System) to provide forecasts of seasonal rainfall, soil moisture and Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) throughout the season - with an emphasis on times when water is the most critical: start of season/planting and the mid-season/crop reproductive phase. Based on the hindcast assessment of this system, we demonstrate the value of this approach to the US Agency for International Development (USAID)'s efforts to mitigate future losses of lives and economic losses by allowing a proactive approach of drought management that includes early warning and timely action.

  16. Analysis and simulation of recent climate variability in the high-mountain regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Emily; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Kilimanjaro is the highest free-standing mountain in the world, and the glaciers at its summit represent regionally unique high-altitude sampling points in the troposphere. The region is influenced by, among other phenomena, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. However, the impacts of these phenomena as well as interactions between them on climate conditions in the high-mountain regions of East Africa are poorly constrained. Here we analyze recent high-altitude climate variability in East Africa using a combination of atmospheric reanalysis data, convection permitting (~1 km grid spacing) numerical simulations with the regional atmospheric model WRF, and multi-year in-situ weather station data at the summits of Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. We utilize these datasets to elucidate the impact of modes of internal climate variability, with a particular emphasis on ENSO, on both the large- and local-scale atmospheric conditions. Our analysis is compared with a ten-year record of glacier surface-height-change measurements on Kilimanjaro to elucidate the drivers of recent glacier response in East Africa.

  17. [Everyday life and solidarity in north-east German rural communities - first qualitative results of the Rural Health Study].

    PubMed

    Nebelung, C; Forkel, J A; Elkeles, T

    2010-03-01

    There have been increasing discussions in the health sciences in recent years about socio-spatial influences on health activities. The starting point has been the growing territorial inequality in spatial development resources, which has an effect on the participatory chances of people in structurally weak regions. The concept of "peripherisation" is used to describe this change. Empirical investigations of socio-spatial resources at the local level are rare, because the theoretical preconditions have not been elaborated sufficiently for the theoretical modelling to be recognised for hypothesis-based empirical investigations. At the centre of this theorisation are analyses of the "social capital" of every-day actions. As part of the Rural Health Study 2008 at the University of Applied Science Neubrandenburg (involving a longitudinal analysis with quantitative surveys in 14 rural communities in north-eastern Germany 1973, 1994, 2008), a qualitative approach was also adopted with case and community studies. The first results are compared with the state of the literature. Case studies are presented showing strategies for adaptation and improvement of the individual's situation, and also the daily solidarity of people in villages. Development potentials are outlined. PMID:20191440

  18. Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  19. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  20. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-07-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  1. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  2. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  3. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles. PMID:26068565

  4. High carbon dioxide uptake by subtropical forest ecosystems in the East Asian monsoon region

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhi; Piao, Shilong; Peng, Changhui; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Qiufeng; Li, Xuanran; Zhu, Xianjin

    2014-01-01

    Temperate- and high-latitude forests have been shown to contribute a carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere, but fewer studies have addressed the carbon balance of the subtropical forests. In the present study, we integrated eddy covariance observations established in the 1990s and 2000s to show that East Asian monsoon subtropical forests between 20°N and 40°N represent an average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of 362 ± 39 g C m−2 yr−1 (mean ± 1 SE). This average forest NEP value is higher than that of Asian tropical and temperate forests and is also higher than that of forests at the same latitudes in Europe–Africa and North America. East Asian monsoon subtropical forests have comparable NEP to that of subtropical forests of the southeastern United States and intensively managed Western European forests. The total NEP of East Asian monsoon subtropical forests was estimated to be 0.72 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−1, which accounts for 8% of the global forest NEP. This result indicates that the role of subtropical forests in the current global carbon cycle cannot be ignored and that the regional distributions of the Northern Hemisphere's terrestrial carbon sinks are needed to be reevaluated. The young stand ages and high nitrogen deposition, coupled with sufficient and synchronous water and heat availability, may be the primary reasons for the high NEP of this region, and further studies are needed to quantify the contribution of each underlying factor. PMID:24639529

  5. Simulation of Tsunami Hazards Affecting the East Cape Region, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Wang, X.; Power, W.; Lukovic, B.

    2015-08-01

    The east coast of New Zealand is known for being exposed to a variety of tsunami sources, both those arising from the nearby Hikurangi subduction zone and its associated crustal faults, and those arising from more distant parts of the Pacific. Using numerical simulations with a parallelized computer model, we assess the tsunami inundation hazard posed to the most populated coastal communities on the east coast of the East Cape region, New Zealand, which had not been evaluated before. Our tsunami inundation hazard study is based on severe but realistic scenario events from a selection of local and distant earthquake tsunami sources. Such modelling covers a gap in knowledge caused by the short historical record of tsunamis in this region (covering <200 years), and the sparse observations of historical tsunamis due to a largely rural population. We identify that the worst flooding is often not associated with the first wave arrivals, and that coastal oscillations can last a long time in distant events. The modelling results allow us to determine typical characteristics of the pattern of flooding, specific to an area. This information is important for emergency planning and preparedness.

  6. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  7. Energy inefficiency in the Asia/Near East region and its environmental implications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The report assesses the current and projected energy situation and needs in the Asia/Near East region and describes the status of energy efficiency. It examines the environmental implications of energy supply and use, with specific focus on energy infrastructure and fossil fuel combustion. Energy efficiency activities and achievements are described for Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as for two other countries, Costa Rica and Singapore, which have recently implemented energy efficiency activities that could be replicated in Asia/Near East countries. In conclusion, the report recommends that, in addition to energy efficiency, complementary efforts need to be made to promote the use of cleaner fuels and encourage the incorporation of environmental considerations into all major energy decisions.

  8. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  9. Regionalized concentrations and fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in German forest soils.

    PubMed

    Aichner, Bernhard; Bussian, Bernd M; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Hein, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Samples of 474 forest stands in Germany were analysed for concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three sampling depths. Enhanced concentrations were mainly found at spots relatively close to densely industrialized and urbanized regions and at some topographically elevated areas. Average enrichment factors between mineral soil and humic layer depend on humus type i.e. decrease from mull via moder to mor. Based on their compound-patterns, the observed samples could be assigned to three main clusters. For some parts of our study area a uniform assignment of samples to clusters over larger regions could be identified. For instance, samples taken at vicinity to brown-coal strip-mining districts are characterized by high relative abundances of low-molecular-weight PAHs. These results suggest that PAHs are more likely originated from local and regional emitters rather than from long-range transport and that specific source-regions can be identified based on PAH fingerprints. PMID:25863006

  10. Effect of East Asia summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  11. Progress in health-related millennium development goals in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam Khetrapal

    2012-01-01

    Home to 25% of the world's population and bearing 30% of the Global disease burden, the South-East Asia Region [1] of the World Health Organization has an important role in the progress of global health. Three of the eight million development goal (MDG) goals that relate to health are MDG 4, 5, and 6. There is progress in all three goals within the countries of the region, although the progress varies across countries and even within countries. With concerted and accelerated efforts in some countries and certain specific areas, the region will achieve the targets of the three health MDGs. The key challenges are in sustainable scaling up of evidence-based interventions to improve maternal and child health and controlling communicable diseases. This will require continued focus and investments in strengthening health systems that provide individual and family centered comprehensive package of interventions with equitable reach and that which is provided free at the point of service delivery. Important lessons that have been learnt in implementing the MDG agenda in the past two decades will inform setting up of the post MDG global health agenda. This article provides a snap shot of progress thus far, key challenges and opportunities in WHO South-East Asia Region and lays down the way forward for the global health agenda post 2015. PMID:23354135

  12. [Human Resource Development for Tohoku Region after Great East Japan Earthquake: Remarks of the Chairperson].

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote further advances of medical systems in the Tohoku region where the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred, the requirement of human resources in clinical laboratory medicine has increased. Therefore, the symposium entitled "Human resource development for Tohoku region after Great East Japan Earthquake" was held in The 47th Tohoku Regional Congress of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine. In Fukushima Prefecture, the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination program has been conducted since Oct. 2011. Educational courses and certification programs for thyroid ultrasound examiners were established for medical doctors and technologists in Fukushima. The need for certified sonographers has also increased because deep venous thrombosis is also one of the health problems in the earthquake-hit area. Human resource development of sonographers was discussed in this symposium. In addition, further advances in clinical laboratory medicine are dependent on the development of specified medical technologists and certified physicians. Projects of human resource development currently performed in the Tohoku region were introduced and future actions were discussed. PMID:27192801

  13. Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

    2014-05-01

    The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than

  14. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  15. Evaluation of multiple regional climate models for summer climate extremes over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Donghyun; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Hong, Song-You; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Kwon, Won-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this study, five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) are evaluated in terms of their performances in simulating the climatology of summer extremes in East Asia. Seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and precipitation are analyzed using the generalized extreme value method. RCMs show systematic bias patterns in both seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is located along the coast, whereas a warm bias occurs in northern China. Overall, wet bias occurs in East Asia, but with a substantial dry bias centered in South Korea. This dry bias appears to be related to the colder ocean surface around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front further south compared to observations. Taylor diagram analyses reveal that the models simulate temperature means more accurately compared to extremes because of the higher spatial correlation, whereas precipitation extremes are simulated better than their means because of the higher spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events can be captured more accurately by RCMs compared to the driving GCM despite poorer simulation of mean rainfall. Inter-RCM analysis indicates a close relationship between the means and extremes in terms of model skills, but it does not show a clear relationship between temperature and precipitation. Sub-regional analysis largely supports the mean-extreme skill relationship. Analyses of frequency and intensity distributions of daily data for three selected sub-regions suggest that overall shifts of temperature distribution and biases in moderate-heavy precipitations contribute importantly to the seasonal mean biases.

  16. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  17. Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women. PMID:21509269

  18. Diabetes-related tuberculosis in the Middle East: an urgent need for regional research

    PubMed Central

    Alkabab, Yosra M.; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Heysell, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Diabetes mellitus (DM) triples the risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease, complicates TB treatment, and increases the risk of a poor TB outcome. As DM prevalence is increasing across the Middle East, this review was performed to identify regional gaps in knowledge and research priorities for DM/TB. Methods Online databases were searched for studies published from Middle East countries on DM and TB and the studies summarized based on topic and major findings. Studies included had a principle hypothesis related to both diseases, or described TB patients with individual data on DM. Results Fifty-nine studies from 10 countries met search criteria. No published studies were found from Lebanon, Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Cyprus, or the United Arab Emirates. DM prevalence among TB patients was high, but varied considerably across studies. The vast majority of studies were not specifically designed to compare DM/TB and non-DM/TB patients, but many suggested worse treatment outcomes for DM/TB, in accordance with reports from other regions. Conclusions Opportunity exists for the regional study of bidirectional screening, management strategies for both DM and TB diseases, and whether such efforts could take place through the integration of services. PMID:26409203

  19. Bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon linked with the regional carbon cycle in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Shuchai; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The regional carbon cycle on continental shelves has created great interest recently due to the enigma of whether these areas are a carbon sink or a source. It is vital for a precise carbon cycle model to take the bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into account, as it impacts the sink and source capacity, especially on dynamic shelves such as the East China Sea. Nine bio-decomposition experiments were carried out to assess differences in the bioavailability of DOC. Samples were collected from different water masses in the East China Sea, such as the Coastal Current, the Taiwan Current, and the Kuroshio Current, as well as from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), the main contributor of terrestrial DOC in the East China Sea. This study aimed to quantify and qualify bioavailable DOC (BDOC) in the East China Sea. Both the degradation constant of BDOC and the carbon output from microorganisms have been quantitatively evaluated. Qualitatively, excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra (EEMs) were used to evaluate the intrinsic reasons for BDOC variation. By using EEMs in conjunction with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), five individual fluorescent components were identified in this study: three humic-like and two protein-like components (P1, P2). The highest P1 and P2 fluorescence intensities were recorded in the coastal water during a phytoplankton algal bloom, while the lowest intensities were recorded in the Changjiang estuary. Quantitatively, BDOC observed during the incubation ranged from 0 to 26.1 μM. The DOC degradation rate constant varied from 0 to 0.027 (d-1), and was lowest in the Changjiang and highest in algal bloom water and warm shelf water (the Taiwan current). The Taiwan Current and mixed shelf water were the major contributors of BDOC flux to the open ocean, and the East China Sea was a net source of BDOC to the ocean. The results verified the importance of BDOC in regional carbon cycle modeling. Combining the data of BDOC and EEMs

  20. NORM in the East Midlands' oil and gas producing region of the UK.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joel; Cairns, James; Read, David

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a common feature in North Sea oil and gas production offshore but, to date, has been reported from only one production site onshore in the United Kingdom. The latter, Wytch Farm on the Dorset coast, revealed high activity concentrations of (210)Pb in metallic form but little evidence of radium accumulation. NORM has now been discovered at two further onshore sites in the East Midlands region of the UK. The material has been characterized in terms of its mineralogy, bulk composition and disequilibrium in the natural uranium and thorium series decay chains. In contrast to Wytch Farm, scale and sludge samples from the East Midlands were found to contain elevated levels of radium and radioactive progeny associated with crystalline strontiobarite. The highest (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations found in scale samples were 132 and 60 Bq/g, with mean values of 86 and 40 Bq/g respectively; somewhat higher than the mean for the North Sea and well above national exemption levels for landfill disposal. The two East Midlands sites exhibited similar levels of radioactivity. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the presence of tabular, idiomorphic and acicular strontiobarite crystals with elemental mapping confirming that barium and strontium are co-located throughout the scale. Bulk compositional data show a corresponding correlation between barium-strontium concentrations and radium activity. Scales and sludge were dated using the (226)Ra/(210)Pb method giving mean ages of 2.2 and 3.7 years, respectively. The results demonstrate clearly that these NORM deposits, with significant radium activity, can form over a very short period of time. Although the production sites studied here are involved in conventional oil recovery, the findings have direct relevance should hydraulic fracturing for shale gas be pursued in the East Midlands oilfield. PMID:26276535

  1. East-west differences in ionospheric total electron content at midlatitude over the Far East Asia region: geomagnetic quiet and active conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Biqiang

    Previous study provides evidence of the longitudinal change supporting the thermospheric zonal wind mechanism by examining the climatology of peak electron density (NmF2), electron density (Ne) of different altitudes in the Far East regions with a longitude separation of up to 40-60 degree based on 3 pair ground ionosondes (Zhao et al., 2013). Now we describe variations in total electron content (TEC) in the Far East Asia region exhibiting pronounced longitudinal asymmetry. Patterns were uncovered by applying an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition procedure to a 15 year ground-based GPS TEC data set. The first EOF mode describes a longitude pattern versus semiannual variation unlikely associated with geomagnetic declination. The second EOF mode exist systematic longitude difference versus a clear seasonal variation that has close relationship with geomagnetic declination. This longitude asymmetry show its maximum during the daytime for the late spring and summer period which would suggest that geomagnetic activity may play important role in making the longitude difference here. Then we make a statistical results on the east-west different response during geomagnetic activity and found that within same geomagnetic latitude, the negative storms are more pronounced and apt to propagate to lower latitude in the East side. This study is meaningful for building subtle region ionospheric model during both quiet and active periods.

  2. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Fuchs, Sven; Hese, Fabian; Mathiesen, Anders; Møller Nielsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Offermann, Petra; Poulsen, Niels Erik; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Thomsen, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Information on both hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. This is paramount in particular for densely populated international border regions, where different subsurface applications may introduce conflicts of use and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological model was developed and used as structural basis for the set-up of a regional temperature model. In that frame, new reflection seismic data were obtained to close local data gaps in the border region. The analyses and reinterpretation of available relevant data (old and new seismic profiles, core and well-log data, borehole data, literature data) and a new time-depth conversion (new velocity model) allowed correlation of seismic profiles across the border. On this basis, new topologically consistent depth and thickness maps for 12 geological/lithological units were drawn, with special emphasis on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface temperature model. New local surface heat-flow values (range: 72-84 mW/m²) were determined and predicted temperature were calibrated and validated by borehole temperature observations. Finally, new temperature maps for major geological sections (e.g. Rhaetian/Gassum, Middle Buntsandstein) and selected constant depth intervals (1 km, 2 km, etc.) were compiled. As an example, modelled temperatures for the Middle Buntsandstein geothermal reservoir are shown with temperatures ranging

  3. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  4. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago. PMID:26188410

  5. Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region.

    PubMed

    Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami

    2014-07-01

    East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. PMID:23596197

  6. Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region

    PubMed Central

    Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami

    2014-01-01

    East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37–53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. PMID:23596197

  7. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  8. Much ado about SEA/SA monitoring: The performance of English Regional Spatial Strategies, and some German comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Hanusch, Marie Glasson, John

    2008-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) seeks to better integrate environmental considerations into the preparation and decision-making process of plans and programmes with a view to promoting sustainable development. Further to application of the European Directive 2001/42/EC (SEA Directive) in 2004, the body of practical SEA experience, and parallel research, has increased steadily. Yet there is a crucial element of SEA which cannot build on much experience but whose importance will grow over time - namely that of SEA monitoring. The paper explores the application of SEA monitoring for English Regional Spatial Strategies (RSSs). It briefly introduces the role of SEA monitoring and its legal requirements, the English approach of integrating SEA into Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and the nature of the current English Regional Planning context. The main part presents the research findings and discusses how practitioners cope with the challenges of SEA/SA monitoring - with guiding questions: why, what, who, how, when, and with what outcomes? Reflecting that monitoring is just about to start, the paper draws on measures envisaged for monitoring in the SA reports prepared for RSS, and on expert interviews. It identifies monitoring trends and highlights workable approaches as well as shortcomings. For a critical reflection the findings are mirrored briefly with SEA monitoring approaches of German Regional Plans. Although it is still early days for such monitoring, the findings indicate that there is a danger that some of the specific requirements and objectives of SEA/SA monitoring are not fully met, mainly due to insufficient databases, inappropriate institutional conditions and limited personnel and financial resources. Some recommendations are offered in conclusion.

  9. Projected Effect of Increased Active Travel in German Urban Regions on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Brinks, Ralph; Hoyer, Annika; Kuss, Oliver; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Future transportation policy is likely to reduce emissions in the cities and urban regions by strengthening active travel. Increased walking and cycling are known to have positive effects on health outcomes. This work estimates effects of increased active travel on type 2 diabetes in Germany, where 64% of the population live in urban regions. Methods Based on the effect size of an increased active travel scenario reported from a recent meta-analysis, we project the change in the life time risk, the proportion of prevented cases and the change in diabetes free life time in a German birth cohort (born 1985) compared to business as usual. Results The absolute risk reduction of developing type 2 diabetes before the age of 80 is 6.4% [95% confidence interval: 3.7-9.7%] for men and 4.7% [2.2-7.7%] for women, respectively. Compared to business as usual, the increased active travel scenario prevents 14.0% [8.1-21.2%] of the future cases of diabetes in men and 15.8% [9.3-23.1%] in women. Diabetes free survival increases by 1.7 [1.0-2.7] years in men and 1.4 [0.6-2.3] in women. Conclusions Our projection predicts a substantial impact of increased active travel on the future burden of type 2 diabetes. The most striking effect may be seen in the number of prevented cases. In all urban regions with an increased active travel transport policy, about one out of seven male and one out of six female cases can be prevented. PMID:25849819

  10. [Plague in China. Threat of transmission to regions of Siberia and Far East].

    PubMed

    Maramovich, A S; Kosilko, S A; Innokent'eva, T I; Voronova, G A; Bazanova, L P; Nikitin, A Ia; Okunev, L P

    2008-01-01

    In China plague has been officially registered from 1754 (638 epidemics with total number of cases 2.5 millions and case-fatality rate 87.5%). Endemic areas started to form on the south of the country and then the disease gradually spread on seaside provinces, where to the end of the 19th century, due to reach of island territories and large international seaports, was characterized by pandemic spread. Epidemic manifestations of plague in China were observed during more than 200 years in 23 out of 36 administrative areas affecting continental and North-Eastern regions of the country, which are immediately adjacent to border of Russia. Pneumonic plague in Manchuria clearly demonstrated the role of transport communications in transmission of this deadly infection and possibility of its spread on border regions of Siberia and Far East. Lengthy country's border, intensive migration flows, large-scale international integration, developing of near-border trade, simplification of policy for transboundary traveling are the reasons for differentiated number of sanitary protective measures on administrative borders of Siberia and Far East. PMID:18368762

  11. Latitudinal Expansion of the Holocene Optimum in the East Asian Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Sun, L.; Zhan, T.; Huang, W.; Zhou, X.; Hao, Q.; He, X.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, J.; Qiao, Y.; Ge, J.; Yan, P.; Shao, D.; Chu, Z.; Yang, W.

    2014-12-01

    With increasingly abundant high resolution and high precision records of East Asian monsoon, its spatial and temporal dynamics during the Holocene have been extensively studied. However, partly due to the lack of records in high latitude areas and the age uncertainties, these studies characterized a wide range of spatial-temporal patterns of Holocene Optimum (HO). We reconstructed a 14,000-year record of vegetation using sediments from a crater lake in Northeast China. Analyses of the vegetation time series show that HO began around 6,000 a BP in Northeast China, significantly later than generally recognized. By comparison with Holocene records of vegetation in other regions of the East Asia, we found a marked northward shift of initial time of HO from 10,600 a BP in South China to 6,000 a BP in Northeast China, which appeared to be forced by the shrinkage of the northern hemisphere ice-sheet (NHIS) during early to mid Holocene. Finally, we fitted a regression model of initial HO time on latitude, which allows us to make prediction of initial HO time based on their geographical locations. This study reveals a strong relationship between latitude and initial HO times and provides a window towards understanding the joint forcing of high and low latitude factors on regional climate.

  12. Metro East Coast Regional Assessment of Climate Variability and Change: Policy Lessons and Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2002-05-01

    The recent Metro East Coast (MEC) Regional Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change provides a laboratory for raising questions regarding policy-relevant versus policy-driven research. A regional component of the U.S. National Assessment sponsored by the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the MEC Assessment engaged area researchers and stakeholders from a spectrum of agencies at differing levels of jurisdiction in seven sector teams. The stakeholders participated actively in the assessment process, i.e., they were involved in shaping research questions, providing data and models, and drawing major conclusions. Stakeholders participating in the assessment had specific science-based information needs, as well as policy-based considerations. Conflicts arose, at times, as policy considerations mutated over time within the agencies. Continuity of funding emerged as a major issue regarding effectiveness of researcher-stakeholder engagement.

  13. A Catalyst for Change: Drought and Food Security in the Near East Region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    In the Near East, drought at the turn of the 21st century was reported to be the worst in 50 years, affecting millions of people across the region. The drought caused a wide range of effects, including widespread crop failures and livestock losses, increased drinking water shortages and disease stress, additional debt, and forced mass migrations to urban areas and other countries, all of which affected food security. As devastating as the drought was for people and the environment, the event created a “policy window” - a time during which the public’s and policy makers’ attention was directed toward a particular issue, creating an advantageous political environment for addressing the problem. In this case, the drought revealed the need for enhanced mitigation and drought relief coordination. It has served as the impetus for several countries and international organizations to work together to foster new policies and training activities to reduce drought risk and enhance food security in the region.

  14. Ionospheric Current System over the African Region and East Asian Region as Observed by MAGDAS Stations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Rabiu, A.; Mahrous, A.; Meloni, A.; Baki, P.; Makundi, N.; Afullo, T.; McKinnell, L. A.; Badi, K.; Mweene, H.; Macamo, A.; Abe, S.; Ikeda, A.; Fujimoto, A.; Tokunaga, T.; Fujita, Y.; Matsuyama, K.

    2010-12-01

    The MAGnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) is the global real-time magnetometer array operated by the Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University. This array includes two latitudinal chains; one is along the 210-degree magnetic meridian (210MM in the East Asian region since 2005). And the other is along the 96-degree magnetic meridian (96MM in the African region since 2008). The objective of this paper is to describe the longitudinal difference of the ionospheric current system using the MAGDAS data observed along the two different longitudinal chains. We analyzed the data recorded during the latest solar minimum (2008-2010) when the Sun was abnormally quiet. Our analysis shows some important characteristics of the equivalent current system over the African region: (1) From May to September, the current vortex in the Northern Hemisphere penetrates into the Southern Hemisphere in the morning hours as deeply as 40-degree at the dip latitude. (2) During this period, the strength of the equatorial electrojet becomes weaker than during other periods. These features are seen only in the current system over the African region. In the presentation, we will explain more details of the longitudinal difference of the ionospheric current system.

  15. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  16. Regional Geothermal Characterisation of East Anatolia from Aeromagnetic, Heat Flow and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektaş, Özcan; Ravat, Dhananjay; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Bilim, Funda; Ateş, Abdullah

    2007-05-01

    East Anatolia is a region of high topography made up of a 2-km high plateau and Neogene and Quaternary volcanics overlying the subduction-accretion complex formed by the process of collision. The aeromagnetic and gravity data surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey have been used to interpret qualitatively the characteristics of the near-surface geology of the region. The residual aeromagnetic data were low-pass filtered and analyzed to produce the estimates of magnetic bottom using the centroid method and by forward modelling of spectra to evaluate the uncertainties in such estimates. The magnetic bottom estimates can be indicative of temperatures in the crust because magnetic minerals lose their spontaneous magnetization at the Curie temperature of the dominant magnetic minerals in the rocks and, thus, also are called Curie point depths (CPDs). The Curie point depths over the region of Eastern Anatolia vary from 12.9 to 22.6 km. Depths computed from forward modelling of spectra with 200 600 km window sizes suggest that the bottom depths from East Anatolia from the magnetic data may have errors exceeding 5 km; however, most of the obtained depths appear to lie in the above range and indicate that the lower crust is either demagnetized or non-magnetic. In the interpretation of the magnetic map, we also used reduction-to-pole (RTP) and amplitude of total gradient of high-pass filtered anomalies, which reduced dipolar orientation effects of induced aeromagnetic anomalies. However, the features of the RTP and the total gradient of the high-pass filtered aeromagnetic anomalies are not highly correlated to the hot spring water locations. On the other hand, many high-amplitude features seen on the total gradient map can be correlated with the ophiolitic rocks observed on the surface. This interpretation is supported by Bouguer gravity data. In this paper, we recommend that the sources of the widespread thermal activity seen in East Anatolia must

  17. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  18. Regional differences in pathogen prevalence and defensive reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak among East Asians and Westerners.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Takeshi; Park, Justin H

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas); rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence. PMID:22947816

  19. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  20. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993-2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall is

  1. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-10-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agropastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socioeconomic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's (FEWS NET) science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S-8° N, 36-46° E) for the March-April-May (MAM) growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food-insecure, climatically variable, and socioeconomically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world; this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To produce an "agricultural outlook", our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios describing the upcoming season. First, we forced the VIC model with high-quality atmospheric observations to produce baseline soil moisture (SM) estimates (here after referred as SM a posteriori estimates). These compared favorably (correlation = 0.75) with the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI), an index that the FEWS NET uses to estimate crop yields. Next, we evaluated the SM forecasts generated by this system on 5 March and 5 April of each year between 1993 and 2012 by comparing them with the corresponding SM a posteriori estimates. We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (SOS) (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month and, in some cases, 3-month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with midseason (i.e., 5

  2. Internationalization "vs" Regionalization of Higher Education in East Africa and the Challenges of Quality Assurance and Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogachi, Oanda

    2009-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education in East Africa raises various questions related to its magnitude and intensity, its capacity to address issues of access, equity and regional research and developmental needs. Internationalization and regionalization as processes in higher education can synergize each other but can also limit the success of…

  3. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhel, Majid; Mutairi, Fuad Al; Makhseed, Nawal; Jasmi, Fatma Al; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Jishi, Emtithal; AlSayed, Moeenaldeen; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Häberle, Johannes; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain. Objective There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is extremely obvious. Method We searched PubMed and Embase databases to include published materials from 2011 to 2014 that were not covered by the European guidelines, which was published in 2012. We followed the process of a Delphi conference and involved one preliminary meeting and two follow-up meetings with email exchanges between the Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group regarding each draft of the manuscript. Results and discussion We have developed consensus guidelines based on the highest available level of evidence. The aim of these guidelines is to homogenize and harmonize the treatment protocols used for patients with acute hyperammonemia, and to provide a resource to not only metabolic physicians, but also physicians who may come in contact with individuals with acute hyperammonemia. Conclusion These suggested guidelines aim to ease the challenges faced by physicians dealing with acute hyperammonemia in the region. In addition, guidelines have demonstrated useful collaboration between experts in the region, and provides information that will hopefully improve the outcomes of patients with acute hyperammonemia. PMID:27099506

  4. Identifying Vulnerability Regions of Dust Outbreaks in East Asian Desert Areas: using SMOS, MODIS, and GLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Cho, E.

    2015-12-01

    It is now well understood that water, carbon, and energy fluxes at the surface/atmosphere interface are highly dependent on soil moisture (SM). In addition, SM is required to be used as realistic initial states for the SM variables, for climate predictions and weather forecasting. As satellite remote-sensing have developed greatly, global surface SM datasets have been produced based on several satellites. Three satellites-based SM datasets were inter-compared under different land-cover over East Asia to select most reliable satellite for retrieving SM datasets in dust source regions. We estimated satellite sensors with 1) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), 2) Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and 3) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) was used as reference datasets. In case of arid areas (desert and semi-desert), SMOS-retrieved SM products showed best accuracy (radiometers have generally exhibited a better performance than scatterometers in dry areas). For this reason, SMOS SM products were utilized to retrieve SM over desert areas. The regions that are susceptible to dust outbreaks were investigated using the dust outbreak probability functions (DOPF). Based on DOPF, about 58% of the total number of dust events occurred in regions with a high level of vulnerability where dust outbreaks were predicted with a probability higher than 60%. The SMOS-based DOPF was calculated to be about 62.4% of the dust outbreak vulnerability (DOV) level of the desert areas. Interestingly, East Asian deserts showed an increasing tendency for a high level of DOV during the study period. Those areas were judged to be sources from which dust could be transported to neighboring countries (e.g., Korea and Japan) which can lead to Asian dust storms. These results may allow us to predict trends of dust outbreaks in order to prepare the corresponding disaster response systems.

  5. Regional Climate Simulations of Summer Diurnal Rainfall Variations over East Asia and Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-R.; Chan, J. C. L.

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the simulations of summer (June-August) precipitation over East Asia by the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3), with emphasis on the diurnal variations of precipitation over Southeast China (PSEC) during the 1998-2002 summer seasons. The evaluation focuses on the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations in PSEC as proposed by previous observational studies. It is found that the diurnal variations of PSEC are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs). In particular, the Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption (GFC) produces reasonable diurnal variations of PSEC. Other CPSs such as the Emanuel scheme produces a weaker late-afternoon maximum of PSEC, and the Kuo scheme as well as the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption (GAS) is unable to simulate the occurrence of the late-afternoon maximum of PSEC. The simulations show that the adoption of the GFC scheme reproduces the large-scale land-sea breeze circulation and the moisture flux convergence that have been documented by previous studies as the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations of PSEC. This feature illustrates the importance of convective cloud feedback at the diurnal timescale in maintaining the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of precipitation over East Asia are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

  6. Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over East Asia and Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the East Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in East Asia, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfall—the moisture flux convergence—over Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

  7. Acupunctural Afforestation for Desertification Mitigation over Semi-Arid Regions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, B.; Choi, Y.; Park, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Desertification over the arid/semi-arid regions in East Asia and dust transports from the regions have been serious concerns for the societies not only in adjacent Asian countries but also in the western US. One of the strategies for desertification mitigation is tree planting over the semi-arid areas. However, unless the newly planted vegetation changes the feedback characteristics between land-surface and the atmosphere, the impact is not profound and effective for a long time. Here we show afforestation effects on the coupling strength between the land-surface and atmosphere, measured by the monthly anomalies of precipitation and evapotranspiration. The coupling strength is an important parameter to diagnose the aridity of a region since the stronger coupling strength is indicative of the higher vulnerability of the local climate to droughts. Simulations of a regional vegetation-climate coupled model reveal that afforestation substantially modulates local coupling strength mainly through controlling variability of evapotranspiration. The coupling strength decreases most significantly with an increase of unit vegetation fraction over the northern and central China including Manchurian Plains and highly populated areas of Beijing and Tianjin. The coupling characteristics of these regions are expected to reduce the occurrence of extreme weather events such as droughts by alleviating positive responses of the surface to precipitation deficit. Therefore, afforestation concentrated on these regions, which is called "acupunctural afforestation", may most effectively contribute to desertification mitigation than other regions by attenuating mechanisms maintaining warm season droughts. This study suggests that our attention should be paid to understanding the coupling strength between land and the atmosphere for desertification mitigation.

  8. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  9. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n = 49 studies), mortality (n = 28), nutrition (n = 24), and infectious diseases (n = 33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n = 56 studies), socioeconomic (n = 50) and biological sampling (n = 25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103

  10. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  11. Regional scale hydrodynamic modelling of offshore wind farm development areas off the east coast of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara Murray, Rory; Gallego, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in Scotland, supported by the Scottish Government, in the expansion of renewable energy production. In particular, significant offshore wind energy developments are already planned in coastal waters to the east of the Forth and Tay estuaries. It is important to understand the local and cumulative environmental impact of such developments within this region, to aid licensing decisions but also to inform marine spatial planning in general. Substantial wind farm developments may affect physical processes within the region, such as tidal-, wind-, and wave-driven circulation, as well as coastal sediment transport and more complex estuarine dynamics. Such physical impacts could have ecological and, ultimately, socio-economic consequences. The Firth of Forth and Tay areas both exhibit complex estuarine characteristics due to fresh water input, complex bathymetry and coastline, and tidal mixing. Our goal is to construct an unstructured grid hydrodynamic model of the wider Firth of Forth and Tay region using the Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), resolving the complex estuarine hydrography of the area and representing offshore wind developments. Hydrodynamic modelling will provide an accurate baseline of the hydrography in this region but also allow the assessment of the effect on the physical environment of multiple wind farm development scenarios.

  12. Solar cycle variation of the total electron content around equatorial anomaly crest region in east asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yinn-Nien; Cheng, Kang

    1995-10-01

    The monthly mean hourly values of total electron content data obtained at Lunping Observatory (geographic coordinates 25.00°N, 121.17°E; geomagnetic coordinates 14.3°N, 191.3°E) by using the ETS2 satellite beacon signal during the period from March 1977 to December 1990 have been used to analyze the solar cycle variations of total electron content (TEC) around equatorial anomaly crest region in East Asia. Positive, correlations were found between the 12 month running average of monthly mean TECs and sunspot numbers. By using the linear regression analysis method, the contour charts for real diurnal and seasonal variations of TEC at certain sunspot numbers were constructed and described. The diurnal variation of TEC was represented by the sum of its diurnal mean and first three harmonic components. The solar cycle variations of these components have also been discussed.

  13. Verification of ECMWF, GFS and WRF forecast in coastal desert region of Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaj, Pavol; Bartoková, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    Forecast skill of different models over Middle East region is presented. ECMWF has 12.5 km resolution, while WRF with 16 km and nested 5 km grid is initialized by GFS. The comparison encompasses first half of year 2012 and 48-72 hours forecasts, which are evaluated by standard scores Bias, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In Dubai Emirate, the temperature RMSE of ECMWF is higher by 1.5 deg. C on average. As far as the desert terrain is flat and the station is 100km form the coast, the reason is not straightforward result of better resolution. More precise capturing of the diurnal variation especially the sea breeze phenomenon seems of higher importance. 9 other stations were examined.

  14. Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera) on aphids (Hemiptera) infesting citrus in east Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Satar, Serdar; Satar, Gül; Karacaoğlu, Mehmet; Uygun, Nedim; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Starý, Petr; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2014-01-01

    The aphids, aphid parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids found in citrus orchards, the parasitoids' and hyperparasitoids' seasonal abundance, and the plant-aphid-parasitoid relationships in Hatay, Osmaniye, Adana, and Mersin provinces of the east Mediterranean region of Turkey are presented in the present 2-yr study. Aphidius colemani Viereck, Binodoxys angelicae (Haliday), and Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) were encountered as the most common parasitoids among 10 identified aphidiine and aphelinid taxa on different citrus species. Hyperparasitoids belonging to the genera Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis, Asaphes, Pachyneuron, Syrphophagus, and Dendrocerus are reported for the first time emerging from aphids feeding on citrus in Turkey. Among them, Asaphes spp., Pachyneuron spp., and Syrphophagus spp. were recorded as the most common ones. Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. were recorded as main hosts for the aphid parasitoids and their hyperparasitoids. PMID:25480969

  15. Upper mantle anisotropy from teleseismic SKS splitting beneath Lützow-Holm Bay Region, East Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usui, Y.; Kanao, M.; Kubo, A.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Negishi, H.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of SKS wave splitting of teleseismic events from digital seismographs recorded at eight stations around the Lützow-Holm Bay Region have lead to understanding the evolution of the Antarctic Plate. The observed delay times of SKS splitting are up to 1.3 s, which are generally equal to the global average. A two-layer model reveals that the lower layer anisotropy is caused by the recent asthenospheric flow, as compared with the Absolute Plate Motion by the HS3-NUVEL1 model. The upper layer anisotropy corresponds well to polarization of NE–SW convergence direction between East and West Gondwana in Pan-African age. We suggest that the upper layer anisotropy was formed during Pan-African orogeny and was possibly influenced by the preexisting structure during Gondwana break-up. The origin of anisotropy is the Lattice Preferred Orientation of olivine which was caused by both paleo-tectonic events and the recent asthenospheric flow.

  16. Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the East Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.

    2013-12-01

    Recent destructive earthquakes in East-Asia claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in East Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).

  17. IBIRYS: a Regional High Resolution Reanalysis (physical and biogeochemical) over the European North East Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levier, Bruno; Benkiran, Mounir; Reffray, Guillaume; García Sottilo, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    Mercator-Ocean has developed a regional forecasting system at 1/12° resolution over the North East Atlantic (IBI: Iberia, Biscay and Irish), taking advantage of the recent developments in NEMO. A reanalysis, called IBIRYS, was performed with the IBI system on the 2002-2012 period. The physical model was coupled on-line with the biogeochemical component of NEMO based on the PISCES model. The model was forced by ERA-interim products (every 3 hours) including the atmospheric pressure. In addition to atmospheric forcing, the model included astronomical tidal forcing. This regional forecasting system used boundary conditions from the Mercator-Ocean global reanalysis (GLORYS: GLobal Ocean ReanalYses and Simulations).The assimilation component SAM2 (Mercator Ocean assimilation system), was based on a reduced-order Kalman filter (the SEEK or Singular Extended Evolutive Kalman filter). An IAU method (Incremental Analysis Updates) was used to apply the increments in the system. The error statistics were represented in a sub-space spanned by a small number of dominant 3D error directions. A 3D-Var scheme corrected for the slowly evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity. The data assimilation system allowed to constrain the model in a multivariate way with Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR + Multi-satellite High resolution), together with all available satellite Sea Level Anomalies, and with in situ observations from the CORA-03 data base, including ARGO floats temperature and salinity measurements. In this presentation, the results obtained with IBIRYS are compared to GLORYS results. The consistency of the IBIRYS and GLORYS results at large scales is demonstrated. The capacity of IBIRYS to provide useful information at high frequencies in the North East Atlantic is shown. The biogeochemical results of IBIRYS are evaluated.

  18. Extreme rainfall in South East France: added value of a convection-permitting regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Antoinette; Déqué, Michel; Somot, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    EURO-CORDEX simulations are based on 12 km numerical model. They represent with some accuracy, compared to global coupled models used in CMIP, the surface elevation in mountainous regions. As a consequence, the geographical distribution of precipitation is better at regional scale, and the frequency of high precipitation is more realistic. However these models do not explicitly resolve the convective phenomena which are responsible for the heavy accumulated rainfall. Arome model is derived from Aladin model (used in EURO-CORDEX) but uses non-hydrostatic equations, 2.5 km horizontal resolution, and a dedicated set of physical parameterizations. Its domain covers South-East France, a region which undergoes severe rainfall events in autumn. We present ERA-interim driven simulations with Aladin (12 km) driving Arome (2.5 km). The analysis is focussed on daily and hourly precipitation in extended autumn (ASOND) in the central part of the domain. We compare Aladin (i.e. EURO-CORDEX) and Arome simulations in their ability to simulate observed data.

  19. Calibration of Regional Seismic Stations in the Middle East with Shots in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoz, M N; Kuleli, S; Gurbuz, C; Kalafat, D; Nekler, T; Zor, K; Yilmazer, M; Ogutcu, Z; Schultz, C A; Harris, D B

    2003-07-21

    The objective of this project is to calibrate regional travel-times and propagation characteristics of seismic waves in Turkey and surrounding areas in the Middle East in order to enhance detection and location capabilities in the region. Important data for the project will be obtained by large calibration shots in central and eastern Turkey. The first, a two-ton shot, was fired in boreholes near Keskin in central Anatolia on 23 November 2002. The explosives were placed in 14 holes, each 80 m deep, arranged in concentric circular arrays. Ninety temporary seismic stations were deployed within a 300 km radius around the shot. The permanent stations of the Turkish National Seismic Network provided a good azimuthal coverage as well as three radial traverses. Most stations within a radius of 200 km recorded the shot. Travel-time data have been analyzed to obtain a detailed crustal model under the shot and along the profiles. The model gives a 35 km thick crust, characterized by two layers with velocities of 5.0 and 6.4 km/s. The P{sub n} velocity was found to be 7.8 km/s. The crustal thickness decreases to the north where the profile crosses the North Anatolian fault. There is a slight increase in crustal velocities, but no change in crustal thickness to the west. Data analysis effort is continuing to refine the regional velocity models and to obtain station corrections.

  20. The Hayward Fault in the East San Francisco Bay Region, California: A Regional Geophysical and Geological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jachens, R. C.; Ponce, D. A.; Graymer, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.; Hildenbrand, T. G.

    2003-12-01

    Regional gravity, magnetic, and geologic data, together with sparse seismic reflection and refraction data, and drill hole logs, provide a regional tectonic perspective and context of the Hayward fault. The fault is at least 85 km long and terminates at both ends at pull-apart basins. The southeastern terminus falls near the northeastern tip of the NW-SE Evergreen basin, which likely formed in the wake of a right step between the Silver Creek and Hayward Faults as a result of large right slip. The northwestern terminus lies along the southwestern edge of the deep basin that lies beneath eastern San Pablo Bay and extends, as the East Bay Trough, both southeast and northwest. Here, a structural manifestation of the Hayward Fault (the southwestern edge of the deep basin) steps right to about trace of the Tolay thrust Fault whereas seismicity and recent movement step farther right to the Rodgers Creek Fault. The deep basin under San Pablo Bay is three times wider than the right step from the Hayward fault to the Rodgers Creek fault, suggesting that if this basin is a strike-slip pull-apart basin, then faults farther east of the Rodgers Creek fault must have been involved in its formation. The local basin that formed during the past few million years in the wake of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek right step probably is no more than 500 m deep, according to a seismic reflection profile. A continuous magnetic anomaly probably reflecting a buried volcanic body lies between the Rodgers Creek Fault and the western deep basin margin north of San Pablo Bay, continues southward to truncate against the Hayward fault beneath most of San Pablo Bay. This body is not dismembered, precluding a simple strike-slip connection between the Rodgers Creek and Hayward Faults with more than about 10 km of offset (compared to the estimated roughly 100 km of total offset across the Hayward fault). The Hayward fault separates two distinctly different crustal blocks. The Bay block to the southwest

  1. Fire history of the San Francisco East Bay region and implications for landscape patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The San Francisco East Bay landscape is a rich mosaic of grasslands, shrublands and woodlands that is experiencing losses of grassland due to colonization by shrubs and succession towards woodland associations. The instability of these grasslands is apparently due to their disturbance-dependent nature coupled with 20th century changes in fire and grazing activity. This study uses fire history records to determine the potential for fire in this region and for evidence of changes in the second half of the 20th century that would account for shrubland expansion. This region has a largely anthropogenic fire regime with no lightning-ignited fires in most years. Fire suppression policy has not excluded fire from this region; however, it has been effective at maintaining roughly similar burning levels in the face of increasing anthropogenic fires, and effective at decreasing the size of fires. Fire frequency parallels increasing population growth until the latter part of the 20th century, when it reached a plateau. Fire does not appear to have been a major factor in the shrub colonization of grasslands, and cessation of grazing is a more likely immediate cause. Because grasslands are not under strong edaphic control, rather their distribution appears to be disturbance-dependent, and natural lightning ignitions are rare in the region, I hypothesize that, before the entrance of people into the region, grasslands were of limited extent. Native Americans played a major role in creation of grasslands through repeated burning and these disturbance-dependent grasslands were maintained by early European settlers through overstocking of these range lands with cattle and sheep. Twentieth century reduction in grazing, coupled with a lack of natural fires and effective suppression of anthropogenic fires, have acted in concert to favor shrubland expansion.

  2. Serum Cadmium Levels in Pancreatic Cancer Patients from the East Nile Delta Region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Alison M.; Soliman, Amr S.; Zhang, Qing; El-Ghawalby, Nabih; Ezzat, Farouk; Soultan, Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Fathy, Omar; Ebidi, Gamal; Bassiouni, Nadia; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Blake, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    The northeast Nile Delta region exhibits a high incidence of early-onset pancreatic cancer. It is well documented that this region has one of the highest levels of pollution in Egypt. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that cadmium, a prevalent pollutant in the northeast Nile Delta region, plays a role in the development of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We aimed to assess serum cadmium levels as markers of exposure in pancreatic cancer patients and noncancer comparison subjects from the same region in Egypt. Design and Participants: We assessed serum cadmium levels of 31 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 52 hospital comparison subjects from Mansoura, Egypt. Evaluation/Measurements: Serum cadmium levels were measured using a novel immunoassay procedure. Results: We found a significant difference between the mean serum cadmium levels in patients versus comparison subjects (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 7.7 ng/mL vs. 7.1 ± 5.0 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.012) but not in age, sex, residence, occupation, or smoking status. The odds ratio (OR) for pancreatic cancer risk was significant for serum cadmium level [OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.23; p = 0.0089] and farming (OR = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.03–11.64; p = 0.0475) but not for age, sex, residence, or smoking status. Conclusions: The results from this pilot study suggest that pancreatic cancer in the East Nile Delta region is significantly associated with high levels of serum cadmium and farming. Relevance to Clinical Practice/Public Health: Future studies should further investigate the etiologic relationship between cadmium exposure and pancreatic carcinogenesis in cadmium-exposed populations. PMID:16393667

  3. Seismic Hazard Assessment of Middle East Region: Based on the Example to Georgia (Preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Akkar, S.; Askan, A.; Varazanashvili, O.; Adamia, S.; Chkhitunidze, M.

    2012-12-01

    The country of Georgia is located between Russia and Turkey. The main morphological units of Georgia are the mountain ranges of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus separated by the Black Sea-Rioni and Kura (Mtkvari)-South Caspian intermountain troughs. Recent geodynamics of Georgia and adjacent territories of the Black Sea-Caspian Sea region, as a whole, are determined by its position between the still-converging Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. That caused moderate seismicity in the region. However, the risk resulting from these earthquakes is considerably high, as recent events during the last two decades have shown. Seismic hazard and risk assessment is a major research topic in various recent international and national projects. Despite the current efforts, estimation of regional seismic hazard assessment remains as a major problem. Georgia is one of the partners of ongoing regional project EMME (Earthquake Model for Middle East region). The main objective of EMME is calculation of Earthquake hazard uniformly with heights standards. One approach used in the project is the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment PSHA. In this study, we present the preliminary results of PSHA for Georgia in this project attempting to improve gaps especially in such steps as: determination of seismic sources; selection or derivation of ground motion prediction equations models; estimation of maximum magnitude Mmax. Seismic sources (SS) were obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. Finely new SS have been developed for Georgia and adjacent region. Each zone was defined with the following parameters: the magnitude-frequency parameters, maximum magnitude, and depth distribution as well as modern dynamical characteristics widely used for complex processes. As the ground motion dataset is absolutely insufficient by itself to derive a ground motion prediction model for Georgia, two approaches were taken in defining ground motions. First

  4. Air quality in the German-Czech border region: A focus on harmful fractions of PM and ultrafine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schladitz, Alexander; Leníček, Jan; Beneš, Ivan; Kováč, Martin; Skorkovský, Jiří; Soukup, Aleš; Jandlová, Jana; Poulain, Laurent; Plachá, Helena; Löschau, Gunter; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive air quality study has been carried out at two urban background sites in Annaberg-Buchholz (Germany) and Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic) in the German-Czech border region between January 2012 and June 2014. Special attention was paid to quantify harmful fractions of particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particle number concentration (UFP) from solid fuel combustion and vehicular traffic. Source type contributions of UFP were quantified by using the daily concentration courses of UFP and nitrogen oxide. Two different source apportionment techniques were used to quantify relative and absolute mass contributions: positive matrix factorization for total PM2.5 and elemental carbon in PM2.5 and chemical mass balance for total PM1 and organic carbon in PM1. Contributions from solid fuel combustion strongly differed between the non-heating period (April-September) and the heating period (October-March). Major sources of solid fuel combustion in this study were wood and domestic coal combustion, while the proportion of industrial coal combustion was low (<3%). In Ústí nad Labem combustion of domestic brown coal was the most important source of organic carbon ranging from 34% to 43%. Wood combustion was an important source of organic carbon in Annaberg-Buchholz throughout the year. Heavy metals and less volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the accumulation mode were related to solid fuel combustion with enhanced concentrations during the heating period. In contrast, vehicular PAH emissions were allocated to the Aitken mode. Only in Ústí nad Labem a significant contribution of photochemical new particle formation (e.g. from sulfur dioxide) to UFP of almost 50% was observed during noontime. UFPs from traffic emissions (nucleation particles) and primary emitted soot particles dominated at both sites during the rest of the day. The methodology of a combined source apportionment of UFP and PM can be adapted to other regions of the world with

  5. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  6. Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central Asia. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in East Asia. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in East China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in East China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer

  7. Seasonal and annual variations and regional characteristics of wet and dry deposition amounts in East Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Tsuyoshi, O.; Endo, T.; Yagoh, H.; Matsuda, K.

    2011-12-01

    Emission of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Asian region has been remarkably increased with recent rapid economical growth (Ohara et al., 2007). To appropriately assess the influence of air pollutants on the ecosystem, it is important to quantitatively determine the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants. Here, Seasonal and annual variations and regional characteristics of estimated wet and dry deposition amounts at 27 monitoring sites of Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) from 2003 to 2009 are discussed. Wet deposition sample was collected every 24 hours or 1 week by a wet only sampler. Wet deposition amounts were calculated by the product of the volume-weighted concentrations of ionic species (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) in the precipitation and precipitation amount measured by a standard rain gauge at each site. Dry deposition amount was estimated by the inferential method which was originated the model developed by Wesely and Hicks (1977) and modified by Matsuda (2008). The components examined for dry deposition were sulfur compounds (gaseous SO2 and particulate SO42-) and nitrogen compounds (gaseous HNO3 and NH3, particulate NO3- and NH4+). Dry deposition was calculated by the product of the deposition velocity estimated by the inferential method for forest and grass surfaces and the monitored air concentration of each compound. The mean annual dry deposition amounts for sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Japanese sites were in the range of 5-37 and 7-50 mmol m-2 year-1, respectively. The regional characteristics of dry deposition amounts in Japan were similar between sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which showed higher deposition in the Sea of Japan side and the western Japan. The mean annual total (wet + dry) deposition amounts for sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Japanese sites were in the range of 28-77 and 22-130 mmol m-2 year-1, respectively. The contributions of dry deposition to the total deposition amounts were 10-55% and 13-56% for

  8. Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  9. Massive Star Formation of the SGR a East H (sub II) Regions Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of approximately 6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa alpha, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 =/- 3 solar mass star with a luminosity of 8 +/- 3 x 10(exp 4) Solar luminosity . The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x (exp 4) years giving a mass flux approximately 3 x 10(exp -5) Solar Mass / year and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  10. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION OF THE SGR A EAST H II REGIONS NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.

    2010-12-20

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km s{sup -1} molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of {approx}6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 {mu}m) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa{alpha}, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 {+-} 3 M{sub sun} star with a luminosity of 8 {+-} 3 x 10{sup 4} L{sub sun}. The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3 x 10{sup 4} years giving a mass flux {approx}3 x 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  11. Climate Change and a Global City: An Assessment of the Metropolitan East Coast Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the research is to derive an assessment of the potential climate change impacts on a global city - in this case the 31 county region that comprises the New York City metropolitan area. This study comprises one of the regional components that contribute to the ongoing U.S. National Assessment: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change and is an application of state-of-the-art climate change science to a set of linked sectoral assessment analyses for the Metro East Coast (MEC) region. We illustrate how three interacting elements of global cities react and respond to climate variability and change with a broad conceptual model. These elements include: people (e.g., socio- demographic conditions), place (e.g., physical systems), and pulse (e.g., decision-making and economic activities). The model assumes that a comprehensive assessment of potential climate change can be derived from examining the impacts within each of these elements and at their intersections. Thus, the assessment attempts to determine the within-element and the inter-element effects. Five interacting sector studies representing the three intersecting elements are evaluated. They include the Coastal Zone, Infrastructure, Water Supply, Public Health, and Institutional Decision-making. Each study assesses potential climate change impacts on the sector and on the intersecting elements, through the analysis of the following parts: 1. Current conditions of sector in the region; 2. Lessons and evidence derived from past climate variability; 3. Scenario predictions affecting sector; potential impacts of scenario predictions; 4. Knowledge/information gaps and critical issues including identification of additional research questions, effectiveness of modeling efforts, equity of impacts, potential non-local interactions, and policy recommendations; and 5. Identification of coping strategies - i.e., resilience building, mitigation strategies, new technologies, education that

  12. Regional sea level variability in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Plag, Hans-Peter; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Xu, Qing; He, Yijun

    2015-12-01

    The regional sea level variability in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) is investigated based on tide gauge, satellite altimeter data and an independent oceanic general circulation model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) model outputs. It is found that atmospheric forcing significantly affects local sea level variability in the BS and YS and local sea level variability at the Southern ECS is highly correlated with along-shore currents. Particularly, the annual sea level fluctuations potentially change inundation risk and the frequency and magnitude of flooding in regions with high annual sea level. Hence, the cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) analysis is carried out to investigate the variations of annual sea level cycle amplitude. Similar spatial distribution characteristics of annual sea level amplitude fluctuations are presented from satellite altimeter data and model outputs. The variability of annual sea level amplitude estimated from the satellite altimeter data agrees well with that from the tide gauge data, and positively (negatively) correlates with Southern Oscillation Index (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). The OFES model, however, underestimates the fluctuation of the annual cycle. After removing the annual signal, the low-passed (i.e., 13-month running mean) tide gauge data shows high correlations with SOI and PDO on time scales over 8 years in the BS and ECS.

  13. Oesophageal cancer treatment in North East Thames region, 1981: medical audit using Hospital Activity Analysis data.

    PubMed Central

    Earlam, R

    1984-01-01

    Figures from the Hospital Activity Analysis in the North East Thames region in 1981 were used to perform a medical audit on oesophageal cancer treatment. Four hundred and forty four patients were admitted with this diagnosis; 80 had been intubated without a thoracotomy or laparotomy, and 73 had had surgery (two thirds radical and one third palliative) with an overall operative mortality of 33%. Fifty five patients had had radiotherapy and 179 patients had no recorded operation or investigation. One hundred and seventy seven different consultants had looked after all these inpatients, most being general surgeons. Only five consultants had looked after 10 or more patients each year. From a calculated estimate of a total 286 patients in the region, 28% had palliative intubation and 25% had surgery; 20% of all the patients had radiotherapy either as a radical or palliative treatment, the remainder having no recorded therapeutic procedure. One hundred and eighty seven patients (66% of the calculated total) died in hospital. Investigation and treatment do not seem to be limited by lack of money, but money is being wasted by admitting patients for terminal care into acute hospital beds. It would be more humane for these patients to die at home or in a hospice if they wished. PMID:6203599

  14. Infrasound array observations in the Lützow-Holm Bay region, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Takahiko; Kanao, Masaki; Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Matsushima, Takeshi; Kakinami, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    The characteristic features of infrasound waves observed in Antarctica reveal a physical interaction involving surface environmental variations in the continent and the surrounding Southern Ocean. A single infrasound sensor has been making continuous recordings since 2008 at Syowa Station (SYO; 69.0S, 39.6E) in the Lützow-Holm Bay (LHB) of East Antarctica. The continuously recorded data clearly show the contamination of background oceanic signals (microbaroms) throughout all seasons. In austral summer 2013, several field stations with infrasound sensors were established along the coast of the LHB. Two infrasound arrays of different diameters were set up: one at SYO (with a 100-m spacing triangle) and one in the S16 area on the continental ice sheet (with a 1000-m spacing triangle). In addition to these arrays, isolated single stations were deployed at two outcrops in the LHB. These newly established arrays clearly detected the propagation direction and frequency content of microbaroms from the Southern Ocean. Microbarom measurements are a useful tool for characterizing ocean wave climates, complementing other oceanographic and geophysical data from the Antarctic. In addition to the microbaroms, several other remarkable infrasound signals were detected, including regional earthquakes, and airburst shock waves emanating from a meteoroid entering the atmosphere over the Russian Republic on 15 February 2013. Detailed and continuous measurements of infrasound waves in Antarctica could prove to be a new proxy for monitoring regional environmental change as well as temporal climate variations in high southern latitudes.

  15. Earthquake sequence in East Vrancea crustal region (Romania): source characteristics and seismotectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Emilia; Borleanu, Felix; Otilia Placinta, Anica; Popa, Mihaela; Radulian, Mircea; Moldovan, Iren Adelina

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the paper is to investigate the crustal earthquake sequence generated in the East Vrancea crustal zone at the end of 2014 (22 November 2014). The main shock, occurred on 22 November 2014, 19:14 (45.860N, 27.160E, h = 39 km, ML = 5.7), is the greatest instrumentally recorded earthquake produced in this region. The aftershocks are unusually small for the sequences characterizing the Vrancea foredeep area (around 200 events with magnitude below 2). The largest aftershocks were recorded on 7 December 2015 (ML = 4.4) and 19 January 2015 (ML = 3.8). We apply cross-correlation analysis together with empirical Green's function (EGF) deconvolution and spectral ratios techniques to optimise the source parameters determination. At the same time we applied inversion techniques to retrieve the moment tensor solution for the largest shocks. For EGF and spectral ratios applications, we associated to the main event many co-located aftershocks (2.0 ≤ ML ≤ 4.4), selected according to the requirements for empirical Green's functions. The source parameters are estimated as mean values for all the available earthquake pairs. Source scaling properties and focal mechanism are investigated and discussed in terms of the regional seismotectonics and comparatively with the source scaling relationships for the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  16. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  17. Changes of individual perception in psychosocial stressors related to German reunification in 1989/1990 and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in a population-based study in East Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kluttig, Alexander; Werdan, Karl; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin Halina; Kuss, Oliver; Markus, Marcello Ricardo Paulista; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Völzke, Henry; Krabbe, Christine; Haerting, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aim was to examine the relationship between individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors associated with German reunification and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesised that higher levels of psychosocial stress related to German reunification were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Design Cross-sectional data from 2 cohort studies in East Germany were used: Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study (CARLA), and Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Setting 2 populations in East Germany. Participants CARLA study: 1779 participants, aged 45–83 years at baseline (812 women), SHIP study: 4308 participants, aged 20–79 years at baseline (2193 women). Primary and secondary outcome measures Psychosocial stressors related to reunification were operationalised by the Reunification Stress Index (RSI; scale from 0 to 10). This index was composed of questions that were related to individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) after reunification. To examine the associations between the RSI and each stressor separately with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, regression models were used. Results RSI was associated with CVD in women (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33). Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with RSI for both men and women, with strongest associations between RSI and diabetes in women (RR=1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20) and depressive disorders in men (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.77). The change in occupational situation related to reunification was the major contributing psychosocial stressor. We observed a strong association with CVD in women who experienced occupational deterioration after reunification (RR=4.04, 95% CI 1.21 to 13.43). Conclusions Individually perceived deterioration of psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) related to German reunification was associated with cardiovascular

  18. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker - supporter of the concept of the East German movement in favor of self-organization during the political turning point 1989/90].

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's holistic thinking in the former German Democratic Republic (DDR) is reviewed. Broad-minded academics sought, in accordance with the modern paradigm of self-organization, beyond the ideological template for ways out of the dead end of incrustations of society and innovation blockages under the constraints of a dictatorship. Right after the fall of the wall, Weizsäcker willingly backed a "community of free researchers for self-organization" (Freie Forschungsgemeinschaft Selbstorganisation, FFGSO). This group, conceived as a nonpartisan "think tank" of civil activism, is also discussed. At a number of its meetings Weizsäcker debated the dangers of ideologically influenced science. The effectiveness of the dual leadership at his own Starnberg Institute, for instance, was stymied by the tensions arisen out of such conflicting aims. Against the voluntaristic anticipations of the mainstream in sociology, precisely that system proved to be more viable that was meant to be overcome: faulty and purportedly futureless capitalism. Weizsäcker repudiated social prognoses made in the absence of rules for their falsification resp. verification. Weizsäcker acted as a leading figure at the FFGSO's Potsdam conference, opened on 30 Mar. 1990, on the "DDR--and afterwards?". Its intention was in order to trigger a nationwide discussion of scientific scenarios in designing German unification in the face of gross practical disparities between East and West Germany. The Trust Agency inspired by the FFGSO at the Round Table between opposition and old government was supposed to transfer the national public property "Volkseigentum" of the DDR into private property of the East German citizens, to enable them to realize a role as subject through self-organization. At the group's request, Weizsäcker mediated the readiness by the Lutheran World Federation to assume the role of ombudsman in anticipation of conflicts of interest within the

  19. Unification of Theoretical Models of Academic Self-Concept/Achievement Relations: Reunification of East and West German School Systems after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Koller, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal data (five waves) from large cohorts of 7th grade students in East Germany ("n"=2,119) and West Germany ("n"=1,928) were collected from the start of the reunification of the school systems following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Here we integrate the two major theoretical models of relations between academic self-concept and…

  20. Exploring Subglacial Lake Connectivity via Groundwater Aquifers in the Dome C Region, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooch, B. T.; Carter, S. P.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Subglacial lakes lying under the Antarctic Ice Sheet form part of a dynamic, interconnected hydraulic system. Most research exploring the nature of this system has focused on flow along the ice-bed interface, neglecting the effects of groundwater transport, as such systems are thought to lack the transmissivity necessary to accommodate the inferred meltwater volume. In the Dome C region of East Antarctica, however, inferred melt water volumes are relatively low due to proximity to the ice divide and hydraulic gradients are relatively high due to steep subglacial bedrock topography, such that groundwater flow might be viable as a dominant means of water transport. This region contains many small subglacial lakes residing in bedrock depressions of steep basal topography. Preliminary analysis of radar sounding data does not always reveal an obvious hydraulic connection between these lakes despite readily apparent sources of melt feeding these bodies. Here we test several simple models for groundwater flow, including both fractured rock and porous media systems using ice-surface and bedrock geometry inferred from radio-echo sounding data and a published map of melt rates, with the purpose of defining a region in which a groundwater system can account for the majority of the water budget. We then compare these results against maps of basal reflectivity and subglacial lake distribution, as determined from radar sounding data. Areas in which groundwater flow is the dominant process will lack basal lubrication and demonstrate low basal reflectivities, but could still contain small subglacial lakes. While not spatially extensive with respect to the ice sheet, these groundwater-dominated areas could occupy the headwaters of most glacial catchments representing a unique and relatively stable subglacial environment.

  1. Impact of spectral nudging on regional climate simulation over CORDEX East Asia using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Niu, Xiaorui; Hui, Pinhong; Zong, Peishu; Wang, Xueyuan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the impact of the spectral nudging method on regional climate simulation over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment East Asia (CORDEX-EA) region is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis, five continuous simulations covering 1989-2007 are conducted by the WRF model, in which four runs adopt the interior spectral nudging with different wavenumbers, nudging variables and nudging coefficients. Model validation shows that WRF has the ability to simulate spatial distributions and temporal variations of the surface climate (air temperature and precipitation) over CORDEX-EA domain. Comparably the spectral nudging technique is effective in improving the model's skill in the following aspects: (1), the simulated biases and root mean square errors of annual mean temperature and precipitation are obviously reduced. The SN3-UVT (spectral nudging with wavenumber 3 in both zonal and meridional directions applied to U, V and T) and SN6 (spectral nudging with wavenumber 6 in both zonal and meridional directions applied to U and V) experiments give the best simulations for temperature and precipitation respectively. The inter-annual and seasonal variances produced by the SN experiments are also closer to the ERA-Interim observation. (2), the application of spectral nudging in WRF is helpful for simulating the extreme temperature and precipitation, and the SN3-UVT simulation shows a clear advantage over the other simulations in depicting both the spatial distributions and inter-annual variances of temperature and precipitation extremes. With the spectral nudging, WRF is able to preserve the variability in the large scale climate information, and therefore adjust the temperature and precipitation variabilities toward the observation.

  2. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Freedman, Adam H; Brown, David M; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  3. Regional Differences in Seasonal Timing of Rainfall Discriminate between Genetically Distinct East African Giraffe Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Thomassen, Henri A.; Freedman, Adam H.; Brown, David M.; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  4. Better temperature predictions in geothermal modelling by improved quality of input parameters: a regional case study from the Danish-German border region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Bording, Thue S.; Balling, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Thermal modelling is used to examine the subsurface temperature field and geothermal conditions at various scales (e.g. sedimentary basins, deep crust) and in the framework of different problem settings (e.g. scientific or industrial use). In such models, knowledge of rock thermal properties is prerequisites for the parameterisation of boundary conditions and layer properties. In contrast to hydrogeological ground-water models, where parameterization of the major rock property (i.e. hydraulic conductivity) is generally conducted considering lateral variations within geological layers, parameterization of thermal models (in particular regarding thermal conductivity but also radiogenic heat production and specific heat capacity) in most cases is conducted using constant parameters for each modelled layer. For such constant thermal parameter values, moreover, initial values are normally obtained from rare core measurements and/or literature values, which raise questions for their representativeness. Some few studies have considered lithological composition or well log information, but still keeping the layer values constant. In the present thermal-modelling scenario analysis, we demonstrate how the use of different parameter input type (from literature, well logs and lithology) and parameter input style (constant or laterally varying layer values) affects the temperature model prediction in sedimentary basins. For this purpose, rock thermal properties are deduced from standard petrophysical well logs and lithological descriptions for several wells in a project area. Statistical values of thermal properties (mean, standard deviation, moments, etc.) are calculated at each borehole location for each geological formation and, moreover, for the entire dataset. Our case study is located at the Danish-German border region (model dimension: 135 x115 km, depth: 20 km). Results clearly show that (i) the use of location-specific well-log derived rock thermal properties and (i

  5. Quantifying pollution inflow and outflow over East Asia through coupling regional and global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Carmichael, G. R.; Fiore, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the exchange processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere is crucial for estimating hemispheric transport of air pollution. Most studies of hemispheric air pollution transport have taken a large-scale perspective: using global chemical transport models and focusing on synoptic-scale export events. These global models have fairly coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, and thus have a limited ability to represent boundary layer processes and urban photochemistry. In support of United Nations Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP; http://www.htap.org), this study employs two high-resolution atmospheric chemistry models (WRF-Chem and CMAQ; 36×36 km) coupled with a global model (MOZART; 1.9×1.9°) to examine the importance of fine-scale transport and chemistry processes in controlling pollution export and import over the Asian continent. We find that the vertical lifting and outflow of Asian pollution is enhanced in the regional models throughout the study period (March 2001) as contrast to the global model. Episodic outflow of CO, PAN, and O3 to the upper troposphere during cold frontal passages is twice as great in the WRF-Chem model as compared with the MOZART model. The TRACE-P aircraft measurements indicate that the pollution plumes in MOZART are too weak and too low in the altitude, which we attribute to the global model's inability to capture rapid deep convection that develops along the leading edge of the convergence band during frontal events. In contrast to pollution export from Asia, we find little difference in the regional vs. global model transport of European (EU) pollution into surface air over East Asia (EA). Instead, the local surface characteristics - sensitivity - strongly influence surface O3 responses. For instance, the O3 response to 20% decreases in EU emissions imported into our regional model domain is strongest (0.4-0.6 ppbv

  6. Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Land Properties from MODIS: Applications to the East Asia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Moody, Eric G.

    2002-01-01

    MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999 and the Aqua satellite in May 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and surface properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on (i) the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, (ii) cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals, (iii) aerosol optical thickness and size characteristics both over land and ocean, and (iv) ecosystem classification and surface spectral reflectance. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations to the east Asian region. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 min (Level-3 products).

  7. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

  8. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. PMID:27047971

  9. Revolutionising engineering education in the Middle East region to promote earthquake-disaster mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.

    2014-09-01

    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enrol on engineering courses through lenient admission policies that do not compromise academic standards. This strategy has generated an influx of students who must be carefully educated to enhance their professional knowledge and social capital to assist in future earthquake-disaster risk-reduction efforts. However, the majority of Middle Eastern engineering students are unaware of the valuable acquired engineering skills and knowledge in building the resilience of their communities to earthquake disasters. As the majority of the countries in the Middle East are exposed to seismic hazards and are vulnerable to destructive earthquakes, engineers have become indispensable assets and the first line of defence against earthquake threats. This article highlights the contributions of some of the engineering innovations in advancing technologies and techniques for effective disaster mitigation and it calls for the incorporation of earthquake-disaster-mitigation education into academic engineering programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  10. Central heating plant modernization study for defense distribution Region East. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Savoie, M.J.; Durbin, T.E.; McCammon, T.; Carroll, R.

    1996-08-01

    Due to the age of its central heating plant (CHP) equipment and changes in energy industry environmental regulations, the Defense Distribution Region East (DDRE), New Cumberland, PA, began investigating modernization opportunities for its CHP. The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) was tasked with performing a central heating plant modernization study to determine viable options to provide energy for the coming years. Energy use patterns and the condition of existing equipment were determined, and five major potential energy supply alternatives were identified and evaluated on the basis of energy consumption and economics, including initial capital costs, annual fuel consumption, and annual Operations and Maintenance (OM) costs. For economy, it was recommended that boiler replacement be delayed until the year 2009, and that natural gas be used as fuel both before and after replacement, provided that funding for a natural gas pipeline can be obtained. If funding to replace the boilers does become available, the small difference in Life Cycle Cost should not delay DDRE from an immediate equipment upgrade.

  11. Capacity Building and Financing Oral Health in the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Mumghamba, E G; Joury, E; Fatusi, O; Ober-Oluoch, J; Onigbanjo, R J; Honkala, S

    2015-07-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries do not yet have policies to implement effective oral health programs. A reason is lack of human and financial resources. Gaps between resource needs and available health funding are widening. By building capacity, countries aim to improve oral health through actions by oral health care personnel and oral health care organizations and their communities. Capacity building involves achieving measurable and sustainable results in training, research, and provision of care. Actions include advancement of knowledge, attitudes and skills, expansion of support, and development of cohesiveness and partnerships. The aim of this critical review is to review existing knowledge and identify gaps and variations between and within different income levels in relation to the capacity building and financing oral health in the African and Middle East region (AMER). A second aim is to formulate research priorities and outline a research agenda for capacity building and financing to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities in the AMER. The article focuses on capacity building for oral health and oral health financing in the AMER of the IADR. In many communities in the AMER, there are clear and widening gaps between the dental needs and the existing capacity to meet these needs in terms of financial and human resources. Concerted efforts are required to improve access to oral health care through appropriate financing mechanisms, innovative health insurance schemes, and donor support and move toward universal oral health care coverage to reduce social inequality in the region. It is necessary to build capacity and incentivize the workforce to render evidence-based services as well as accessing funds to conduct research on equity and social determinants of oral health while promoting community engagement and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26101338

  12. Robust intensification of hydroclimatic intensity over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses the hydroclimatic response to global warming over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections. Four different regional climate models (RCMs), namely, WRF, HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, and GRIMs, are used for dynamical downscaling of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2-Atmosphere and Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) global projections forced by the representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Annual mean precipitation, hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and wet and dry extreme indices are analyzed to identify the robust behavior of hydroclimatic change in response to enhanced emission scenarios using high-resolution (12.5 km) and long-term (1981-2100) daily precipitation. Ensemble projections exhibit increased hydroclimatic intensity across the entire domain and under both the RCP scenarios. However, a geographical pattern with predominantly intensified HY-INT does not fully emerge in the mean precipitation change because HY-INT is tied to the changes in the precipitation characteristics rather than to those in the precipitation amount. All projections show an enhancement of high intensity precipitation and a reduction of weak intensity precipitation, which lead to a possible shift in hydroclimatic regime prone to an increase of both wet and dry extremes. In general, projections forced by the RCP8.5 scenario tend to produce a much stronger response than do those by the RCP4.5 scenario. However, the temperature increase under the RCP4.5 scenario is sufficiently large to induce significant changes in hydroclimatic intensity, despite the relatively uncertain change in mean precipitation. Likewise, the forced responses of HY-INT and the two extreme indices are more robust than that of mean precipitation, in terms of the statistical significance and model agreement.

  13. Seismicity Patterns and Magmatic Processes in the Rwenzori Region, East-African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenfeld, M.; Rumpker, G.; Schmeling, H.; Wallner, H.

    2010-12-01

    The 5000m high Rwenzori Mountains are situated within the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent a basement block located within the rift valley whose origin and relation to the evolution of the EARS are highly puzzling. During a recent seismological campaign we located more than 800 earthquakes per month with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 5.1. Vertical sections across the northern parts of the Rwenzoris show, that west of the mountains (towards the rift valley) the focal depths range from 10 to 20 km, whereas the hypocentres go as deep as 30 km on the eastern side. This is in good agreement with Moho-depths derived from receiver functions and implies that all of these events are located within the crust. However, about 30 km east of the northern mountain ridge we located a cluster of 7 events that exhibit an anomalous depth of about 60 km. We can confidently locate these earthquakes within the mantle lithosphere beneath the rift. The existence of earthquakes at this depth is enigmatic, especially within a rifting regime were one expects hot and weak material relatively close to the surface. We think that these events are possibly related to the evolution of the Rwenzori Mountains. A recent hypothesis to explain the extreme uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains is rift induced delamination (RID) of mantle lithosphere. Here we show that the RID-process is indeed capable of explaining the seismic energy release in the mantle. However, in view of the specific hypocentral location of the event cluster, magmatic impregnation processes associated with dyke propagation into the mantle lithosphere may be a more realistic cause for seismic radiation at the observed depth. Crustal earthquakes northeast of the Rwenzori area are relocated with a double-difference algorithm to improve the spatial resolution of seismicity pattern. Several event clusters in the vicinity of the Fort

  14. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    PubMed

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants. PMID:26760713

  15. The VP2 variable region of African and German isolates of infectious bursal disease virus: comparison with very virulent, "classical" virulent, and attenuated tissue culture-adapted strains.

    PubMed

    Zierenberg, K; Nieper, H; van den Berg, T P; Ezeokoli, C D; Voss, M; Müller, H

    2000-01-01

    11 African and two German IBDV strains isolated in the mid '80s from field outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated chicken flocks displayed features of very virulent (vv) IBDV strains. The sequence data of the VP2 variable region and phylogenetic analysis confirm that these strains can be grouped within vv IBDV strains which appeared at the same time on the three continents Africa, Asia, and Europe. Strain Cu-1wt, responsible for severe IBD outbreaks in Germany 13 years earlier, showed some relatedness to these strains, but also significant differences at the genomic level, even though this strain has also features of the vv IBDV strains. PMID:10664410

  16. Detection of Bendiocarb and Carbaryl Resistance Mechanisms among German Cockroach Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae) Collected from Tabriz Hospitals, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Afshin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Hazratian, Teimour; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Hooshyar, Hossein; Arbabi, Mohsen; Salim-Abadi, Yaser; Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Reza; Gorouhi, Mohammad Amin; Paksa, Azim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the serious problems for German cockroach control program. This study was conducted to determine the bendiocarb and Carbaryl resistance mechanisms in German cockroaches using the piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Methods: Bioassay tests were conducted with 4 to 6 different concentrations of both insecticides with four replicates of 10 susceptible strain cockroaches per concentration to determine of discriminative concentration. After determining discriminative concentration, the result was compared to wild strain. The levels of susceptibility and resistance ratio (RR) and synergism ratio (SR) were calculated for each five wild strains. Moreover resistance mechanisms in wild strains were determined using PBO synergist in vivo. Results: Hospital strains showed different levels of resistance to bendiocarb and carbaryl compared to susceptible strain. The bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance ratios ranged from 2.11 to 7.97 and 1.67 to 2 at LD50 levels, respectively. The synergist PBO significantly enhanced the toxicity of bendiocarb and carbaryl to all strains with different degrees of synergist ratio, 1.31, 1.39, 3.61, 1.78, 1.62 and 2.1 fold for bendiocarb, 1.19, 1.18, 1.12. 1.29, 1.45 and 1.11-fold for carbaryl, suggesting monooxygenase involvement in bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance. Conclusion: The synergetic effect of PBO had the highest effect on bendiocarb and resistance level was significantly reduced, which indicates the important role of monoxidase enzyme in creating resistance to Bendiocarb. Piperonyl butoxide did not have a significant synergistic effect on carbaryl and did not significantly break the resistance. PMID:27308298

  17. Inverse Modeling to Improve Emission Inventory for PM10 Forecasting in East Asia Region Focusing on Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y. S.; Choi, D.; Kwon, H. Y.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    The aerosol transports from China and Mongolia along the Northwestern wind have large influence on the air quality in Korea and the assessment of the emission in the East Asia region is an important factor in air quality forecasting in Korea. In order to obtain working PM10 emission inventory for the PM10 forecast modeling over East Asia, the Bayesian approach with CAMx (Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension) forward model was applied. The surface observations of PM10 from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) sites over China and AAQMS (Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations) in Korea were used for the inverse modelling. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori emissions were generally under-predicted. The result also indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were under-estimated in particular. Optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions over East Asia from inverse modelling analysis ware proposed. A posteriori PM10 emissions were much lower than the a priori emission where the soil dust emissions were prevailing. This implied that the dust emission module still had large uncertainty and it was necessary to further research on the improvement of in-line emission modelling for the soil dust. In contrast, a posteriori anthropogenic emissions from industrialized areas such as Beijing and Shenyang sites were slightly higher than a priori emission at regions. Especially, a posteriori PM10 emissions increased in Korea and in Northeast region of China. The predictions of PM10 with proposed a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modelling minimized the discrepancies in the model estimation by improving PM10 emissions in East Asia. Further details of inverse modeling

  18. Involvement of health professionals in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, S; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use is widely entrenched in the South-East Asia (SEA) Region leading to high morbidity and mortality in this region. Several studies revealed that tobacco use is widespread among youth and school children. Exposure to second-hand smoke was reported as around 50% or more in three countries - Myanmar (59.5%), Bangladesh (51.3%), and Indonesia (49.6%). Health profession students encompassing medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy disciplines, and even qualified health professionals are no exception from tobacco use. While they are regarded as role models in tobacco cessation programs, their tobacco addiction will carry a negative impact in this endeavour. A mere inquiry about the smoking status of patients and a brief advice by doctors or dentists increases quit rates and prompts those who have not thought about quitting to consider doing so. Evidence from some randomized trials suggests that advice from motivated physicians to their smoking patients could be effective in facilitating cessation of smoking. However, the low detection rate of smokers by many physicians and the small proportion of smokers who routinely receive advice from their physicians to quit have been identified as a matter of concern. This paper describes the role and issues of involvement of health professionals in tobacco control. Data from a variety of sources is used to assess the status. Although there are some differences, tobacco use is widespread among the students and health professional students. Exposure to second hand smoke is also a matter of concern. Tobacco-related problems and tobacco control cut across a vast range of health disciplines. Building alliances among the health professional associations in a vertical way will help synergize efforts, and obtain better outcomes from use of existing resources. Health professional associations in some countries in the SEA region have already taken the initiative to form coalitions at the national level to advance the tobacco control

  19. Geoacoustic models of the Donghae-to-Gangneung region in the Korean continental margin of the East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kim, Seong Pil; Hahn, Jooyoung

    2016-04-01

    Geoacoustic model is to provide a model of the real seafloor with measured, extrapolated, and predicted values of geoacoustic environmental parameters. It controls acoustic propagation in underwater acoustics. In the Korean continental margin of the East Sea, this study reconstructed geoacoustic models using geoacoustic and marine geologic data of the Donghae-to-Gangneung region (37.4° to 37.8° in latitude). The models were based on the data of the high-resolution subbottom and air-gun seismic profiles with sediment cores. The Donghae region comprised measured P-wave velocities and attenuations of the cores, whereas the Gangneung region comprised regression values using measured values of the adjacent areas. Geoacoustic data of the cores were extrapolated down to a depth of the geoacoustic models. For actual modeling, the P-wave speed of the models was compensated to in situ depth below the sea floor using the Hamilton method. These geoacoustic models of this region probably contribute for geoacoustic and underwater acoustic modelling reflecting vertical and lateral variability of acoustic properties in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. Keywords: geoacoustic model, environmental parameter, East Sea, continental margin Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the research grants from the Agency of Defense Development (UD140003DD and UE140033DD).

  20. Complex Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Disease in a Culturally Diverse Region: Phylogeography of Rabies Virus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Daniel L.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Freuling, Conrad M.; Marston, Denise A.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Goharrriz, Hooman; Wise, Emma; Breed, Andrew C.; Saturday, Greg; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Zilahi, Erika; Al-Kobaisi, Muhannad F.; Nowotny, Norbert; Mueller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination. PMID:25811659

  1. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336

  2. Reappraisal of surface wave magnitudes in the Eastern Mediterranean region and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambraseys, N.; Douglas, J.

    2000-05-01

    There have been many attempts to improve parametric catalogues for surface wave magnitudes for earthquakes of this century, and many of these attempts have been based on empirical adjustments to homogenize and complete catalogues without recourse to the instrumental data with which these magnitudes have been calculated. Using the Prague formula with station corrections and a substantial volume of amplitude and period readings of surface waves, culled from station bulletins, we calculated uniformly the magnitude of all significant earthquakes, 1519 in all, in the Eastern Mediterranean region and in the Middle East between 1900 and 1998. We also calculated station corrections and their variation with time, and examined the effect of distance adjustment of the Prague formula on Ms estimates. We find that the current procedure of averaging station magnitudes underestimates Ms. This underestimation depends on the variance and on the number of station magnitudes available for the calculation of Ms, which can be as large as 0.3 magnitude units or more. We also find that station corrections have a rather small overall effect on event magnitude, of less than +0.1, except when the number of observing stations is small, in which case the correction may reach +0.3 magnitude units. Event magnitudes derived from station magnitudes with distance adjustment, calculated from the original Prague formula, are on average 0.1 units larger than Ms without distance correction. We find that for shallow events, Gutenberg's estimates are, on average, larger by 0.12 units and show a significant scatter, with a standard deviation three times the mean value. We find similar differences and scatter for surface wave magnitudes estimated by other workers and agencies.

  3. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (<20 kg N km-2 yr-1), nitrogen release to the watershed must be derived from the mining of soil N stocks. The fraction of riverine N export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  4. Impact of climate change on Vea Catchment and irrigation scheme in Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limantol, A. M.; Afouda, A.; Lenartz, B.; Agyare, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The study assessed the future impact of climate change (CC) on water resources availability in the Vea catchment of the Upper East of Ghana for irrigated agriculture. A questionnaire survey targeting farmers with at least 30 years of farming experience in the area was conducted in 6 of the 11 agricultural extension areas (EAs) in the catchment (305 km2). Data on perception about CC, adaptation measures and barriers were captured by the questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also conducted in each of the 6 selected EAs. Additionally, 8 stakeholder institutions were interviewed. Climatic data over a period of 1972 to 2012 from four stations were evaluated. Future climate simulations from 16 Regional Climate Models were used to predict future streamflow with IHACRES runoff model. The WEAP model was used to assess future water availability in two future time slices, 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. About 89.5% of 466 questioned farmers believe that temperature increased over the past 30 years, while over 94% of farmers believe that amount of rainfall; duration, intensity and rainy days decreased. Over 96% of farmers believe that their farms are extremely vulnerable to decreased rainfall, droughts and changed timing of rainfall. While analysis of climatic data shows rising trend in temperature, no long-term trend and no variability changes in both annual and monthly rainfall amounts were evident. High evapotranspiration due to rising temperature may have triggered the farmers' perception about rainfall trend and droughts in the area. Several measures such as cropping of new varieties, changing farm locations and use of more fertilizer have been employed by farmers to adjust to CC. It was found that CC could cause severe shortfall in water availability for irrigation and domestic supply in the coming decades. Government needs to assist farmers with alternative irrigation schemes and drought resistant crops in order to sustain livelihoods of farmers on the long run.

  5. Classification of typical summer rainfall patterns in the East China monsoon region and their association with the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Zhao, Junhu; Feng, Guolin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the summer rainfall patterns in the East China monsoon region during 1951-2015 were objectively classified into four typical categories: the northern China rainfall pattern (NCP), the intermediate rainfall pattern (IRP), the Yangtze River rainfall pattern (YRP), and the South China rainfall pattern (SCP). The periods of the four patterns show significant decadal characteristics. The NCP occurred mainly between the late 1950s and the early 1980s, and the IRP in the late 1950s to the early 1970s and the 2000s. The YRP occurred mainly between the 1980s and the 1990s, and the SCP between the mid-1990s and the early 21st century. The relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASM I WF) and the four rainfall patterns was comparatively analyzed. The results confirmed that the four rainfall patterns have obvious differences in the EASM. In the NCP, IRP, or SCP years, the EASM I WF primarily showed a positive phase and a strong summer monsoon; in the YRP years, the EASM I WF primarily showed a negative phase and a weak summer monsoon.

  6. Planning report for the southwest alluvial basins (east) regional aquifer-system analysis, parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkins, D.W.; Scott, W.B.; Kaehler, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The study of the Southwest alluvial basins (east) will involve an analysis of the regional aquifer system in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. This area has been divided into 22 basins. The study of the alluvial aquifer-system will be made in the following stages: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches, (3) compiling existing data, (4) data collection, (5) basin modeling, (6) regional aquifer modeling, and (7) reports. The regional aquifer study will be accomplished through studying each of the 22 basins. Data compilation and limited data collection will be part of each basin study. Digital computer models will be made for those basins where data are sufficient. A regional aquifer model will be developed from the basin models. In addition to this report, there will be basin hydrology reports and the final regional report. Included in the final report will be a description of the regional hydrology and geology. (USGS)

  7. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (< 800 m depth) was formed

  8. Quantifying pollution inflow and outflow over East Asia in spring with regional and global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Carmichael, G. R.; Fiore, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the exchange processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere is crucial for estimating hemispheric transport of air pollution. Most studies of hemispheric air pollution transport have taken a large-scale perspective using global chemical transport models with fairly coarse spatial and temporal resolutions. In support of United Nations Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP; www.htap.org), this study employs two high-resolution atmospheric chemistry models (WRF-Chem and CMAQ; 36×36 km) driven with chemical boundary conditions from a global model (MOZART; 1.9×1.9°) to examine the role of fine-scale transport and chemistry processes in controlling pollution export and import over the Asian continent in spring (March 2001). Our analysis indicates the importance of rapid venting through deep convection that develops along the leading edge of frontal system convergence bands, which are not adequately resolved in either of two global models compared with TRACE-P aircraft observations during a frontal event. Both regional model simulations and observations show that frontal outflows of CO, O3 and PAN can extend to the upper troposphere (6-9 km). Pollution plumes in the global MOZART model are typically diluted and insufficiently lofted to higher altitudes where they can undergo more efficient transport in stronger winds. We use sensitivity simulations that perturb chemical boundary conditions in the CMAQ regional model to estimate that the O3 production over East Asia (EA) driven by PAN decomposition contributes 20% of the spatial averaged total O3 response to European (EU) emission perturbations in March, and occasionally contributes approximately 50% of the total O3 response in subsiding plumes at mountain observatories (at approximately 2 km altitude). The response to decomposing PAN of EU origin is strongly affected by the O3 formation chemical regimes, which

  9. Soviet perceptions of the oil factor in U. S. foreign policy: The Middle East-Gulf Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    How Soviet leaders perceive U.S. intentions, capabilities, and actions plays an important role in the formulation of the Soviet Union's foreign policy and its relations with the United States. This book focuses on one such set of Soviet perceptions - how the oil factor and subsequent developments have influenced U.S. policy in the Middle East-Gulf region and what the implications of that policy are for the Soviet Union.

  10. Investigation into the regional wrench tectonics of inner East Anatolia (Turkey) using potential field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyüksaraç, Aydın

    2007-01-01

    The residual aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies of inner East Anatolia, surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey, display complexities. Some faults, which are known and new lineaments, are drawn from maxspot map derived from the location of the horizontal gradient of gravity anomalies. Tectonic lineaments of inner East Anatolia exhibit similarities to the direction of East Anatolian Fault Zone. Anticlockwise rotation, approximately -30°, defined from disorientations of aeromagnetic anomalies. The lineaments obtained from maxspots map produced from the gravity anomalies and disoriented aeromagnetic anomalies are in-line with the mobilistic system revealed by the palaeomagnetic data. These Alpine age continental rotations caused westward wrenching of the global lithosphere and led to significant tectonic reactivation and deformations. GPS measurements, current tectonic knowledge and the results of the evaluation of potential field data were combined in a base map to demonstrate similarities.

  11. Transforming Higher Education in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rudder, Helmut

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in the former German Democratic Republic looks at the common historical roots of central European universities, the different directions higher education took in East and West Germany after 1945, and the current turbulent transformation of higher education in East Germany during German unification. (Author/MSE)

  12. Antiviral activities of Indonesian medicinal plants in the East Java region against hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The overall prevalence of HCV infection is 2%, representing 120 million people worldwide. Current standard treatment using pegylated interferon and ribavirin is effective in only 50% of the patients infected with HCV genotype 1, and is associated with significant side effects. Therefore, it is still of importance to develop new drugs for treatment of HCV. Antiviral substances obtained from natural products, including medicinal plants, are potentially good targets to study. In this study, we evaluated Indonesian medicinal plants for their anti-HCV activities. Methods Ethanol extracts of 21 samples derived from 17 species of medicinal plants explored in the East Java region were tested. Anti-HCV activities were determined by a cell culture method using Huh7.5 cells and HCV strains of 9 different genotypes (1a to 7a, 1b and 2b). Results Four of the 21 samples tested showed antiviral activities against HCV: Toona sureni leaves (TSL) with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.9 and 2.0 μg/ml against the HCV J6/JFH1-P47 and -P1 strains, respectively, Melicope latifolia leaves (MLL) with IC50 of 3.5 and 2.1 μg/ml, respectively, Melanolepis multiglandulosa stem (MMS) with IC50 of 17.1 and 6.2 μg/ml, respectively, and Ficus fistulosa leaves (FFL) with IC50 of 15.0 and 5.7 μg/ml, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that TSL and MLL inhibited both at the entry and post-entry steps while MMS and FFL principally at the entry step. TSL and MLL inhibited all of 11 HCV strains of all the genotypes tested to the same extent. On the other hand, FFL showed significantly weaker inhibitory activities against the HCV genotype 1a strain, and MMS against the HCV strains of genotypes 2b and 7a to a lesser extent, compared to the other HCV genotypes. Conclusions Ethanol extracts of TSL, MLL, MMS and FFL showed antiviral

  13. Impacts of anthropogenic forcing on regional climate simulation for CORDEX-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Song Yee; Kang, Hyun Suk; Hyun, Yu Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Impacts of greenhouse gas and aerosol on climate change are crucial, so that it is trivial for CMIP models to consider anthropogenic forcing for current climate simulations and future projection as well. Meanwhile, for regional climate models, it is still ambiguous if those forcings are duplicated or not, since the large-scale information is provided from the GCM models through the lateral boundary condition. To answer this question, four experiments using the HadGEM3-RA were conducted within the CORDEX framework for the East Asia domain, which are defined as FIXF (Fixed forcing experiment), GHGS (Greenhouse gases forcing only on the FIXF), AERO (Aerosol forcing only on the FIXF), and ALL (Both forcings on the FIXF) experiments. All experiments were driven by the same GCM forcing, i.e., HadGEM2-AO. Simulation results for the current (27 years for 1979-2005) and future (30 years for 2071-2100) climate were analyzed. FIXF experiment simulated significant cold biases near the northwestern China and Mongolia. Compared to results from the FIXF, those from the ALL and AERO were better, particularly for the temperature in northwestern China and for the precipitation in southern China, Indonesia and northwestern Pacific. Reduced cold bias in northwestern China is highly associated with the aerosol forcing, and marginally associated with the greenhouse gases forcing. As a result, temperature simulated by ALL experiment shows less bias than any other experiments. In the future, surface air temperature was projected stronger in ALL than FIXF experiment in late 21st century. Especially, based on the future projection from the ALL experiment, increase in domain-averaged surface air temperature is about 3.0oC (4.2oC) under the RCP 4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. In future change of precipitation, regardless of forcing experiments, annual mean precipitation over maritime continent and northwestern Pacific are expected to increase. And percent change in annual mean precipitation of ALL

  14. OH reactivity in urban and suburban regions in Seoul, South Korea - an East Asian megacity in a rapid transition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saewung; Sanchez, Dianne; Wang, Mark; Seco, Roger; Jeong, Daun; Hughes, Stacey; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R; Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Deugsoo; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Ahn, Joonyoung; Lee, Sang-Deok; Cho, Gangnam; Sung, Min-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Dan Bi; Kim, Younha; Woo, Jung-Hun; Jo, Duseong; Park, Rokjin; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Hong, You-Deog; Hong, Ji-Hyung

    2016-07-18

    South Korea has recently achieved developed country status with the second largest megacity in the world, the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). This study provides insights into future changes in air quality for rapidly emerging megacities in the East Asian region. We present total OH reactivity observations in the SMA conducted at an urban Seoul site (May-June, 2015) and a suburban forest site (Sep, 2015). The total OH reactivity in an urban site during the daytime was observed at similar levels (∼15 s(-1)) to those previously reported from other East Asian megacity studies. Trace gas observations indicate that OH reactivity is largely accounted for by NOX (∼50%) followed by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (∼35%). Isoprene accounts for a substantial fraction of OH reactivity among the comprehensive VOC observational dataset (25-47%). In general, observed total OH reactivity can be accounted for by the observed trace gas dataset. However, observed total OH reactivity in the suburban forest area cannot be largely accounted for (∼70%) by the trace gas measurements. The importance of biogenic VOC (BVOCs) emissions and oxidations used to evaluate the impacts of East Asian megacity outflows for the regional air quality and climate contexts are highlighted in this study. PMID:27138104

  15. Middle East Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-Some science products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Similarities in the aridity of environments and water scarcity for irrigation allow common approaches to irrigation management problems and research methods in the Southern Great Plains of the United States and the Middle East. Measurement methods involving weighing lysimeters and eddy covariance sy...

  16. After the Wall: Parental Attitudes to Child Rearing in East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlendorff, Harald

    2004-01-01

    In the years following German reunification, East and West German parents (282 mothers and 207 fathers) were interviewed about attitudes to the rearing of their 7- to 13-year-old children and about their social networks. Path analyses show that East German parents engage in more protective and less permissive parenting, and that East German…

  17. Towards Improved MODIS Aerosol Retrieval over the US East Coast Region: Re-examining the Aerosol Model and Surface Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R. C.; Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Holben, B. N.

    2002-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and recently the Aqua platform, produces a set of aerosol products over both ocean and land regions. Previous validation efforts have shown that from a global perspective, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is successfully retrieved from MODIS. Even over coastal regions, the over- land and over-ocean retrievals are consistent with each other, and well matched with ground-based sunphotometer measurements (such as AERONET). However, the East Coast of the United States is one region where there is consistently a discrepancy between land and ocean retrievals. Over the ocean, MODIS AODs are consistent with coastal sunphotometer measurements, but over land, AODs are consistently over- estimated. In this study we use field data from the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites experiment (CLAMS), (held during summer 2001) to determine the aerosol properties at a number of sites. Using the 6-S radiative transfer package, we compute simulated satellite radiances and compare them with observed MODIS radiances. We believe that the AOD over-estimation is not likely due to an incorrect choice of the urban/industrial aerosol models. Using 6-S to do an atmospheric correction for a very low AOD case, we show rather, that the discrepancies are likely a result of incorrect assumptions about the surface reflectance properties. Understanding and improving MODIS retrievals over the East Coast will not only improve the global quality of MODIS, but also would enable the use of MODIS as a tool for monitoring regional aerosol events.

  18. Evaluating the performance of CMIP3 and CMIP5 global climate models over the north-east Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Menendez, Melisa; Mendez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the main sources of uncertainty in estimating climate projections affected by global warming is the choice of the global climate model (GCM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the skill of GCMs from CMIP3 and CMIP5 databases in the north-east Atlantic Ocean region. It is well known that the seasonal and interannual variability of surface inland variables (e.g. precipitation and snow) and ocean variables (e.g. wave height and storm surge) are linked to the atmospheric circulation patterns. Thus, an automatic synoptic classification, based on weather types, has been used to assess whether GCMs are able to reproduce spatial patterns and climate variability. Three important factors have been analyzed: the skill of GCMs to reproduce the synoptic situations, the skill of GCMs to reproduce the historical inter-annual variability and the consistency of GCMs experiments during twenty-first century projections. The results of this analysis indicate that the most skilled GCMs in the study region are UKMO-HadGEM2, ECHAM5/MPI-OM and MIROC3.2(hires) for CMIP3 scenarios and ACCESS1.0, EC-EARTH, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-ES and CMCC-CM for CMIP5 scenarios. These models are therefore recommended for the estimation of future regional multi-model projections of surface variables driven by the atmospheric circulation in the north-east Atlantic Ocean region.

  19. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore, German departments must…

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): East Helena, MT. (First remedial action), November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    The 80-acre East Helena site, in East Helena, Lewis and Clark County, Montana, is a primary lead smelting facility that has been in operation since 1888. Prickly Pear Creek flows near the site and has been found to contain elevated levels of arsenic and lead. A 1984 remedial investigation identified elevated levels of metal contamination in soil, livestock, plants, and ground and surface waters with the sources of onsite contamination being primary and fugitive emissions and seepage from process ponds and process fluid circuitry. The primary contaminants of concern in the process ponds are metals including arsenic and lead. The selected remedial action for this site includes excavating and smelting 55,150 cubic yards of soil and/or sediment from all four process ponds and multi-media monitoring after individual remedial activities are implemented at three of the process pond areas.

  1. Rapid identification of female Culexmosquito species using Expert System in the South East Asian region

    PubMed Central

    Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Kumar, Duvvuri Venkata Rama Satya; Rao, Mutheneni Srinivasa; Reuben, Rachel; Tewari, Satish Chandra; Hiriyan, J; Akiyama, J; Akavaram, Deepa

    2005-01-01

    Rapid identification of mosquito (vector) species is critical for vector control and disease management. Pictorial keys of mosquito species are currently used for the identification of new mosquito species. However, this approach is not very effective. Here, we describe the use of an ID3 algorithm (part of artificial intelligence) for the rapid identification of the South East Asian female Culex mosquito species. Availability http://www.envisiict.org/ PMID:17597850

  2. Basement structures of East and South China Seas and adjacent regions from gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Dongliang; Ke, Xiaoping; Wang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The satellite-derived gravity gives us an opportunity to investigate the basement structures of the East and South China Seas since the satellite gravimetry could provide large scale gravity data with high resolution of 1 arc-min by 1 arc-min. We isolate the residual gravity anomaly corresponding to the basement by subtracting the gravity anomalies of sediments and Moho undulations from satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies. Two methods, namely gravity inversion method and convolution method based on flexure isostasy model, are used to calculate the Moho undulations in order to guarantee the accuracy of the Moho undulations since it occupies large percentages of the gravity anomalies. We invert the isolated gravity anomaly for the basement depths of East and South China Seas and adjacent areas with resolution of 1 arc-min by 1 arc-min. The basement depths of East and South China Seas range from 0.5 km to 12 km and the Moho depths vary between 6 km and 32 km. The basement topography reveals many tectonic depressions and two spreading axes concealed by the sediments, which are unseen in the bathymetry. The two spreading axes correspond to the spreading ridges derived from magnetic anomaly and the SW-NE oriented spreading axis extends SW much farther than that identified from magnetic anomaly, almost reaching to the Nam Con Son Basin. We also find that the faults constrain the distributions of basement depressions since the faults usually lie along the places where large changes of basement depth take place. Reversely, the basement map could be used to identify the unknown faults. Besides, according to the four profiles in the East and South China Seas, the mirror-image relation was found between the basement topography and the underlying Moho undulations that when the basement depth increases or decreases, the corresponding Moho depth decreases or increases.

  3. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  4. Crustal structure of east central Oregon: Relation between Newberry Volcano and regional crustal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Mooney, W. D.

    1988-09-01

    A 180-km-long seismic refraction transect from the eastern High Cascades, across Newberry Volcano, to the eastern High Lava Plains is used to investigate the subvolcanic crustal and upper mantle velocity structure there. Near-surface volcanic flows and sedimentary debris (1.6-4.7 km/s), ranging from 3 to 5 km in thickness, overlie subvolcanic Basin and Range structures. East and west of Newberry Volcano, the subvolcanic basement (5.6 km/s) has been downwarped, producing 5-km-deep basins. The midcrust (8- to 28-km depth) is characterized by velocities ranging from 6.1 to 6.5 km/s and varies laterally in thicknesses. The lower crust is characterized by art unusually high velocity (about 7.4 km/s), and its geometry mirrors the subvolcanic basement geometry. The Moho is located at a depth of 37 km and represents a transition to an upper mantle velocity of 8.1 km/s. The shallow subsurface (1.2 km) beneath Newberry Volcano is characterized by high-velocity (5.6 km/s, versus 4.1 km/s for the surrounding area) intrusions and appears to be located on a basement high. Beneath the seismic refraction array at Newberry Volcano, an absence of low-velocity anomalies suggests that large silicic magma chambers do not exist in the upper crust, but apparent high attenuation of the seismic wave field may be consistent with either partial melts in small volumes, elevated crustal temperatures, and/or poor geophonerecording site coupling. The east central Oregon velocity structure is nearly identical to that of the northwestern Nevada Basin and Range and the Modoc Plateau of northeastern California, and variations in the deep crustal structure about Newberry Volcano are consistent with tectonism involving crustal underplating, melting, and extension. If paleomagnetic estimates of extension in the east central Oregon area are correct, the North American continent experienced significant growth through extension, underplating, and volcanism in east central Oregon. Comparison of east

  5. A regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model developed for CORDEX East Asia: assessment of Asian summer monsoon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a developed regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model FROALS was applied to the CORDEX East Asia domain. The performance of FROALS in the simulation of Asian summer monsoon during 1989-2010 was assessed using the metrics developed by the CLIVAR Asian-Australian Monsoon Panel Diagnostics Task Team. The results indicated that FROALS exhibited good performance in simulating Asian summer monsoon climatology. The simulated JJA mean SST biases were weaker than those of the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM). The skill of FROALS approached that of CMIP5 MMEM in terms of the annual cycle of Asian summer monsoon. The simulated monsoon duration matched the observed counterpart well (with a spatial pattern correlation coefficient of 0.59). Some biases of CMIP5 MMEM were also found in FROALS, highlighting the importance of local forcing and model physics within the Asian monsoon domain. Corresponding to a strong East Asian summer monsoon, an anomalous anticyclone was found over western North Pacific in both observation and simulation. However, the simulated strength was weaker than the observed due to the responses to incorrect sea surface anomalies over the key regions. The model also accurately captured the spatial pattern of the intraseasonal variability variance and the extreme climate indices of Asian summer monsoons, although with larger amplitude. The results suggest that FROALS could be used as a dynamical downscaling tool nested within the global climate model with coarse resolution to develop high-resolution regional climate change projections over the CORDEX East Asia domain.

  6. Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Insoll, Timothy; MacLean, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana. PMID:22003263

  7. Geology of the Continental Margin of Enderby and Mac. Robertson Lands, East Antarctica: Insights from a Regional Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagg, H. M. J.; Colwel, J. B.; Direen, N. G.; O'Brien, P. E.; Bernardel, G.; Borissova, I.; Brown, B. J.; Ishirara, T.

    2004-09-01

    In 2001 and 2002, Australia acquired an integrated geophysical data set over the deep-water continental margin of East Antarctica from west of Enderby Land to offshore from Prydz Bay. The data include approximately 7700 km of high-quality, deep-seismic data with coincident gravity, magnetic and bathymetry data, and 37 non-reversed refraction stations using expendable sonobuoys. Integration of these data with similar quality data recorded by Japan in 1999 allows a new regional interpretation of this sector of the Antarctic margin.

  8. Assessment of the impact of moving fluids on the regional thermal field for the area of Brandenburg (North German Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, V.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cacace, M.; Lewerenz, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of the 3D thermal field for the area of Brandenburg in the North German Basin. The study area encompasses a part of the basin centre in the north, whereas to the south the basin margin is enclosed. Starting with Permocarboniferous volcanic rocks the basin fill is represented by Permian to Cenozoic sediments. A thick layer of mobilized salt (Zechstein, Upper Permian) generated elevated structures such as salt pillows and diapirs. Especially where diapirs pierce their overburden, the overlying deposits are strongly influenced in their thickness and distribution. This special configuration of the Zechstein salt is relevant for the thermal calculations due to the fact that salt has a distinctly higher thermal conductivity than the surrounding sediments and is impermeable to fluid flow. Therefore, the Zechstein salt acts as a conductive chimney for heat and a hydraulic decoupling horizon between the Pre-Permian and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata. The latter are characterized by two further quasi-impervious sediment complexes, the Rupelian-clay and the Muschelkalk. These two divide the Post-Permian strata in three main aquifer systems: the Buntsandstein, Keuper to Pre-Rupelian and the Post-Rupelian complex. Based on results from purely conductive modelling we additionally analyse the influence of moving fluids on the shallow temperature field above the Zechstein salt. Therefore coupled fluid flow and heat transfer numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydrothermal field. The 3D simulations for the heat transport processes are based on the finite element method. The results indicate that the distribution of thermal conductivities in the basin fill controls the short-wavelength pattern of the temperature distribution whereas the long wavelength pattern results from interaction between the highly conductive crust and low conductive sediments. Furthermore, the results reveal that the shallow temperature field

  9. Mass Media in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Antje

    This paper focuses on media politics, guidance and control mechanisms, journalism education, various modes of media in use, and coverage of important news in East Germany. The paper gives special consideration to the influence of West German broadcasting in East Germany. The need for such information is that it will give insight into Eastern bloc…

  10. The Chew Bahir Project, southern Ethiopia: Reconstructing East African palaeoenvironments in the source region of modern man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, V. E.; Chew Bahir Science Team

    2011-12-01

    Chew Bahir is a tectonically bounded basin in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift and in close proximity to the Omo valley, which contains some of the oldest known early modern human sites. As East African palaeoenvironments are highly variable and marked by extreme fluctuations in moisture availability, this in turn bears far reaching implications for the life, evolution and most notably for the expansion of Homo sapiens beyond the limits of the African continent. This study is a prerequisite for the ICDP- Hominin Sites And Paleolakes Drilling Project and part of the CRC-806 "Our way to Europe". The Chew Bahir Project will provide fundamental data to reconstruct late Quaternary East African environments including the timing, amplitude, synchronicity and abruptness of dry-wet-dry cycles and focuses on the interaction between those rapid climate shifts and their influence on the biosphere. This poster presents results from six cores (9-18m depth) from a NW-SE transect across the Chew Bahir basin that have recorded the climatic history of the past 45 ka and therewith can potentially elucidate those highly variable East African palaeoenvironments with emphasis on the last of the wet periods, the African Humid Period (AHP). Based on a series of multi-proxy analyses, comprising geochemical, physical and biological indicators as well as AMS 14C dates, it becomes obvious that the Chew Bahir responds decidedly sensitive towards even minor climatic fluctuations on millennial to even centennial timescales. Therefore, the Chew Bahir represents a unique site to reveal the impact of timing and mechanisms of local, regional and global climate events on the key region for humankind.

  11. Access to medicines by child refugees in the East Midlands region of England: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkahtani, S; Cherrill, J; Millward, C; Grayson, K; Hilliam, R; Sammons, H; Choonara, I

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore access to primary healthcare and drug therapy by refugee children in the East Midlands region of England. Design Interviews with refugees with children and a control group of British parents with children. Setting East Midlands region of England. Participants 50 refugees with children and a control group of 50 parents with children. Main outcome measures Number of medicines used by children in the last month and the past 6 months. Health of parents and children. Registration with a general practitioner (GP). Results All families in both groups were registered with a GP. There was no difference in the number of children in the two groups experiencing illnesses .In the last month, 30 refugee children received 60 medicines and 31 control children 63 medicines. In the past 6 months, 48 refugee children received 108 medicines and 43 control children 96 medicines. There was no difference between the two groups of children in relation to the likelihood of receiving any medicines in either the last month (P=0.839) or the past 6 months (p=0.81). Children in the refugee group were more likely to receive prescribed medicines for the last month (p=0.008) and the past 6 months (p<0.001). They were also less likely to receive over the counter (OTC) medicines in the past 6 months (p=0.009). Conclusions The refugee children in this study in the East Midlands had access to primary healthcare, medicines and a family doctor. They were more likely to receive prescribed medicines and less likely to receive OTC medicines, especially paracetamol. PMID:25524546

  12. New German abortion law agreed.

    PubMed

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit. PMID:7613423

  13. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  14. The Effects of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in ChinaRegions on East Asia Monsoons

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bai; Liu, Yu; Sun, Jiaren

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China on East Asia monsoons and its precipitation processes by using the CAM3.0 model. It is demonstrated that sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China both have the effects to weaken East Asia monsoons in both summer and winter seasons. However, they certainly differ from each other in affecting vertical structures of temperature and atmospheric circulations. Their differences are expected because of their distinct optical properties, i.e., scattering vs. absorbing. Even for a single type of aerosol, its effects on temperature structures and atmospheric circulations are largely season-dependent. Applications of T-test on our results indicate that forcing from black carbon aerosols over China is relatively weak and limited. It is also evident from our results that the effects of synthetic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon together) on monsoons are not simply a linear summation between these two types of aerosols. Instead, they are determined by their integrated optical properties. Synthetic aerosols to a large degree resemble effects of sulfate aerosols. This implies a likely scattering property for the integration of black carbon and sulfate aerosols in China.

  15. [Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in mountain background region of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Liu, Xin-Dong; Tao, Jun

    2013-02-01

    The online PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured from March 2011 'to February 2012 at the national atmospheric background monitoring station in Wuyishan of Fujian Province to discuss the characteristic of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and the impact factors in forest and mountain background region of East China. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model was used to investigate the potential sources of particulates during the pollution episodes. The results showed that the background concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were (23 +/- 16) microg.m-3 and (18 +/- 12) microg.m-3, respectively. Seasonal variations of PMl0 and PM2.5 loadings were observed, and loadings decreased in the same order: spring > autumn > winter > summer. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were obviously higher in spring than in other seasons because of the transportation of dust storm. The fine particles were the dominant pollutant which accounted for 76% of PM10. The good correlation between PM10/PM2.5 and gas pollutants suggested that regional transportation and secondary aerosol were the major sources in the background station. One episode occurring in April 2011 was related with the transportation of dust storm. However, another episode occurring in September 2011 had close relationship with the transportation of higher pollutant loadings in East China. PMID:23668109

  16. The limited effectiveness of legislation against female genital mutilation and the role of community beliefs in Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ako, Matilda Aberese; Akweongo, Patricia

    2009-11-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) has long been practised in many communities in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Although the Ghanaian state has a long tradition of supporting women's rights, it has not been successful in eradicating FGM, despite a law against the practice in an amendment to the Criminal Code in 1994 and the Domestic Violence Act 2003. This qualitative study in the Upper East Region examined the role of the state in stopping the practice of FGM through legal means, and why FGM continues to be practised in the community. In-depth interviews were conducted with six state officials, a circumciser, the president of a women's advocacy organisation, and semi-structured interviews with 32 community members. Although FGM has been criminalised, political support to ensure that the law is effectively implemented has been lacking. FGM education and eradication must be given more priority and significant funding by the Ghanaian state. For interventions to be effective, legal measures need to be combined with social measures. Communities practising FGM must be involved in the planning and implementation of anti-FGM interventions. Successful eradication of the practice is possible if education and dialogue between state institutions, gender and human rights groups and practising communities is strengthened. PMID:19962637

  17. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  18. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  19. Wet deposition of acidifying substances in different regions of China and the rest of East Asia: modeling with updated NAQPMS.

    PubMed

    Ge, B Z; Wang, Z F; Xu, X B; Wu, J B; Yu, X L; Li, J

    2014-04-01

    The traditional way to study Sources-Receptor Relationships (SRRs) of wet deposition is based on sensitivity simulation, which has weakness in dealing with the non-linear secondary formation pollutants (e.g. ozone and nitrate). An on-line source tracking method has been developed in the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with cloud-process module for the first time. The new model can not only quantify the total volume of the sulfate, nitrate and ammonium wet deposition with more accuracy, but also trace these acidic species to their emitted precursors. Compared with previous studies, our result clearly shows: (1) East China and Central China, which are the two primary export regions, have 15-30% and 10% effect on wet deposition in other areas, respectively; (2) Besides the above two regions, the total acid deposition in Southwestern and Northeastern China have reached or exceeded the critical loads under their own environmental conditions. PMID:24418974

  20. Nutrition Leadership Development: Capacity-Building Initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East Region Since 2009.

    PubMed

    Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The "learning organizations," "leadership from inside-out," and "transformational leadership" frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on "nutrition leadership development" has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to increase the

  1. Quantifying spatiotemporal heterogeneity of MERS-CoV transmission in the Middle East region: A combined modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves

    2016-06-01

    MERS coronavirus cases notified in the Middle East region since the identification of the virus in 2012 have displayed variations in time and across geography. Through a combined modelling approach, we estimate the rates of generation of cases along the zoonotic and human-to-human transmission routes and assess their spatiotemporal heterogeneity. We consider all cases notified to WHO from March 2012 to mid-September 2014. We use a stochastic modelling of the time series of case incidence in the Middle East region to estimate time- and space-dependent zoonotic and human-to-human transmission parameters. The model also accounts for possible lack of identification of secondary transmissions among notified cases. This approach is combined with the analysis of imported cases out of the region to assess the rate of underreporting of cases. Out of a total of 32 possible models, based on different parameterisation and scenario considered, the best-fit model is characterised by a large heterogeneity in time and across space for both zoonotic and human-to-human transmission. The variation in time that occurred during Spring 2014 led to a 17-fold and 3-fold increase in the two transmissions, respectively, bringing the reproductive rate to values above 1 during that period for all regions under study. The model suggests that 75% of MERS-CoV cases are secondary cases (human-to-human transmission), which is substantially higher than the 34% of reported cases with an epidemiological link to another case. Overall, estimated reporting rate is 0.26. Our findings show a higher level of spatial heterogeneity in zoonotic transmission compared to human-to-human, highlighting the strong environmental component of the epidemic. Since sporadic introductions are predicted to be a small proportion of notified cases and are responsible for triggering secondary transmissions, a more comprehensive understanding of zoonotic source and path of transmission could be critical to limit the epidemic

  2. Nutrition Leadership Development: Capacity-Building Initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East Region Since 2009

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The “learning organizations,” “leadership from inside-out,” and “transformational leadership” frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on “nutrition leadership development” has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to

  3. The consequences of maltreatment on children's lives: a systematic review of data from the East Asia and Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Fry, Deborah; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the consequences of child maltreatment in East Asia and the Pacific region based on the results of a systematic review of 16 English and non-English databases for journal articles and "gray" literature published between January 2001 and November 2010. This review shows that children in the region experiencing maltreatment are at increased risk of experiencing mental health consequences, physical health sequelae, high-risk sexual behaviors, and increased exposure to future violence including intimate partner violence (IPV) as an adult. Children who suffer from child sexual abuse have a median twofold increased risk of experiencing mental health disorders than those who have never experienced child maltreatment.  Similar findings were found for those who experience physical abuse.  Children who have been maltreated in the region are also at an increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts than those that have experienced child sexual or physical abuse being at a median fourfold increased risk. Children who have experienced physical abuse or those who have witnessed parental domestic abuse as a child are at median twofold increased risk of experiencing IPV as an adult, while children who have been sexually abused have a median threefold increase in risk of IPV later in life. There are still gaps in our understanding of the consequences of child maltreatment, but we do know that the consequences are profound and far-reaching. The findings indicate that there is an urgent need for governments, civil society organizations, development agencies, and academia to advocate for, invest in, and collaborate across sectors for the strengthening of child protection systems in the East Asia and Pacific Region, with a focus on evidence-based child maltreatment prevention policies and programs. PMID:22899705

  4. Dusty cradles in a turbulent nursery: the SGR A east H II region complex at the galactic center

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D.; Morris, M. R.

    2014-10-20

    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 μm optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ∼105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ∼115 K and ∼130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 μm fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ∼40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.

  5. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).

    PubMed

    Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific. PMID:15495964

  6. Teaching History in the Polytechnical Schools of the German Democratic Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefendorf, Jeffry M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines and discusses the history manuals and textbooks used to teach history to children between the ages of 11 and 16 in the polytechnical schools of East Germany. Some general observations concerning East German educational practices are also included. (RM)

  7. Ethanol production in southern tier east region of New York: technical and economic feasibiity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalter, R.J.; Boisvert, R.N.; Gabler, E.C.; Walker, L.P.; Pellerin, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    This is the third of five region-specific feasibility studies on regional production of ethanol. It was found that deproteinized whey resources in this region of New York could support ethanol production in amounts ranging from about 1.5 million to 5 million gallons a year while also producing a high-protein, high-mineral animal feed. Ethanol is an octane booster which can be used as a gasoline extender to produce gasohol.

  8. Direct Radiative Forcing and Regional Climatic Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols Over East Asia: A Regional Coupled Climate-Chemistry/Aerosol Model Study

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Filippo; Bi, Xunqiang; Qian, Yun )

    2002-09-01

    We present a series of regional climate model simulations aimed at assessing the radiative forcing and surface climatic effects of anthropogenic sulfate and fossil fuel soot over east Asia. The simulations are carried out with a coupled regional climate-chemistry/aerosol model for the 5-year period of 1993-1997 using published estimates of sulfur emissions for the period. Anthropogenic sulfate induces a negative radiative forcing spatially varying from -1 to -8 W/m2 in the winter to -1 to -15 W/m2 in the summer, with maxima over the Sichan Basin of southwest China and over some areas of east and northeast China. This forcing induces a surface cooling in the range of -0.1 to -0.7 K. Fossil fuel soot exerts a positive atmospheric radiative forcing of 0.5 to 2 W/m2 and enhances the surface cooling by a few tenths of K due to increased surface shielding from solar radiation. Doubling of sulfur emissions induces a substantial increase in radiative forcing (up to -7 to -8 W/m2) and associated surface cooling. With doubled sulfur emissions, the surface cooling exceeds -1 K and is statistically significant at the 90% confidence level over various areas of China. The aerosol forcing and surface cooling tend to inhibit precipitation over the region, although this effect is relatively small in the simulations. Some features of the simulated aerosol-induced cooling are consistent with temperature trends observed in recent decades over different regions of China.

  9. 3-D velocity heterogeneity in earthquake swarm area of NW Bohemia/Vogtland (German-Czech border region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Sima; Bauer, Klaus; Korn, Michael

    2014-05-01

    3-D Vp and Vp/Vs structure of the geodynamically active NW Bohemia/Vogtland area, located at the border region between Germany and Czech republic, has been determined from local earthquake tomography using 543 earthquakes which have been recorded during 2000 to 2010. This region is known for the occurrence of earthquake swarms that are supposed to be triggered by fluid upwelling in the crust, although fluid behaviour and migration paths in the subsurface of NW Bohemia is still poorly known. The events used in this study were selected based on a minimum 12 P and S phase observations and an azimuthal gap less than 160º. This data set is employed to derive a minimum 1-D velocity model and to relocate the hypocenters. The minimum 1-D velocity model is then used as an initial model in non-linear inversion to derive 3-D P-velocity and Vp/Vs ratio. Using synthetic tests, it can be shown that a high resolution is obtained in the central part of the studied region with the given source and receiver configuration. Two branches of high Vp/Vs ratio anomalies have been detected above the swarm quakes' focal zone. These anomalies support the existence of two main fluid passages toward Bad Brambach and Bublak moffette. Another interesting result is a high Vp/Vs line-like anomaly along Mariánské Lázně fault where most of the swarm quakes occur, which could be due to a fluid saturated area around the cracked zone of the fault plain. Hypocenters in the swarm region are located in a low Vp and Vp/Vs anomaly. The correlation between the detected Vp and Vp/Vs anomalies and the location of earthquake swarm suggests a model in which CO2 as part of magmatic fluids exist in a vast area beneath NW Bohemia and frequently migrate up to the surface.

  10. East Asian hydroclimate and agro-ecosystem research using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.; Chung, T.; Oh, J.; Bae, D.

    1997-05-01

    Investigations of East Asian hydroclimate and agro-ecosystem response to hydroclimate variability have been initiated using the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Regional Climate System Model (RCSM). This system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post-processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow modeling suite, and (4) a crop response modeling suite. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. Integration of the fourth component - the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) into the RCSM is part of our current research plan. This paper provides a brief overview of agro-ecosystem modeling, the RCSM, applications of the RCSM to East Asia, and future directions.