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1

Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

1982-05-01

2

'Bread Loaf' Mesa East of Phlegra Montes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

An isolated mesa east of the Phlegra Montes in northeastern Elysium Planitia has a cracked surface that, combined with its overall shape, gives the appearance of a giant loaf of bread. Other mesas with similar surfaces are found in the area, suggesting that at one time these mesas were part of a continuous layer of material. It is likely that at that time, some process caused the graben-like cracks to form. Later erosion of the cracked layer left only the isolated mesas seen in the THEMIS image. One clue that supports this scenario is the presence of many filled and eroded craters throughout the scene but no fresh ones. One way to produce this landscape begins with an ancient and heavily cratered surface that subsequently is buried by some other material. If this overburden was stripped off relatively recently, not enough time would have passed to allow for a new population of fresh craters to be produced. The result would be a landscape with isolated mesas of younger material on top of an ancient, cratered surface.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

3

East Mesa geothermal pump test facility (EMPTF). Final report  

SciTech Connect

Barber-Nichols has completed the design, fabrication and installation of a geothermal pump test facility at the DOE geothermal site at East Mesa, California which is capable of testing 70 to 750 horsepower downwell pumps in a controlled geothermal environment. The facility consists of a skid-mounted brine control module, a 160 foot below ground test well section, a hydraulic turbine for power recovery, a gantry-mounted hoist for pump handling and a 3-phase, 480 VAC, 1200 amp power supply to handle pump electric requirements. Geothermal brine is supplied to the EMPTF from one of the facility wells at East Mesa. The EMPTF is designed with a great amount of flexibility to attract the largest number of potential users. The 20-inch diameter test well can accommodate a wide variety of pumps. The controls are interactive and can be adjusted to obtain a full complement of pump operation data, or set to maintain constant conditions to allow long-term testing with a minimum of operator support. The hydraulic turbine allows the EMPTF user to recover approximately 46% of the input pump power to help defray the operating cost of the unit. The hoist is provided for material handling and pump servicing and reduces the equipment that the user must supply for pump installation, inspection and removal.

Olander, R.G.; Roberts, G.K.

1984-11-28

4

Facies relationships in Mesa Rica Sandstone (Lower Cretaceous), Tucumcari Basin, east-central New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Mesa Rica Sandstone, a Lower Cretaceous (Albian) cliff-forming unit in east-central New Mexico, represents a progradational fluvial-dominant deltaic system. On Mesa Rica, south of Conchas Lake, the formation is underlain by the marine (prodelta.) Tucumcari Shale, and is overlain by upper and lower delta-plain deposits of the Pajarito Shale. Clear facies interfingering between the Mesa Rica and Pajarito formations documents a direct genetic link between the two. Whether the Mesa Rica Sandstone lies unconformably on the Tucumcari Shale or is transitional to it is as yet unresolved. Three major sandstone bodies exist within the Mesa Rica formation, each capped by a thin (less than 2-m) mudstone interval. The two basal sandstone bodies record deposition of separate delta lobes; the bottom unit represents progradation toward the south-southeast (215/sup 0/), whereas the upper sandstone exhibits progradation toward the east-southeast (106/sup 0/). For each unit, lobe development was followed by abandonment, often marked by wave reworking. The third major sand body in the Mesa Rica overlies the lower units and records interdistributary deposition. Subenvironments recognized within the marine part of the delta include distal bar, bar front, bar crest, bar back, distributary channel, and beach. Intervening mudstones are similar in lithology to the overlying Pajarito Shale. These units grade southward from nonmarine upper delta plain, containing overbank and levee deposits, to marine-influenced lower delta plain.

Kisucky, M.J.; Wright, R.

1986-03-01

5

Geothermal fluids to irrigate energy crops on Imperial East Mesa Desert, California  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal fluid at 2200 parts per million(ppM) total dissolved solids from the East Mesa, California was compared to 1400 ppM ground water from a 100 m well as irrigation sources for Beta vulgaris (L.) USH-11 sugar beet and Tamarix aphylla (L.) athel, a biomass and windbreak tree. In 1980 there was no significant difference between the yields from the two waters. In 1981, there was no significant difference between biomass production from the waters on the athel. The geothermal water produced a larger yield of sucrose than the ground water. The data suggest that raising sugar beets with either water is feasible on the East Mesa.

Robinson, F.E. (Univ. of California, El Centro); Thomas, T.R.; Singh, K.

1981-10-01

6

Recent Changes in Ground Deformation at the East Mesa Geothermal Field, California as Measured by InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East Mesa Geothermal Field in East Mesa, Imperial County, California is a series of 6 geothermal power plants with a 57MW capacity that has been in operation since 1987. Previous InSAR studies using ERS-1 and ERS-2 data (1992-2001) have observed ongoing subsidence at rates between -32 to -43 mm/yr. The observed subsidence at this site was thought to be caused by reservoir compaction since there was a negative net production of water during that time period. However, even though net production remained negative, more recent Envisat data reveal a shift in the subsidence signal towards the north and onset of relative uplift in the south portion of the geothermal field starting in 2006. We examine three datasets over East Mesa, including 57 descending ERS-1 and ERS-2 SAR images as well as 35 ascending and 48 descending Envisat SAR acquisitions, to create more than 900 interferograms over the 18 year time period (1992-2010). This dense temporal coverage is valuable for evaluating variations in deformation patterns and minimizing the contribution from the atmosphere. A modified version of the small baseline subset (SBAS) method is used to generate time series of ground displacements and average velocities. ERS data are consistent with previous studies showing rates between -30 and -40 mm/year in the line-of-sight while the Envisat time series' show line-of-sight rates of -20 mm/yr and 12 mm/yr for maximum subsidence and uplift. Net production at the East Mesa Geothermal Field is calculated using production and injection data provided by the California Department of Conservation. The average net production is estimated as -383,000 metric tons per month over the time span of Envisat data and remained negative even during the onset of relative uplift.

Taylor, H.; Pritchard, M. E.; Lohman, R. B.

2013-12-01

7

500 kW direct contact pilot plant for East Mesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 500 kW powerplant utilizing a direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX) between the geothermal brine and the isobutane working fluid is nearing completion at the East Mesa Component Test Facility. The primary purpose of the plant is to evaluate the performance potential of the direct contact system in a size much larger than the small exploratory units that have been

2009-01-01

8

Operational and field test results from the 500 kw direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 500 kw geothermal powerplant utilizing direct contact heat exchange (DCHX) between geothermal brine and an isobutane (ICâ) working fluid is currently operating at the East Mesa test facility. The pilot plant program was initiated to determine the feasibility of large-scale direct contact heat exchange and associated plant operations. In addition to verifying the design performance of the DCHX itself,

A. J. Hlinak; J. L. Lobach; K. E. Nichols

1981-01-01

9

Land subsidence caused by the East Mesa geothermal field, California, observed using SAR interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferometric combination of pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by the ERS-1 satellite maps the deformation field associated with the activity of the East Mesa geothermal plant, located in southern California. SAR interferometry is applied to this flat area without the need of a digital terrain model. Several combinations are used to ascertain the nature of the phenomenon.

Didier Massonnet; Thomas Holzer; Hélène Vadon

1997-01-01

10

New fusulinids from Lower Permian turbidites at Conglomerate Mesa, southeastern inyo Mountains, east-central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven previously unrecognized fusulinid species from Lower Permian (Wolfcampian and Leonardian) turbidites near Conglomerate Mesa in east-central California, four of which are named as new species, are here described and figured. The four new species are Schwagerina merriami, S. wildei, Parafusulina mackevetti, and Skinnerella rossi. These fusulinid species have close affinities to similar taxa in Texas and northeastern Nevada, and they are distinct from some other faunas of slightly different age in the Conglomerate Mesa area that are dominated by endemic species and other species with Eastern Klamath Mountains affinities.

Stevens, C. H.; Stone, P.

2009-01-01

11

Paleostress investigation near Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the fault-kinematic and paleostress histories in the Rainier Mesa/Yucca Flat region can be beneficial to containment scientists in understanding the effects of natural faults on containment of nuclear detonations. Fault-slip data were collected from 444 small-displacement (0.1--10 m) faults cutting 16-11 Ma tuffs and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks in nine areas mainly along the south, east, and northeast flanks of Rainier Mesa to investigate the faulting and paleostress history in the region. Two of the faults appear to have been test-reactivated as tension cracks and may have also experienced renewed shear displacement. One to three different stress solutions were computed from data collected in seven of the measurement areas. From cross-cutting relations of faults and faulted stratigraphic units, the relative age of many of the computed stress regimes and associated faults were determined. Using stratigraphic constraints and similarities in stress results, a relative stress- regime and faulting sequence was constructed for the study region. Fracturing observed after nuclear explosions is influenced by the structural arrangement of pre-existing faults and joints and by the current regional stress field.

Minor, S.A.

1989-12-31

12

Paleostress investigation near Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the fault-kinematic and paleostress histories in the Rainier Mesa/Yucca Flat region can be beneficial to containment scientists in understanding the effects of natural faults on containment of nuclear detonations. Fault-slip data were collected from 444 small-displacement (0.1--10 m) faults cutting 16-11 Ma tuffs and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks in nine areas mainly along the south, east, and northeast flanks of Rainier Mesa to investigate the faulting and paleostress history in the region. Two of the faults appear to have been test-reactivated as tension cracks and may have also experienced renewed shear displacement. One to three different stress solutions were computed from data collected in seven of the measurement areas. From cross-cutting relations of faults and faulted stratigraphic units, the relative age of many of the computed stress regimes and associated faults were determined. Using stratigraphic constraints and similarities in stress results, a relative stress- regime and faulting sequence was constructed for the study region. Fracturing observed after nuclear explosions is influenced by the structural arrangement of pre-existing faults and joints and by the current regional stress field.

Minor, S.A.

1989-01-01

13

Test results from the 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 500 kW power plant utilizing direct contact heat exchange (DCHX) between the geothermal brine and the isobutane (ICâ) working fluid is being operated at the East Mesa test facility. The power plant incorporates a 40-inch-diameter direct-contactor approximately 35 feet tall. The purpose of the pilot plant is to determine the feasibility of large-scale direct-contact heat exchange and power plant

K. E. Nichols; R. G. Olander; J. L. Lobach

2009-01-01

14

Geology, hydrothermal petrology, stable isotope geochemistry, and fluid inclusion geothermometry of LASL geothermal test well C\\/T-1 (Mesa 31-1), East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole Mesa 31-1 (LASL C\\/T-1) is an 1899-m (6231-ft) deep well located in the northwestern part of the East Mesa Geothermal Field. Mesa 31-1 is the first Calibration\\/Test Well (C\\/T-1) in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. The purpose of this study is to provide a compilation of drillhole data, drill cuttings, well lithology, and formation

K. R. Miller; W. A. Elders

1980-01-01

15

Faults and gravity anomalies over the East Mesa hydrothermal-geothermal system  

SciTech Connect

Detailed interpretations of gravity anomalies over geothermal systems may be extremely useful for mapping the fracture or fault systems that control the circulation of the thermal waters. This approach seems to be particularly applicable in areas like the Salton Trough where reactions between the thermal waters and the porous sediments produce authigenic-hydrothermal minerals in sufficient quantity to cause distinct gravity anomalies at the surface. A 3-D inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly over the East Mesa geothermal field was made to examine the densified volume of rock. We show that the data not only resolve a north-south and an intersecting northwest structure, but that it may be possible to distinguish between the active present-day hydrothermal system and an older and cooler part of the system. The densified region is compared spatially to self-potential, thermal and seismic results and we find a good concordance between the different geophysical data sets. Our results agree with previous studies that have indicated that the main feeder fault recharging the East Mesa reservoir dips steeply to the west.

Goldstein, N.E.; Carle, S.

1986-05-01

16

Corrosion of materials and scaling in low-salinity East Mesa geothermal brines  

SciTech Connect

Field corrosion studies were conducted at the East Mesa Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) in the Imperial Valley, Calif., to determine the optimum materials of construction for use in geothermal mineral energy resource recovery plants. These studies included characterization of geothermal environments and in situ corrosion testing. The corrosion resistance of 10 alloys exposed to 5 brine and steam process environments was evaluated using the low-salinity, high-temperature brine from geothermal well Mesa 6-1. Of these alloys, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy S, Inconel 625, titanium-2 nickel, and 316 L stainless steel had excellent resistance to corrosion in all of the process environments; E-Brite 26-1 and 430 stainless steel had fair resistance. Although general corrosion rates for 4130 steel and 1020 carbon steel were substantially higher than those of the other iron-base alloys, these two alloys could prove useful in low-salinity process environments because of their low cost. Aluminum alloy 5005 was the least corrosion resistant alloys and pitted severely. Scales formed on all of the alloys in every process environment. Calcite, aragonite, and an amorphous silicate were the major components of the scales.

McCawley, F.X.; Cramer, S.D.; Riley, W.D.; Carter, J.P.; Needham, P.B. Jr.

1981-01-01

17

Nature and extent of lava-flow aquifers beneath Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Pahute Mesa, which has been identified in the FFACO as consisting of the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units. Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a regional model that will be used to predict a contaminant boundary for these Corrective Action Units. Hydrogeologic maps have been prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted at Pahute Mesa. Much of the groundwater flow beneath Pahute Mesa occurs within lava-flow aquifers. An understanding of the distribution and hydraulic character of these important hydrogeologic units is necessary to accurately model groundwater flow beneath Pahute Mesa. This report summarizes the results of a study by Bechtel Nevada geologists to better define the hydrogeology of lava-flow aquifers at Pahute Mesa. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) aid in the development of the hydrostratigraphic framework for Pahute Mesa, and (2) provide information on the distribution and hydraulic character of lava-flow aquifers beneath Pahute Mesa for more accurate computer modeling of the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

1997-09-01

18

Health Assessment for Mesa Area Groundwater (aka Motorola, Inc., Mesa Center) NPL (National Priorities List) Site, Mesa, Arizona, Region 9. CERCLIS No. AZD980886287.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Motorola, Inc. Biopolar Integrated Circuits Center (the Center) is located in Mesa, Maricopa County, Arizona. Semiconductors have been manufactured at the Center since 1966. In Spring 1983, trichloroethene and several other volatile organic compounds ...

1989-01-01

19

5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ARE AT CENTER AND CONCRETE TOWER LINES. AGGREGATE OPERATION IS VISIBLE ABOVE CONSTRUCTION SITE July 22, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

20

Mesa = Table  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

10 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two mesas on the northern plains of Mars. 'Mesa' is the Spanish word for 'table,' and that is a very good description of the two elliptical features captured in this MOC image. In both cases, the mesa tops and the material beneath them, down to the level of the surrounding, rugged plain, are remnants of a once more extensive layer (or layers) of material that has been largely eroded away. The circular feature near the center of the larger mesa is the site of a filled and buried impact crater.

Location near: 53.5oN, 153.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

2006-01-01

21

Magnetotelluric Data, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas. Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the ground-water table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near or within the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the Nevada Test Site, including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology, and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (Bechtel Nevada, 2006). During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. The 2005 data stations were located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work will help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU – late Devonian to Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) from the Yucca Flat area and west towards Shoshone Mountain, to Buckboard Mesa in the south, and onto Rainier Mesa in the north. Subsequent interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and a two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for the twenty-six stations shown in figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

Jackie M. Williams; Jay A. Sampson; Brian D. Rodriguez; and Theodore H. Asch.

2006-11-03

22

Bacterial heterogeneity in deep subsurface tunnels at Rainier Mesa, Nevada test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the deep subsurface environment of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, rock samples were taken from tunnels U 12b, U12g, U12p, and U 12n, which varied in depth from 50 m to 450 m and in gravimetric moisture content from 4% to 27%. Values for total count, viable count, biomass, Simpson diversity, equitability, similarity coefficient, and number of distinct

D. L. Haldeman; P. S. Amy

1993-01-01

23

Integrated model of the shallow and deep hydrothermal systems in the East Mesa area, Imperial Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geological, geophysical, thermal, petrophysical and hydrological data available for the East Mesa hydrothermal system that are pertinent to the construction of a computer model of the natural flow of heat and fluid mass within the system are assembled and correlated. A conceptual model of the full system is developed and a subregion selected for quantitative modeling. By invoking the .Boussinesq approximation, valid for describing the natural flow of heat and mass in a liquid hydrothermal system, it is found practical to carry computer simulations far enough in time to ensure that steady-state conditions are obtained. Initial calculations for an axisymmetric model approximating the system demonstrate that the vertical formation permeability of the deep East Mesa system must be very low (kv ~ 0.25 to 0.5 md). Since subsurface temperature and surface heat flow data exhibit major deviations from the axisymmetric approximation, exploratory three-dimensional calculations are performed to assess the effects of various mechanisms which might operate to produce such observed asymmetries. A three-dimensional model evolves from this iterative data synthesis and computer analysis which includes a hot fluid convective source distributed along a leaky fault radiating northward from the center of the hot spot and realistic variations in the reservoir formation properties.

Riney, T. David; Pritchett, J. W.; Rice, L. F.

1982-01-01

24

Geologic Surface Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing, Buckboard Mesa, Climax Stock, Dome Mountain, Frenchman Flat, Rainier/Aqueduct Mesa, and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface effects maps were produced for 72 of 89 underground detonations conducted at the Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa and Aqueduct Mesa, Climax Stock, Shoshone Mountain, Buckboard Mesa, and Dome Mountain testing areas of the Nevada Test Site between August 10, 1957 (Saturn detonation, Area 12) and September 18, 1992 (Hunters Trophy detonation, Area 12). The ?Other Areas? Surface Effects Map Database, which was used to construct the maps shown in this report, contains digital reproductions of these original maps. The database is provided in both ArcGIS (v. 8.2) geodatabase format and ArcView (v. 3.2) shapefile format. This database contains sinks, cracks, faults, and other surface effects having a combined (cumulative) length of 136.38 km (84.74 mi). In GIS digital format, the user can view all surface effects maps simultaneously, select and view the surface effects of one or more sites of interest, or view specific surface effects by area or site. Three map layers comprise the database. They are: (1) the surface effects maps layer (oase_n27f), (2) the bar symbols layer (oase_bar_n27f), and (3) the ball symbols layer (oase_ball_n27f). Additionally, an annotation layer, named 'Ball_and_Bar_Labels,' and a polygon features layer, named 'Area12_features_poly_n27f,' are contained in the geodatabase version of the database. The annotation layer automatically labels all 295 ball-and-bar symbols shown on these maps. The polygon features layer displays areas of ground disturbances, such as rock spall and disturbed ground caused by the detonations. Shapefile versions of the polygon features layer in Nevada State Plane and Universal Transverse Mercator projections, named 'area12_features_poly_n27f.shp' and 'area12_features_poly_u83m.shp,' are also provided in the archive.

Grasso, Dennis N.

2003-01-01

25

GIS surface effects archive of underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a new comprehensive, digital archive of more than 40 years of geologic surface effects maps produced at individual detonation sites throughout the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa nuclear testing areas of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Geographic Information System (GIS) surface effects map archive on CD-ROM (this report) comprehensively documents the surface effects of

Grasso

2001-01-01

26

Reducing Uncertainty in the Distribution of Hydrogeologic Units within Volcanic Composite Units of Pahute Mesa Using High-Resolution 3-D Resistivity Methods, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) northwest of Las Vegas (DOE UGTA, 2003). Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the groundwater table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near, or within, the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the NTS including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. Volcanic composite units make up much of the area within the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NTS, Nevada. The extent of many of these volcanic composite units extends throughout and south of the primary areas of past underground testing at Pahute and Rainier Mesas. As situated, these units likely influence the rate and direction of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Currently, these units are poorly resolved in terms of their hydrologic properties introducing large uncertainties into current CAU-scale flow and transport models. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DOE and NNSA-NSO acquired three-dimensional (3-D) tensor magnetotelluric data at the NTS in Area 20 of Pahute Mesa CAU. A total of 20 magnetotelluric recording stations were established at about 600-m spacing on a 3-D array and were tied to ER20-6 well and other nearby well control (fig. 1). The purpose of this survey was to determine if closely spaced 3-D resistivity measurements can be used to characterize the distribution of shallow (600- to 1,500-m-depth range) devitrified rhyolite lava-flow aquifers (LFA) and zeolitic tuff confining units (TCU) in areas of limited drill hole control on Pahute Mesa within the Calico Hills zeolitic volcanic composite unit (VCU), an important hydrostratigraphic unit in Area 20. The resistivity response was evaluated and compared with existing well data and hydrogeologic unit tops from the current Pahute Mesa framework model. In 2008, the USGS processed and inverted the magnetotelluric data into a 3-D resistivity model. We interpreted nine depth slices and four west-east profile cross sections of the 3-D resistivity inversion model. This report documents the geologic interpretation of the 3-D resistivity model. Expectations are that spatial variations in the electrical properties of the Calico Hills zeolitic VCU can be detected and mapped with 3-D resistivity, and that these changes correlate to differences in rock permeability. With regard to LFA and TCU, electrical resistivity and permeability are typically related. Tuff confining units will typically have low electrical resistivity and low permeability, whereas LFA will have higher electrical resistivity and zones of higher fracture-related permeability. If expectations are shown to be correct, the method can be utilized by the UGTA scientists to refine the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) framework in an effort to more accurately predict radionuclide transport away from test areas on Pahute and Rainier Mesas.

Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sweetkind, Don; Burton, Bethany L.

2010-01-01

27

Hydraulic Property and Soil Textural Classification Measurements for Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents particle size analysis, field-saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements, and qualitative descriptions of surficial materials at selected locations at Rainier Mesa, Nevada. Measurements and sample collection were conducted in the Rainier Mesa area, including unconsolidated sediments on top of the mesa, an ephemeral wash channel near the mesa edge, and dry U12n tunnel pond sediments below the mesa. Particle size analysis used a combination of sieving and optical diffraction techniques. Field-saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements employed a single-ring infiltrometer with analytical formulas that correct for falling head and spreading outside the ring domain. These measurements may prove useful to current and future efforts at Rainier Mesa aimed at understanding infiltration and its effect on water fluxes and radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone.

Ebel, Brian A.; Nimmo, John R.

2010-01-01

28

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of

G. G. Gardner; T. H. Brikowski

1993-01-01

29

The Underground Test Area Project of the Nevada Test Site: Building Confidence in Groundwater Flow and Transport Models at Pahute Mesa Through Focused Characterization Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site contains about 8.0E+07 curies of radioactivity caused by underground nuclear testing. The Underground Test Area Subproject has entered Phase II of data acquisition, analysis, and modeling to determine the risk to receptors from radioactivity in the groundwater, establish a groundwater monitoring network, and provide regulatory closure. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination at Pahute Mesa

G A Pawloski; J Wurtz; S L Drellack

2009-01-01

30

Predictions of Long-Term Radionuclide Transport at Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainier Mesa, a tuffaceous plateau on the Nevada National Security Site, has been the location of numerous subsurface nuclear tests conducted in a series of tunnel complexes located approximately 400 m below the top of the mesa and 400 m above the regional groundwater flow system. The tunnels were constructed near the middle of an 800 m Tertiary sequence of faulted, low-permeability welded and non-welded bedded, vitric, and zeolitized tuff units. Water levels from wells in the vicinity of both the N- and T-tunnel complexes indicate the presence of two saturated zones. The first saturated zone has an elevation of approximately 1800 m (300 mbgs) and is located 100 m above the T-tunnel complex. Water level measurements during well construction and borehole moisture profiles of matrix saturation suggest this upper zone of saturation extends downward through most of the Tertiary sequence, though data is not available for the lowest Tertiary units. The second saturated zone is located at an elevation of 1300 m (800 mbgs) within a thrust sheet of Paleozoic carbonates and may be hydraulically connected to the Death Valley regional flow system. This study evaluates the potential for downward radionuclide transport associated with six underground tests at the T-tunnel complex over a 1000 year period. A dual-permeability (DKM) model containing spatially discontinuous fault networks within low-permeability tuff units is utilized to simulate complex patterns of variably-saturated flow. A modified random walk particle tracking code for DKM velocity fields is then used to compute radionuclide breakthrough at the regional water table (second saturated zone). Results include calibration of a variably-saturated model to field observations including water discharge history at the tunnel portal, variably-saturated fault fields, water levels in perched intervals and differential saturations in the volcanics and carbonates; and predictions of radionuclide breakthrough at the regional water table given uncertainty in fault network geometry, fault hydraulic properties, recharge and radionuclide adsorption and diffusion.

Reeves, D. M.; Parashar, R.; Pohlmann, K. F.; LaBolle, E. M.; Zhang, Y.; Russell, C. E.; Chapman, J. B.

2011-12-01

31

Magnetotelluric Data, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. The 2005 data stations were located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. The MT data presented in this report will help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. Subsequent interpretation will include a three dimensional (3 D) character analysis and a two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data. No interpretation of the data is included here.

Williams, Jackie M.; Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Asch, Theodore H.

2006-01-01

32

GIS surface effects archive of underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a new comprehensive, digital archive of more than 40 years of geologic surface effects maps produced at individual detonation sites throughout the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa nuclear testing areas of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Geographic Information System (GIS) surface effects map archive on CD-ROM (this report) comprehensively documents the surface effects of underground nuclear detonations conducted at two of the most extensively used testing areas of the Nevada Test Site. Between 1951 and 1992, numerous investigators of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency meticulously mapped the surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing. Their work documented the effects of more than seventy percent of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and all of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Pahute Mesa.

Grasso, D.N.

2001-11-02

33

Simple estimation of minimum unsaturated contaminant travel times at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the unsaturated zone the fastest travel times frequently occur via preferential flow that bypasses the soil/rock matrix. Experimental data provide compelling evidence that minimum solute travel times through preferential paths depend primarily on whether water supply is continuous versus non-continuous in time, with little influence from matrix hydraulic properties. We employ a simple model based on this "source- responsive" paradigm to estimate minimum preferential travel times to the regional water table for nonreactive radionuclides at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain within the Nevada Test Site. The radionuclides at the site originate from underground nuclear testing within a ~1-km-thick unsaturated zone. Contaminated sources at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain that are continuously supplied include ponded water in certain tunnels, filled detention basins, and partially-filled boreholes with detonation cavities. Tunnels without ponding and unfilled detonation cavities are considered non-continuous sources supplied by percolation of precipitation. Decades of geological and hydrological characterizations provide the foundation for establishing preferential flow as a viable transport mechanism at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain Our estimated minimum travel times via preferential flow for Rainier Mesa are one to two months for a continuously-supplied source and tens to hundreds of years for a non-continuous source. Previous studies in the scientific literature conducted isotopic analysis of fracture water collected in tunnels at Rainier Mesa that indicated transit times for 400 m of transport from land surface to tunnel levels of one to 40 years. Four monitoring wells in the carbonate aquifer have not detected radionuclide levels above the drinking water standards at Rainier Mesa. Travel times for both the continuously and non-continuously supplied sources at Shoshone Mountain are twice the Rainier Mesa estimates, resulting from longer transport distances and less precipitation. A shale confining unit at Shoshone Mountain may cause a transition from preferential to matrix dominated flow, increasing estimated transport times to more than a thousand years. Concentrations of radionuclides above the drinking water standard have not been detected in a deep well or in springs at Shoshone Mountain. Preliminary results from our analysis indicate the potentially rapid nature of unsaturated-zone preferential transport (despite a semi-arid climate) for continuous sources and highlight the value of a simple modeling approach to complement traditional, more complex flow simulation approaches for contaminant travel time estimation.

Ebel, B. A.; Nimmo, J. R.

2008-12-01

34

Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada 1957-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpretive database was constructed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in the Rainier Mesa area. Multiple attributes

Joseph M. Fenelon

2006-01-01

35

TRACER STABILITY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES IN AN INJECTED GEOTHERMAL FLUID DURING INJECTION-BACKFLOW TESTING AT THE EAST MESA GEOTHERMAL FIELD  

SciTech Connect

The stabilities of several tracers were tested under geothermal conditions while injection-backflow tests were conducted at East Mesa. The tracers I and Br were injected continuously while SCN (thiocyanate), B, and disodium fluorescein were each injected as a point source (slug). The tracers were shown to be stable, except where the high concentrations used during slug injection induced adsorption of the slug tracers. However, adsorption of the slug tracers appeared to ''armor'' the formation against adsorption during subsequent tests. Precipitation behavior of calcite and silica as well as Na/K shifts during injection are also discussed.

Adams, M.C.

1985-01-22

36

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) was developed for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain. The CAIP is a requirement of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) (FFACO, 1996). The FFACO addresses environmental restoration activities at U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) facilities and sites including the underground testing area(s) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This CAIP describes the investigation activities currently planned for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU. These activities are consistent with the current Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project strategy described in Section 3.0 of Appendix VI, Revision No. 1 (December 7, 2000) of the FFACO (1996) and summarized in Section 2.1.2 of this plan. The Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU extends over several areas of the NTS (Figure 1-1) and includes former underground nuclear testing locations in Areas 12 and 16. The area referred to as ''Rainier Mesa'' includes the geographical area of Rainier Mesa proper and the contiguous Aqueduct Mesa. Figure 1-2 shows the locations of the tests (within tunnel complexes) conducted at Rainier Mesa. Shoshone Mountain is located approximately 20 kilometers (km) south of Rainier Mesa, but is included within the same CAU due to similarities in their geologic setting and in the nature and types of nuclear tests conducted. Figure 1-3 shows the locations of the tests conducted at Shoshone Mountain. The Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU falls within the larger-scale Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Investigation Area, which also includes the northwest section of the Yucca Flat CAU as shown in Figure 1-1. Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain lie adjacent to the Timber Mountain Caldera Complex and are composed of volcanic rocks that erupted from the caldera as well as from more distant sources. This has resulted in a layered volcanic stratigraphy composed of thick deposits of welded and nonwelded ash-flow tuff and lava flows. These deposits are proximal to the source caldera and are interstratified with the more distal facies of fallout tephra and bedded reworked tuff from more distant sources. In each area, a similar volcanic sequence was deposited upon Paleozoic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that are disrupted by various thrust faults, normal faults, and strike-slip faults. In both Rainier Mesa (km) to the southwest, and Tippipah Spring, 4 km to the north, and the tunnel complex is dry. Particle-tracking simulations performed during the value of information analysis (VOIA) (SNJV, 2004b) indicate that most of the regional groundwater that underlies the test locations at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain eventually follows similar and parallel paths and ultimately discharges in Death Valley and the Amargosa Desert. Particle-tracking simulations conducted for the regional groundwater flow and risk assessment indicated that contamination from Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain were unlikely to leave the NTS during the 1,000-year period of interest (DOE/NV, 1997a). It is anticipated that CAU-scale modeling will modify these results somewhat, but it is not expected to radically alter the outcome of these previous particle-tracking simulations within the 1,000-year period of interest. The Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAIP describes the corrective action investigation (CAI) to be conducted at the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU to evaluate the extent of contamination in groundwater due to the underground nuclear testing. The CAI will be conducted by the UGTA Project, which is part of the NNSA/NSO Environmental Restoration Project (ERP). The purpose and scope of the CAI are presented in this section, followed by a summary of the entire document.

John McCord

2004-12-01

37

VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW INCLUDES SATURN V STAND (BACKGROUND), BLOCK HOUSE (MIDDLE GROUND), STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS TEST STAND (FAR RIGHT). - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

38

VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW INCLUDES STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS TEST STAND COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND AND COMPONENTS TEST LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

39

Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1957-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpreti...

J. M. Fenelon

2006-01-01

40

Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainer Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1957-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpreti...

J. M. Fenelon

2006-01-01

41

Data Report: Meteorological and Evapotranspiration Data from Sagebrush and Pinyon Pine/Juniper Communities at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, 2011-2012  

SciTech Connect

Pahute Mesa is a groundwater recharge area at the Nevada National Security Site. Because underground nuclear testing was conducted at Pahute Mesa, groundwater recharge may transport radionuclides from underground test sites downward to the water table; the amount of groundwater recharge is also an important component of contaminant transport models. To estimate the amount of groundwater recharge at Pahute Mesa, an INFIL3.0 recharge-runoff model is being developed. Two eddy covariance (EC) stations were installed on Pahute Mesa to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) to support the groundwater recharge modeling project. This data report describes the methods that were used to estimate ET and collect meteorological data. Evapotranspiration was estimated for two predominant plant communities on Pahute Mesa; one site was located in a sagebrush plant community, the other site in a pinyon pine/juniper community. Annual ET was estimated to be 310±13.9 mm for the sagebrush site and 347±15.9 mm for the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 26, 2011 to March 26, 2012). Annual precipitation measured with unheated tipping bucket rain gauges was 179 mm at the sagebrush site and 159 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site. Annual precipitation measured with bulk precipitation gauges was 222 mm at the sagebrush site and 227 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 21, 2011 to March 28, 2012). A comparison of tipping bucket versus bulk precipitation data showed that total precipitation measured by the tipping bucket rain gauges was 17 to 20 percent lower than the bulk precipitation gauges. These differences were most likely the result of the unheated tipping bucket precipitation gauges not measuring frozen precipitation as accurately as the bulk precipitation gauges. In this one-year study, ET exceeded precipitation at both study sites because estimates of ET included precipitation that fell during the winter of 2010-2011 prior to EC instrumentation and the precipitation gauges started collecting data in March 2011.

Jasoni, Richard L [DRI; Larsen, Jessica D [DRI; Lyles, Brad F. [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI; Cooper, Clay A [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI; Lefebre, Karen J [DRI

2013-04-01

42

Candor Chasma Mesa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

A mantling layer of sediment slumps off the edge of a mesa in Candor Chasma producing a ragged pattern of erosion that hints at the presence of a volatile component mixed in with the sediment.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7, Longitude 286.4 East (73.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

2003-01-01

43

Estimation of unsaturated zone traveltimes for Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, using a source-responsive preferential-flow model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traveltimes for contaminant transport by water from a point in the unsaturated zone to the saturated zone are a concern at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Where nuclear tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone, contaminants must traverse hundreds of meters of variably saturated rock before they enter the saturated zone in the carbonate

Brian A. Ebel; John R. Nimmo

2009-01-01

44

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study  

SciTech Connect

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

1993-12-01

45

Summary of micrographic analysis of fracture coating phases on drill cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The flow path between Pahute Mesa and the groundwater discharge area in Oasis Valley (approximately 18 miles to the southwest) is of concern due to the relatively short travel distance between a recharge area where underground nuclear testing has been conducted and the off-site water users. Groundwater flow and transport modeling by IT Corporation (IT) has shown rapid tritium transport in the volcanic rock aquifers along this flow path. The resultant estimates of rapid transport were based on water level data, limited hydraulic conductivity data, estimates of groundwater discharge rates in Oasis Valley, assumed porosities, and estimated retardation rates. Many of these parameters are poorly constrained and may vary considerably. Sampling and analytical techniques are being applied as an independent means to determine transport rates by providing an understanding of the geochemical processes that control solute movement along the flow path. As part of these geochemical investigations, this report summarizes the analysis of fracture coating mineral phases from drill core samples from the Pahute mesa area of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Archived samples were collected based on the presence of natural fractures and on the types and abundance of secondary mineral phases present on those fracture surfaces. Mineral phases present along fracture surfaces are significant because, through the process of water-rock interaction, they can either contribute (as a result of dissolution) or remove (as a result of precipitation or adsorption) constituents from solution. Particular attention was paid to secondary calcite occurrences because they represent a potential source of exchangeable carbon and can interact with groundwater resulting in a modified isotopic signature and apparent water age.

NONE

1998-12-01

46

Value of information analysis for Corrective Action Unit Nos. 101 and 102: Central and western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the basis for and present the results of a value of information analysis (VOIA) for the Pahute Mesa underground test area of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site used for underground nuclear testing in the past. The value of information analysis was used to evaluate and compare potential characterization options at the Pahute Mesa underground test area for site remediation purposes. Thirty six characterization options were evaluated, ranging from a single, inexpensive study using existing data and intended to address a single question or uncertainty, to a forty-million-dollar suite of activities designed to collect and analyze new information to address multiple uncertainties. The characterization options were compared and ranked based on how effective the experts though the information collection would be in reducing uncertainties, how this effected the distance to contaminant boundary, and the cost of the option.

NONE

1998-09-01

47

11. STATION "0" ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION SITE AT EAST END OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. STATION "0" ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION SITE AT EAST END OF TRACK. Looking north from top of berm to Fire Station No. 3 (Survival School, Building 0510). - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

48

East Lawn Site and Planting Plan with Section Oklahoma ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East Lawn Site and Planting Plan with Section - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

49

VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW INCLUDES POWER PLANT TEST STAND AND SATURN V TEST STAND IN THE WEST TEST AREA (FAR BACKGROUND). - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

50

Deep Vadose Zone Flow and Transport Behavior at T-Tunnel Complex, Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainier Mesa, a tuffaceous plateau on the Nevada National Security Site, has been the location of numerous subsurface nuclear tests conducted in a series of tunnel complexes located approximately 450 m below the top of the mesa and 500 m above the regional groundwater flow system. The tunnels were constructed near the middle of an 800 m Tertiary sequence of faulted, low-permeability welded and non-welded bedded, vitric, and zeolitized tuff units. Water levels from wells in the vicinity of the T-tunnel complex indicate the presence of a perched saturation zone located approximately 100 m above the T-tunnel complex. This upper zone of saturation extends downward through most of the Tertiary sequence. The groundwater table is located at an elevation of 1300 m within a thrust sheet of Paleozoic carbonates, corresponding to the lower carbonate aquifer hydrostratigraphic unit (LCA3). The LCA3 is considered to be hydraulically connected to the Death Valley regional flow system. The objective of this project is to simulate complex downward patterns of fluid flow and radionuclide transport from the T-tunnel complex through the matrix and fault networks of the Tertiary tuff units to the water table. We developed an improved fracture characterization and mapping methodology consisting of displacement-length scaling relationships, simulation of realistic fault networks based on site-specific data, and the development of novel fracture network upscaling techniques that preserves fracture network flow and transport properties on coarse continuum grid. Development of upscaling method for fracture continua is based on the concepts of discrete fracture network modeling approach which performs better at honoring network connectivity and anisotropy of sparse networks in comparison to other established methods such as a tensor approach. Extensive flow simulations in the dual-continuum framework demonstrate that the characteristics of fault networks strongly influences the saturation profile and formation of perched zones, although they may not conduct a large amount of flow when compared to the matrix continua. The simulated results are found to be very sensitive to distribution of fracture aperture, density of the network, and spatial pattern of fracture clustering. The faults provide rapid pathways for radionuclide transport and the conceptual modeling of diffusional mass transfer between matrix and fracture continua plays a vital role in prediction of the overall behavior of the breakthrough curve.

Parashar, R.; Reeves, D. M.

2010-12-01

51

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Mesa Area Ground Water Contamination, Mesa, AZ. (First Remedial Action), September 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 80-acre Mesa Area Ground Water Contamination site is a semiconductor manufacturing facility in Mesa, Maricopa County, Arizona. Land use in the area is predominantly industrial and residential. The site overlies two aquifers: a Lower Alluvial Aquifer (...

1991-01-01

52

View from east to west of PAR site storage building; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from east to west of PAR site storage building; formerly PAR dispensary - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Storage Building, Across street from Family Housing Units 110 & 111, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

53

Evaluation of the Hydrologic Source Term from Underground Nuclear Tests on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site: The CHESHIRE Test  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to develop, summarize, and interpret a series of detailed unclassified simulations that forecast the nature and extent of radionuclide release and near-field migration in groundwater away from the CHESHIRE underground nuclear test at Pahute Mesa at the NTS over 1000 yrs. Collectively, these results are called the CHESHIRE Hydrologic Source Term (HST). The CHESHIRE underground nuclear test was one of 76 underground nuclear tests that were fired below or within 100 m of the water table between 1965 and 1992 in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS. These areas now comprise the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit (CAU) for which a separate subregional scale flow and transport model is being developed by the UGTA Project to forecast the larger-scale migration of radionuclides from underground tests on Pahute Mesa. The current simulations are being developed, on one hand, to more fully understand the complex coupled processes involved in radionuclide migration, with a specific focus on the CHESHIRE test. While remaining unclassified, they are as site specific as possible and involve a level of modeling detail that is commensurate with the most fundamental processes, conservative assumptions, and representative data sets available. However, the simulation results are also being developed so that they may be simplified and interpreted for use as a source term boundary condition at the CHESHIRE location in the Pahute Mesa CAU model. In addition, the processes of simplification and interpretation will provide generalized insight as to how the source term behavior at other tests may be considered or otherwise represented in the Pahute Mesa CAU model.

Pawloski, G A; Tompson, A F B; Carle, S F; Bourcier, W L; Bruton, C J; Daniels, J I; Maxwell, R M; Shumaker, D E; Smith, D K; Zavarin, M

2001-05-01

54

Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1957-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpretive database was constructed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in the Rainier Mesa area. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes hydrograph narratives that describe the water-level history of each well.

Fenelon, Joseph M.

2006-01-01

55

Mesa in Capri Chasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2 March 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle picture shows light-toned, sedimentary rock outcrops forming the walls of a dark-topped mesa in Capri Chasma. Capri Chasma is at the east end of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This image is located near 12.8oS, 48.1oW. This view covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2004-01-01

56

Magnetotelluric Data, Rainier Mesa\\/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project.;\\u000aFrom 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site

Jackie M. Williams; Jay A. Sampson; Brian D. Rodriguez; Theodore H. Asch

2006-01-01

57

Deep Resistivity Structure of Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), funded by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and

Theodore H. Asch; Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Jackie M. Williams; Maryla Deszcz-Pan

2006-01-01

58

Analysis of fractures in volcanic cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in Nye County, southern Nevada, was the location of 828 announced underground nuclear tests, conducted between 1951 and 1992. Approximately one-third of these tests were detonated near or below the water table. An unavoidable consequence of these testing activities was introducing radionuclides into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. Groundwater flows beneath the NTS almost

S. L. Jr. Drellack; L. B. Prothro; K. E. Roberson

1997-01-01

59

Modeling the fate of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone at the Nevada Test Site: Examples from Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located 105 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, hosted 828 underground nuclear explosions between 1951 and 1992, leaving an estimated 1.3e+08 curies of tritium, fission products, activation products and unspent fuel in the subsurface when the nuclear test moratorium was adopted in September, 1992. In two former testing areas of the NTS - Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa- a significant fraction of the initial radionuclide inventory was introduced from nuclear tests with working points in the unsaturated zone. In Yucca Flat, an arid, low-elevation alluvium-filled basin where most tests were conducted in vertical shafts, unsaturated flow and transport models indicate that radionuclide migration to the water table is most likely where overlying subsidence craters receive significant infiltration from overland flow during infrequent runoff events. At Rainier Mesa, a wetter, high-elevation remnant of a once more extensive volcanic plateau, most tests were conducted at the ends of horizontal drifts in the vicinity of local perched water zones. Unsaturated flow and transport models of one of the larger tunnel complexes (N-tunnel) indicate that despite relatively high infiltration rates on the mesa, radionuclide diffusion from the flowing fractures to the porous matrix may significantly attenuate radionuclide movement to the water table.

Kwicklis, E. M.; Dash, Z. V.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Levitt, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Dai, Z.; Zyvoloski, G.; Gable, C. W.; Miller, T. A.

2010-12-01

60

Analysis of fractures in volcanic cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in Nye County, southern Nevada, was the location of 828 announced underground nuclear tests, conducted between 1951 and 1992. Approximately one-third of these tests were detonated near or below the water table. An unavoidable consequence of these testing activities was introducing radionuclides into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. Groundwater flows beneath the NTS almost exclusively through interconnected natural fractures in carbonate and volcanic rocks. Information about these fractures is necessary to determine hydrologic parameters for future Corrective Action Unit (CAU)-specific flow and transport models which will be used to support risk assessment calculations for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Underground Test Area (UGTA) remedial investigation. Fracture data are critical in reducing the uncertainty of the predictive capabilities of CAU-specific models because of their usefulness in generating hydraulic conductivity values and dispersion characteristics used in transport modeling. Specifically, fracture aperture and density (spacing) are needed to calculate the permeability anisotropy of the formations. Fracture mineralogy information is used qualitatively to evaluate diffusion and radionuclide retardation potential in transport modeling. All these data can best be collected through examination of core samples.

Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Prothro, L.B.; Roberson, K.E. [and others

1997-09-01

61

Flow and Radionuclide Transport Models of the Unsaturated Zone at the Nevada National Security Site: Examples from Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The former Nevada Test Site (now the Nevada National Security Site) hosted 828 underground nuclear explosions between 1951 and 1992, leaving an estimated 1.3e+08 curies of tritium, fission products, activation products and unspent fuel in the subsurface when the nuclear test moratorium was adopted in September, 1992. In two former testing areas of the Nevada National Security Site - Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa- a significant fraction of the initial radionuclide inventory was introduced from nuclear tests with working points in the unsaturated zone. In Yucca Flat, an arid, low-elevation alluvium-filled basin where most tests were conducted in vertical shafts, unsaturated flow and transport models indicate that radionuclide migration to the water table is most likely where overlying subsidence craters receive significant infiltration from overland flow during infrequent runoff events. These craters tend to be located along the perimeter of the basin and have large contributing watersheds in the surrounding hills. At Rainier Mesa, a wetter, high-elevation remnant of a once more extensive volcanic plateau, most tests were conducted at the ends of horizontal drifts in the vicinity of local perched water zones. Unsaturated flow and transport models of one of the larger tunnel complexes (N-tunnel) indicate that despite relatively high infiltration rates on the mesa, radionuclide diffusion from the flowing fractures to the porous matrix may significantly attenuate radionuclide movement to the water table, depending on the assumed fracture attributes. Simulations show that the tunnel itself may be an important hydraulic feature that connects radionuclide sources to sub-vertical faults that are assumed to extend to the water table.

Kwicklis, E. M.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Levitt, D. G.; Dash, Z.; Gable, C. W.; Lu, Z.; Dai, Z.; Zyvoloski, G.; Miller, T. A.

2011-12-01

62

12. View of Dry Dock No. 4 site, looking east, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View of Dry Dock No. 4 site, looking east, excavations nearing completion. Note concrete floor already poured and excavated steps in walls for counterfort retaining walls (12/17/42). Photographer unknown. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

63

9. VIEW OF SITE B FROM EAST END OF ANDERSON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF SITE B FROM EAST END OF ANDERSON WAY, FACING WEST (BUILDINGS 126, 128, 129, 130, and 131 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

64

Quality assurance and analysis of water levels in wells on Pahute Mesa and vicinity, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic and continual water-level data from 1963-1998 were compiled and quality assured for 65 observation wells on Pahute Mesa and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada. As part of the quality assurance of all water levels, ancillary data pertinent to computing hydraulic heads in wells were compiled and analyzed. Quality-assured water levels that were not necessarily in error but which did not

Fenelon

2000-01-01

65

Quality assurance and analysis of water levels in wells on Pahute Mesa and vicinity, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Periodic and continual water-level data from 1963-1998 were compiled and quality assured for 65 observation wells on Pahute Mesa and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada. As part of the quality assurance of all water levels, ancillary data pertinent to computing hydraulic heads in wells were compiled and analyzed. Quality-assured water levels that were not necessarily in error but which did not represent static heads in the regional aquifer system, or required some other qualification, were flagged. Water levels flagged include those recovering from recent pumping or well construction, water levels affected by nuclear tests, and measurements affected by borehole deviations. A cursory examination of about 30 wells with available water-level and down-hole temperature data indicate that water levels in most wells on Pahute Mesa would not be significantly affected by temperature if corrected to 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Wells with large corrections (greater than 10 feet) are those with long water columns (greater than 1,500 feet of water above the assumed point of inflow) in combination with mean water-column temperatures exceeding 105 degrees Fahrenheit. Water-level fluctuations in wells on Pahute Mesa are caused by several factors including infiltration of precipitation, barometric pressure, Earth tides, ground-water pumpage, and seismic events caused by tectonic activity and underground nuclear testing. No observed water-level fluctuations were attributed to a naturally occurring earthquake. The magnitude and duration of changes in water levels caused by nuclear tests are affected by the test size and the distance from a well to the test. Identifying water levels that might be affected by past nuclear tests is difficult because pre-testing water-level data are sparse. Hydrologically significant trends were found in 13 of 25 wells with multiple years of water-level record. The largest change in water levels (1,029 feet in 25 years) occurred in well U-19v PS 1D as a result of the Almendro nuclear test. Likely explanations for trends in most of the wells are either changes in precipitation patterns that affect recharge rates to the ground-water system, pumping effects from water-supply well U-20 WW, or a combination of these two factors.

Fenelon, J.M.

2000-04-05

66

Soils and geomorphology of the East Chestnut Ridge site  

SciTech Connect

Soil mapping of the East Chestnut Ridge site in conjunction with subsurface soil and rock coring provides an in-depth evaluation of the site and its suitability for disposal of wastes. Landforms and surface and subsurface hydrology, the natural, undisturbed, soil-saprolite-geohydrology system beneath the zone of engineering modifications provides for the ultimate containment of wastes and a means for the filtration and purification of any leachate before it reaches the aquifer. The surface location and extent of each geologic formation on the site were mapped. These locations correlated well with projections of subsurface contacts to the surface even through the criteria used by the pedologist and geologist to identify soil and rock from the same formation may be different. Soil thickness over bedrock of the Copper Ridge, Chepultepec, Longview, and Kingsport Formations is sufficient to provide considerable buffering between trench bottoms and groundwater or rock. Soil thickness over the Mascot Formation is comparatively thin, and pinnacles and ledges exposed on steeper sideslopes are common. Soil underlain by the Mascot Formation is not suited for a trench landfill. According to soil coring and active borrow pit observations, chert beds in the soil and saprolite are preferred zones of water flow. Construction of adequate clay liners beneath disposal units sited on the Longview dolomite may require placement and compaction of other native soils to achieve sufficiently low soil permeabilities. Karst geomorphic processes that initiated the formation of dolines evidently started several million years ago. Doline formation and enlargement is episodic, with short periods of activity followed by long periods of stability. Analysis of doline soil stratigraphy suggests that most of the large dolines on the site have been stable for most of the past 10,000 to 1000,000 years. 8 refs., 9 figs.

Lietzke, D.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R. (Lietzke (D.A.), Rutledge, TN (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-10-01

67

Estimation of unsaturated zone traveltimes for Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, using a source-responsive preferential-flow model  

SciTech Connect

Traveltimes for contaminant transport by water from a point in the unsaturated zone to the saturated zone are a concern at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Where nuclear tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone, contaminants must traverse hundreds of meters of variably saturated rock before they enter the saturated zone in the carbonate rock, where the regional groundwater system has the potential to carry them substantial distances to a location of concern. The unsaturated-zone portion of the contaminant transport path may cause a significant delay, in addition to the time required to travel within the saturated zone, and thus may be important in the overall evaluation of the potential hazard from contamination. Downward contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone occurs through various processes and pathways; this can lead to a broad distribution of contaminant traveltimes, including exceedingly slow and unexpectedly fast extremes. Though the bulk of mobile contaminant arrives between the time-scale end members, the fastest contaminant transport speed, in other words the speed determined by the combination of possible processes and pathways that would bring a measureable quantity of contaminant to the aquifer in the shortest time, carries particular regulatory significance because of its relevance in formulating the most conservative hazard-prevention scenarios. Unsaturated-zone flow is usually modeled as a diffusive process responding to gravity and pressure gradients as mediated by the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the materials traversed. The mathematical formulation of the diffuse-flow concept is known as Richards' equation, which when coupled to a solute transport equation, such as the advection-dispersion equation, provides a framework to simulate contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. In recent decades awareness has increased that much fluid flow and contaminant transport within the unsaturated zone takes place as preferential flow, faster than would be predicted by the coupled Richards' and advection-dispersion equations with hydraulic properties estimated by traditional means. At present the hydrologic community has not achieved consensus as to whether a modification of Richards' equation, or a fundamentally different formulation, would best quantify preferential flow. Where the fastest contaminant transport speed is what needs to be estimated, there is the possibility of simplification of the evaluation process. One way of doing so is by a two-step process in which the first step is to evaluate whether significant preferential flow and solute transport is possible for the media and conditions of concern. The second step is to carry out (a) a basic Richards' and advection-dispersion equation analysis if it is concluded that preferential flow is not possible or (b) an analysis that considers only the fastest possible preferential-flow processes, if preferential flow is possible. For the preferential-flow situation, a recently published model describable as a Source-Responsive Preferential-Flow (SRPF) model is an easily applied option. This report documents the application of this two-step process to flow through the thick unsaturated zones of Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site. Application of the SRPF model involves distinguishing between continuous and intermittent water supply to preferential flow paths. At Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain this issue is complicated by the fact that contaminant travel begins at a location deep in the subsurface, where there may be perched water that may or may not act like a continuous supply, depending on such features as the connectedness of fractures and the nature of impeding layers. We have treated this situation by hypothesizing both continuous and intermittent scenarios for contaminant transport to the carbonate aquifer and reporting estimation of the fastest speed for both of these end members.

Brian A. Ebel; John R. Nimmo

2009-09-11

68

Estimation of Unsaturated Zone Traveltimes for Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Using a Source-Responsive Preferential-Flow Model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traveltimes for contaminant transport by water from a point in the unsaturated zone to the saturated zone are a concern at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Where nuclear tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone, contaminants must traverse hundreds of meters of variably saturated rock before they enter the saturated zone in the carbonate rock, where the regional groundwater system has the potential to carry them substantial distances to a location of concern. The unsaturated-zone portion of the contaminant transport path may cause a significant delay, in addition to the time required to travel within the saturated zone, and thus may be important in the overall evaluation of the potential hazard from contamination. Downward contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone occurs through various processes and pathways; this can lead to a broad distribution of contaminant traveltimes, including exceedingly slow and unexpectedly fast extremes. Though the bulk of mobile contaminant arrives between the time-scale end members, the fastest contaminant transport speed, in other words the speed determined by the combination of possible processes and pathways that would bring a measureable quantity of contaminant to the aquifer in the shortest time, carries particular regulatory significance because of its relevance in formulating the most conservative hazard-prevention scenarios. Unsaturated-zone flow is usually modeled as a diffusive process responding to gravity and pressure gradients as mediated by the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the materials traversed. The mathematical formulation of the diffuse-flow concept is known as Richards' equation, which when coupled to a solute transport equation, such as the advection-dispersion equation, provides a framework to simulate contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. In recent decades awareness has increased that much fluid flow and contaminant transport within the unsaturated zone takes place as preferential flow, faster than would be predicted by the coupled Richards' and advection-dispersion equations with hydraulic properties estimated by traditional means. At present the hydrologic community has not achieved consensus as to whether a modification of Richards' equation, or a fundamentally different formulation, would best quantify preferential flow. Where the fastest contaminant transport speed is what needs to be estimated, there is the possibility of simplification of the evaluation process. One way of doing so is by a two-step process in which the first step is to evaluate whether significant preferential flow and solute transport is possible for the media and conditions of concern. The second step is to carry out (a) a basic Richards' and advection-dispersion equation analysis if it is concluded that preferential flow is not possible or (b) an analysis that considers only the fastest possible preferential-flow processes, if preferential flow is possible. For the preferential-flow situation, a recently published model describable as a Source-Responsive Preferential-Flow (SRPF) model is an easily applied option. This report documents the application of this two-step process to flow through the thick unsaturated zones of Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site. Application of the SRPF model involves distinguishing between continuous and intermittent water supply to preferential flow paths. At Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain this issue is complicated by the fact that contaminant travel begins at a location deep in the subsurface, where there may be perched water that may or may not act like a continuous supply, depending on such features as the connectedness of fractures and the nature of impeding layers. We have treated this situation by hypothesizing both continuous and intermittent scenarios for contaminant transport to the carbonate aquifer and reporting estimation of the fastest speed for both of th

Ebel, Brian A.; Nimmo, John R.

2009-01-01

69

Digital reconstruction on geographical environment of Neolithic human activities in the Lingjiatan site of Chaohu City, East China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chaohu Lake Basin is an important area for ancient human activities in East China. The Lingjiatan site, which is located at the southeast of Chaohu City, Anhui Province, and 35 km north to the Yangtze River and 5 km south to the Taihu Mountain, is the most representative Neolithic Age site with advanced jade-carving techniques in this area. The 14C date of Lingjiatan Site is about 5600~5300aBP, the same time as the Hongshan culture and earlier than the Liangzhu culture, which falls into the Mid-Holocene epoch. Based on mid-high resolution remote sensing images and former archaeological materials, combined with field investigations and sampling analysis of the archaeological site profile of Lingjiatan Site as well as core drillings in the Chaohu Lake, the paper reconstructs the climate environment of the Lingjiatan site and the environmental background of ancient human activities during Mid-Holocene. The research results show that: (1) The ancients in Lingjiatan lived in the Holocene Optimum, its culture development was during the interim phase when the climate transformed from warm and wet to cool and dry. (2) The ground surface deposited in the last phase of late Pleistocene epoch (OSL dating is 11.6 +/-1.0 ka BP) was the living ground for Lingjiatan ancient humans. The sedimentary discontinuous surface may be caused by strong fluvial erosion under the warm and humid climatic conditions of the Mid-Holocene. (3) Originally, paleo-geomorphic surface was a level shallow mesa foreside southern part of Taihu Mountain, but was cut by fluvial waters and the geomorphologic configuration formed "finger-like" features alternately with strip hillocks and rivers. These features can be seen on the Landsat ETM+ remote sensing image, especially the depression area. This depression is now cropland, and was interpreted as the palaeochannels. (4) Based on the remote sensing image interpretation, the site was in a "peninsula shape" environment which had rivers flowing around the east, west and south sides of the Changgang terrain and that was good for rice planting, hunting, fishing and water transportation. (5) The most particular characteristic of the Lingjiatan site is the advanced jade production, those maybe have some relationship with the convenient shipping, trade exchanges and optimal environmental conditions, which was also conducive to rice cultivation.

Wang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li; Zhou, Kunshu; Mo, Duowen

2009-09-01

70

Addendum for the Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0 (page changes)  

SciTech Connect

This document, which makes changes to Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, S-N/99205--076, Revision 0 (June 2006) was prepared to address review comments of this final document by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated July 19, 2006. The document includes revised pages that address NDEP review comments and comments from other document users. Change bars are included on these pages to identify where the text was revised. In addition to the revised pages, the following clarifications are made: • On Plate 1 (inserted in the back of the document), the ET Unit legend has been revised. The revised Plate 1 is included and replaces the original Plate 1. • Some of the Appendix D perturbation sensitivity analysis plots included on the CD for Sections D.3.1 and D.3.2 were not properly aligned. A revised CD is provided with all plots properly aligned.

John McCord

2007-05-01

71

Site Characterization at a Tidal Energy Site in the East River, NY (usa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive tidal energy site characterization is performed using ADV measurements of instantaneous horizontal current magnitude and direction at the planned hub centerline of a tidal turbine over a two month period, and contributes to the growing data base of tidal energy site hydrodynamic conditions. The temporal variation, mean current statistics, and turbulence of the key tidal hydrodynamic parameters are examined in detail, and compared to estimates from two tidal energy sites in Puget Sound. Tidal hydrodynamic conditions, including mean annual current (at hub height), the speed of extreme gusts (instantaneous horizontal currents acting normal to the rotor plane), and turbulence intensity (as proposed here, relative to a mean current of 2 m s-1) can vary greatly among tidal energy sites. Comparison of hydrodynamic conditions measured in the East River tidal straight in New York City with those reported for two tidal energy sites in Puget Sound indicate differences of mean annual current speeds, difference in the instantaneous current speeds of extreme gusts, and differences in turbulence intensities. Significant differences in these parameters among the tidal energy sites, and with the tidal resource assessment map, highlight the importance of conducting site resource characterization with ADV measurements at the machine scale. As with the wind industry, which adopted an International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) wind class standard to aid in the selection of wind turbines for a particular site, it is recommended that the tidal energy industry adopt an appropriate standard for tidal current classes. Such a standard requires a comprehensive field campaign at multiple tidal energy sites that can identify the key hydrodynamic parameters for tidal current site classification, select a list of tidal energy sites that exhibit the range of hydrodynamic conditions that will be encountered, and adopt consistent measurement practices (standards) for site classification.

Gunawan, B.; Neary, V. S.; Colby, J.

2012-12-01

72

Geology in the Vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM Underground Nuclear Tests, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent radiochemical evidence from groundwater characterization and monitoring wells in the vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site, suggests that migration of radionuclides within groundwater beneath this portion of Area 20 may be more rapid than previously thought. In order to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions in

L. B. Prothro

2001-01-01

73

76 FR 30152 - East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9310-4] East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County...the East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site located in Murray, Calloway...County [[Page 30153

2011-05-24

74

Radiocarbon AMS dating of the ancient sites with earliest pottery from the Russian Far East  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently obtained radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry dates from the Gasya and Khummi sites (lower Amur River basin, the Russian Far East), on charcoal associated with pottery, fall within the interval 10345 ± 110 to 13260 ± 100 radiocarbon yr BP. Now both Russian Far East and southern Japanese Islands present evidence of the earliest pottery-making technology in the world starting about 13 000 BP.

Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Jull, A. J. T.; Lapshina, Zoya S.; Medvedev, Vitaly E.

1997-03-01

75

Predevelopment Water-Level Contours for Aquifers in the Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. Although contaminants were introduced into low-permeability rocks above the regional flow system, the potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by ground-water transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the water-level distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. The contoured water-level distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped, presented, and discussed in general terms as being one of three aquifer types—volcanic aquifer, upper carbonate aquifer, or lower carbonate aquifer. Each of these aquifer types was subdivided and mapped as independent continuous and isolated aquifers, based on the continuity of its component rock. Ground-water flow directions, as related to the transport of test-generated contaminants, were developed from water-level contours and are presented and discussed for each of the continuous aquifers. Contoured water-level altitudes vary across the study area and range from more than 5,000 feet in the volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,450 feet in the lower carbonate aquifer in the southern part of the study area. Variations in water-level altitudes within any single continuous aquifer range from a few hundred feet in a lower carbonate aquifer to just more than 1,100 feet in a volcanic aquifer. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly southward with minor eastward or westward deviations. Primary exceptions are westward flow in the northern part of the volcanic aquifer and eastward flow in the eastern part of the lower carbonate aquifer. Northward flow in the upper and lower carbonate aquifers in the northern part of the study area is possible but cannot be substantiated because data are lacking. Interflow between continuous aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form the regional ground-water flow system. The implications of these tributary flow paths in controlling transport away from the underground test areas at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain are discussed. The obvious data gaps contributing to uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers and development of water-level contours are identified and evaluated.

Joseph M. Fenelon; Randell J. Laczniak; and Keith J. Halford

2008-06-24

76

Predevelopment Water-Level Contours for Aquifers in the Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. Although contaminants were introduced into low-permeability rocks above the regional flow system, the potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by ground-water transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the water-level distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. The contoured water-level distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped, presented, and discussed in general terms as being one of three aquifer types?volcanic aquifer, upper carbonate aquifer, or lower carbonate aquifer. Each of these aquifer types was subdivided and mapped as independent continuous and isolated aquifers, based on the continuity of its component rock. Ground-water flow directions, as related to the transport of test-generated contaminants, were developed from water-level contours and are presented and discussed for each of the continuous aquifers. Contoured water-level altitudes vary across the study area and range from more than 5,000 feet in the volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,450 feet in the lower carbonate aquifer in the southern part of the study area. Variations in water-level altitudes within any single continuous aquifer range from a few hundred feet in a lower carbonate aquifer to just more than 1,100 feet in a volcanic aquifer. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly southward with minor eastward or westward deviations. Primary exceptions are westward flow in the northern part of the volcanic aquifer and eastward flow in the eastern part of the lower carbonate aquifer. Northward flow in the upper and lower carbonate aquifers in the northern part of the study area is possible but cannot be substantiated because data are lacking. Interflow between continuous aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form the regional ground-water flow system. The implications of these tributary flow paths in controlling transport away from the underground test areas at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain are discussed. The obvious data gaps contributing to uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers and development of water-level contours are identified and evaluated.

Fenelon, Joseph M.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Halford, Keith J.

2008-01-01

77

Evaluation of the Hydrologic Source Term from Underground Nuclear Tests on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site: The CHESHIRE Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this report are to develop, summarize, and interpret a series of detailed unclassified simulations that forecast the nature and extent of radionuclide release and near-field migration in groundwater away from the CHESHIRE underground nuclear test at Pahute Mesa at the NTS over 1000 yrs. Collectively, these results are called the CHESHIRE Hydrologic Source Term (HST). The CHESHIRE

G A Pawloski; A F B Tompson; S F Carle; W L Bourcier; C J Bruton; J I Daniels; R M Maxwell; D E Shumaker; D K Smith; M Zavarin

2001-01-01

78

Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pahute Mesa groundwater flow model supports the FFACO UGTA corrective action strategy objective of providing an estimate of the vertical and horizontal extent of contaminant migration for each CAU in order to predict contaminant boundaries. A contaminant boundary is the model-predicted perimeter that defines the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear testing above background conditions exceeding Safe Drinking

Greg Ruskauff

2006-01-01

79

Hospital Web site 'tops' in Louisiana. Hospital PR, marketing group cites East Jefferson General Hospital.  

PubMed

East Jefferson General Hospital in Metairie, La., launched a new Web site in October 2001. Its user-friendly home page offers links to hospital services, medical staff, and employer information. Its jobline is a powerful tool for recruitment. The site was awarded the 2002 Pelican Award for Best Consumer Web site by the Louisiana Society for Hospital Public Relations & Marketing. PMID:12238238

Rees, Tom

2002-01-01

80

A conceptual model and preliminary estimate of potential tritium migration from the Benham (U-20c) site, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

U-20c is the site of a large below-water-table nuclear test near the Nevada Test Site boundary. A conceptual model of potential groundwater migration of tritium from U-20c is constructed and quantitatively evaluated in this report. The lower portion of the collapse chimney at Benham is expected to intersect 200 m of permeable rhyolite lava, overlain by similar thicknesses of low-permeability

T. Brikowski; G. Mahin

1993-01-01

81

Displacement of VLBI sites in East Asia caused by ocean tide loading of Japan sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The displacement parameters and gravimetry corrections of 9 VLBI sites in East Asia caused by M2, S2, K1, and O1 component of Japan sea are calculated by using the loading mass convolution with the Green's function based on the different Earth models. The displacement parameters of the radial and horizontal component are between 3 ? 12 mm for all sites

Zhigen Yang; S. Manabe; K. Yokoyama; Wenjing Jin

1997-01-01

82

Location of a new ice core site at Talos Dome (East Antarctica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of glaciology and palaeoclimate research, Talos Dome (72°48lS; 159°06lE), an ice dome on the East Antarctic plateau, represents the new selected site for a new deep ice core drilling. The increasing interest in this re- gion is due to the fact that the ice accumulation is higher here than in other domes in East Antarctica. A new

Stefano Urbini; Lili Cafarella; Achille Zirizzotti; Cesidio Bianchi; Ignazio Tabacco; Massimo Frezzotti; Ardito Desio; S. Maria

2006-01-01

83

A conceptual model and preliminary estimate of potential tritium migration from the Benham (U-20c) site, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

U-20c is the site of a large below-water-table nuclear test near the Nevada Test Site boundary. A conceptual model of potential groundwater migration of tritium from U-20c is constructed and quantitatively evaluated in this report. The lower portion of the collapse chimney at Benham is expected to intersect 200 m of permeable rhyolite lava, overlain by similar thicknesses of low-permeability zeolitized bedded tuff, then permeable welded tuff. Vertical groundwater flow through the chimney is predicted to be minimal, horizontal transport should be controlled by the regional groundwater flow. Analytic solutions treating only advective transport indicate 1 to 2 km of tritium movement (95% confidence interval 0.7--2.5 km) within 5 years after test-related pressure-temperature transients have dissipated. This point lies at the axis of a potentiometric surface trough along the west edge of Area 20, Nevada Test Site. Within 25 years, movement is predicted to extend to 3 km (95% confidence interval 2--5 km) approximately to the intersection of the trough and the Nevada Test Site boundary. Considering the effects of radioactive decay, but not dispersion, plume concentration would fall below Safe Drinking Water Act standards by 204 years, at a predicted distance of 11 km (95% confidence interval 7--31 km). This point is located in the eastern portion of the Timber Mountain Caldera moat within the Nellis Air Force Range (military bombing range).

Brikowski, T.; Mahin, G. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Water Resources Center

1993-08-01

84

Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

California's Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA), founded in 1970, assists students to become highly trained technological professionals by serving educationally disadvantaged students and, to the extent possible by law, emphasizes participation by students from groups with low eligibility rates for four-year colleges. Learn about MESA initiatives such as its Schools Program (MSP), Success Through Collaboration (MESA STC), California Community College Program (CCCP), and Engineering Program (MEP).

2007-09-05

85

18. Tail race of the Hayden Ditch, looking east toward ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Tail race of the Hayden Ditch, looking east toward the Tempe Bridge and Hayden's Butte, the site of Charles Hayden's vision of the Tempe Canal. This ditch, which formerly supplied the San Francisco Canal, has been out of service since the 1950s. Photographer: Mark Durben, June 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

86

Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and Regional Structures Possibly Influencing Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa Region, Nye County, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding regions reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a regional model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous regional view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat regions, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may influence ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.

Thomas G. Hildenbrand; Geoffrey A. Phelps; Edward A. Mankinen

2006-09-21

87

Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and Regional Structures Possibly Influencing Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa Region, Nye County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding regions reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a regional model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous regional view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat regions, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may influence ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.

Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Mankinen, Edward A.

2006-01-01

88

Laramide Mesa Formation and the Ojo de Agua Caldera, Southeast of the Cananea Copper Mining District, Sonora, Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mesa Formation extends from Cananea, Mexico, southeast to the Sonora River and is the main host rock of Laramide porphyry copper deposits in the Cananea District and at the Alacran porphyry prospect to the east. The Mesa consists of two members-a lowe...

D. P. Cox R. J. Miller K. L. Woodbourne

2006-01-01

89

Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the environmental report for the Argonne National Laboratory-East for the year of 1995. Topics discussed include: general description of the site including climatology, geology, seismicity, hydrology, vegetation, endangered species, population, water and land use, and archaeology; compliance summary; environmental program information; environmental nonradiological program information; ground water protection; and radiological monitoring program.

Golchert, N.W.; Kolzow, R.G. [Environmental Management Operation, Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1996-09-01

90

Study of Dome C site (East Antartica) variability by comparing chemical stratigraphies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares chemical stratigraphies from snowpits collected at Dome C (East Antarctica) in order to assess site variability in terms of spatial distribution of chemical markers, annual accumulation rate and chemical species persistence in the snow layers. Since Dome C was chosen for deep drilling down to the bedrock in the framework of EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring

R. Traversi; S. Becagli; E. Castellano; O. Cerri; A. Morganti; M. Severi; R. Udisti

2009-01-01

91

Tank Leak Experiment at the Mock Tank Site, 200 East Area: Electrical Resistance Tomography Preliminary Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the electrical reslstance tomography (ERT) work performed at the Mock Tank site, 200 East Area, Hanford Reservation, during the months of July and August, 2001. The work reported herein is to be considered preliminary because it is work...

A. L. Ramirez W. D. Daily A. Binley

2002-01-01

92

Argonne National Laboratory-East: Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) for 1998. To evaluate the effects of ANL-E operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the si...

N. W. Golchert R. G. Kolzow

2000-01-01

93

MODULES FOR EXPERIMENTS IN STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS (MESA)  

SciTech Connect

Stellar physics and evolution calculations enable a broad range of research in astrophysics. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) is a suite of open source, robust, efficient, thread-safe libraries for a wide range of applications in computational stellar astrophysics. A one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESAstar, combines many of the numerical and physics modules for simulations of a wide range of stellar evolution scenarios ranging from very low mass to massive stars, including advanced evolutionary phases. MESAstar solves the fully coupled structure and composition equations simultaneously. It uses adaptive mesh refinement and sophisticated timestep controls, and supports shared memory parallelism based on OpenMP. State-of-the-art modules provide equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, element diffusion data, and atmosphere boundary conditions. Each module is constructed as a separate Fortran 95 library with its own explicitly defined public interface to facilitate independent development. Several detailed examples indicate the extensive verification and testing that is continuously performed and demonstrate the wide range of capabilities that MESA possesses. These examples include evolutionary tracks of very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and gas giant planets to very old ages; the complete evolutionary track of a 1 M {sub sun} star from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to a cooling white dwarf; the solar sound speed profile; the evolution of intermediate-mass stars through the He-core burning phase and thermal pulses on the He-shell burning asymptotic giant branch phase; the interior structure of slowly pulsating B Stars and Beta Cepheids; the complete evolutionary tracks of massive stars from the PMS to the onset of core collapse; mass transfer from stars undergoing Roche lobe overflow; and the evolution of helium accretion onto a neutron star. MESA can be downloaded from the project Web site (http://mesa.sourceforge.net/).

Paxton, Bill; Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dotter, Aaron; Herwig, Falk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Lesaffre, Pierre [LERMA-LRA, CNRS UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Timmes, Frank [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

2011-01-15

94

Earthquake Monitoring at 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise RIDGE 2000 Integrated Studies Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 2003 nine ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed from the R\\/V Keldysh within the `bull's-eye' region of the R2K ISS at 9° 49'N - 9° 51'N on the East Pacific Rise as part of the Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site. These instruments were recovered using the R\\/V Atlantis in April 2004, and twelve more were deployed

M. Tolstoy; F. Waldhauser; W. Kim

2004-01-01

95

Assessing hydraulic connections across a complex sequence of volcanic rocks-Analysis of U-20 WW multiple-well aquifer test, Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater beneath Pahute Mesa flows through a complexly layered sequence of volcanic rock aquifers and confining units that have been faulted into distinct structural blocks. Hydraulic property estimates of rocks and structures in this flow system are necessary to assess radionuclide migration near underground nuclear testing areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used a 12 month (October 1, 2008-October 1, 2009) intermittent pumping schedule of well U-20 WW and continuously monitored water levels in observation wells ER-20-6 #3, UE-20bh 1, and U-20bg as a multi-well aquifer test to evaluate hydraulic connections across structural blocks, bulk hydraulic properties of volcanic rocks, and the hydraulic significance of a major fault. Measured water levels were approximated using synthetic water levels generated from an analytical model. Synthetic water levels are a summation of environmental water-level fluctuations and a Theis (1935) transform of the pumping signal from flow rate to water-level change. Drawdown was estimated by summing residual differences between measured and synthetic water levels and the Theis-transformed pumping signal from April to September 2009. Drawdown estimates were used in a three-dimensional numerical model to estimate hydraulic properties of distinct aquifers, confining units, and a major fault. A maximum water-level drawdown of nearly 0.4 foot in well UE-20bh 1, which is more than 1 mile from the pumping well, was detected across a major fault. Drawdown estimates in the observation well nearest to (ER-20-6 #3, less than 1 mile) and within the same structural block as the pumping well were less than detection (-6 per foot, respectively, and transmissivity estimates range from 1,200 to 3,600 feet squared per day. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the major fault is hydraulically similar to the permeable host rock and connects flow between structural blocks.

Garcia, C. Amanda; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Halford, Keith J.; Reiner, Steven R.; Laczniak, Randell J.

2011-01-01

96

Fly over of Mars Mesa, Tounge, Dunes, Sasquatch Crater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio features fly overs of Mesa, Tounge, Dunes, and Sasquatch Crater. Data for topography is based on the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) with Viking data used for color. Vertical exaggeration is about 300 times.

Studio, Nasa/goddard S.; Nasa

97

Potential long-term chemical effects of diesel fuel emissions on a mining environment: A preliminary assessment based on data from a deep subsurface tunnel at Rainer Mesa, Nevada test site  

SciTech Connect

The general purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) Introduced Materials Task is to understand and predict potential long-term modifications of natural water chemistry related to the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository that may significantly affect performance of the waste packages. The present study focuses on diesel exhaust. Although chemical information on diesel exhaust exists in the literature, it is either not explicit or incomplete, and none of it establishes mechanisms that might be used to predict long-term behavior. In addition, the data regarding microbially mediated chemical reactions are not well correlated with the abiotic chemical data. To obtain some of the required long-term information, we chose a historical analog: the U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site. This choice was based on the tunnel`s extended (30-year) history of diesel usage, its geological similarity to Yucca Mountain, and its availability. The sample site within the tunnel was chosen based on visual inspection and on information gathered from miners who were present during tunnel operations. The thick layer of dark deposit at that site was assumed to consist primarily of rock powder and diesel exhaust. Surface samples and core samples were collected with an intent to analyze the deposit and to measure potential migration of chemical components into the rock. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis, secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to measure both spatial distribution and concentration for the wide variety of chemical components that were expected based on our literature survey.

Meike, A.; Bourcier, W.L.; Alai, M. [and others

1995-09-01

98

Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources.

Tallman, A.M.

1995-12-31

99

INVESTIGATION OF SITE EFFECTS AT DAMAGED PORTS DURING THE 2011 GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE DISASTER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a large earthquake, it is quite important to estimate strong ground motions at the site of damaged port structures to analyze damage mechanism and to determine restoration policy. Although several strong motion records were successfully obtained at damaged ports during the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster (Takahashi et al., 2011), the records do not necessarily represent strong ground motions at the site of structural damage, because, according to recent knowledge, site effects can vary significantly within a relatively small area, even within a port. Thus, in this study, microtremor measurements and aftershock observations were conducted at damaged ports. The results of the study can be summarized as follows: 1) Gross distribution of the site effects within the ports were revealed at 8 ports where microtremor observations were conducted. At 7 ports (9 points), detailed site effects were revealed based on aftershock observations. 2) At Ofunato Port, it is estimated that the site effects are significantly different between the berthing facilities and the strong motions stations. The site effects for the berthing facilities were newly estimated based on aftershock records. 3) At Ishinomaki Port, the site effects at the berthing facilities are close to those at the K-NET strong motion station except for the Hibarino berth (-13m), the deepest berth in the port. The site effects for the Hibarino berth were newly estimated based on aftershock records. 4) According to the overall results, peak values of microtremor H/V spectra and those of site amplification factors are more or less correlated to each other.

Nozu, Atsushi; Wakai, Atsushi

100

Report on Archaeological Testing at Salishan Mesa (45GR445), Grant County, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On October of 1987, archaeological test excavations were conducted at Salishan Mesa. The purpose of the investigation was to obtain information for cultural resource management planning and to assess the site's potential for eligibility for inclusion on t...

R. A. Masten

1988-01-01

101

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2014-06-23

102

Career Education at Mesa Verde  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national pilot school for career education, Mesa Verde High School, Sacramento, subscribes to the philosophy that every student will be provided an abundance of career choices at all times whether he is vocationally, technically, or academically bound. A variety of work opportunities on the campus makes the program possible. (AG)

Triplett, Napoleon B.

1974-01-01

103

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema

With those fossil fuel reserves dwindling, the scientific race is on to convert the sunlight harvested by plants into new fuels that will augment and eventually replace petroleum. It's a critical challenge. But there is a powerful tool tackling it: Sandia National Laboratories' Red Sky Supercomputer with a special cluster called Red Mesa dedicated specifically to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

None

2013-05-29

104

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

SciTech Connect

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2011-04-14

105

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

SciTech Connect

With those fossil fuel reserves dwindling, the scientific race is on to convert the sunlight harvested by plants into new fuels that will augment and eventually replace petroleum. It's a critical challenge. But there is a powerful tool tackling it: Sandia National Laboratories' Red Sky Supercomputer with a special cluster called Red Mesa dedicated specifically to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

None

2011-01-01

106

Archaeological survey of the 200 East and 200 West Areas, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Responding to a heavy demand for cultural resource reviews of excavation sites, the Westinghouse Hanford Company contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive archaeological resource review for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington. This was accomplished through literature and records review and an intensive pedestrian survey of all undisturbed portions of the 200 East Area and a stratified random sample of the 200 West Area. The survey, followed the Secretary of the Interior's guidelines for the identification of historic properties. The result of the survey is a model of cultural resource distributions that has been used to create cultural resource zones with differing degrees of sensitivity. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Chatters, J.C.; Cadoret, N.A.

1990-03-01

107

Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1998.  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) for 1998. To evaluate the effects of ANL-E operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL-E site were analyzed and compared with applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL-E effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (i.e., natural, fallout, ANL-E, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the US Environmental Protection Agency's CAP-88 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) computer code, was used in preparing this report. The status of ANL-E environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations that govern waste handling and disposal is discussed, along with the progress of environmental corrective actions and restoration projects.

Golchert, N.W.; Kolzow, R.G.

1999-08-26

108

Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) for 1996. To evaluate the effects of ANL-E operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL-E site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL-E effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. The results of the surveillance program are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, ANL-E, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the CAP-88 version of the EPA-AIRDOSE/RADRISK computer code, is used in this report. The status of ANL-E environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations that govern waste handling and disposal is discussed. This report also discusses progress being made on environmental corrective actions and restoration projects.

Golchert, N.W.; Kolzow, R.G.

1997-09-01

109

Modeling the fate of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone at the Nevada Test Site: Examples from Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located 105 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, hosted 828 underground nuclear explosions between 1951 and 1992, leaving an estimated 1.3e+08 curies of tritium, fission products, activation products and unspent fuel in the subsurface when the nuclear test moratorium was adopted in September, 1992. In two former testing areas of the NTS - Yucca Flat

E. M. Kwicklis; Z. V. Dash; H. S. Viswanathan; D. G. Levitt; Z. Lu; Z. Dai; G. Zyvoloski; C. W. Gable; T. A. Miller

2010-01-01

110

Argonne National Laboratory--East site environmental report for calendar year 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1990. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. The results of the surveillance program are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, ANL, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy (DOE) dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations, is used in this report. The status of ANL environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations which govern waste handling and disposal is discussed. This report also discusses progress being made on environmental corrective actions and restoration projects from past activities.

Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Moos, L.P.

1991-07-01

111

Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1994. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. The results of the surveillance program are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, ANL, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy (DOE) dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations and the CAP-88 version of the EPA-AIRDOSE/RADRISK COMPUTER CODE, is used in this report. The status of ANL environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations which govern waste handling and disposal is discussed. This report also discusses progress being made on environmental corrective actions and restoration projects.

Golchert, N.W.; Kolzow, R.G.

1995-05-01

112

Final Report, FY 2001 200 East Vadose Test Site Hanford Washington Electrical Resistance Tomography  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the electrical resistance tomography (ERT) work performed at the Hanford Reservation, 200 East Area Vadose test (Sisson and Lu) site during the period March 23 through May 5,2001. The purposes of the ERT work were to: (1) Compare and contrast the development of the highly concentrated sodium thiosulfate plume (FY 01 work) with the fresh river water plume observed during FY 00. (2) Use the resistance images to infer the dynamics of the plume during two or three of the sodium thio-sulfate releases and during the water ''chaser'' release. (3) Determine the influence of the site's steel casings on the ability to construct reliable ERT images. (4) Determine if the steel casings at the site can be used as long electrodes to provide useful images of at least one release. (5) Develop quantitative estimates of the noise in the data and its effect on reconstructed images. Eleven electrode arrays (nine electrodes arrays available for the FY00 work), each with 15 electrodes, were installed at the site. These were used to perform 3D surveys before, during, and after 3 different spills.

Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Binley, A.

2001-06-30

113

Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1991. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples. Chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, ANL, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy (DOE) dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations and the CAP-88 version of the EPA-AIRDOSE/RADRISK computer code, is used in this report. The status of ANL environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations which govern waste handling and disposal is discussed. This report also discusses progress being made on environmental corrective actions and restoration projects from past activities.

Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Moos, L.P.

1992-05-01

114

Radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dating of the pottery from the early Neolithic site of Gasya (Russian Far East): initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the AMS radiocarbon technique and TL dating have been used to study the age of organic-tempered pottery from Gasya, one of the earliest Neolithic sites in the Russian Far East. The results obtained are consistent with the previous set of radiocarbon dates from the site, that were obtained for charcoal, and show that the hypothesis that the earliest pottery from the Amur River basin dates to before 10,000 BP (calendar years) is valid. The organic-tempered pottery from the Russian Far East therefore looks promising for future dating by the AMS radiocarbon and TL methods.

Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Hall, Sara; S. Tite, Michael; Bailey, Richard; O'Malley, Jeanette M.; E. Medvedev, Vitaly

2001-12-01

115

Evaluation of Cesium, Strontium, and Lead Sorption, Desorption, and Diffusion in Cores from Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, based on Macroscopic and Spectroscopic Investigations  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of radionuclides and other contaminants with minerals and other aquifer materials controls the rate of migration of these contaminants in groundwater. The stronger these interactions, the more a radionuclide will be retarded. Processes such as sorption and diffusion often control the migration of inorganic compounds in aquifers. These processes are often controlled by the nature of the ions of interest, the nature of the aquifer materials, and the specific geochemical conditions. Parameters describing sorption and diffusion of radionuclides and other inorganic ions on aquifer materials are used in transport codes to predict the potential for migration of these contaminants into the accessible environment. Sorption and diffusion studies can reduce the uncertainty of radionuclide transport modeling on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other nuclear testing areas.

Charalambos Papelis; Wooyong Um

2003-03-01

116

Three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure at the Nevada Test Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is derived by combining teleseismic P wave travel time residuals with Pn source time terms. The NTS time terms and relative teleseismic residuals are calculated by treating the explosions as a network of `receivers' which record `shots' located at the surrounding stations. Utilization of the Pn time terms allows for better crustal resolution than is possible from teleseismic information alone. Average relative teleseismic P wave residuals show a consistent progression of positive (late arrivals) to negative residuals from east to west across the NTS. However, Pn time terms beneath Rainier Mesa are at least 0.3 and 0.5 s less than those beneath Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat, respectively, indicating the presence of high-velocity crustal material or crustal thinning beneath Rainier Mesa. The time terms at Pahute Mesa are surprisingly uniform, and the largest time terms and residuals are observed in the northwest and southern parts of Yucca Flat. The Pn time terms show a slight correlation with the working-point velocity at the shot point for Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat, indicating that part of the observed lateral variations are caused by shallow effects of the upper crust. Three-dimensional inversion of the travel time residuals suggests that Yucca Flat is characterized by low-velocity anomalies confined to the upper crust, Rainer Mesa by very high velocities in the upper and middle crust, and Pahute Mesa by a high-velocity anomaly extending through the crust and into the upper mantle. Relatively low velocities are observed in the lower crust beneath the Timber Mountain caldera south of Pahute Mesa with no expression in the upper mantle. These observed differences in velocity beneath the Tertiary Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain calderas may be related to their magma volume and mode of enrichment from a mantle-derived magma source.

Taylor, Steven R.

1983-03-01

117

The Archeological Survey of Wetherill Mesa Mesa Verde National Park Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an overview of the National Geographic Society-funded Wetherill Mesa Project in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. The prologue discusses the goals and tactics of the project while the main report offers an inventory of the mesa's res...

A. C. Hayes

1964-01-01

118

Phase I Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary and framework of available transport data and other information directly relevant to the development of the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RMSM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99 groundwater transport model. Where appropriate, data and information documented elsewhere are briefly summarized with reference to the complete documentation.

Nathan Bryant

2008-05-01

119

Phase I Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada with Errata Sheet 1, 2, 3, Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As prescribed in the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE\\/NV, 1999) and Appendix VI of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008), the ultimate goal of transport analysis is to develop stochastic predictions of a contaminant boundary at a specified level of uncertainty. However, because of the significant uncertainty of the model

Greg Ruskauff

2009-01-01

120

Quantifying the Role of Cloud Water in the Hydrology of Two Montane Forest Sites on East Maui, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Maui (Haleakala volcano) rises 3054 m above the ocean, and clouds intercepting the mountain slopes are an integral part of the climate. To what extent do the trees and shrubs on the mountainsides extract cloud water that contributes to soil moisture, groundwater recharge, and stream flow in the watersheds? Two sites, on the windward and leeward sides of the

M. A. Scholl; S. B. Gingerich; T. W. Giambelluca; M. A. Nullet; L. L. Loope

2003-01-01

121

Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine particle (aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) samples were collected during six intensive measurement periods from November 2001 to August 2003 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in East Asia. Chemical composition of these aerosol samples including major ion components, trace elements, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

K. J. Moon; J. S. Han; Y. S. Ghim; Y. J. Kim

2008-01-01

122

Overview from bluff east of facility. Note buildings #35 (left). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview from bluff east of facility. Note buildings #35 (left). #33 (center), and #31 A (right) VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

123

ARNOLD MESA ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic geochemical, and aeromagnetic investigations and a survey of mines and prospects in the Arnold Mesa Roadless Area, Arizona, provide little evidence for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Buried Proterozoic basement rocks are possible hosts of porphyry-type copper and massive sulfide deposits but the thick cover of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and upper Cenozoic volcanic rocks precluded assessment of this possibility. Chemistry and temperature of spring and well waters suggest that a geothermal resource may exist near the eastern margin of the roadless area, but the anomaly has not been tested by drilling and this resource remains unverified. No other energy resources were identified.

Wolfe, Edward, W.; McColly, Robert, A.

1984-01-01

124

Ages of tuff beds at East African early hominid sites and sediments in the Gulf of Aden  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early hominids of East Africa were dated by determining the ages of tuff beds at the sites. Despite much research using palaeomagnetic and K/Ar-dating techniques, some of those ages are still controversial 1,2. To obtain independent age estimates for these tephra layers, we have examined cores from DSDP Sites 231 and 232 in the Gulf of Aden (Fig. 1a) which consist mainly of calcareous nannofossil ooze, but also contain rare tephra horizons3 dated by interpolation from the established nannofossil stratigraphy (Fig. 1b). Chemical analysis confirms that the identity and sequence of these horizons is the same as that at the East African sites. We conclude that the age of the Tulu Bor Tuff is <3.4 Myr and hence that the Hadar hominid specimens are also

Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C. E.; Roth, P. H.; Brown, F. H.

1985-01-01

125

Completion Report for Well ER-20-4 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-20-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in August and September 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to investigate the possibility of radionuclide transport from up-gradient underground nuclear tests conducted in central Pahute Mesa. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model.

NSTec Environmental Management

2011-04-30

126

Mars EVA Suit Airlock (MESA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrium Space Infrastructure Division has begun an in-house research activity of an Earth-based simulation facility supporting future manned missions to Mars. This research unit will help to prepare and support planned missions in the following ways: 1) to enable the investigation and analysis of contamination issues in advance of a human visit to Mars; 2) as a design tool to investigate and simulate crew operations; 3) to simulate crew operation during an actual mission; 4) to enable on-surface scientific operations without leaving the shirt-sleeve habitation environment ("glove box principle"). The MESA module is a surface EVA facility attached to the main habitation or laboratory module, or mobile pressurized rover. It will be sealed, but not pressurized, and provide protection against the harsh Martian environment. This module will include a second crew airlock for safety reasons. The compartment can also be used to provide an external working bench and experiment area for the crew. A simpler MESA concept provides only an open shelter against wind and dust. This concept does not incorporate working and experimental areas. The principle idea behind the MESA concept is to tackle the issue of contamination by minimizing the decontamination processes needed to clean surface equipment and crew suit surfaces after an EVA excursion prior to the astronaut re-entering the habitable area. The technical solution envisages the use of a dedicated crew suit airlock. This airlock uses an EVA suit which is externally attached by its back-pack to the EVA compartment area facing the Martian environment. The crew donns the suit from inside the habitable volume through the airlock on the back of the suit. The surface EVA can be accomplished after closing the back-pack and detaching the suit. A special technical design concept foresees an extendable suit back-pack, so that the astronaut can operate outside and in the vincinity of the module. The key driver in the investigation is the problem of contamination of the habitable volume by EVA and sampling activities and the transport of Earth-generated contaminants to Mars.

Ransom, Stephen; Böttcher, Jörg; Steinsiek, Frank

127

The Apame Project: Archeo-Paleoseismology for the Protection of Archeological Sites and Cultural Heritage in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The APAME EC project (Contract ICA3-CT-2002-10024) consists of multidisciplinary studies of seismically active regions along the Dead Sea Fault. Several medieval cities, citadels, fortresses and known archeological sites of the Middle East suffered of severe earthquake damage in the past. A repetition of similar seismic events nowadays will cause tremendous damage and destruction mainly due to the last century increase

2007-01-01

128

High frequency measurements of HFCs at a remote site in east Asia and their implications for Chinese emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

High frequency monitoring of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and some other halocarbons in the atmosphere has been performed at Hateruma Island (lat. 24.1°N, long. 123.8°E), a background site in east Asia. The observed concentrations showed occasional short-term enhancement events over hours to days as well as a clear seasonal variation, being lower in summer than in other seasons. We found that HFC-23

Y. Yokouchi; S. Taguchi; T. Saito; Y. Tohjima; H. Tanimoto; H. Mukai

2006-01-01

129

Orbital forced sea level fluctuations during the Middle Eocene (ODP site 1172, East Tasman Plateau)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Program leg 189 was undertaken to test and refine the hypothesis (by Kennett et al., 1975), that the reconfiguration of continents around Antarctica (e.g.: the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway and Drake passage) led to the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that, in turn, would cause thermal isolation and hence cooling of Antarctica. This would possibly even cause global cooling, as suggested by the 33.3 Ma Oi1 event. The cores of leg 189, site 1172 on the eastern side of the Tasmanian Gateway provided a nearly complete succession of Eocene and Oligocene sediments. Cyclostratigraphic analysis based on XRF derived Ca and Fe records indicates distinct Milankovitch cyclicity between 40 and 36 Ma. (Röhl et al, in press). In the core-section representing magnetochron 18n-1n, the Ca record shows precession cycles in combination with obliquity, suggested to reflect sea level fluctuations (Röhl et al, in press). New datasets include microfossil data (organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts, pollen/spores and diatoms), loss-on-ignition measurements, magnetic data (environmental magnetics - ARM). Here, we aim to further investigate the proposed relationship between astronomical forcing and sea-level fluctuations. Additionally, we aim to obtain insight in the palaeoecology of the distinct endemic circum-Antarctic late Middle to Late Eocene dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. Results corroborate the concept that the cyclicity recorded by Ca and Fe measurements is the result of sea-level fluctuations. This implies that during late Middle Eocene times, astronomical forcing has modulated sea level - most likely through Antarctic ice buildup and meltdown. In turn, this would indicate the presence of significant, though probably modest, ice masses already ~40 Ma ago, well before the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Kennett, J. P., R. E. Houtz, et al. (1975). Development of the circum-Antarctic current. Science 186: 144-147. Röhl, U.; H. Brinkhuis, C.E. Stickley, M. Fuller, S.A. Schellenberg, G. Wefer, G. Williams, Cyclostratigraphy of Middle and Late Eocene sediments from the East Tasman Plateau (site 1172), in press.

Warnaar, J.; Stickley, C.; Jovane, L.; Roehl, U.; Brinkhuis, H.; Visscher, H.

2004-12-01

130

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-15 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-15 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in October and November 2010, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section in the area between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic model. In particular, the well was intended to help define the structural position and hydraulic parameters of volcanic aquifers potentially down-gradient from underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. It may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

NSTec Environmental Management

2011-05-31

131

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-12 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-12 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June and July 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section in the area between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic model. In particular, the well was intended to help define the structural position and hydraulic parameters for volcanic aquifers potentially down-gradient from historic underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. It may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

NSTec Environmental Management

2011-04-30

132

Health Assessment for International Mineral and Chemical Corporation (IMC) East Plant NPL (National Priorities List) Site, Terre Haute, Indiana, Region 5. CERCLIS No. INT190010876.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Mineral and Chemical Corporation East Plant site, located in Terre Haute, Indiana, is a National Priorities List site. The contaminants of concern are chloroform and benzene hexachloride which are found in on-site and off-site soils and ...

1988-01-01

133

Limnology of Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs, Curecanti National Recreation area, during 1999, and a 25-year retrospective of nutrient conditions in Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service conducted a water-quality investigation in Curecanti National Recreation Area in Colorado from April through December 1999. Current (as of 1999) limnological characteristics, including nutrients, phytoplankton, chlorophyll-a, trophic status, and the water quality of stream inflows and reservoir outflows, of Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs were assessed, and a 25-year retrospective of nutrient conditions in Blue Mesa Reservoir was conducted. The three reservoirs are in a series on the Gunnison River, with an upstream to downstream order of Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs. Physical properties and water-quality samples were collected four times during 1999 from reservoir, inflow, and outflow sites in and around the recreation area. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, phytoplankton and chlorophyll-a (reservoir sites only), and suspended sediment (stream inflows only). Nutrient concentrations in the reservoirs were low; median total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were less than 0.4 and 0.06 milligram per liter, respectively. During water-column stratification, samples collected at depth had higher nutrient concentrations than photic-zone samples. Phytoplankton community and density were affected by water temperature, nutrients, and water residence time. Diatoms were the dominant phytoplankton throughout the year in Morrow Point and Crystal Reservoirs and during spring and early winter in Blue Mesa Reservoir. Blue-green algae were dominant in Blue Mesa Reservoir during summer and fall. Phytoplankton density was highest in Blue Mesa Reservoir and lowest in Crystal Reservoir. Longer residence times and warmer temperatures in Blue Mesa Reservoir were favorable for phytoplankton growth and development. Shorter residence times and cooler temperatures in the downstream reservoirs probably limited phytoplankton growth and development. Median chlorophyll-a concentrations were higher in Blue Mesa Reservoir than Morrow Point or Crystal Reservoirs. Blue Mesa Reservoir was mesotrophic in upstream areas and oligotrophic downstream. Both Morrow Point and Crystal Reservoirs were oligotrophic. Trophic-state index values were determined for total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and Secchi depth for each reservoir by the Carlson method; all values ranged between 29 and 55. Only the upstream areas in Blue Mesa Reservoir had total phosphorus and chlorophyll-a indices above 50, reflecting mesotrophic conditions. Nutrient inflows to Blue Mesa Reservoir, which were derived primarily from the Gunnison River, varied on a seasonal basis, whereas nutrient inflows to Morrow Point and Crystal Reservoirs, which were derived primarily from deep water releases from the respective upstream reservoir, were steady throughout the sampling period. Total phosphorus concentrations were elevated in many stream inflows. A comparison of current (as of 1999) and historical nutrient, chlorophyll-a, and trophic conditions in Blue Mesa Reservoir and its tributaries indicated that the trophic status in Blue Mesa Reservoir has not changed over the last 25 years, and more recent nutrient enrichment has not occurred.

Bauch, Nancy J.; Malick, Matt

2003-01-01

134

75 FR 9219 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Otay Mesa Land Port of Entry  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...modernization of the Otay Mesa Land Port of Entry (LPOE) in San...of approximately 10 acres of land along the eastern boundary of...Approximately 10 acres of adjacent land on the east side of the LPOE...pedestrian and public transit capabilities. Alternative 3--No...

2010-03-01

135

Geology of the Rainier Mesa-Aqueduct Mesa tunnel areas: U12n tunnel  

SciTech Connect

The U12n tunnel area is located beneath Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Stratigraphic units in the U12n area include Precambrian and Cambrian quartzite, Ordovician to Devonian dolomite and limestone, Cretaceous quartz monzonite, 25 Miocene and Pliocene volcanic rock units, and Quaternary colluvium and alluvium. Volcanic rocks in drill holes are classified into two chemical groups, four depositional processes, and four alteration types. Alteration of the volcanic rocks to predominantly zeolites, clay minerals, or silica is related to both stratigraphy and structure. Pre-volcanic structures are the CP thrust fault, a right-lateral fault zone that can be projected into the U12n area, and the Gold Meadows stock; Tertiary structures are depositional folds and predominantly normal faults. The right-lateral fault zone may have provided pre-existing planes of weakness during Tertiary deformation that resulted in west-northwest to northwest normal faults in the U12n area in contrast to north-south to north-northeast faults north and south of the U12n area. Normal faults at tunnel level have displacements that range from less than 3 to 125 ft or more. The Tertiary volcanic rocks were deposited on a pre-Tertiary, steep-sided drainage system and formed depositional folds. The Rainier Mesa depositional syncline is the major structures in the U12n area in addition to the normal faults. Drill-hole data indicate that the axis of syncline in the volcanic rocks parallels the contact between quartzite in the upper plate and dolomite and limestone in the lower plate of the CP thrust fault. 29 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Hoover, D.L.; Magner, J.E.

1990-01-01

136

Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200East Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study supports the Hanford Groundwater\\/Vadose integration project objectives to better understand the risk of groundwater contamination and potential risk to the public via groundwater flow paths. The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-East Area and vicinity.

Bruce A. Williams; Bruce N. Bjornstad; Ronald Schalla; William D. Webber

2000-01-01

137

Geophysical survey at Talos Dome East Antarctica: the search for a deep new drilling site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Talos Dome is an ice dome on the edge of the East Antarctic plateau; it is adjacent to the Victoria Land mountains and overlies the eastern margin of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. As part of the ITASE project, two traverse surveys were carried out in the Talos Dome area in November 1996 and January 2002. Airborne radar surveys were conducted

Massimo Frezzotti; Gabriele Bitelli; P. de Michelis; Alberto Deponti; Alessandro Forieri; Stefano Gandolfi; Valter Maggi; Francesco Mancini; F. Rémy; I. E. Tabacco; Stefano Urbini; Luca Vittuari; A. Zirizzotti

2004-01-01

138

Performance of loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) seedlings and micropropagated plantlets on an east Texas site  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Texas contains the western extent of the natural range of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and, therefore, many planted seedlings there experience water deficit sometimes leading to plantation failure. One solution may be to regenerate with clonally propagated drought-hardy planting stock. The objective of this research was to compare the field performance of loblolly pine seedlings and plantlets of

Mohd S Rahman; Michael G Messina; Ronald J Newton

2003-01-01

139

Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline  

SciTech Connect

The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

2003-02-26

140

Prediction of Pseudo relative velocity response spectra at Yucca Mountain for underground nuclear explosions conducted in the Pahute Mesa testing area at the Nevada testing site; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), managed by the Office of Geologic Disposal of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for commercial, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This work, intended to extend our understanding of the ground motion at Yucca Mountain resulting from testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS, was funded by the Yucca Mountain project and the Military Applications Weapons Test Program. This report summarizes one aspect of the weapons test seismic investigations conducted in FY88. Pseudo relative velocity response spectra (PSRV) have been calculated for a large body of surface ground motions generated by underground nuclear explosions. These spectra have been analyzed and fit using multiple linear regression techniques to develop a credible prediction technique for surface PSRVs. In addition, a technique for estimating downhole PSRVs at specific stations is included. A data summary, data analysis, prediction development, prediction evaluation, software summary and FORTRAN listing of the prediction technique are included in this report.

Phillips, J.S.

1991-12-01

141

Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

Cooper, Clay A [DRI] [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI] [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI] [DRI; Lyles, Brad F [DRI] [DRI

2013-07-01

142

Geoacoustic model at the DH-1 long-core site in the Korean continental margin of the East Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long core of 23.6 m was acquired at the DH-1 site (37°36.651'N and 129°19.709'E) in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. The core site is located near the Donghae City and the water depth is 357.8 m deep. The long-core sediment was recovered using the Portable Remotely Operated Drill (PROD), a fully contained drilling system, remotely operated at the seafloor. The recovered core sediments were analyzed for physical, sedimentological, and geoacoustic properties mostly at 10~30 cm intervals. Based on the long-core data with subbottom and air-gun profiles at the DH-1 core site, a geoacoustic model was firstly reconstructed including water mass. The geoacoustic model comprises 7 geoacoustic units of the core sediments, based on the measurements of 125 P-wave velocities and 121 attenuations. The P-wave speed was compensated to in situ depth below the sea floor using the Hamilton method. The geoacoustic model DH-1 probably contributes for reconstruction of geoacoustic models reflecting vertical and lateral variability of acoustic properties in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. Keywords: long core, geoacoustic model, East Sea, continental margin, P-wave speed Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0025733) and by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy through the grant of Marine Geology and Geophysical Mapping Project (GP2010-013).

Ryang, Woo Hun; Kim, Seong Pil

2014-05-01

143

Decommissioning of a grout- and waste-filled storage tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

A self-concentrating waste tank located at the Strontium Semiworks Facility in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site will be decommissioned following waste removal. During a previous decommissioning phase, the tank, thought to be empty, was filled with grout to prevent it from collapsing over time. Several years later, an agitator rod was pulled from within the tank and found to contain significant amounts of radiation, indicating there was still radioactive waste in the tank. Several alternative waste-removal options have been researched and evaluated. It is concluded that before the waste is to be disposed, the grout must be removed. This paper addresses that effort.

Marske, S.G.

1991-01-01

144

76 FR 51462 - Notice of Release of an Easement Restriction at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation...ACTION: Notice of Request to Release Airport Land...the easement is not needed for civilian airport purposes. In exchange for the...

2011-08-18

145

36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in §...

2009-07-01

146

36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in §...

2010-07-01

147

13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN TEMPE, SHOWING DROP STRUCTURE AND GROUNDWATER PUMP. THIS IS THE LAST OF FOUR PUMPS WHICH FEED DIRECTLY INTO THE CANAL BETWEEN ALMA SCHOOL ROAD AND PRICE ROAD. ON THIS DAY, ALL FOUR PUMPS, OPERATING AT FULL OUTPUT, HAVE CONSIDERABLY SWELLED THE FLOW TO THE CANAL. NOTE THE OLD FASHIONED BRICKWORK ON THE NORTH BANK. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

148

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): General Electric/Shepherd Farm Site, East Flat Rock, Henderson County, NC, September 29, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the General Electric/Shepherd Farm Site in East Flat Rock, Henderson County, North Carolina. The major threats are the contaminated groundwater emanating from beneath the Site and the surficial contaminated soil.

NONE

1996-03-01

149

Associations between total serum GGT activity and metabolic risk: MESA  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate associations between total serum GGT activity, metabolic risk factors and prevalent metabolic disease in MESA. Patients & methods Continuous associations between GGT and fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, HbA1c and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index of Insulin Resistance (HOMA–IR) were evaluated in the entire MESA cohort and in metabolic disease subgroups using linear regression models incrementally adjusted for age, gender, site, race, lifestyle, traditional risk factors and medications. Cross-sectional odds of prevalent impaired FBG, metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes were calculated for GGT quintiles in the entire cohort and in subgroups defined by age (< or ?65 years) and ethnicity. Results In multivariable models, significant associations were present between GGT activity and FBG, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA–IR, with the interaction between GGT and BMI affecting the association between GGT and HOMA–IR as well as the association between BMI and HOMA–IR (p < 0.0001). Adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) of prevalent impaired FBG, metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes for quintile 5 versus 1 in the entire cohort were 2.4 (1.7–3.5), 3.3 (2.5–4.5) and 2.8 (1.8–4.4), respectively (p < 0.0001). GGT associations weakened with age. The significance of linear trends for increased prevalent metabolic disease by increasing GGT quintile varied by ethnicity. Conclusion GGT is strongly associated with both cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, including prevalent metabolic disease, in the MESA cohort.

Bradley, Ryan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Jenny, Nancy S; Lee, Duk-Hee; Jacobs, David R

2014-01-01

150

Archaeological investigations on the Buckboard Mesa Road Project  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted an archaeological reconnaissance of a new alignment for the Buckboard Mesa Road on the Nevada Test Site for the Department of Energy (DOE). During this reconnaissance, several archaeological sites of National Register quality were discovered and recorded including a large quarry, site 26Ny4892, and a smaller lithic scatter, site 26Ny4894. Analysis of the debitage at 26Ny4892 indicates that this area was used primarily as a quarry for relatively small cobbles of obsidian found in the alluvium. Lithic reduction techniques used here are designed for efficiently reducing small pieces of toolstone and are oriented towards producing flake blanks from small cores and bifacially reducing exhausted cores. Projectile point cross references indicate that the area has seen at least casual use for about 10,000 years and more sustained use for the last 3,000 years. Initial obsidian hydration measurements indicate sustained use of the quarry for about the last 3,000 years although the loci of activities appear to change over time. Based on this study, the DRI recommends that quarrying activities in the area of 26Ny4892 are sufficiently sampled and that additional investigations into that aspect of prehistoric activity in the area are not necessary. This does not apply to other aspects of prehistoric use. DRI recommends that preconstruction surveys continue to identify nonquarrying, prehistoric utilization of the area. With the increased traffic on the Buckboard Mesa Road, there is a greater potential for vandalism to sites of National Register-quality located near the road. The DRI recommends that during the orientation briefing the workers at the Test Site be educated about the importance of cultural resources and the need for their protection. 202 refs., 41 figs., 52 tabs.

Amick, D.S.; Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

1991-10-01

151

Geophysical investigations at Pahute Mesa, Nevada. Final report, 17 Feb 89-21 Nov 91  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of this study has concentrated on the assembly of a data base of geological and geophysical data for a transect at Pahute Mesa, Nevada. Existing data, in the form of well logs, gravity observations and seismic travel times, have been supplemented by new gravity and seismic data especially for the construction of a geophysical model of the shallow crust. The transect is modeled as an extension basin, with up to 5 km of structural relief and volcanic fill. Major faulting is on the east side. The second part of this study has applied the new GPS technology to geogetic monitoring of nuclear explosions at Pahute Mesa, Nevada. Significant deformation is observed to be caused by the test BULLION. New rapid survey methods have been successfully applied to perform studies, which would have been otherwise prohibitively time consuming.

Ferguson, J.F.

1992-04-30

152

In-Situ Air Permeability Measurements Using the Cone Permeameter at the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the field demonstration of the Cone Permeameter{trademark} (CPer) conducted at the Immobilization Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) site in the 200 East area of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford facility. The demonstration was conducted using the Hanford Site Cone Penetration Platform (CPP) shown in Figure 1.1. The purpose of the technology demonstration was to (1) gather baseline data and evaluate the CPer's ability to measure air permeability in arid sands, silts and gravels; and (2) to determine the system's ability to replicate permeability profiles with multiple pushes in close proximity. The demonstration was jointly conducted by Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) and Science and Engineering Associates (SEA). This report satisfies the requirements of ARA's contract No.2075 to Lockheed Martin Hanford Company. The report is organized into six major sections. This first section presents an introduction and outline to the report. Section 2 contains a discussion of the technologies used for the demonstration. Section 3 contains a brief description of the site where the demonstration was conducted. Section 4 describes the testing methodology and chronology. Section 5 presents the results obtained during the field test program. Comparisons between these results and existing site data are developed and discussed in Section 5. A conclusion and recommendation section is presented in Section 6 of the report.

TROYER, G.L.

1999-03-31

153

A geophysical-geological transect of the Silent Canyon caldera complex, Pahute Mesa, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Revision of lithological logs for boreholes penetrating the volcanic center at Pahute Mesa, Nevada, has led to a thorough review of the volcanic stratigraphy and geologic structure. We have combined this review with a compilation of old and newly acquired gravity and seismic travel time data, producing a unified interpretation along a northwest to sutheast profile. The analysis supports a new interpretation of the Silent Canyon caldera complex. The caldera is found to be more asymmetric than previously suggested, with the southeastern boundary formed by linear, high-angle normal faultsand a more gently sloping northwestern boundary. The total thickness of volcanic units within the caldera complex does not appear to exceed 5 km. The shallow structure at Pahute Mesa could have a profound effect on the seismic response for regional and teleseismic signals from this nuclear test site. The Silent Canyon caldera complex is actually a set of nested calderas first filled by thick (greater than 1 km) postcaldera lavas and subsequently buried by outflow sheets of the Timber Mountain caldera to the south. Thick, postcaldera lavas filled a half-graben structure formed west of the West Greeley fault, dropping the tops of the youngest caldera-forming units to depths in excess of 2 km. Therefore the western boundary of the caldera complex is poorly defined. East of the West Greeley fault, two overlapping calderas are defined, and stratigraphic data suggest the presence of even older calderas. The youngest caldera, the calc-alkaline Area 20 caldera, is well defined from drill hole data. The Area 20 caldera overlaps the 13.6 Ma peralkaline Grouse Canyon caldera, which is less well defined, but apparently collapsed in trap-door style along the Almendro fault. For both these calderas, collapse continued after the main caldera-forming eruption, concurrent with the accumulation of thick (greater than 1 km) lavas within the peripheral collapse zones. The geophysical interpretation indicates that the major structural boundary of the caldera complex corresponds to the NNE trending Scrugham Peak and Almendro faults, which offset the pre-Tertiary contact more than 1 km but have less than 200 m offset in rocks of 11 Ma age. Drill hole data show that offsets along these faults increase systematically within older (up to 15 Ma) units, which are commonly rotated eastward in a style similar to units at the surface. Abrupt changes in the subsurface thickness of the caldera-forming units occur across the faults, indicating that these linear features served as caldera boundaries.

Ferguson, John F.; Cogbill, Allen H.; Warren, Richard G.

1994-03-01

154

A study on the waste metal remediation using floriculture at East Calcutta Wetlands, a Ramsar site in India.  

PubMed

Use of specific plant species in remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water was a promising eco-friendly technology. The present study indicated the possibilities of phytoremediation of metal-contaminated (namely Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) soil by using plant species important for floriculture of East Calcutta Wetlands, a Ramsar site at the eastern fringe of Calcutta city. Plant species like sunflower (Helianthus annuus), marigold (Tagetes patula), and cock's comb (Celocia cristata) grew on soil contaminated by industrial sludge and irrigated regularly with wastewater accumulated different metals in different plant parts in varied concentrations. Pot culture study in the laboratory setup was also done to ascertain the efficiency of these plants for ameliorating contaminated soil. It was found that general accumulation patterns of metals concerned in different plant parts were root > leaf > stem > flower. This work indicated the importance of cultivation of economically important, non-edible, ornamental plant species as an alternative cost-effective practice to remediate heavily contaminated farmlands of East Calcutta Wetlands. PMID:21960361

Chatterjee, Soumya; Singh, Lokendra; Chattopadhyay, Buddhadeb; Datta, Siddhartha; Mukhopadhyay, S K

2012-08-01

155

Addendum to the East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan (DOE 2004) describes the planned fieldwork to support the remedial investigation (RI) for residual contamination at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) not addressed in previous Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) decisions. This Addendum describes activities that will be conducted to gather additional information in Zone 1 of the ETTP for groundwater, surface water, and sediments. This Addendum has been developed from agreements reached in meetings held on June 23, 2010, August 25, 2010, October 13, 2010, November 13, 2010, December 1, 2010, and January 13, 2011, with representatives of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Based on historical to recent groundwater data for ETTP and the previously completed Sitewide Remedial Investigation for the ETTP (DOE 2007a), the following six areas of concern have been identified that exhibit groundwater contamination downgradient of these areas above state of Tennessee and EPA drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs): (1) K-720 Fly Ash Pile, (2) K-770 Scrap Yard, (3) Duct Island, (4) K-1085 Firehouse Burn/J.A. Jones Maintenance Area, (5) Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA), and (6) Former K-1070-A Burial Ground. The paper presents a brief summary of the history of the areas, the general conceptual models for the observed groundwater contamination, and the data gaps identified.

SAIC

2011-04-01

156

Widespread wind-scour sites reduce total surface mass balance of East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantification of surface accumulation over Antarctica is important for mass balance estimates and climate studies based on chemical and isotopic analysis of ice cores. Significant uncertainties exist in the current compilations of surface mass balance (SMB) over East Antarctica, especially in the interior. Katabatic winds accelerating over steeper ice surface slopes erode and sublimate the surface snow and firn, producing extensive and localized (~ 10 km or less) regions of near-zero or negative surface mass balance. Surface mass balance estimates over Antarctica rely on widely scattered point measurements or atmospheric models that interpolate over large grids and do not capture these local processes, thereby overestimating the net surface accumulation. Here we use unconformities in airborne radar data combined with lidar derived surface roughness to identify extensive and persistent wind-scour zones at high elevations (>3800 m) near Dome A, Antarctica. These wind-scour zones form in areas of relatively steep surface slopes controlled by bedrock topography. Airborne data used in this study was collected during the AGAP survey in 2009. Approximately 125,500 sq. km area over Dome A was surveyed in a dense grid of 5km spacing in the along-track and 35 km in the across-track direction. The radar profile unconformities are observed in ~45 flight lines. Over a broad region (~ 200 km) surrounding the unconformities, lidar derived surface roughness is higher than the regional mean roughness. The elevated surface roughness indicates formation of microscale surface features like sastrugi and dunes due to increased wind activity. Truncation of internal layers by the unconformity in the radar images indicates ablation of near-surface firn layers. We interpret the surface projection of unconformities as wind-scour zones where the SMB is zero or negative. Using a calculated mean slope in the wind direction based on a 1 km DEM, near-surface winds and annual SMB from RACMO2/ANT over the Dome A wind-scour areas, we derive physical thresholds for the formation of wind-scour zones. Using these thresholds we develop an empirical model for continent-wide prediction of wind-scour zones. Our estimates show that ~ 2.7-6.6 % of the surface area of Antarctica has zero to negative net surface accumulation. These zones are almost exclusively located in East Antarctica. Because these zones are largely unaccounted for in the current SMB compilations, we infer that the SMB is overestimated for East Antarctica by ~11-36.5 Gt/yr. Incorporating these wind-scour zones in SMB will therefore reduce the uncertainties involved in current mass balance estimates using input-output method and improve our interpretation of the accumulation rate and distribution as climate changes.

Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Scambos, T.; Wolovick, M.; Nicolas, J. P.; Creyts, T. T.; Studinger, M.; Frearson, N.

2012-12-01

157

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Mesa Area Ground Water Contamination, Mesa, AZ. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 80-acre Mesa Area Ground Water Contamination site is a semiconductor manufacturing facility in Mesa, Maricopa County, Arizona. Land use in the area is predominantly industrial and residential. The site overlies two aquifers: a Lower Alluvial Aquifer (LAA), which is used by the residents of Mesa as a drinking water source, and an Upper Alluvial Aquifer (UAA). Since 1966, Motorola, Inc., has used the site for the production of semiconductors and the storage of chemicals in an underground storage system. The selected remedial action for the site includes treating shallow onsite soil using soil vapor extraction, controlling VOC emissions using carbon adsorption, followed by offsite disposal of carbon residuals; onsite and offsite pumping of contaminated ground water; treating the ground water onsite using vacuum degasification, followed by carbon adsorption to remove VOCs; discharging the treated water from the degasifier to the deionized water treatment plant for reuse in manufacturing and other facility processes; and disposing of remaining wastewater at a publicly owned treatment works.

Not Available

1991-09-27

158

The East Pacific Rise 8\\deg to 11\\deg N Integrated Studies Site (ISS); Update and Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 8\\deg to 11\\deg N segment of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) represents a dynamic, fast-spreading type of mid-ocean ridge selected for focused interdisciplinary study within the Ridge 2000 program. Diverse fast spreading environments are encompassed by the site including a hierarchy of axial segments and discontinuities. The site "bull's- eye" is at 9\\deg49' to 9\\deg51' N where numerous high temperature vents and diffuse flow communities have been mapped and monitored over the past 14 years. Concentric circles around the bull's eye encompass ridge segments at a range of scales, from the first-order segment bounded by the Siquieros and Clipperton transform faults to the fourth-order segment which includes the extent of the 1991 and 1992 volcanic eruptions. Five-year goals for the site include a working model of mantle flow and melt supply; detailed imaging of subseafloor structures and relationships to vent communities and chemistry; quantitative data about microbes and macrofauna and linkages with fluid flow, tectonics, and magmatism; quantification of the heat/chemical flux into the water column; and linkages and temporal variation in geological, chemical, and biological parameters. Field programs in 2002 collected data for calculations of primary and secondary productivity at different vent communities, with a focus on tube worms and bivalves; searched for hydrothermal signals from an earlier earthquake swarm; and continued time-series fluid sampling at all 9\\deg10' to 9\\deg51'N high-temperature vents. 2003 cruises will continue geophysical/volcanological studies and deploy an array of in situ chemical sensors for use in monitoring vent fluids. Programs scheduled to begin in 2004 include three-dimensional multi-channel seismic and magnetotelluric studies of subsurface structure at the site "Bull's eye", initiation of monitoring studies of seismicity, fluid temperature and chemistry, and vent fauna. An overview of on-going and upcoming studies at the site will be presented.

Carbotte, S.; Haymon, R.; Holland, M.; von Damm, K.

2003-12-01

159

Seasonal variations of black carbon in rainwater at a remote site in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) particles are emitted into the atmosphere by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, and removed by wet deposition. Because wet deposition is the major sink of BC, systematic measurements of wet deposition of BC are critical for quantitative understanding loss of BC. We measured BC mass concentration in the air (Mair) and in rainwater (Mrain) simultaneously at Cape Hedo on Okinawa Island, Japan, in the East China Sea, from April 2010 to March 2013. An automated wet-only sampler was used to collect rainwater during a 24 period. Mair was measured by a Continuous Soot Monitoring System (COSMOS) and Mrain was measured by a system consisting of an ultrasonic nebulizer and a Single Soot Photometer (SP2). The monthly averaged Mair and Mrain showed marked seasonal variations: Mair and Mrain were highest in spring (0.32×0.13 ?g m-3 and 92×76 ?g L-1, respectively), and lowest in summer (0.06×0.03 ?g m-3 and 8.0×4.1?g L-1, respectively). The BC deposition flux FBC, defined as the product of Mrain and amount of precipitation, also showed a distinct seasonal variation. The average FBC in spring was about 77% of the annual average FBC, which was 65.5 mg m-2 year-1. The highest FBC in spring was due to the high Mrain and precipitation amount. In turn, the high Mrain was caused by the Mair values in spring associated with frequent transport of high BC air masses from China by north-westerly wind in this season. The BC scavenging ratio, defined as the Mrain/Mair ratio, was highly variable throughout the year: the ratio in spring was about 6 times higher than in fall.

Mori, T.; Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Ohata, S.; Iwasaki, A.

2013-12-01

160

The MESA accelerometer for space application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrostatically suspended proof mass in the Miniature Electrostatic Accelerometer (MESA) is used to measure acceleration in the submicro-g range. Since no fixed mechanical suspension (such as springs or strings) is used, the constrainment scaling can be changed electrically after being placed in orbit. A single proof mass can sense accelerations in three axes simultaneously. It can survive high-g pyrotechnic-generated shocks and launch environments while unpowered.

Lange, William G.; Dietrich, Robert W.

1990-01-01

161

MESA: Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar physics and evolution calculations enable a broad range of research in astrophysics. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) is a suite of open source libraries for a wide range of applications in computational stellar astrophysics. A newly designed 1-D stellar evolution module, MESA star, combines many of the numerical and physics modules for simulations of a wide range of stellar evolution scenarios ranging from very-low mass to massive stars, including advanced evolutionary phases. MESA star solves the fully coupled structure and composition equations simultaneously. It uses adaptive mesh refinement and sophisticated timestep controls, and supports shared memory parallelism based on OpenMP. Independently usable modules provide equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, and atmosphere boundary conditions. Each module is constructed as a separate Fortran 95 library with its own public interface. Examples include comparisons to other codes and show evolutionary tracks of very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and gas giant planets; the complete evolution of a 1 Msun star from the pre-main sequence to a cooling white dwarf; the Solar sound speed profile; the evolution of intermediate mass stars through the thermal pulses on the He-shell burning AGB phase; the interior structure of slowly pulsating B Stars and Beta Cepheids; evolutionary tracks of massive stars from the pre-main sequence to the onset of core collapse; stars undergoing Roche lobe overflow; and accretion onto a neutron star.

Paxton, Bill; Bildsten, Lars; Dotter, Aaron; Herwig, Falk; Lesaffre, Pierre; Timmes, Frank

2010-10-01

162

Public Health Assessment for General Electric Site-East Street Area II (a/k/a GE-Housatonic River) Pittsfield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, EPA Facility ID: MAD002084093 September 30, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The East Street Area 2 site of the General Electric (GE) site in Pittsfield, Massachusetts is one of 10 areas being evaluated in separate public health assessments and health consultations. In addition, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH)...

2003-01-01

163

Public Health Assessment for General Electric Site-East Area I (a/k/a Ge-Housatonic River) Pittsfield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts EPA Facility ID: MAD002084093, September 23, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The East Street Area 1 site of the General Electric (GE) site in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, is one of 10 areas being evaluated in separate public health assessments and health consultations. In addition, the Massachusetts Departments of Public Health (MDP...

2003-01-01

164

Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia.  

PubMed

Fine particle (aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm) samples were collected during six intensive measurement periods from November 2001 to August 2003 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in East Asia. Chemical composition of these aerosol samples including major ion components, trace elements, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed to study the impact of long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosol. Aerosol chemical composition data were then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) technique in order to identify the possible sources and estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. Fourteen sources were then resolved including soil dust, fresh sea salt, transformed natural source, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, secondary organic carbon, diesel vehicle, gasoline vehicle, fuel oil combustion, biomass burning, coal combustion, municipal incineration, metallurgical emission source, and volcanic emission. The PMF analysis results of source contributions showed that the natural sources including soil dust, fresh and aged sea salt, and volcanic emission contributed to about 20% of the measured PM(2.5) mass. Other primary anthropogenic sources such as diesel and gasoline vehicle, coal and fuel oil combustion, biomass burning, municipal incineration, metallurgical source contributed about 34% of PM(2.5) mass. Especially, the secondary aerosol mainly involved with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon contributed to about 39% of the PM(2.5) mass. PMID:18255146

Moon, K J; Han, J S; Ghim, Y S; Kim, Y J

2008-07-01

165

Geology, hydrology, and water quality in the vicinity of a brownfield redevelopment site in East Moline, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of the geology, hydrology, and water quality in the vicinity of a Brownfield redevelopment site in East Moline, Illinois, was designed to determine if metals and organic compounds detected in the fill deposits in this area posed a threat to the water resources. The hydrologic features of concern at the site are surface water at a pond and surrounding wetland, the Mississippi River, and an unnamed stream and ground water in the shallow aquifer. The shallow aquifer is composed of saturated fill, sand and gravel, and weathered bedrock. The overall direction of surface- and ground-water flow in the study area is toward the Mississippi River. In the eastern part of the pond and wetland, ground water discharges to surface water. In the western part of the pond and wetland, surface water recharges to ground water. Everyday during the period for which water-level data were available, between 4.7 ' 10-4 and 1.4 ' 10-1 cubic feet of water flowed across a 1 square foot area of aquifer. Variations in values for oxidation-reduction potential and specific conductance may be affected by heterogeneity in the chemical composition of the fill and unconsolidated deposits and the bedrock units. Chemical and biological processes are altering the chemistry of the water in the pond relative to its ground-water source. Concentrations of iron and manganese in water samples appear to be affected by the local geochemical environment in the aquifer. The data do not indicate that contaminants in the fill material are having a substantial adverse affect on surface- or ground-water quality in the study area.

Kay, Robert T.

2001-01-01

166

Fiscal years 1993 and 1994 decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book for the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site, Technology Development Division, Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects Department  

SciTech Connect

This photobriefing book describes the ongoing decontamination and decommissioning projects at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East Site near Lemont, Illinois. The book is broken down into three sections: introduction, project descriptions, and summary. The introduction elates the history and mission of the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Projects Department at ANL-East. The second section describes the active ANL-East D and D projects, giving a project history and detailing fiscal year (FY) 1993 and FY 1994 accomplishments and FY 1995 goals. The final section summarizes the goals of the D and D Projects Department and the current program status. The D/D projects include the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor, Chicago Pile-5 Reactor, that cells, and plutonium gloveboxes. 73 figs.

NONE

1995-12-31

167

Chemical composition and mass size distribution of PM1.0 at an elevated site in central east China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size-resolved aerosol chemical compositions were measured continuously for one and half years with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to characterize the mass and size distributions (MSDs) of each component in bulk, fresh and aged submicron particles (approximately PM1.0) at Mountain Tai, an elevated site in Central East China (CEC) from June 2010 to January 2012. The majority of the regionally-dispersed aerosols were found to be contributed from short distance mixed aerosol, mostly from its south with organics and sulfate as the major components. The annual mean mass concentrations of organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and chloride were 11.2, 9.2, 7.2, 5.8 and 0.95 ?g m-3, respectively, which are much lower for organics and sulfate, and slightly lower for nitrate, ammonium and chloride than those at the nearby surface rural sites. High organics were observed for all four seasons, and the relatively fresh organic aerosol (OA) containing high proportion of less-photo chemically OA, were found from long-range transported aerosol from northwest. Semi-volatile and low-volatile oxidized OAs together contributed approximately 49%, 55% in spring and 72% and 51% in winter of total OA, showing at least 50% of OA can be attributable to SOA. Seasonally, the chemical components at the elevated site showed a "winter high and autumn low" pattern, with organics, sulfate and ammonium peaking in summer. Though no obvious differences of MSDs were seen for various chemical components in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and free troposphere (FT), the concentrations were a factor of 5-7 higher in PBL than in FT. The averaged MSDs of particles between 30-1000 nm for organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium are approximately log-normal with similar mass median diameters (MMDs) of 539, 585, 542, and 545 nm, respectively, which were slightly larger than those in ground sites within North China Plain (NCP). Obvious differences in MMDs were found between fresh and aged aerosols for sulfate and ammonium, with smaller increased size-factors for the Mt. Tai aerosols than those in less polluted areas. All these exhibit the relative aged and well-mixed aerosol observed.

Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Hu, G. Y.; Shen, X. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, T. T.; Wang, D. Z.; Zhao, Y.

2014-06-01

168

A novel optical MEMS pressure sensor with a mesa diaphragm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel pressure sensor with a mesa structure diaphragm based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques is presented. The operating principle of the MEMS pressure sensor is expatiated by the Fabry-Parot (F-P) cavity model and the relation between pressure and interference light intensity is deduced in the sensor. The mechanical model of the mesa structure diaphragm is validated by simulation, which

Yixian Ge; Ming Wang; Hua Rong; Xuxing Chen

2008-01-01

169

How To Start a MESA Center at a Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between September 1990 and December 1991, Cabrillo College implemented the Math, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program to increase the number of underrepresented minority students enrolling in scientific disciplines at Cabrillo and subsequently transferring to four-year colleges. The initial program was targeted to 200 MESA members…

Claire, Susan

170

TYBO\\/BENHAM: Model Analysis of Groundwater Flow ; and Radionuclide Migration from Underground Nuclear ; Tests in Southwestern Pahute Mesa, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent field studies have led to the discovery of trace quantities of plutonium originating from the BENHAM underground nuclear test in two groundwater observation wells on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. These observation wells are located 1.3 km from the BENHAM underground nuclear test and approximately 300 m from the TYBO underground nuclear test. In addition to plutonium,

Andrew Wolfsberg; Lee Glascoe; Guoping Lu; Alyssa; Peter Lichtner; Maureen McGraw; Terry Cherry; Guy Roemer

2002-01-01

171

Two-dimensional velocity models for paths from Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical acceleration recordings of 21 underground nuclear explosions recorded at stations at Yucca Mountain provide the data for development of three two-dimensional crystal velocity profiles for portions of the Nevada Test Site. Paths from Area 19, Area 20 (both Pahute Mesa), and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain have been modeled using asymptotic ray theory travel time and synthetic seismogram techniques.

M. C. Walck; J. S. Phillips

1990-01-01

172

A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 6 of 6  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

2009-02-01

173

A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 5 of 6  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

2009-02-01

174

A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 2 of 6  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

2009-02-01

175

A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 1 of 6  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

2009-02-01

176

A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 3 of 6  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

2009-02-01

177

A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 4 of 6  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

2009-02-01

178

Tank Leak Experiment at the Mock Tank Site, 200 East Area: Electrical Resistance Tomography-Preliminary Results  

SciTech Connect

Electrical resistance measurements were used to monitor several releases of brine from the Mock Tank Test site at the 200 East Area. Three different methods were used to analyze the data: (1) a simple average of the raw data was used as an indicator of the presence/absence of a leak, (2) tomography of the region beneath the tank using data from steel-cased borehole, and (3) tomography of the region beneath the tank using data from vertical electrode arrays. Each of these methods was able to detect the presence of what appeared to be conductive plumes forming beneath the tank. The results suggest the following: (1) The minimum detectable leak volume is of the Order of a few hundred gallons. (2) procedure involving the use of reciprocal data can be used to evaluate the reliability of the results and minimize the potential for false-positive and false-negative conclusions; (3) The dry wells may be used as long electrodes to obtain 2D images of the plume under the tank. (4) 3D electrical resistance tomography (ERT) images provide information that can be used to determine the released volume, the speed and direction of plume movement, the regions of the soil that are being contaminated, and the approximate location of the hole in the tank. (5) It may be possible to map pre-existing plumes when no pre-spill data exists. (6) A ''quick look'' calculation can be used in the field can reliably detect the occurrence of a leak.

Ramirez, A; Daily, W; Binley, A

2002-01-18

179

CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION AT THE EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK SITE, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic accidental release of mercury-contaminated material associated with nuclear weapons production at East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulted in stream and floodplain contamination. he EFPC is designated as an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) operable unit under the Comprehensive ...

180

Characterization of nutrients in the atmospheric wet and dry deposition observed at the two monitoring sites over Yellow Sea and East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the atmospheric deposition of nutrients into the coastal and shelf regions of the northwest Pacific Ocean,\\u000a observation sites were established upon Qianliyan Island (within the Yellow Sea) and the Shengsi Archipelago (within the East\\u000a China Sea), respectively. Nutrient concentrations, including $$ {\\\\text{NH}}^{ + }_{4} ,{\\\\text{NO}}^{ - }_{3} ,{\\\\text{NO}}^{ - }_{2} ,{\\\\text{PO}}^{{3 - }}_{4} {\\\\text{ and SiO}}^{{2 - }}_{3}

Guosen Zhang; Jing Zhang; Sumei Liu

2007-01-01

181

"No. 146. Looking west along dam. East side abutment." Note ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"No. 146. Looking west along dam. East side abutment." Note sluiceway and headgates at center rear of photograph; cofferdam at center right; and the screening and mixing plant at lower right. Rail cars are on the railroad grade in background - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

182

Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of facility. Note Buildings #35. #33 and #31A in lower left of photograph. VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

183

Geohydrologic data and models of Rainier Mesa and their implications to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The geohydrologic data collected at Rainier Mesa provide the only extensive observations in tunnels presently available on flow and transport in tuff units similar to those of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This information can, therefore, be of great value in planning the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) testing in underground drifts at Yucca Mountain. In this paper, we compare the geohydrologic characteristics of tuff units of these two sites and summarize the hydrochemical data indicating the presence of nearly meteoric water in Rainier Mesa tunnels. A simple analytic model is used to evaluate the possibility of propagating transient pulses of water along fractures or faults through the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff unit to reach the tunnel beds below. The results suggest that fast flow could occur without significant mixing between meteoric fracture water and matrix pore water. The implications of these findings on planning for the ESF Calico Hills study at Yucca Mountain are discussed.

Wang, J.S.Y.; Cook, N.G.W.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Carnahan, C.L.; Javandel, I.; Tsang, C.F.

1993-01-01

184

Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over a coastal/rural site downwind of East China: Temporal variation and long-range transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although much attention has been paid to the mercury pollution in China, limited field studies have been conducted to explore the atmospheric behavior of mercury. To investigate the temporal variation and long-range transport of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)), the GEM measurements covering four different seasons were performed at a coastal/rural site of the Yellow Sea downwind of East China. Hourly mean concentrations of GEM measured by RA-915+ mercury analyzer over the entire study (four different time periods between July 2007 and May 2009) were 2.31 ± 0.74 ng m -3 with a range of 1.12-7.01 ng m -3. The results showed moderate seasonal variations with high levels in cold seasons (winter: 2.53 ± 0.77 ng m -3 and spring: 2.34 ± 0.54 ng m -3) and low levels in warm seasons (summer: 2.28 ± 0.82 ng m -3 and fall: 2.16 ± 0.84 ng m -3). Over the each campaign a diurnal variation of GEM was observed consistently with peak levels in daytime and low levels in late night and early morning. The pollution rose and NOAA-HYSPLIT back-trajectory model analyses indicated that the elevated GEM was transported to the sampling site from the regional sources of East China and Korea peninsula-Japan. Air masses originated from the East China Sea and the regions of Continental East Asia with low emission strengths of atmospheric mercury (e.g., the east Russia, the north Inner Mongolia and the Bohai Sea) showed the decreased GEM levels.

Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Niu, Zhenchuan

2011-05-01

185

The Laramide Mesa formation and the Ojo de Agua caldera, southeast of the Cananea copper mining district, Sonora, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mesa Formation extends from Cananea, Mexico, southeast to the Sonora River and is the main host rock of Laramide porphyry copper deposits in the Cananea District and at the Alacran porphyry prospect to the east. The Mesa consists of two members-a lower andesite and an upper dacite. The lowest part of the dacite member is a crystal tuff about 100 m thick. This tuff is the outfall of a caldera centered near the village of Ojo de Agua, dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 65.8 Ma ?0.4. The Ojo de Agua Caldera is about 9 km in diameter and is filled by a light gray biotite dacite tuff with abundant flattened pumice fragments. The volume of the caldera is estimated to be 24 km3.

Cox, Dennis P.; Miller, Robert J.; Woodbourne, Keith L.

2006-01-01

186

Completion Report for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa  

SciTech Connect

Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The holes were drilled in July and August 2009, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of these wells was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. They may also be used as long-term monitoring wells.

NSTec Environmental Management

2011-02-28

187

Relations between groundwater levels and anthropogenic and meteorological stressors at selected sites in east-central Florida, 1995-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to define the relations of water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) and surficial aquifer system (SAS) to anthropogenic and meteorological stressors between 1995 and 2007 at two monitoring well sites (Charlotte Street and Lake Oliver) in east-central Florida. Anthropogenic stressors of interest included municipal and agricultural groundwater withdrawals, and application of reclaimed-water to rapid-infiltration basins (source of aquifer recharge). Meteorological stressors included precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Overall, anthropogenic and meteorological stressors accounted for about 40 to 89 percent of the variance in UFA and SAS groundwater levels and water-level changes. While mean monthly water levels were better correlated with monthly stressor values, changes in UFA and SAS water levels were better correlated with changes in stressor values. Water levels and water-level changes were influenced by system persistence as the moving-averaged values of both stressor types, which accounted for the influence of the previous month(s) conditions, consistently yielded higher adjusted coefficients of determination (R2 adj) values than did single monthly values. While monthly water-level changes tend to be influenced equally with both stressors across the hydrologically averaged 13-year period, changes were more influenced by one stressor or the other seasonally and during extended wet and dry periods. Seasonally, UFA water-level changes tended to be more influenced by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS water levels tended to be more influenced by meteorological stressors. During extended dry periods (12 months or greater), changes in UFA water levels at Charlotte Street were more affected by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS levels were more affected by meteorological stressors. At Lake Oliver, changes in both UFA and SAS water levels were better correlated with meteorological stressors for all but the wet period between April 1995 and April 1996. Interestingly, changes in both UFA and SAS water levels at Charlotte Street were also better correlated with anthropogenic stressors during a similar wet period between April 1995 and June 1996 when substantive reductions in groundwater withdrawals resulted in appreciable recovery of both UFA and SAS water levels. The regional effects of anthropogenic stressors had limited influence on water-level changes at Charlotte Street and virtually no influence on changes at Lake Oliver. When regressed against the 2.2 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of municipal withdrawals located within 2 miles of the Charlotte Street site, water-level changes were influenced solely by precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. At a radius of 2.5 miles, however, where cumulative withdrawals totaled about 9.5 Mgal/d, water-level changes were equally influenced by both anthropogenic and meteorological stressors. Withdrawals located at distances of greater than 3 miles from this site had no appreciable effect on relations between water-level changes and these stressors. At Lake Oliver, changes in UFA water levels were equally influenced by both stressors regardless of distance, while changes in SAS levels were more influenced by meteorological stressors at all distances.

Murray, Louis C., Jr.

2010-01-01

188

MESA: A 3-D Eulerian hydrocode for penetration mechanics studies  

SciTech Connect

We describe an explicit, finite-difference hydrocode, called MESA, and compare calculations to metal and ceramic plate impacts with spall and to Taylor cylinder tests. The MESA code was developed with support from DARPA, the Army and the Marine Corps for use in armor/anti-armor problems primarily, but the code has been used for a number of other applications. MESA includes 2-D and 3-D Eulerian hydrodynamics, a number of material strength and fracture models, and a programmed burn high explosives model. 15 refs., 4 figs.

Mandell, D.A.; Holian, K.S.; Henninger, R.

1991-01-01

189

Completion Report for Well ER-12-4, Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain (includes Errata Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-12-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in May 2005, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit in the north-central portion of the Nevada Test Site. The well is located on Rainier/Aqueduct Mesa, northwest of Yucca Flat, within Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site. The well provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in U12t Tunnel, information on the pre-Tertiary rocks in the area, and depth to the regional water table.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

2006-05-01

190

Geohydrology of Pahute Mesa-3 test well, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Pahute Mesa-3 test well is on Pahute Mesa about 3 miles west of the Nevada Test Site and 20 miles northeast of Oasis Valley near Beatty, Nevada. The well was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy Radionuclide Migration Program to monitor conditions near the western edge of the Nevada Test Site. The well was drilled with conventional rotary methods and an air-foam drilling fluid to a depth of 3,019 feet. A 10.75-inch diameter steel casing was installed to a depth of 1,473 feet. The test well penetrates thick units of non-welded to partly welded ash-flow and air-fall tuff of Tertiary age with several thin layers of densely welded tuff, rhyolite and basalt flows, and breccia. Geophysical logs indicate that fractures are significant in the Tiva Canyon Tuff of the Paintbrush Group and this was confirmed by high flow in this unit during a borehole-flow survey. The geophysical logs also show that the effective porosity in tuffaceous units ranges from 19 to 38 percent and averages 30 percent, and the total porosity ranges from 33 to 55 percent and averages 42 percent. The measured temperature gradient of 1.00 degree Celsius per 100 feet is steep, but is similar to that of other nearby wells, one of which penetrates a buried granite intrusion. Injection tests for six intervals of the well yielded transmissivities that ranged from 3.1 x 10{sup -3} to 25 feet squared per day and hydraulic conductivities that ranged from 6 x 10{sup -5} to 0.12 foot per day. The sum of the transmissivities is 28 feet squared per day and the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity is 1.7 x 10{sup -3} foot per day. Estimates of storage coefficient range from 2.1 x 10{sup -5} to 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, indicating that the aquifer responded to the injection tests in a confined manner. An aquifer test produced a drawdown of 78 feet during 31 hours of testing at 169 gallons per minute.

Kilroy, K.C.; Savard, C.S.

1997-02-01

191

In the Far East  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for In the Far East (QTVR)

In the distance stand the east hills, which are closest to the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in comparison to other hill ranges seen on the martian horizon. The top of the east hills are approximately 2 to 3 kilometers (1 to 2 miles) away from the rover's approximate location. This image was taken on Mars by the rover's panoramic camera.

2004-01-01

192

Hay Lake Specialist's Report: Anderson Mesa Landscape Scale Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Anderson Mesa Landscape Scale Assessment is a comprehensive document that describes the ecosystems structure, processes and functions. The Assessment objectives as outlined in the project initiation letter were as follows: Identify opportunities (proj...

2004-01-01

193

Affordable Housing Demonstration: A Case Study, Mesa County, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This case study describes a cooperative venture between a forward-looking municipality and a builder to produce affordable housing for singles and joint ownership by unrelated persons in Mesa County, Colo. The Coventry Club project was developed and built...

1984-01-01

194

Water Quality Evaluation of the Grand Mesa Project Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of the Bureau of Reclamation's proposed Grand Mesa Project indicates that with adequate treatment municipal, industrial and other domestic waste loadings should not significantly affect water quality for present and projected water uses in t...

1971-01-01

195

Sigma Mesa: Background elemental concentrations in soil and vegetation, 1979  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, soil and vegetation samples were collected on Sigma Mesa to provide background data before construction on the mesa. Elemental data are presented for soil, grass, juniper, pinon pine, and oak. None of the data looks out of the ordinary. The purpose of the sampling program was to acquire, before any disturbance, a set of data to be used as background for future impact analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.; Brooks, G.H. Jr.

1990-10-01

196

Analysis of radiocarbon dates of an archaeological site in the Russian Far East: The marine reservoir effect as seen on charred remains on pottery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain precise and accurate calibrated radiocarbon chronologies for archaeological sites, it is necessary to determine the provenance of the carbon material being dated. Of particular note is determining the provenance and radiocarbon age of charcoal remains on pottery. In this context, we discuss the decipherment of dates on the Ustinovka-8 site in the Russian Far East. Using ?13C, ?15N and C:N it is possible to ascribe charcoal provenance to terrestrial and marine origins. Our data show radiocarbon age difference that are clearly associated with carbon origin, and a maximum estimated ? R of approximately 400 years during the Zaisanovskaya culture, 4400 cal BP. A combination of pottery analysis and 14C dating at this site determined the Zaisanovskaya cultural period to be 4000-5000 cal BP, the Boismanskaya and the Late Rudninskaya cultural period 5800-6500 cal BP, and the Early Rudninskaya cultural period of 6800-7100 cal BP.

Kunikita, Dai; Yoshida, Kunio; Miyazaki, Yumiko; Saito, Keita; Endo, Aya; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinji; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Fujimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kuznetsov, A. M.; Krupyanko, A. A.; Tabarev, A. M.

2007-06-01

197

Transitional adakite-like to calc-alkaline magmas in a continental extensional setting at La Paz Au-Cu skarn deposits, Mesa Central, Mexico: metallogenic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 ABSTRACT The granodiorite intrusions with associated Cu-Au skarn mineralization of La Paz district are located in the east part of the Mesa Central of Mexico. The skarn developed at the contact between a middle Cretaceous calc-argillaceous sedimentary sequence and the magmatic intrusions. A Ag-Pb-Zn vein system postdates the intrusive-skarn assemblage. Two well defi ned fault systems (N-S and E-W)

J. Pinto-Linares; Gilles Levresse; Jordi Tritlla; Víctor A. Valencia; José M. Torres-Aguilera; Manuel González; David Estrada

2008-01-01

198

The use of levoglucosan and radiocarbon for source apportionment of PM(2.5) carbonaceous aerosols at a background site in East China.  

PubMed

Samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected during July 2009 to March 2010 at a regional background site in East China. The mass concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were characterized by the highest levels in winter (December to February) and the lowest abundances in summer (June to August). Conversely, the concentrations of levoglucosan were higher in summer than in winter. The observations were associated to the anthropogenic air pollutions (predominantly fossil-fuel combustions) transport from the center and north China with the northwest winds in winter and large contribution of the open biomass burning activities in South China and East China in summer, which was evident by air-mass trajectories and MODIS satellite fire counts. To assign fossil and nonfossil contributions of carbonaceous matters, the radiocarbon contents in water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and EC in 4 combined samples representing four seasons were analyzed using the isolation system established in China. The results indicated that biomass burning and biogenic sources (59%) were the major contribution to the WINSOC, whereas fossil fuel (78%) was the dominant contributor to the refractory EC at this site. The source variation obtained by radiocarbon was consistent with other indicators, such as the OC/EC ratios and the levoglucosan concentration. Biomass burning and biogenic emissions were found to predominate in the summer and autumn, whereas fossil fuel emissions predominate in winter and spring. PMID:23957240

Liu, Di; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yanlin; Xu, Yue; Liu, Xiang; Ding, Ping; Shen, Chengde; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Gan

2013-09-17

199

Arias intensity assessment of liquefaction test sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay affected by the Loma Prieta, California, earthquake of 17 October 1989  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abstract. Uncompacted artificial-fill deposits on the east side of San Francisco Bay suffered severe levels of soil liquefaction during the Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Damaged areas included maritime-port facilities, office buildings, and shoreline transportation arteries, ranging from 65 to 85 km from the north end of the Loma Prieta rupture zone. Typical of all these sites, which represent occurrences of liquefaction-induced damage farthest from the rupture zone, are low cone penetration test and Standard Penetration Test resistances in zones of cohesionless silty and sandy hydraulic fill, and underlying soft cohesive Holocene and Pleistocene sediment that strongly amplified ground motions. Postearthquake investigations at five study sites using standard penetration tests and cone penetration tests provide a basis for evaluation of the Arias intensity-based methodology for assessment of liquefaction susceptibility. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Kayen, R. E.

1997-01-01

200

Atmospheric optical turbulence measurements taken at Anderson Mesa, Flagstaff, Arizona between 13-19 November 1989  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 13 to 19 November 1989, the Naval Postgraduate School Atmospheric Optics Group acquired atmospheric optical turbulence measurements at the 31-inch Lowell Observatory telescope dome facility on Anderson Mesa, 16 km southeast of Flagstaff, Arizona. The parameters measured, the transverse coherence length and the isoplanatic angle, were part of an ongoing site survey for a large-scale, ground-based, synthetic aperture system (100 to 300 m baseline stellar interferometer). This report compiles, analyses and summarizes the acquired optical data. Also discussed are the synoptic meteorological events present during the data acquisition period.

Vaucher, Gail T.; Vaucher, Christopher A.; Walters, Donald L.

1991-01-01

201

Varying depositional environments across the Oligocene-Miocene boundary and their relevance for East Antarctic ice sheet history: IODP Site U1356, Wilkes Land margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IODP Expedition 318 drilled seven sites in two transects across the Wilkes Land (WL) margin of Antarctica. The objective was to obtain a long-term record of the Cenozoic Antarctic glaciation in response to climatic changes, including major transitions. Our work focuses on the study of nearly 300 meters of Oligocene-early Miocene sediments from Site 1356 (cores 42R to 72R) located on a channel levee in the lower continental rise. Shipboard core descriptions reported these sediments to consist of strongly bioturbated claystone and calcareous claystone with Zoophycos or Nereites ichnofacies. Subordinate lithofacies include: 1) laminated silty claystones, 2) convoluted claystones, sandstones and conglomerates; 3) mudstones and sandstones, with a few dispersed to common clasts; and 4) graded or cross-laminated siltstones and sandstones. Based on our study of facies associations in the cores, we differentiate 3 major sedimentary phases, representing important changes in the depositional environments off the WL margin. During the early-late Oligocene, sediments record deposition in a deep-water setting, with bottom currents reworking hemipelagic sediments. Late Oligocene sedimentary processes are dominated by successive fine- to coarse-grained debris-flow mass transport deposits. In the early Miocene, turbidites and hemipelagic sedimentation, characteristic of levee deposition, dominate. With this interpretation of sedimentary environments, plus the correlation between Site U1356 and seismic reflection profiles at the site and vicinity, we can begin to link the relation between along-slope and down-slope processes to the evolution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Salabarnada, Ariadna; Escutia, Carlota; Nelson, Hans; Damuth, John E.; Brinkhuis, Henk

2014-05-01

202

Mesa diaphragm-based Fabry-Perot optical MEMS pressure sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical MEMS pressure sensor with a mesa membrane is presented. The operating principle of the MEMS pressure sensor is expatiated by the Fabry-Perot (F-P) interference and the relation between deflection and pressure is analyzed. Both the mechanical model of the mesa structure diaphragm and the signal averaging effect is validated by simulation, which declares that the mesa structure diaphragm

Yi-Xian Ge; Ming Wang; Hai-Tao Yan

2008-01-01

203

78 FR 18268 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Blue Mesa, CO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Blue Mesa, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Blue Mesa VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME), Blue Mesa, CO to facilitate vectoring of...

2013-03-26

204

78 FR 34554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Blue Mesa, CO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13-ANM-9] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Blue Mesa, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...action establishes Class E airspace at Blue Mesa VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME), Blue Mesa, CO, to facilitate vectoring...

2013-06-10

205

Paleomagnetism on the Quaternary marine sediment at the DH-1 long-core site in the Korean continental margin of the East Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long core of 23.6 m was acquired in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. The core site of the DH-1 is located in the offshore of the Donghae City and the water depth is 357.8 m deep. In this area, the paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy were firstly reported using 420 samples collected from the long-core sediments. Based on the inclination distribution of the depositional remanent magnetization, the DH-1 core could be divided into two upper and lower units at the boundary of 1750 cm below seafloor. The upper unit is characterized by a positive polarity, whereas the lower unit by a negative polarity. The boundary of the upper and lower units was interpreted as the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (778 ka). The chemical components of tephra layer at 2014 cm below seafloor belong to alkaline series, plotted between the tephra components of the Mount Baekdu and Ulleung Island. Key words: magnetostratigraphy, Brunhes-Matuyama boundary, tephra, East Sea Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0025733) and by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy through the grant of Marine Geology and Geophysical Mapping Project (GP2010-013).

Ryang, Woo Hun; Lee, Byungju

2014-05-01

206

Fiscal year 1996 decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book for the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site, Technology Development Division, Waste Management Program, Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects Department  

SciTech Connect

The Photobriefing Book describes the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site (ANL-E) near Lemont, Illinois. This book summarizes current D and D projects, reviews fiscal year (FY) 1996 accomplishments, and outlines FY 1997 goals. A section on D and D Technology Development provides insight on new technologies for D and D developed or demonstrated at ANL-E. Past projects are recapped and upcoming projects are described as Argonne works to accomplish its commitment to, ``Close the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom.`` Finally, a comprehensive review of the status and goals of the D and D Program is provided to give a snap-shot view of the program and the direction it`s taking as it moves into FY 1997. The D and D projects completed to date include: Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility; East Area Surplus Facilities; Experimental Boiling Water Reactor; M-Wing Hot Cell Facilities; Plutonium Gloveboxes; and Fast Neutron Generator.

NONE

1996-12-31

207

Using Bayesian optimization method and FLEXPART dispersion model to evaluate CO emission in East China based on three-year measurements at high altitude mountain site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid economic growth and energy consumption in East China has resulted in serious regional-scale and trans-boundary air pollutions. Variation of carbon monoxide (CO) is of great interest as a restriction factor for pollutants related with incomplete combustion processes. This study attempted to evaluate CO emission in East China using analytical inverse modeling and nearly three-year measurements (2005-2007) at Mt. Huashan (34°28'52"N, 110°04'36"E, a.s.l.1577 m). Inversion methodology combined FLEXPART_WRF (Version 6.2) with Bayesian optimization iterative algorithm. Regarding calculations, five days backward simulations of air mass movement were used to determine the Source-Receptor Relationship (SRR) between emissions at the source regions and observation at receptor. And then SRR, a priori CO emission (INTEX-B) and corresponding uncertainties (70%) were fed into inversion algorithm to optimize the CO emission by minimizing the mismatch between simulated and observed CO concentrations. To reduce the number of unknowns (a posterior), we used variable-resolution grid setting with high spatial resolution in the vicinity of observation site and coarse resolution for the regions some distance away due to decrease of SRR values. Inversion result showed that simulation of CO mixing ratio with the a posterior information was evidently improved, reducing root-mean square (RMS) of differences between observation and simulation by 30%. A posterior indicated that CO emission in East China was probably 10%, 25% and 6% of underestimated by emission inventory for spring, autumn and winter time. Spatial distribution of a posterior indicated that North China Plain (30°N-40°N, 110°E-120°E) significantly accounted for the total increase of CO emission in the East China; Nevertheless, the CO emission from South China region (20°N-30°N, 100°E-120°E) might be overestimated ~10% annually. Uncertainties analysis with repeated random samplings approach demonstrated that inversion result was relatively sensitive to the emission from the regions where city and industries were concentrated, highlighting the great variability of CO emission from anthropogenic sources.

Xiaole, P.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

2012-12-01

208

Measurements of stress parameter and site attenuation from recordings of moderate to large earthquakes in Europe and the Middle East  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the raw, unfiltered acceleration time-series strong-motion data used for the European Strong Motion Database. After selecting high-quality recordings, suitable for Fourier analysis, we estimate crustal and site attenuation properties, Q0 and ?0, respectively, using two methods: a broad-band spectral modelling approach and a high-frequency linear fit. We find ?0 varies strongly, from negligible to ?0 = 0.09 s, with an average of ?0 = 0.032 s or ?0 = 0.033 s depending on the method employed. This is consistent with the wide variety of recording-site conditions from hard-rock to very-soft soil. Using the attenuation model, we then proceed to determine site-class amplification, seismic moments and ?2 stress parameters for several events with Mw values between 5 and 7.6. Site amplification is shown to vary strongly within a single site-class, although average amplification is consistent with resonance expected at soft-soil sites and theoretical crustal amplification at hard-rock sites. We show that seismic moments determined from Fourier spectra are consistent with database Mw values from moment tensor analysis, and that the resulting stress parameters are independent of magnitude or depth. Finally, we show that using the results of our analyses, along with the Reff distance metric to account for the geometry of the finite fault, we can predict pseudospectral acceleration (peak ground acceleration to 10 s) of the Izmit 1999 (Mw 7.5-7.6) event using a point-source stochastic simulation.

Edwards, Ben; Fäh, Donat

2013-08-01

209

Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas  

PubMed Central

Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission.

Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderon-Arguedas, Olger; Sanchez-Loria, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

2007-01-01

210

Gravimetric response of water table fluctuations in the Sahelian Diffa site (East Niger): local effects including poro-elasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GHYRAF project (Gravimetry and HYdrology in AFrica) is devoted to a regional study of the relationship between hydrological and gravimetric signals in the Western African Monsoon area. Three sites are monitored in a decreasing pluviometric gradient: Djougou (North Benin), Wankama (Niamey area) and Bagara (Eastern Niger) with annual rainfalls amounting to 1200 mm, 600 mm and 350 mm, respectively.

B. Hector; P. Genthon; M. Le Coz; J. Hinderer; K. Chalikakis; M. Descloitres

2010-01-01

211

Humidity sensors using porous silicon layer with mesa structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capacitance-type humidity sensor in which a porous silicon layer is used as a humidity-sensing material was developed. This sensor was fabricated monolithically to be compatible with the typical IC process technology except for the formation of porous silicon layer. As the sensor is made as a mesa structure, the correct measurement of capacitance is expected because it can remove

Seong-Jeen Kim; Jae-Yoon Park; Sang-Hoon Lee; Seung-Hwan Yi

2000-01-01

212

Black Mesa Community School: Ten Years Later. A Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Black Mesa Community School, serving elementary school children in an isolated district of the Arizona Navajo reservation, represents the first step in Indian self-determination for area Navajos. The school is the result of community efforts begun in 1972 with a petition to operate a full-time school program for grades K-4 at Kitsilee.…

Black Mesa Community School Board, Inc., Chinle, AZ.

213

A Very High Order, Adaptable MESA Implementation for Aeroacoustic Computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since computational efficiency and wave resolution scale with accuracy, the ideal would be infinitely high accuracy for problems with widely varying wavelength scales. Currently, many of the computational aeroacoustics methods are limited to 4th order accurate Runge-Kutta methods in time which limits their resolution and efficiency. However, a new procedure for implementing the Modified Expansion Solution Approximation (MESA) schemes, based upon Hermitian divided differences, is presented which extends the effective accuracy of the MESA schemes to 57th order in space and time when using 128 bit floating point precision. This new approach has the advantages of reducing round-off error, being easy to program. and is more computationally efficient when compared to previous approaches. Its accuracy is limited only by the floating point hardware. The advantages of this new approach are demonstrated by solving the linearized Euler equations in an open bi-periodic domain. A 500th order MESA scheme can now be created in seconds, making these schemes ideally suited for the next generation of high performance 256-bit (double quadruple) or higher precision computers. This ease of creation makes it possible to adapt the algorithm to the mesh in time instead of its converse: this is ideal for resolving varying wavelength scales which occur in noise generation simulations. And finally, the sources of round-off error which effect the very high order methods are examined and remedies provided that effectively increase the accuracy of the MESA schemes while using current computer technology.

Dydson, Roger W.; Goodrich, John W.

2000-01-01

214

Experience with processes and monitors in Mesa (Summary)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 1977 we began to design the concurrent programming facilities of Pilot, a new operating system for a personal computer [5]. Pilot is a fairly large program itself (25,000 lines of Mesa code). In addition, it supports some large applications, ranging from data base management to internetwork message transmission, which are heavy users of concurrency (our experience with some

Butler W. Lampson; David D. Redell

1979-01-01

215

Natural gas in Black Mesa basin, northeastern Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 97 wells has been drilled in the Black Mesa Basin of Arizona--a drilling density of one test per 350 sq mi. Exploration started in 1920 and was slow until 1955, when interest was stimulated by discoveries in the Four Corners area. In an unusually large percentage of all tests, shows of oil or gas have been found

1968-01-01

216

Enhanced concentrations of citric acid in spring aerosols collected at the Gosan background site in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in the aerosol samples under the Asian continent outflow, total suspended particle (TSP) samples (n = 32) were collected at the Gosan site in Jeju Island over 2–5 days integration during 23 March–1 June 2007 and 16–24 April 2008. The samples were analyzed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, and ?-dicarbonyls using

Jinsang Jung; Kimitaka Kawamura

2011-01-01

217

Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 612 bolide event: New evidence of a late Eocene impact-wave deposit and a possible impact site, U.S. east coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remarkable >60-m-thick, upward-fining, polymictic, marine boulder bed is distributed over >15000 km2 beneath Chesapeake Bay and the surrounding Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain and inner continental shelf. The wide varieties of clast lithologies and microfossil assemblages were derived from at least seven known Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic units. The supporting pebbly matrix contains variably mixed assemblages of microfossils from the same seven stratigraphic units, along with trace quantities of impact ejecta (tektite glass and shocked quartz). The youngest microfossils in the boulder bed are of early-late Eocene age. On the basis of its unusual characteristics and its stratigraphic equivalence to a layer of impact ejecta at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 (New Jersey continental slope), we postulate that this boulder bed was formed by a powerful bolide-generated wave train that scoured the ancient inner shelf and coastal plain of southeastern Virginia. The most promising candidate for the bolide impact site (identified on seismic reflection profiles) is 40 km north-northwest of DSDP Site 612 on the New Jersey outer continental shelf.

Poag, C. Wylie; Powars, David S.; Poppe, Larry J.; Mixon, Robert B.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Folger, David W.; Bruce, Scott

1992-09-01

218

Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 612 bolide event: New evidence of a late Eocene impact-wave deposit and a possible impact site, U. S. east coast  

SciTech Connect

A remarkable >60-m-thick, upward-fining, polymictic, marine boulder bed is distributed over >15,000 km[sup 2] beneath Chesapeake Bay and the surrounding Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain and inner continental shelf. The wide varieties of clast lithologies and microfossil assemblages were derived from at least seven known Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic units. The supporting pebbly matrix contains variably mixed assemblages of microfossils from the same seven stratigraphic units, along with trace quantities of impact ejecta (tektite glass and shocked quartz). The youngest microfossils in the boulder bed are of early-late Eocene age. On the basis of its unusual characteristics and its stratigraphic equivalence to a layer of impact ejecta at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 (New Jersey continental slope), the authors postulate that this boulder bed was formed by a powerful bolide-generated wave train that scoured the ancient inner shelf and coastal plain of southeastern Virginia. The most promising candidate for the bolide impact site (identified on seismic reflection profiles) is 40 km north-northwest of DSDP Site 612 on the New Jersey outer continental shelf.

Poag, C.W.; Poppe, L.J.; Folger, D.W. (Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States)); Powars, D.S.; Mixon, R.B.; Edwards, L.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Bruce, S. (State Water Control Board, Richmond, VA (United States))

1992-09-01

219

Head and neck cancer in South East England between 1995-1999 and 2000-2004: An estimation of incidence and distribution by site, stage and histological type.  

PubMed

Population-based data on head and neck cancer (HNC) stage and histological type are poorly described for England; these data are essential for clinical management and research. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution and incidence of all HNC and selected anatomical sites by sex, age, stage and histological type using a population-based cancer registry in South East England, and determine if the incidence changed between 1995-1999 and 2000-2004. We identified all HNC cancer cases registered by the Thames Cancer Registry for 1995-1999 and 2000-2004. Frequency distributions and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated by sex, age, stage and histological type and trends in incidence between the two time periods were described using incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 8700 HNC cases were reported in 2000-2004, representing an age-standardised incidence rate of 8.59 per 100000, which did not change significantly from 1995-1999. The three commonest HNC sites were intra-oral cavity, larynx and tonsil. Males were two to six times as likely as females to be diagnosed with HNC and there was a trend toward younger age at diagnosis over time. Significant increases in the incidence rate of intra-oral cavity cancer for both sexes and tonsillar cancer among males were observed. Conversely, laryngeal cancer incidence decreased over time. Staging data was only available for about 40% of HNC cases. Seventy six percent of HNC cases were squamous cell carcinomas. Trends in incidence varied between HNC sites, highlighting the importance of presenting data for individual HNC sites. The high proportion of unstaged cancers may result from incomplete recording in medical records; thus, the reporting of staging data should be made a priority. PMID:19251472

Doobaree, Indraraj Umesh; Landis, Sarah H; Linklater, Karen M; El-Hariry, Iman; Moller, Henrik; Tyczynski, Jerzy

2009-09-01

220

Temporal trajectories of wet deposition across hydro-climatic regimes: Role of urbanization and regulations at U.S. and East Asia sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dominant global patterns of urbanization and industrialization contribute to large-scale modification of the drivers for hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, as evident in Asia, Africa, and South America which are experiencing rapid population and economic growth. One manifestation of urbanization and economic development is decreases in air quality, increases in dry/wet deposition fluxes, and growing adverse impacts on public health and ecosystem integrity. We examined available long-term (1980-2010) observational data, gathered at weekly intervals, for wet deposition at 19 urban sites in the U.S., and monitoring data (2000-2009) available for 17 urban sites at a monthly scale in East Asia. Our analyses are based on data for four constituents (SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, and Mg2+); differences in atmospheric chemistry and terrestrial sources of these constituents enabled a robust comparative analysis. We examined intra-annual variability and the long-term temporal trajectories of wet deposition fluxes to discern the relative role of anthropogenic and stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. Here, we show that: (1) temporal variability in wet deposition fluxes follows an exponential probability density function at all sites, evidence that stochasticity of rainfall is the dominant control of wet deposition variability; (2) the mean wet deposition flux, ?? (ML-2T-1), has decreased in the U.S. over time since enactment of the Clean Air Act, with ?? having become homogenized across varying hydro-climatic regimes; and (3) in contrast, ?? values for East Asian cities are 3-10 times higher than U.S. cities, attributed to lax regulatory enforcement. Based on the observed patterns, we suggest a stochastic model that generates ellipses within which the ?? temporal trajectories are inscribed. In the U.S., anthropogenic forcing (regulations) is dominant in the humid regions, while variability in hydro-climatic forcing explains inter-annual variability in arid regions. Our stochastic analysis facilitates projections of the temporal trajectory shifts in wet deposition fluxes as a result of urbanization and other land-use changes, climate change, and regulatory enforcement.

Park, Jeryang; Gall, Heather E.; Niyogi, Dev; Rao, P. Suresh C.

2013-05-01

221

Helminth infracommunity structure of the sympatric garter snakes Thamnophis eques and Thamnophis melanogaster from the Mesa Central of Mexico.  

PubMed

Seventy-two Mexican garter snakes (Thamnophis eques) and 126 black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) were collected from 4 localities of the Mesa Central of Mexico between July 1996 and February 1998 and examined for helminths. Both species of garter snakes occurred sympatrically in every locality except in Lake Cuitzeo. Both species of snakes shared 9 helminth species, and in general, T. melanogaster hosted a larger number of species than T. eques. In each locality, a different helminth species showed the highest levels of prevalence and abundance (Spiroxys susanae in Ciénaga de Lerma, Telorchis corti in Lago de Pátzcuaro, Proteocephalus variabilis in Lago de Cuitzeo, and Contracaecum sp. in Lago de Chapala). Helminth communities in garter snakes of the Mesa Central are depauperate and dominated by a single parasite species. In those localities where the snakes occurred in sympatry, helminth communities were, in general, more diverse and species-rich in T. melanogaster. Differences in the ecology and physiology of these species of garter snakes may explain this pattern because black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) are more aquatic than Mexican garter snakes (T. eques) and primarily eat aquatic prey, potentially exposing themselves to a larger number of helminths transmitted by predator-prey infection. The helminth infracommunities of garter snakes in the Mesa Central of Mexico show a strong Nearctic influence because most of the species infecting these hosts have been recorded in other Nearctic colubrid snakes. However, the helminth infracommunities of these garter snakes are less species-rich and less diverse than those in colubrid snakes in more temperate latitudes. The widespread ecological perturbation of sampling sites in the Mesa Central because of human activity, and geographic differences in foraging ecology of the hosts and, thus, exposure to parasites transmitted by intermediate hosts may help to explain these patterns. PMID:12099411

Jiménez-Ruiz, F Agustin; García-Prieto, Luis; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

2002-06-01

222

2. VIEW OF EAST TAILING DAM (FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF EAST TAILING DAM (FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST UP WASH TOWARD ORE BIN, OVERBURDEN, ADITS, AND ROAD SHOWN IN CA-290-1. MILL SITE IS UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. STANDARD FIFTY-GALLON DRUM IN FOREGROUND GIVES SCALE OF WALL. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

223

Mesa Verde National Park: Educational Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site contains general information on planning a visit to the park; information on plants, animals, geology, cliff dwellings, surface archaeological sites, and history of the park; and a classroom activities section. School group activities at the park include identifying geologic formations, seeing museum videos and dioramas, going on trails and tours, and attending evening campground programs. Classroom activities involve the use of a park map, the development of ancestral Puebloan society from about AD 1 to AD 1300, and the history of the National Park Service.

224

40Ar 39Ar age constraints on neogene sedimentary beds, Upper Ramparts, half-way Pillar and Canyon village sites, Porcupine river, east-central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

40Ar 39Ar ages of volcanic rocks are used to provide numerical constraints on the age of middle and upper Miocene sedimentary strata collected along the Porcupine River. Intercalated sedimentary rocks north of latitude 67??10???N in the Porcupine terrane of east-central Alaska contain a rich record of plant fossils. The fossils are valuable indicators of this interior region's paleoclimate during the time of their deposition. Integration of the 40Ar 39Ar results with paleomagnetic and sedimentological data allows for refinements in estimating the timing of deposition and duration of selected sedimentary intervals. 40Ar 39Ar plateau age spectra, from whole rock basalt samples, collected along the Upper Ramparts and near Half-way Pillar on the Porcupine River, range from 15.7 ?? 0.1 Ma at site 90-6 to 14.4 ?? 0.1 Ma at site 90-2. With exception of the youngest basalt flow at site 90-2, all of the samples are of reversed magnetic polarity, and all 40Ar 39Ar age spectrum results are consistent with the deposition of the entire stratigraphic section during a single interval of reversed magnetic polarity. The youngest flow at site 90-2 was emplaced during an interval of normal polarity. With age, paleomagnetic and sedimentological data, the ages of the Middle Miocene sedimentary rocks between the basalt flows at sites 90-1 and 90-2 can be assigned to an interval within the limits of analytical precision of 15.2 ?? 0.1 Ma; thus, the sediments were deposited during the peak of the Middle Miocene thermal maximum. Sediments in the upper parts of sites 90-1 and 90-2 were probably deposited during cooling from the Middle Miocene thermal maximum. 40Ar 39Ar results of plagioclase and biotite from a single tephra, collected at sites 90-7 and 90-8 along the Canyon Village section of the Porcupine River, indicate an age of 6.57 ?? 0.02 Ma for its time of eruption and deposition. These results, together with sedimentological and paleomagnetic data, suggest that all of the Upper Miocene lacustrine sedimentary rocks at these sites were deposited during a single interval of reversed magnetic polarity and may represent a duration of only about 40,000 years. The age of this tephra corresponds with a late late Miocene warm climatic interval. The results from the Upper Ramparts and Half-way Pillar sites are used to estimate a minimum interval of continental flood basalt activity of 1.1-1.5 million years, and to set limits for the timing and duration of Tertiary extensional tectonic activity in the Porcupine terrane. Our data indicate that the oroclinal flexure that formed before the deposition of the basalts at the eastern end of the Brooks Range was created prior to 15.7 ?? 0.1 Ma. ?? 1994.

Kunk, M. J.; Rieck, H.; Fouch, T. D.; Carter, L. D.

1994-01-01

225

Revised Livermore seismic hazard estimates for sixty-nine nuclear power plant sites east of the Rocky Mountains. Final report, July 1993--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The draft version of this report presented updated Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis estimates for 69 nuclear power plant sites in the region of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. LLNL performed a re-elicitation of seismicity and ground motion experts to improve their estimates of uncertainty in seismicity parameters and ground motion models. Using these revised inputs, LLNL updated the seismic hazard estimates documented in NUREG/CR-5250 (1989). These updated hazard estimates will be used in future NRC actions. The draft was issued for public comment in October 1993. By the end of the public comment period, February 28, 1994, comments had been received from two nuclear industry companies. The comments from these companies neither contested nor suggested amendments to the technical data conveyed in the report. Rather, they both suggest changes in the Individual Plant External Event Examination (IPEEE) program scope. This report is not the forum for discussion of the IPEEE program. Possible modification to the scope of the IPEEE will be examined in its own setting. Therefore, there are no technical differences between the draft report and this final report. Any information as to modifications to the IPEEE program will be provided to the public via an NRC general communication.

Sobel, P.

1994-04-01

226

Shrinking and swelling clays under droughts: measurements at the Mormoiron test-site and first analyses (Vaucluse, South-East of France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In France, exceptional periods of rainfall deficit (1976, 1989 to 1991 and 1996 to 1997) have caused damages to houses due to their vulnerability to shrinking and swelling clays phenomenon. Between 1998 and 2010, BRGM has been producing a national hazard map related to shrinking and swelling clays, built by crossing geological data and information on density of damages for each geological formation (methodology developed since 1995). The intense drought of summer 2003 has pointed out the necessity of a better understanding of this phenomenon. At the request of the French Ministry of Environment, BRGM has developed a new method for measuring the moisture evolution with depth in order to study its impact on the swelling capacity of clayed soil. The site of Mormoiron (Vaucluse, South-East of France) has then been instrumented for that purpose, with moisture sensors (since December 2004) and extensometers (since March 2009) at different depths. These data have been used to test and improve existing empirical models which are supposed to assess settlements and swellings, depending on the soil water content. Compilations of different measurements have shown, after basic processing made on the data (filtering, resampling, etc.), evident correlations between rain and surface displacements. The model finally obtained gives quite good dependence between these two quantities for the uppermost soil layers (0.2m and 0.5m). More research are being undertaken to physically explain this relationship, particularly for deeper layers. These results should lead to propose a calibrated model for predicting soil deformations from climatic data.

Gourdier, Sébastien; Vandromme, Rosalie; Grandjean, Gilles

2013-04-01

227

Final report of the Oak Ridge Task Force concerning public health impacts of the off-site contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek and other area streams  

SciTech Connect

As a result of operations associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a nearby creek, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), became contaminated with mercury and trace levels of other metals, organics and radionuclides. An interagency task force, identified as the Oak Ridge Task Force (ORTF) was organized to investigate the extent of off-site environmental contamination of EFPC and other area streams related to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and to determine if any immediate public health impacts might result from such contamination. Four study groups were established by the ORTF to supervise investigations of fisheries, groundwater, soils, surface water, sediment, and floodplains. A fifth study group was established to perform an evaluation of possible public health impacts. The DOE also authorized several organizations to collect and analyze samples and make field measurements needed by the Task Force. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was authorized to perform an instream contaminant study to determine the extent of contamination of surface water, sediment, fish, and floodplains. The US Geological Survey (USGS) was authorized to determine the extent of groundwater contaminant. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) was charged with determining the extent of contamination of the terrestrial foodchain which might be consumed by humans. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested to provide assistance in health impact assessments. 19 refs., 12 tabs.

Travis, C.C.; Blaylock, B.G.; Daniels, K.L.; Gist, C.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; McElhaney, R.J.; Weber, C.W.

1989-08-01

228

Understanding the Composition and Distribution of Megafauna at Diffuse Flow Sites in the East Lau Basin Back-Arc Spreading Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ridge 2000 research at the Lau Basin Integrated Studies Site spans a range of scales, from hundreds of kilometers to fractions of a centimeter. Here we report on an interdisciplinary study of the relations between megafaunal distribution and diffuse flow chemistry, conducted in an area of about 30 m2. This work was enabled by, and interpretation will be nested within, the results from the three cruises that preceded our field effort. In June 2005, the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Jason II collected a series of geo-referenced, high-resolution images using the Insite Scorpio digital still camera at the ABE vent site (176°11'29''W, 20°45'47''S) in the East Lau Basin back-arc spreading center. Twenty pictures were mosaicked together at sea, using a MatLab program (courtesy of Tim Shank, Dana Yoerger, Hanu Singh, and Vicki Ferrini of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) to create one seamless image of the biological community covering an area of approximately 30 m2. The mosaic was used to guide electrochemical and temperature scans during a subsequent dive to provide data on the concentrations of reactive sulfur species and oxygen, temperature, and pH at 60 different locations within the community. To allow quantification of the biomass within the imaged community and obtain data on smaller and/or cryptic fauna, five area-specific quantitative-samples of representative animal aggregations were collected from within the same area and analyzed. Separate layers for each dataset (imagery, chemistry, temperature, community composition, and biomass) are being created with GIS to visualize and analyze trends in each individual layer, such as the co-occurrence of different megafaunal species and changes in chemical speciation. Overlays and statistical analyses of these layers in GIS are used to elucidate correlations between datasets that will contribute to our ultimate goal of understanding the distribution patterns of the megafauna in this spatially and temporally complex hydrothermal vent environment.

Podowski, L.; Fisher, C.; Luther, G.; Kim, S.; Waite, T.; Moore, T.; Zelnio, K.; Zook, B.; Telesnicki, G.; Hsu, H.; Paschal, A.; Hourdez, S.; Desbruyères, D.

2005-12-01

229

Summary of data concerning radiological contamination at well PM2, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of water from well Pahute Mesa No. 2 (PM-2), on Pahute Mesa in the extreme northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, indicated tritium concentrations above background levels in August 1993. A coordinated investigation of the tritium occurrence in well PM-2 was undertaken by the Hydrologic Resources Management Program of the US Department of Energy. Geologic and hydrologic properties

G. M. Russell; G. L. Locke

1997-01-01

230

Observations of Silver Iodide Plumes over the Grand Mesa of Colorado.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of wintertime airborne tracing experiments was examined to determine some characteristics of the plumes of silver iodide smoke released either from the ground or from an aircraft over the Grand Mesa of Colorado. The plumes were identified in nearly every experiment by detecting the airborne AgI particles and often also by observing resulting ice particle plumes in essentially the same airspace. The lateral and vertical plume positions of Wound-released AgI from eight sites were determined for several wind, cloudiness and stability conditions. The instantaneous ground-released plume had a median spreading angle of 15° and meandered within a median angle of 38°. The median plume height above the crest exceeded 500 m. The lateral spreading rates of aircraft-released AgI were estimated at over 2 m s1 for cloudy conditions and less in clear conditions. The implications for future cloud seeding strategies are discussed.

Holroyd, Edmond W., III; McPartland, Jack T.; Super, Arlin B.

1988-10-01

231

Completion Report for Well ER-12-3 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-12-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in March and April 2005 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology of central Rainier Mesa, especially in the older Tertiary volcanic rocks and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The main 47.0-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 799.2 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 743.1 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters, and the well was drilled to a total depth of 1,496.0 meters. The completion string consisted of 13.97-centimeter stainless steel casing, with two slotted intervals open to the lower carbonate aquifer, suspended from 19.37-centimeter carbon steel casing. A piezometer string was installed outside the 33.97-centimeter casing to a depth of 467.1 meters to monitor a zone of perched water within the Tertiary volcanic section. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters (extra cuttings samples were collected from the Paleozoic rocks for paleontological analyses), sidewall core samples from 35 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated 674.2 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks and 821.7 meters of Paleozoic dolomite and limestone. Forty-nine days after the well was completed, but prior to well development and testing, the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 949.1 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 379.9 meters.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada Corporation

2006-05-01

232

Stable isotope-based Plio-Pleistocene ecosystem reconstruction of some of the earliest hominid fossil sites in the East African Rift System (Chiwondo Beds, N Malawi)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotope geochemistry of pedogenic carbonate and fossil herbivore enamel is a powerful tool to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions in particular when climate change plays a key role in the evolution of ecosystems. Here, we present the first Plio-Pleistocene long-term carbon (?13C), oxygen (?18O) and clumped isotope (?47) records from pedogenic carbonate and herbivore teeth in the Malawi Rift. These data represent an important southern hemisphere record in the East African Rift System (EARS), a key region for reconstructing vegetation patterns in today's Zambezian Savanna and correlation with data on the evolution and migration of early hominids across the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. As our study site is situated between the well-known hominid-bearing sites of eastern and southern Africa in the Somali-Masai Endemic Zone and Highveld Grassland it fills an important geographical gap for early hominid research. 5.0 to 0.6 Ma fluviatile and lacustrine deposits of the Chiwondo Beds (NE shore of Lake Malawi) comprise abundant pedogenic carbonate and remains of a diverse fauna dominated by large terrestrial mammals. These sediments are also home to two hominid fossil remains, a mandible of Homo rudolfensis and a maxillary fragment of Paranthropus boisei, both dated around 2.4 Ma. The Chiwondo Beds therefore document early co-existence of these two species. We evaluate ?13C data from fossil enamel of different suid, bovid, and equid species and contrast these with ?13C and ?18O values of pedogenic carbonate. We complement the latter with clumped isotope soil temperature data. Results of almost 800 pedogenic carbonate samples from over 20 sections consistently average ?13C = -8.5 ‰ over the past 5 Ma with no significant short-term ?13C excursions or long-term trends. The data from molar tooth enamel of nine individual suids of the genera Metridiochoerus, Notochoerus and Nyanzachoerus support these findings with average ?13C = -10.0 ‰. The absence of long-term trends towards more positive ?13C values contrasts the increasing role of C4-grasslands in the southern EARS which is well documented for sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. Our data hence point to regional differences in climate and vegetation dynamics during the Plio-Pleistocene in the EARS and documents persistence of paleoenvironmental conditions in the southern branch of the EARS at times of early hominid evolution.

Lüdecke, Tina; Thiemeyer, Heinrich; Schrenk, Friedemann; Mulch, Andreas

2014-05-01

233

Water-Quality Characteristics of Urban Storm Runoff at Selected Sites in East Baton Rouge Parish, Lousiana, Frebruary 1998 Through April 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water was sampled at four watersheds for continued evaluation of urban storm runoff in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, during February 1998 through April 2002. Eighteen samples were collected from four watersheds representing land uses characterized predominantly as established commercial, industrial, new commercial, and residential. Results of water-quality analyses enabled calculation of event-mean concentrations and estimated annual contaminant loads and yields of storm runoff from nonpoint sources for 12 water-quality properties and constituents. The following water-quality data are reported: physical and chemical-related properties, fecal coliform and enterococci bacteria, major inorganic ions, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds. The residential land-use is the largest of the watersheds (550 acres), which resulted in high estimated annual contaminant loads compared to other watersheds for 8 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents. This may indicate that the size of the watershed and runoff from residences with their associated contaminants had substantial effects on annual loads within this land use. The industrial land-use area had the highest estimated annual contaminant loads for metals, followed by the residential landuse area. However, when comparing yields among the watersheds, the industrial watershed had the highest yield for 9 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents, whereas the residential watershed had the lowest yield for 7 of the 12. The industrial watershed yielded more metals per acre per year than any other watershed. Zinc yields were 2.71 pounds per acre per year from the industrial watershed, compared to 0.35 pounds per acre per year from the residential watershed, which was the lowest of all the watersheds. Lead concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 15 micrograms per liter for drinking water standards in 10 of 18 samples. Low-level concentrations of mercury were detected twice at both the new commercial and residential sites, with all concentrations at or just above reporting limits. The average dissolved phosphorus concentrations from each land use were two to four times higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.05 milligrams per liter. Diazinon, which is widely used as a general-purpose insecticide for lawns and gardens, was detected in all 18 samples. The maximum diazinon concentration detected, 2.7 micrograms per liter, was from the residential site. Malathion, another insecticide used on lawns, gardens, and plants, was also detected at least once from each site, but all concentrations were below the minimum detection limit of 0.1 micrograms per liter.

Frederick, C. Paul

2003-01-01

234

Southern high-latitude terrestrial climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene derived from a marine pollen record (ODP Site 1172, East Tasman Plateau)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the early Paleogene climate dynamics of terrestrial settings in the high southern latitudes is important to assess the role of high-latitude physical and biogeochemical processes in the global climate system. However, whereas a number of high-quality Paleogene climate records has become available for the marine realm of the high southern latitudes over the recent past, the long-term evolution of coeval terrestrial climates and ecosystems is yet poorly known. We here explore the climate and vegetation dynamics on Tasmania from the middle Paleocene to the early Eocene (60.7-54.2 Ma) based on a sporomorph record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Our results show that three distinctly different vegetation types thrived on Tasmania under a high-precipitation regime during the middle Paleocene to early Eocene, with each type representing different temperature conditions: (i) warm-temperate forests dominated by gymnosperms that were dominant during the middle and late Paleocene; (ii) cool-temperate forests dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus) and araucarians across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval (~59.5 to ~59.0 Ma); and (iii) paratropical forests rich in ferns that were established during and in the wake of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The transient establishment of cool-temperate forests lacking any frost-sensitive elements (i.e., palms and cycads) across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval indicates markedly cooler conditions, with the occurrence of frosts in winter, on Tasmania during that time. The integration of our sporomorph data with previously published TEX86-based sea-surface temperatures from ODP Site 1172 documents that the vegetation dynamics on Tasmania were closely linked with the temperature evolution in the Tasman sector of the Southwest Pacific region. Moreover, the comparison of our season-specific climate estimates for the sporomorph assemblages from ODP Site 1172 with the TEX86L- and TEX86H-based temperature data suggests a warm-season bias of both calibrations for the early Paleogene of the high southern latitudes.

Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P. K.; O'Hara, R. B.; Raine, J. I.; Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

2014-01-01

235

Increasing seismic activity at 9deg50'N on the East Pacific Rise RIDGE 2000 Integrated Studies Site from October 2003 through April 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of micro-seismicity within the bull's-eye region of the R2K ISS at 9deg49'N - 9deg51'N on the East Pacific Rise has been ongoing since October 2003. Results from the first deployment (October 2003 - April 2004) will be presented with hypocenters determined using relative-relocation techniques. Analysis shows that there is a gradual and ongoing increase in the rate of activity over the 7 months of the deployment. Mean event rates increase from 31 events/day for the first quarter of the deployment period, to 55, 105, and 131 events per day for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarters, respectively. This gradual increase in activity suggests long-term changes in the magma body or changes in the hydrothermal cracking front. Preliminary analysis and event counts for the 2004-2005 deployment will be presented to assess whether or not the build up in activity seen in 2003-2004 continued. Numerous brief swarms are observed throughout the deployment and their locations will be studied relative to temporal changes in the vent temperature monitoring as well as variations in the fluid chemistry (see Von Damm et al., same session). Early analysis suggests two dominant areas of recurrent activity, between M-vent and Bio-9 and between Bio-9 and Tube-worm pillar. The exceptionally well-characterized and monitored seafloor at this site allows for unprecedented correlation of observed seismic activity with local biology, geology, geochemical and hydrothermal monitoring. As results from different monitoring activities continue to come in, a detailed understanding of the linkages should emerge.

Weekly, R. T.; Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Kim, W.

2005-12-01

236

Subsurface structure of a submarine hydrothermal system in ocean crust formed at the East Pacific Rise, ODP/IODP Site 1256  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ODP/IODP Hole 1256D penetrates an in situ section of ocean crust formed at the East Pacific Rise, through lavas and sheeted dikes and ˜100 m into plutonic rocks. We use mineralogy, oxygen isotopes, and fluid inclusions to understand hydrothermal processes. The lavas are slightly altered at low temperatures (<150°C) to phyllosilicates and iron oxyhydroxides, with a stepwise increase in grade downward to greenschist minerals in the upper dikes. This resulted from generally upwelling hydrothermal fluids in the dikes mixing with cooler seawater solutions in the lavas, also producing minor metal sulfide mineralization in the upper dikes. Alteration grade increases downward in the dikes, with increasing recrystallization to amphibole and loss of metals at higher temperatures (>350°C up to ˜600°C). Intrusion of gabbro bodies into the lower dikes resulted in contact metamorphism to granoblastic hornfels at 850°C-900°C, representing a thermal boundary layer between the axial melt lens and the overlying hydrothermal system. Downward penetration of hydrothermal fluids led to rehydration of granoblastic dikes and plutonic rocks at ˜800°C down to <300°C. Fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope data show that vein quartz formed at ˜300°C to >450°C from hydrothermal fluids that were affected by supercritical phase separation. Fluids had variable salinities and were enriched in 18O (+0.4‰ to +3.5‰) relative to seawater, similar to seafloor vent fluids. Dike margins are brecciated and mineralized, suggesting hydrothermal activity coeval with magmatism. Anhydrite formed mainly in the upper dikes when partly reacted seawater fluids were heated as they penetrated deeper into the system. Low-temperature alteration of the volcanic section continued as cold seawater penetrated along fluid pathways, forming minor iron oxyhydroxides in the rocks. Hydrothermal processes at Site 1256 fit with current models whereby greenschist alteration of dikes at low water/rock ratios is overprinted by fracture-controlled alteration and mineralization by upwelling hydrothermal fluids, a conductive boundary layer above gabbroic intrusions, leaching of metals from dikes and gabbros in the deep "root zone," and stepped thermal and alteration gradients in the basement. The Site 1256 section, however, is intact and retains recharge effects (anhydrite), allowing an integrated view of processes in the subsurface.

Alt, Jeffrey C.; Laverne, Christine; Coggon, Rosalind M.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Morgan, Sally; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Harris, Michelle; Galli, Laura

2010-10-01

237

The Middle East Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dedicated to "keeping the public objectively informed about the Middle East," the Middle East Institute provides a number of resources to this end. Visitors to the site can access the table of contents, abstracts, and some complete articles from The Middle East Journal; read online policy briefs about current events in the region; review descriptions of the Institute's published monographs; and consult an online searchable catalog of over 2,400 scholarly works in Middle Eastern studies published in the 1990s. The XML-based catalog can be searched by keyword, title, author, or any of the cataloged fields. Two online texts are also posted here: An Introduction to Islam (see the September 3, 1999 Scout Report) and, in the rare books section of the library, Mehemet the Kurd and Other Tales by Charles Wells (requires multidoc pro to view TEI (SGML)).

2001-01-01

238

Far East  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum activity throughout the Far East region was on the upswing during 1980. In spite of increased interest in many parts of the Far East, no major new discoveries were reported. From India to Indonesia, old fields are being rehabilitated and previously uneconomic areas are being looked at again. Indonesia set a new record in 1980 for the number of exploratory wells drilled. Peninsular Malaysia set a record for oil production. Overall, however, 1980 was a banner year for petroleum exploration in the Far East. Sri Lanka saw its first foreign contractor interest in several years. India made major moves toward increasing exploration by offering offshore and onshore blocks to foreign contractors . Bangladesh and even Burma signed exploitation contracts with Japanese investors in order to increase production. Malaysia offered new acreage blocks for the first time in several years. Indonesia and the Philippines also actively encouraged exploration by offering new contract areas. One country in the Far East that did not participate in the 1980 oil boom was China. Taiwan also carried on, as in previous years with the Chinese Petroleum Corporation as the only operator. Japanese and South Korean activities were at approximately the same level as in previous years, although drilling did start in the joint development zone. Total production of the Far East reporting region declined slightly. One significant aspect of 1980 petroleum activities throughout the Far East region is the growing acceptance by various Far East countries of Asian investment for developing and exploring for hydrocarbons. Japan is the major investor, but South Korean interests and the Chinese Petroleum Corporation also began to invest in petroleum rights in other Asian countries. The main area for investment continued to be Indonesia. 39 figures, 9 tables.

Fletcher, G.L.

1981-10-01

239

Final Phase Testing and Evaluation of the 500 KW Direct Contact Pilot Plant at East Mesa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The testing performed during the last phase of the geothermal direct contact heat exchanger program utilizing the 500 kW pilot plant provided more insight into the capabilities and limits of the direct contact approach and showed that more work needs to b...

R. Olander S. Oshmyansky K. Nichols D. Werner

1983-01-01

240

Session 2: Review of the 500 KW Direct Contact Geothermal Plant at East Mesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a binary power cycle utilizing direct contact heat exchangers was first proposed by Jacobs and Boehm in 1973 for use with geothermal brines. This concept was proposed primarily to overcome difficulties associated with the fouling and scaling nature of many moderate temperature brines. However, thermodynamic analyses and subsequent economic analyses clearly pointed to possible economic advantages over

Kenneth E

1983-01-01

241

Geologic map of the Palisade quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Palisade 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 22 different Quaternary units. Two prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains many mass movement deposits. Extensive landslide deposits are present along the eastern part of the quadrangle. These massive landslides originate on the flanks of Grand Mesa, in the Green River and Wasatch Formations, and flow west onto the Palisade quadrangle. In addition, large areas of the eastern and southern parts of the map are covered by extensive pediment surfaces. These pediment surfaces are underlain by debris flow deposits also originating from Grand Mesa. Material in these deposits consists of mainly subangular basalt cobbles and boulders and indicate that these debris flow deposits have traveled as much as 10 km from their source area. The pediment surfaces have been divided into 5 age classes based on their height above surrounding drainages. Two common bedrock units in the map area are the Mancos Shale and the Mesaverde Group both of Upper Cretaceous age. The Mancos shale is common in low lying areas near the western map border. The Mesaverde Group forms prominent sandstone cliffs in the north-central map area. The map is accompanied by a separate pamphlet containing unit descriptions, a section on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and a section on economic geology (including sand and gravel, and coal). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately twenty references are cited at the end of the report.

Carrara, Paul E.

2000-01-01

242

Preliminary Map of Landslide Deposits in the Mesa Verde National Park Area, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a preliminary map of landslide deposits in the Mesa Verde National Park area (see map sheet) at a compilation scale of 1:50,000. Landslide is a general term for landforms produced by a wide variety of gravity-driven mass movements, including various types of flows, slides, topples and falls, and combinations thereof produced by the slow to rapid downslope transport of surficial materials or bedrock. The map depicts more than 200 landslides ranging in size from small (0.01 square miles) earthflows and rock slumps to large (greater than 0.50 square miles) translational slides and complex landslides (Varnes, 1978). This map has been prepared to provide a regional overview of the distribution of landslide deposits in the Mesa Verde area, and as such constitutes an inventory of landslides in the area. The map is suitable for regional planning to identify broad areas where landslide deposits and processes are concentrated. It should not be used as a substitute for detailed site investigations. Specific areas thought to be subject to landslide hazards should be carefully studied before development. Many of the landslides depicted on this map are probably stable as they date to the Pleistocene (approximately 1.8-0.011 Ma) and hence formed under a different climate regime. However, the recognition of these landslides is important because natural and human-induced factors can alter stability. Reduction of lateral support (by excavations or roadcuts), removal of vegetation (by fire or development), or an increase in pore pressure (by heavy rains) may result in the reactivation of landslides or parts of landslides.

Carrara, Paul E.

2009-01-01

243

MESA: Making Excellent Science Requires More Than Just Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supporting successful astronomical missions requires more than brighter minds with a vision. It requires a strong team from a wide variety of disciplines working together towards a common goal: support the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) missions and excel while doing it. Here I present the main steps we have taken to meet the challenges ahead, with special attention to the combined effort between scientists and developers, along with an overview of the projects currently under the purview of the Mission Engineering and Science Analysis (MESA) group at the STScI.

Diaz, R.

2014-05-01

244

Mesa Verde--A Year-Round High School. A Descriptive Report of 1980-81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mesa Verde High School was constructed in 1974 and is the last high school built in the San Juan (California) Unified District. It serves students in grades 9 through 12 and has an open enrollment policy. Mesa Verde operates on a year-round schedule with students divided into three tracks. Basically, each track is in session for 9 weeks and then…

Housden, Terry; Holmes, Lynda

245

MESA/MEP at American River College: Year One Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA)/Minority Engineering Program (MEP) was initiated at American River College. The MESA/MEP program recruits Black, Hispanic, and Native American students and provides assistance, encouragement, and enrichment programs to help them succeed in the fields of mathematics, engineering,…

Lee, Beth S.; And Others

246

The MESA Way: A Success Story of Nurturing Minorities for Math/Science-Based Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant steps have been taken by the Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) project since its formation in 1970. The founders of MESA began a campaign, first in high schools, and later in middle and elementary schools, to convince educators, parents, and students of the importance of raising standards for the minority children…

Somerton, Wilbur H.; And Others

247

Ethnographic Evaluation of the MESA Program at a South-Central Phoenix High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MESA (Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement) is a program designed to increase the number of underrepresented ethnic groups in professions related to mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences. This paper describes and evaluates the MESA program at Jarama High School, Phoenix (Arizona), using informal interviews and…

Jaramillo, James A.

248

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 92-152-2214, Mesa County Courthouse, Grand Junction, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a request from the Facilities Manager of Mesa County Support Services Department concerning the Mesa County Courthouse and Annex (SIC-9222), Grand Junction, Colorado, an evaluation was undertaken of indoor air quality as employees had been suffering with itchy watery eyes, chronic sinus problems, headaches, and other symptoms. Over the past 5 years each of the four courtrooms

McCammon

1992-01-01

249

Remotely sensed limonite anomaly on Lordsburg Mesa, New Mexico: possible implications for uranium deposits ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have identified a large, anomalously limonitic area in Cenozoic gravels on Lordsburg Mesa near Lordsburg, New Mexico, using Landsat images. Our interpretation of the geophysical and geochemical data suggests the exploration hypothesis that the Lordsburg Mesa limonite anomaly is the surface expression of a chemical trap that may contain concentrations of uranium similar to calcrete-uranium deposits. -from Authors

Raines, G. L.; Erdman, J. A.; McCarthy, J. H.; Reimer, G. M.

1985-01-01

250

Results of 1999 Spectral Gamma-Ray and Neutron Moisture Monitoring of Boreholes at Specific Retention Facilities in the 200 East Area, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-eight wells and boreholes in the 200 East Are% Hanford Site, Washington were monitored in 1999. The monitored facilities were past-practice liquid waste disposal facilities and consisted of six cribs and nineteen ''specific retention'' cribs and trenches. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray and neutron moisture logging. All data are included in Appendix B. The isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on spectral gamma logs from boreholes monitoring the PUREX specific retention facilities; the isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on the logs from boreholes at the BC Controlled Area cribs and trenches; and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}Sb were, identified on the logs from boreholes at the BX specific retention trenches. Three boreholes in the BC Controlled Area and one at the BX trenches had previous spectral gamma logs available for comparison with 1999 logs. Two of those logs showed that changes in the subsurface distribution of {sup 137}CS and/or {sup 60}Co had occurred since 1992. Although the changes are not great, they do point to continued movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. The logs obtained in 1999 create a larger baseline for comparison with future logs. Numerous historical gross gamma logs exist from most of the boreholes logged. Qualitative comparison of those logs with the 1999 logs show many substantial changes, most of which reflect the decay of deeper short-lived isotopes, such as {sup 106}Ru and {sup 125}Sb, and the much slower decay of shallower and longer-lived isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co have moved in two boreholes since 1992. Given the amount of movement and the half-lives of the isotopes, it is expected that they will decay to insignificant amounts before reaching groundwater. However, gamma ray logging cannot detect many of the contaminants of interest such as {sup 99}Tc, NO{sub 3}, or {sup 129}I, all of which can be highly mobile in the vadose zone and, for the radionuclides, have long half-lives.

DG Horton; RR Randall

2000-01-18

251

MTF comparisons between mesa and planar focal plane detector structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed scanning, high-speed (<3klps), all digital, with on-chip Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC), mid-wave infrared (MWIR 3-5mm) focal plane arrays (FPA) with excellent modulation transfer function (MTF) performance. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data and detailed models of the mesa geometry, RVS modeled the predicted detector MTF performance of detectors. These detectors have a mesa structure and geometry for improved MTF performance compared to planar HgCdTe and InSb detector structures and other similar detector structures such as nBn. The modeled data is compared to measured MTF data obtained from edge spread measurements and shows good agreement, Figure 1. The measured data was obtained using a custom advanced test set with 1µm precision alignment and automatic data acquisition for report generation in less than five minutes per FPA. The measured MTF values of 83 unique parts, Figure 2, had a standard deviation of 0.0094 and a mean absolute deviation of 0.0066 at half Nyquist frequency, showing excellent process repeatability and a design that supports high MTF with good repeatability.

Perley, Mitchell; Wehner, Justin; Buell, Dave; Micali, Jason; McCorkle, Joe; Rehfield, Mark; Williams, Dave; Dixon, Andrew; Malone, Neil

2013-09-01

252

Modeling unsaturated-zone flow at Rainier Mesa as a possible analog for a future Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Rainier Mesa is structurally similar to Yucca Mountain, and receives precipitation similar to the estimated long-term average for Yucca Mountain. Tunnels through the unsaturated zone at Rainier Mesa have encountered perched water and, after the perched water was drained, flow in fractures and faults. Although flow observations have been primarily qualitative, Rainier Mesa hydrology is a potential analog for Yucca Mountain hydrology in a wetter climate. In this paper, a groundwater flow model that has been used in the performance assessment of Yucca Mountain--the weeps model--is applied to Rainier Mesa. The intent is to gain insight in both Rainier Mesa and the weeps flow model.

Gauthier, J.H.

1998-01-01

253

Global Connections: The Middle East  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Connections: The Middle East "integrates and contextualizes the rich body of public broadcasting resources to provide a global and historical perspective that will help teachers, students, and the general public explore and understand seminal events of national and international significance." To that end, there is an exhaustive amount of material related to economics, stereotypes, and the role of women in the Middle East, along with a detailed Middle East timeline. Educators will also find that the site will be a good source of information to use in the classroom. The "Connecting Questions" offers perspectives and lesson plans on six large scale questions affecting the Middle East. The site is rounded out by an interactive sociopolitical map of the region.

2002-01-01

254

Nevada test site seismic-telemetry measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility and limitations of surface to tunnel seismic telemetry at the Nevada Test Site were explored through field measurements. Range functions for signaling were determined through analysis of monofrequency seismic signals injected into the earth at various sites as far as 70 km (43 mi) from installations of seismometers in the G-Tunnel complex of Rainier Mesa. Transmissions from 58

J. N. Albright; L. E. Parker; E. H. Horton

1983-01-01

255

Geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of basaltic flows of the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra, central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic compositions of basaltic flows erupted from the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra volcanic centres in central New Mexico indicate that each of these lavas had unique origins and that the predominant mantle involved in their production was an ocean-island basalt type. The basalts from Cat Hills (0.11 Ma) and Cat Mesa (3.0 Ma) are similar in major and trace element composition, but differences in MgO contents and Pb isotopic values are attributed to a small involvement of a lower crustal component in the genesis of the Cat Mesa rocks. The Cerro Verde rock is comparable in age (0.32 Ma) to the Cat Hills lavas, but it is more radiogenic in Sr and Nd, has higher MgO contents, and has a lower La/Yb ratio. This composition is explained by the melting of an enriched mantle source, but the involvement of another crustal component cannot be disregarded. The Wind Mesa rock is characterized by similar age (4.01 Ma) and MgO contents, but it has enriched rare-earth element contents compared with the Cat Mesa samples. These are attributed to a difference in the degree of partial melting of the Cat Mesa source. The Mesita Negra rock (8.11 Ma) has distinctive geochemical and isotopic compositions that suggest a different enriched mantle and that large amounts of a crustal component were involved in generating this magma. These data imply a temporal shift in magma source regions and crustal involvement, and have been previously proposed for Rio Grande rift lavas. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

Maldonado, F.; Budahn, J. R.; Peters, L.; Unruh, D. M.

2006-01-01

256

East Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

257

Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, Basin-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were gathered from May through September 2002 at 76 randomly selected sites in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). Basin characteristics (land use and drainage area) and biolog-ical-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the basin of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Compo-nents Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related using Spearman's rho to the seasonal algal-biomass, basin-charac-teristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, and biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score was not significantly related to the nine habitat or 12 nutrient variables examined. One land-use variable, drainage area, was negatively related to the periphyton PC1. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the periphyton PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent) and one metric score (car-nivore percent metric score). It was positively related to three fish-community attributes (headwater percent, pioneer percent, and simple lithophil percent). The periphyton PC1 was not statistically related to any of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes or metric scores examined. Of the 12 nutrient variables examined two were nega-tively related to the seston PC1 site score in two seasons: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July and September), and TP (May and September). There were no statistically significant relations between the seston PC1 and the five basin-characteristics or nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the seston PC1 was positively related to one attribute (headwater percent) and negatively related to one metric score (large-river percent metric score) . Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metrics exam-ined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one metric score (number of individuals metric score). To understand how the choice of sampling sites might have affected the results, an analysis of the drainage area and land use was done. The sites selected in the Whitewater River Basin were generally small drainage basins; compared to Whitewater River Basin sites, the sites selected in the East Fork White River Basin were generally larger drainage basins. Although both basins were dominated by agricultural land use the Whitewater River Basin sites had more land in agriculture than the East Fork White River Basin sites. The values for nutrients (nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) and chlorophyll a (per-iphyton and seston) were compared to published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) values for Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregions VI and IX and USEPA Level III Ecore-gions 55 and 71. Several nutrient values were greater than the 25th percentile of published USEPA values. Chlorophyll a (periphyton and seston) values were either greater than the 25thpercentile of published USEPA values or they extended data ranges in the Aggregate Nutrient and Level III Ecore-gions. If the values for the 25th percentile as proposes by the USEPA were adopted as nutrient water-quality criteria, many samples in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins would have exceeded the criteria.

Caskey, Brian J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Lowe, B. Scott

2007-01-01

258

Middle East  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

Hemer, D.O. (Mobil Oil Corp., New York, NY); Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

1981-10-01

259

Formation of a Mesa Shaped Phonon Pulse in Superfluid 4He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theory for the formation of a mesa shaped phonon pulse in superfluid 4He. Starting from the hydrodynamic equations of superfluid helium, we obtain the system of equations which describe the evolution of strongly anisotropic phonon systems. Such systems can be created experimentally. The solution of the equations are simple waves, which correspond to second sound in the moving phonon pulse. Using these exact solutions, we describe the expansion of phonon pulses in superfluid helium at zero temperature. This theory gives an explanation for the mesa shape observed in the measured phonon angular distributions. Almost all dependencies of the mesa shape on the system parameters can be qualitatively understood.

Adamenko, I. N.; Nemchenko, K. E.; Slipko, V. A.

2010-05-01

260

850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers utilizing the self-planar mesa structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We presented the self-planar mesa structure for improving the performances of 850-nm oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Thermal simulation results demonstrated that the enhanced lateral heat dissipation and decreased series resistance within VCSELs could be gained using the self-planar mesa structure. By employing the selfplanar mesa, the maximum output power was increased from 8mW to more than 11mW, and the maximum wall-plug efficiency was improved from 26% to 36% for the VCSEL with an oxide aperture size of 13 ?m at 15°C.

Zhang, Jianwei; Ning, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Lijun

2013-09-01

261

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-14, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-14 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2012, as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 55.9-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 325.5 meters (m) and cased with 40.6-cm casing to 308.1 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 37.5 cm, and drilling continued to a total depth of 724.8 m. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 690.9 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Rainier Mesa Tuff. Two piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-14. Both piezometer strings, each with one slotted interval, consist of 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing at the surface, then cross over to 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing just above the water table. The shallow piezometer string was landed at 507.8 m, and the deep piezometer string was landed at 688.6 m. Both piezometer strings are set to monitor groundwater within moderately to densely welded Rainier Mesa Tuff. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 15.2 m of alluvium and 709.6 m of Tertiary volcanic rocks. The stratigraphy and general lithology were not as expected due to the position of Well ER-EC-14 relative to the buried caldera margins of the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The well is located inside the Rainier Mesa caldera, but outside the younger Ammonia Tanks caldera. On November 5, 2012, a preliminary fluid level in the shallow piezometer string was measured at the depth of 311.8 m. This water level depth was taken before installation of the bridge plug (to be placed within the main completion casing to separate the two slotted zones). Well development, hydrologic testing, and sampling, will be conducted at a later date. No tritium above levels detectable by field methods were encountered in this hole. All Fluid Management Plan (FMP) requirements for Well ER-EC-14 were met. Analysis of monitoring samples and FMP confirmatory samples indicated that fluids generated during drilling at Well ER-EC-14 met the FMP criteria for discharge to an unlined sump or designated infiltration area. All sanitary and hydrocarbon waste generated was properly handled and disposed of.

None

2013-03-05

262

Expansion of the geographic distribution of a novel lineage of O-Proteobacteria to a hydrothermal vent site on the Southern East Paci¢c Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity associated with a microbial mat sample collected from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent on the Southern East Pacific Rise was determined using a molecular phylogenetic approach based on the comparison of sequences from the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA). The DNA was extracted from the sample and the 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR. Sixteen different phylotypes

Krista Longnecker; Anna-Louise Reysenbach

2001-01-01

263

Overview of the Multiscale Epidemiologic/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Decision Support System  

SciTech Connect

The Multiscale Epidemiologic/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Decision Support System (DSS) is the product of investments that began in FY05 by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate and continue today with joint funding by both DHS and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The DSS consists of a coupled epidemiologic/economic model, a standalone graphical user interface (GUI) that supports both model setup and post-analysis, and a Scenario Bank archive to store all content related to foreign animal disease (FAD) studies. The MESA epi model is an object-oriented, agent-based, stochastic, spatio-temporal simulator that parametrically models FAD outbreaks and response strategies from initial disease introduction to conclusion over local, regional, and national scales. Through its output database, the epi model couples to an economic model that calculates farm-level impacts from animal infections, responsive control strategies and loss of trade. The MESA architecture contains a variety of internal models that implement the major components of the epi simulation, including disease introduction, intra-herd spread, inter-herd spread (direct and indirect), detection, and various control strategies (movement restrictions, culling, vaccination) in a highly configurable and extensible fashion. MESA development was originally focused to support investigations into the economic and agricultural industry impacts associated with Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD outbreaks). However, it has been adapted to other FADs such has Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Exotic Newcastle Disease (END). The MESA model is highly parameterized and employs an extensible architecture that permits straightforward addition of new component models (e.g., alternative disease spread approaches) when necessary. Since its inception, MESA has been developed with a requirement to enable simulation of the very large scale, nationwide disease outbreaks that are of special interest to DHS. MESA has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and has benefited from the world-class experience in supercomputing application development held by LLNL staff as well as the best-in-class high performance computing infrastructure in place at LLNL. MESA incorporates novel architectural features that permit it to make efficient use of available compute cycles by dynamically increasing the fidelity of the simulation in spatial (geopolitical) regions where relevant activity is occurring and keeping other regions aggregated into a computationally simpler representation. In addition to the MESA epi and economic models, the MESA DSS incorporates other key components. Integral to the parametric approach MESA employs to setup and define disease outbreak scenarios is a GUI that enables the MESA user to efficiently manage the thousands of parameters required by the simulator. The GUI provides individual parameter editors for groups of variables that support a common high level function, such as disease introduction, spread, control strategies, etc. It also provides a capability to browse through multiple study projects and develop n-additional outbreak scenarios per project through successive refinement of existing scenarios. Finally, the MESA GUI links post-processing applications that permit extraction of key data from MESA raw output, generation of spreadsheets, and geospatial mapping of simulation results. The MESA GUI is a standalone application that normally runs on the user's desktop, although its Java source code is portable and can execute under virtually any modern operating system. The final major component of the MESA DSS is the Scenario Bank, which is a web-served archive of unclassified FAD study content. The Scenario Bank implements a hierarchy of spaces, structured primarily along organizational lines (e.g., 'USDA', 'LLNL', etc), that permits participants to store simulator inputs, outputs, analysis results, reports, etc. and explicitly control who among Bank users may

Speck, D E

2008-04-28

264

Cut-off-mesa isolated rib optial waveguide for 3--5 heterostructure PICs  

SciTech Connect

A new waveguide is designed using a cut-off slab waveguide for fabrication of single-mode rib optical waveguides with mesa isolation. These waveguides are easy to fabricate and offer crosstalk performance perhaps better than BH waveguides.

Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.

1994-07-01

265

Application of the MESA reactive hydrocode to space vehicle explosive ordnance devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The construction of detailed computational models of the dynamic behavior of various explosive ordnance devices used on space vehicles is discussed. The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: numerical methods, explosives and detonations, and the MESA computer code.

Goldstein, Selma

1993-01-01

266

Phas II-clean-up of East Base  

NSF Publications Database

... and Site Cleanup of East Base, Stonington Island, Antarctic Peninsula) To: (Files S.7 - Environment ... East Base Historic Monument, Stonington Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Part I: A Guide for Manage- ...

267

Mesa-type patterns in the one-dimensional Brusselator and their stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brusselator is a generic reaction-diffusion model for a tri-molecular chemical reaction. We consider the case when the input and output reactions are slow. In this limit, we show the existence of K-periodic, spatially bi-stable structures, mesas, and study their stability. Using singular perturbation techniques, we find a threshold for the stability of K mesas. This threshold occurs in the

T. KOLOKOLNIKOV; T. ERNEUX; J. WEI

2005-01-01

268

Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona-2005-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area averages about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2005 to September 2006. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2005, ground-water withdrawals in the Black Mesa area totaled 7,330 acre-feet, including ground-water withdrawals for industrial (4,480 acre-feet) and municipal (2,850 acre-feet) uses. From 2004 to 2005, total withdrawals increased by less than 2 percent, industrial withdrawals increased by approximately 3 percent, and total municipal withdrawals increased by 0.35 percent. From 2005 to 2006, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 10 of 13 wells in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.5 foot. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 12 of 15 wells in the confined area of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.4 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2006, the median water-level change for 29 wells was -8.5 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.2 foot for 13 wells in the unconfined areas and -46.6 feet for 16 wells in the confined area. Ground-water discharges were measured once in 2005 and once in 2006 at Moenkopi School Spring and Burro Spring. Discharge decreased by 3.5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring and by 15 percent at Burro Spring. During the period of record at each spring, discharges fluctuated; a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash (1976 to 2005), Dinnebito Wash (1993 to 2005), Polacca Wash (1994 to 2005), Pasture Canyon Spring (August 2004 to December 2005), and Laguna Creek (1996 to 2005). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring and Laguna Creek was discontinued at the end of December 2005. In 2006, water samples were collected from 6 wells and 2 springs in the Black Mesa area and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 111 to 588 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 5 of the wells and both of the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. Trends in the chemistry of water samples from the 6 wells show the Pi?on NTUA 1 and Peabody 9 wells increasing in dissolved solids, Forest Lake NTUA 1 and Peabody 2 wells decreasing in dissolved solids, and Kykotsmovi PM2 and Keams Canyon PM2 wells show a steady trend. Increasing trends in dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations were evident from the more than 11 years of data for the 2 springs.

Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

2007-01-01

269

Groundwater-silicates Reaction Kinetics in the Navajo Sandstone Aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite numerous studies of soil profiles and watersheds for critical zone processes, the studies of reaction kinetics in groundwater systems are relatively a few. Yet, aquifers are major sites for water-rock interaction, and a significant segment of the hydrological cycle and global elemental cycling. In this presentation, I will show a multi-discipline study of the Navajo sandstone aquifer at Black Mesa, Arizona. The aeolian sandstone represents some simplest lithology, and the study area has unusually abundant hydrologic, geochemical, isotopic, and paleoclimate data. Solute fluxes along flow paths are supplemented by travel time bounded by 14C and excess 4-He data, from which orders of magnitude estimates of the in situ silicate dissolution rates were calculated. These rates show two to five orders of magnitude slower than those from laboratory experiments at comparable temperature and pH and at far from equilibrium conditions, and are much slower than those derived from studies of soils and watersheds. Data from some new analytical and microscopic methods show that the reaction kinetics are complex. Stable Si isotopes of dissolved Si in groundwater along a 100 km flow path show 2 per mil variation and as low as -1.42‰, representing the most negative dissolved Si isotope composition so far found for natural waters. Near atomic scale transmission electron microscopy show a thin (~ 10 nm) amorphous layer is present on naturally weathered K-feldspars in the aquifer, which requires re-consideration of the details of surface reaction controlled mechanism. However, the new hypothesis of strongly coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions that we have been advancing in recent years appear to be able to explain part of the well-known apparent field-lab discrepancy. The slow precipitation of secondary minerals raised the groundwater saturation state with respect to feldspars to close to equilibrium, and thus retard the feldspar dissolution rates. Our recent laboratory experiments that complement the field study supports the hypothesis. Zhu, C. (2005) In situ feldspar dissolution rates in an aquifer. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 69, no.6, 1435-1453, 2005. Zhu, C. Veblen, D.R., Blum, A.E, Chipera, S. (2006) Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona: Electron microscopic characterization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 70, no.18, 4600-4616, 2006 doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.07.013. Georg, R. B., Zhu, C. Reynolds, R.C., and Halliday, A.N. (2009) Stable silicon isotopes of groundwater, feldspars, and clay coatings in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona, USA. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v.73, 229-2241. Fu, Q., P ‡Lu, H. ‡Konishi, R. Dilmore, H. Xu, W. E. Seyfried, Jr., and C. Zhu (2009) Coupled alkali-feldspar Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation in Batch Systems: 1. New Experimental Data at 200°C and 300 bars. Chemical Geology, 91(3), 955-964. Zhu, C., and ‡Lu, P. (2009) Alkali Feldspar Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation in Batch Systems: 3. Saturation States of Product Minerals and Reaction Paths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. v.73, p.3171-3120. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2009.03.015.

Zhu, C.

2009-12-01

270

Factors Controlling Pre-Columbian and Early Historic Maize Productivity in the American Southwest, Part 2: The Chaco Halo, Mesa Verde, Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, and Zuni Archaeological Regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical and nutrient analyses of 471 soil samples from 161 sites within four archaeological regions (Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, Zuni, Mesa Verde, and the Chaco Halo) were combined with historical climate data in order to evaluate the agricultural productivity of each region. In addition, maize productivity and field-life calculations were performed using organic-nitrogen (N) values from the upper 50 cm of soil in each region and a range (1-3%/year) of N-mineralization rates. The endmember values of this range were assumed representative of dry and wet climate states. With respect to precipitation and heat, the Pajarito Plateau area has excellent agricultural potential; the agricultural potentials of the Zuni and Mesa Verde regions are good; and the agricultural potential of the Chaco Halo is poor. Calculations of N mineralization and field life indicate that Morfield Valley in Mesa Verde should be able to provide 10 bu/ac of maize for decades (without the addition of N) when organic N-mineralization rates exceed 2%. Productivity and field-life potential decrease in the following order: Zuni, Mesa Verde, Bandelier, Chaco Halo. The Chaco Halo is very unproductive; e. g., 10 bushels per acre can be achieved within the Halo only from soils having the highest organic N concentration (third quartile) and which undergo the highest rate (3%) of N mineralization. ?? 2010 US Government.

Benson, L. V.

2011-01-01

271

Mesa NTMS 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle area. Supplemental data report  

SciTech Connect

This data report presents supplemental analytical results for stream sediments and ground water. The samples were collected as part of the SRL-NURE reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Mesa 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. Results are reported for 24 elements (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, W, Y, Zn, and extractable U) in sediments and 31 elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Zn, and Zr) as well as pH, alkalinity, and conductivity in ground water. Field data and NAA data will be open-filed when they are available. Microfiche cards have been placed in a pocket on the last page of this report. These cards contain the following information: Cards marked Pg. 1, Pg. 2, and Pg. 3 contain histograms, cumulative frequency plots, and areal distribution plots for sediment samples. The card marked Plate 1 is a site-code map for sediment samples.

Koller, G.R.

1980-01-01

272

Epitaxially passivated mesa-isolated InGaAs photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated low-dark-current InGaAs photodetectors utilizing an epitaxial structure incorporating an InAlGaAs passivation layer and a simple mesa isolation process, and requiring no implant or diffusion steps. At 295 K, areal and perimeter dark current contributions are 15 nA/cm2 and 9 pA/cm, respectively, in devices with large aspect ratios biased at -0.1 V. High responsivity was achieved even at zero bias in these devices. Devices were modeled using a commercial drift-diffusion simulator. Good fits to reverse dark current-voltage measurements were obtained using a model that included both bulk and interfacial generation mechanisms. Assuming similar electron and hole Shockley-Read-Hall lifetimes, dark current under small reverse bias are consistent with generation at the interface between the absorber and underlying layers. With increasing negative bias a large increase in dark current is associated with depletion near the InAlGaAs/absorber interface, while small increases in current at large reverse bias suggest long Shockley-Read-Hall lifetimes in the absorber. Forward biasing of these devices results in efficient injection of minority carrier holes into the absorber region, mimicking photogeneration and providing a method to predict the performance of illuminated detector arrays.

Klem, John F.; Kim, Jin K.; Cich, Michael J.; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Leonhardt, Darin; Fortune, Torben R.; Coon, Wesley T.

2013-06-01

273

Hybrid superconducting mesa-heterostructure with manganite-ruthenate interlayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental data on Josephson effect in hybrid superconducting mesa-heterostructures (HSMH) with composite manganite-ruthenate interlayer. The HSMH base electrode consisted of the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 grown epitaxially on a NdGaO substrate using laser ablation. The interlayer was composed from in-situ deposited SrRuO3 (F1) and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (F2) thin films, each characterized by different directions of magnetization. The top electrode was Nb/Au thin film. A superconducting current was observed when the interlayer thickness was well above the correlation length, determined by the exchange field in F1 and F2. Obtained IC(H) dependences and non-sinusoidal current-phase relation evaluated from microwave measurements are discussed in terms of generation of long-range spin triplet superconducting current component in heterostructures with interfaces of singlet superconductors and bilayer ferromagnetic materials with different spatial directions of magnetization.

Constantinian, K. Y.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Sheyerman, A. E.; Shadrin, A. V.; Kislinskii, Y. V.; Kalabukhov, A.; Winkler, D.

2014-05-01

274

Eruptive vents for the Burro Mesa Rhyolite, Big Bend National Park, Trans-Pecos Texas  

SciTech Connect

Detailed mapping of field relations and flow direction of the Burro Mesa Rhyolite (BMR) have identified vent localities at Burro Mesa, Kit Mountain, Cerro Castellan, Trap Mountain, and Goat Mountain, and the suggest the presence of additional, as yet unlocated, centers of eruption. This work confirms recent interpretations that BMR rocks were not erupted from the Pine Canyon caldera, but were instead erupted from isolated feeder localities in the Burro Mesa-Cerro Castellan area. At the Burro Mesa locality, the BMR contains a lower sparsely-porphyritic lava, a central porphyritic ash-flow tuff, and an upper abundantly-porphyritic lava. At all other mapped localities, only sparsely-porphyritic lava and Wasp Springs Flow Breccia (WSFB) are present. Two vents at Burro Mesa represent sources for separate BMR flows, as well as WSFB, which consists of numerous surge deposits with interbedded ash-flow tuff. Flow directional data suggests a third unlocated vent for abundantly-porphyritic lava in the SE region of Burro Mesa. Flow direction data also suggest that the SW end of Kit Mountain was a source for sparsely-porphyritic lava. A feeder dike at Cerro Castellan cuts up through the WSFB, flaring near the top into a volcanic dome of sparsely-porphyritic lava at the top of the mountain. This cross-cutting relationship was present at most vent localities. Mapping and flow direction data of BMR from vents and other localities suggest that the BMR consists of a discontinuous belt of individual domes, which trend in a southwesterly direction from Burro Mesa to Cerro Castellan.

Holt, G.S.; Parker, D.F. (Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-02-01

275

Pericardial adipose tissue and coronary artery calcification in The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship of pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) with coronary artery calcification in MESA, a large cohort in which associations by race/ethnicity can be compared. The baseline cohort comprised 6,814 Caucasian (38%), African American (28%), Chinese American (12%) and Hispanic (22%) adults aged 45–84, without known clinical cardiovascular disease. Cardiac CT was used to measure PAT (cm3) and calcification (Agatston score). We examined cross-sectional associations of PAT with the presence (score>0) and severity (continuous score if >0) of calcification using prevalence ratio (PR) (n=6,672) and linear regression (n=3,362), respectively. Main models were adjusted for age, age2, gender, race/ethnicity, field site, smoking, physical activity, alcohol and education. PAT volume (adjusted for age, height, weight and site) was greatest in Chinese males, while Black males had less PAT than all but Black females. PAT was associated with presence [PR per standard deviation (SD): 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.08)] and severity [difference in log Agatston score per SD: 0.15 (0.09, 0.21)] of calcification, but neither association varied by race/ethnicity. Adjustment for generalized adiposity attenuated but did not eliminate the associations. With further adjustment for traditional risk factors and inflammatory markers, only the association with severity remained statistically significant [PR: 1.02 (1.00, 1.04), difference: 0.10 (0.03, 0.17)]. Heterogeneity by sex was observed for presence of calcification (PR in men: 1.04; in women: 1.08; p for interaction<0.0001). Pericardial adipose tissue was associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery calcification in this cohort, but despite differences in PAT volumes and calcification across race/ethnic groups, neither association varied by race/ethnicity.

McClain, JE; Hsu, FC; Brown, ER; Burke, GL; Carr, JJ; Harris, TB; Kritchevsky, SB; Szklo, M; Tracy, RP; Ding, J

2012-01-01

276

Effect of Post-Growth Annealing on Morphology of Ge Mesa Selectively Grown on Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of the post-growth annealing on the morphology of a Ge mesa selectively grown on Si was studied from the viewpoint of near-infrared photodiode applications. By ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition, Ge mesas were selectively grown at 600°C on Si (001) substrates partially covered with SiO2 masks. The as-grown Ge mesas showed trapezoidal cross-sections having a top (001) surface and {311} sidewall facets, as similar to previous reports. However, after the subsequent post-growth annealing at -800°C in the ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, the mesas were deformed into rounded shapes having a depression at the center and mounds near the edges. Such a deformation cannot be observed for the samples annealed once after cooled and exposed to the air. The residual hydrogen atoms on the Ge surface from the germane (GeH4) decomposition is regarded as a trigger to the observed morphological instability, while the final mesa shape is determined in order to minimize a sum of the surface and/or strain energies.

Park, Sungbong; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Yamada, Koji; Itabashi, Sei-Ichi; Wada, Kazumi

277

MESA: A 3-D computer code for armor/anti-armor applications  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new 3-D computer code, named MESA, developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory with DARPA/Army/Marine Corps support specifically for simulations of armor and anti-armor systems. MESA is a three-dimensional, cartesian, Eulerian code with hydrodynamics, high explosives, and material strength models. Among special features of MESA are its high-order advection algorithm, its material interface tracking scheme and the van Leer monotonic advection limiting. We will briefly illustrate the code capabilities by showing comparisons of two calculations with experiments. The first problem shown in this paper is the impact of a lead sphere on a thin lead plate at 6.66 km/s, producing a debris cloud composed mostly of vapor. The second problem is the impact of a copper cylinder at 130 m/s on a rigid wall, producing deformation in the cylinder. 17 refs., 5 figs.

Manell, D.A.; Adams, T.F.; Holian, K.S.; Addessio, F.L.; Baumgardner, J.R.; Mosso, S.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01

278

Women Now Nearly Half of San Diego Mesa Community College's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief case study highlights San Diego's Mesa Community College's Geographic Information Systems program, and the strategies that program has adopted to recruit and retain female students. The program took part in the CalWomen Tech Project, which was a collaborative effort by several colleges to increase enrollment of female students in technical areas of study. Some of the strategies that worked for Mesa Community College are outlined here, including: -Identifying female role models in GIS and taking their photos for marketing collateral to be developed by IWITTS and:-Distributing recruitment posters, flyers, brochures and a CalWomenTech College Website section featuring female role models.This narrative, and the lessons that can be learned from the success of Mesa Community College in this area, would be useful for other community college and technical programs looking to increase their numbers of female students.

2012-01-26

279

The preliminary study of autophagy induction of SA and MeSA by confocal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autophagy appears to be a highly conserved process from unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes which contributes to the equilibrium of intracelluar environment. While it would be harmful to the cells when it is excessive by inducing programmed cell death (PCD). It is a protein degradation process in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Previous studies have demonstrated autophagy can be induced during abiotic or biotic stresses. salicylic acid (SA) and methyl salicytic (MeSA) are endogenous signal molecules. We found SA and MeSA can induce autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While autophagy was not induced by SA or MeSA in tobacco suspension cells under the same concentration and period. The differences in stuctures or physiological states may contribute to the results.

Yun, Lijuan; Chen, Wenli

2010-02-01

280

76 FR 51461 - Notice of Release From Quitclaim Deed and Federal Grant Assurance Obligations for Phoenix-Mesa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Release From Quitclaim Deed and Federal Grant Assurance Obligations for Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ AGENCY: Federal...conditions contained in the Quitclaim Deed and Grant Assurance obligations for approximately 1,727 square feet of airport land....

2011-08-18

281

Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

NONE

1996-08-01

282

Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By growing two layers of InAs quantum dots on a substrate and processing the substrate to form mesa structures, we successfully fabricated for the first time nanophotonic devices that operate at room temperature. We fabricated two types of two-dimensional mesa arrays. The mesa dimensions of the individual arrays were 300 nm × 300 nm × 85 nm and 200 nm × 200 nm × 85 nm, and the areal density was 1×108 cm-2. By adjusting the characteristics of energy transfer via dressed photons between two InAs quantum dots in the upper and lower layers of the mesa structures, we implemented devices that operate as AND gates and NOT gates. We fabricated 133 devices (with mesa dimensions of 300 nm on each side), of which 53 devices operated as AND gates and 50 devices operated as NOT gates.

Kawazoe, T.; Ohtsu, M.; Aso, S.; Sawado, Y.; Hosoda, Y.; Yoshizawa, K.; Akahane, K.; Yamamoto, N.; Naruse, M.

2011-06-01

283

East Arabia Landforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

11 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two small mesas, a hill, and other landforms in the highly-eroded landscape of eastern Arabia Terra.

Location near: 30.0oN, 295.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

2005-01-01

284

Recording experiment on Rainier Mesa in conjunction with a reflection survey  

SciTech Connect

The chemical explosion of the NPE was recorded on the surface of Rainier Mesa along the same line which had previously been the site of a high resolution reflection survey. Six three-component accelerometer stations where distributed along the 550 meter line, which was offset about 600 meters from the epicenter of the explosion. The bandwidth of the acceleration data extends to 100 Hz. Even though the separations of the stations was only about 100 meters, the waveforms and the amplitudes exhibited considerable variability, especially for the transverse component of motion. The maximum accelerations ranged between 0.27 g and 1.46 g, with the maximums of the average traces being 0.57 g on the radial component, 0.28 on the transverse component, and 0.50 g on the vertical component. Using the results of the reflection survey to help constrain the velocity model, the acceleration data were inverted to obtain a preliminary estimate of the seismic moment tensor of the NPE. This result is a strong diagnostic for the NPE being an explosion, showing a somewhat asymmetric extensional source with very small shear components. When interpreted in terms of a spectral model and scaling relationships, the isotropic moment tensor indicates a yield of 1.4 kt, an elastic radius of 116 meters and a cavity radius of 15.5 meters. This interpretation includes a source time function which contains appreciable overshoot, and, if shown to be reliable, this feature of the explosion could have a significant effect upon the analyses of other types of seismic data.

Johnson, L.R.

1994-06-01

285

The Silent Canyon caldera: a three-dimensional model as part of a Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Nevada, hydrogeologic model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 3-dimensional caldera model based on gravity inversion, drill-hole data, and geologic mapping offers the framework for a hydrogeologic evaluation of the Silent Canyon caldera in the central part of Pahute Mesa, Nevada. It has been recognized for several decades that the central part of Pahute Mesa is the site of a buried caldera called the Silent Canyon caldera. Conceptually, the structural framework of the Silent Canyon caldera is based on the idea of collapse of the caldera roof over a shallow magma chamber to form a structural basin following violent volcanic eruptions. Calderas are common in certain volcanic regions of the world, and most well-exposed calderas are broadly similar to each other, particularly the arcuate or circular shape of their collapse depression. There are other reasons for modeling the Silent Canyon caldera as a circular feature in addition to knowledge that calderas throughout the world are generally circular features. The Silent Canyon caldera is the site of one of the largest gravity lows in the Western United States, indicating a thick accumulation of low-density rocks such as lavas and tuffs—a fact confirmed by drilling on Pahute Mesa. This gravity low is bowl-shaped, and the uppermost volcanic units on Pahute Mesa form a circular outcrop pattern of inward-dipping tuff interpreted to be the result of their filling the upper part of the bowl-shaped depression. Together, these features are consistent with, and indicative of, a circular collapse structural model for the Silent Canyon caldera. The collapse depression of the Silent Canyon caldera, bounded by arcuate faults, is filled with as much as 6 km (19,800 ft) of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that are considerably less dense than the underlying and surrounding basement rocks. The boundary surface between less dense caldera fill and more dense basement is modeled as the caldera ring fault. Rocks in the upper part of the caldera fill are penetrated by drilling, and the drill-hole data are the basis for 3-dimensional computer modeling of the thickness and distribution of the rock units. The displacement on younger N-S faults that cut the caldera is also determined by offset of the computer derived surfaces defined by the drill-hole intercepts of stratigraphic units.

McKee, Edwin H.; Phelps, Geoffery A.; Mankinen, Edward A.

2001-01-01

286

4. East elevation, facing west (Note: B/W scale on east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. East elevation, facing west (Note: B/W scale on east elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

287

The Colorado MESA Program and CU-LASP: A Model for After School Program/Research Institution Collaboratives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorado MESA is an after school program operating throughout the state with a long track record in promoting science, math and engineering education to largely underserved K-12 student populations. Currently, 81 percent of MESA students are from groups underrepresented in the math/science careers, and 85 percent of MESA students come from low- and moderate-income families. Through a combination of weekly student programs, field trips to universities and industry partners, family orientations, individual academic counseling and required curriculum, Colorado MESA offers an opportunity for students to explore STEM subjects and careers that they might not otherwise have access to - with tangible results. In the Colorado MESA Class of 2003, 97 percent of students planned on entering college this fall, with 86 percent indicating that they will enroll in math/science-based majors. In the last year, the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, a large space and earth sciences institute, has relied on the Colorado MESA program as its primary K-12 partner in Education and Public Outreach. LASP incorporates MESA into its proposal writing opportunities, from E/PO additions to individual research proposals to mission-level educational programs. In addition to funding opportunities, LASP provides scientists and engineers in a variety of contexts and content areas, while MESA works to incorporate those resources into their after school programs. The interface between the after school programs and the research institution requires ongoing communication and coordination in order to evaluate and fine-tune curriculum and activities based on feedback from MESA advisors and teachers. Currently, the MESA/LASP partnership has funded programs in astrobiology, planetary sciences and engineering.

Nelson, G.; Cobabe-Ammann, E.

2004-12-01

288

Water-quality characteristics of urban storm runoff at selected sites in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, February 2006 through November 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected at three watersheds in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, during February 2006 through November 2009 for continued evaluation of urban storm runoff. The watersheds represented land uses characterized predominantly as established commercial, industrial, and residential. The following water-quality data are reported: physical and chemical-related properties, fecal coliform, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds. Results of water-quality analyses enabled calculation of event-mean concentrations and estimated annual contaminant loads and yields of storm runoff from nonpoint sources for 12 water-quality properties and constituents. Lead met or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 15 micrograms per liter for drinking water standards in 4 of 14 samples. Low level concentrations of mercury were detected in all 14 samples, and half were two to four times above the reporting limit of 0.02 micrograms per liter. The average dissolved phosphorus concentrations from each land use were two to four times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.05 milligrams per liter. Diazinon was detected in one sample at a concentration of 0.2 micrograms per liter. In the residential watershed, the largest at 216 acres, contaminant loads for 5 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents were highest, with 4 of these being nutrients. The industrial watershed, 97 acres, had the highest contaminant loads for 6 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents with 3 of these being metals, which is indicative of the type of land use. Zinc had the highest metal load (155 pounds per year) in the industrial watershed, compared to 36 pounds per year in the residential watershed, and 32 pounds per year in the established commercial watershed. The industrial watershed had the highest yields for 8 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents, whereas the established commercial watershed had the lowest yield for 5 of the 12. Lower yields from the established commercial and residential watersheds could be from Best Management Practices in place that help control increased runoff from impervious areas and land development. Metal yields from all the watersheds were less than 1 pound per acre per year, except for the zinc from the industrial watershed, which was 2 pounds per acre per year. Nutrient yields in the established commercial watershed were lowest for total nitrogen, ammonia plus organic nitrogen (Kjeldahl nitrogen), and dissolved phosphorus.

Frederick, C. Paul

2011-01-01

289

GEOLOGY OF THE PALEOCENE SEPULTURA FORMATION, MESA DE LA SEPULTURA, BAJA CALIFORNIA GEOLOGIA DE LA FORMACION SEPULTURA DEL PALEOCENO, EN MESA DE LA SEPULTURA, BAJA CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

At its Mesa de La Sepultura type area, the upper-lower to upper Paleocene Sepultura Formation lies with apparent disconformity on the lower Maastrichtian, marine upper slope and shelf deposits of the Rosario Formation. In places the uppermost Rosario Formation is marked by a kaolinite-rich paleosol. The Sepultura Formation is a deepening-upward sequence divided into a lower glauconitic-clastic member and an

Patrick L. Abbott; Andrew D. Hanson; Celeste N. Thomson; Deirdre L. Logue; Kristine D. Bradshaw; Woody Joe Pollard; Thomas E. Seeliger

290

East-West Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1960 by the U.S. Congress, the East-West Center's primary purpose is "to strengthen relations and understanding among the peoples and nations of Asia, the Pacific, and the United States." To accomplish this purpose, the Center serves as a functional hub for education, cooperative research, and scholarly dialogue. On their homepage, visitors can look over the latest news from scholars at the Center, look over a list of upcoming events sponsored by the Center, and also learn about some of their most recent publications. Academics visiting the site may wish to click on over to the "Research" area. Here they will find information on their primary areas of interest, which include population and health, environmental change, and politics and governance. Finally, visitors should look at their "Publications" area, as it includes free downloads, abstracts, and access to ordering information.

291

Pollen and Phytolith Evidence for Rice Cultivation and Vegetation Change during the Mid-Late Holocene at the Jiangli Site, Suzhou, East China  

PubMed Central

Pollen and phytolith analyses were undertaken at the Jiangli site in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, combined with studies on macrofossils by flotation. The concentration of pollen decreased while the percentage of Poaceae pollen in the profile increased from the late phase of the Majiabang Culture to the Songze Culture suggesting that human impact on the local environment intensified gradually. The discovery of rice paddy implies a relatively advanced rice cultivation in this area during the middle-late Holocene. Other than phytoliths, the high percentage of Oryza-type Poaceae pollen (larger than 40 µm) supplied robust evidence for the existence of rice paddy. Moreover, the fact that the farther from the rice paddy, the lower the concentration and percentage of Poaceae pollen also proves that the dispersal and deposition of pollen is inversely proportional to the distance.

Qiu, Zhenwei; Jiang, Hongen; Ding, Jinlong; Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Xue

2014-01-01

292

Mesa Verde: A Study of Man in an Agricultural Setting. Library Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of secondary readings contains general information about the ecology of living space, and specific information about the prehistory ecology of Mesa Verde, Colorado. There is also a section on how anthropologists use trees to date artifacts. A related document is indexed as ED 001 721. (AWW)

Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

293

Mesa Verde: A Study of Man in an Agricultural Setting. Student Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student manual contains information and guides to assist the secondary student in functioning as an archeologist. Included are fables, pictures for analysis, a time line and description of the pre-history of Mesa Verde, Colorado. The manual concludes with artifact identification word sheets. A related document is ED 001 722. (AWW)

Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

294

Mesa Public Schools: As Seen through the Eyes of 1984 Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires were administered to the 2,404 members of the 1984 graduating class of the Mesa Public Schools (Arizona) to aid in planning and implementation of programs and policies suited to the variety of student needs in the school system. Subjects were selected from five high schools. The questionnaire survey, which is part of an ongoing…

Cox, Billie

295

Thermal management in large Bi2212 mesas used for terahertz sources.  

SciTech Connect

We present a thermal analysis of a patterned mesa on a Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Bi2212) single crystal that is based on tunneling characteristics of the c-axis stack of {approx}800 intrinsic Josephson junctions in the mesa. Despite the large mesa volume (e.g., 40 times 300 times 1.2 mum{sup 3}) and power dissipation that result in self-heating and backbending of the current-voltage curve (I-V), there are accessible bias conditions for which significant polarized THz-wave emission can be observed. We estimate the mesa temperature by equating the quasiparticle resistance, R{sub qp}(T), to the ratio V/I over the entire I-V including the backbending region. These temperatures are used to predict the unpolarized black-body radiation reaching our bolometer and there is substantial agreement over the entire I-V. As such, backbending results from the particular R{sub qp}(T) for Bi2212, as first discussed by Fenton, rather than a significant suppression of the energy gap. This model also correctly predicts the observed disappearance of backbending above {approx}60 K.

Kurter, C.; Gray, K. E.; Zasadzinski, J. F.; Ozyuzer, L.; Koshelev, A. E.; Li, Q.; Yamamoto, T.; Kadowaki, K.; Kwok, W.-K.; Tachiki, M.; Welp, U.; Materials Science Division; Izmir Inst. of Tech.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Univ. Tsukuba; Univ. Tokyo

2009-06-01

296

Portland Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Evaluation Report, 1986-1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Portland Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) program was designed to remedy the underrepresentation of particular ethnic groups in mathematics and science-based careers and professions. It provides enrichment instruction on a weekly basis in eight middle schools and three high schools to enhance mathematics and science skills…

Grice, Michael

297

Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue

A. S. Rood; J. L. George; G. H. Jr. Langner

1990-01-01

298

Flood Plain Management Study: Plateau Creek, Grove Creek, Buzzard Creek at Collbran, Mesa County, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study is to provide detailed flood plain management information and mapping to Mesa County and the Town of Collbran for use in implementing flood plain management programs which will minimize potential flood losses. Included in the re...

1991-01-01

299

Error analysis for Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 conducted at the JPL Mesa west antenna range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical analysis and experimental data are combined to yield the errors to be used with antenna gain, antenna patterns, and RF cable insertion loss measurements for the Mariner Venus-Mercury 1973 Flight Project. These errors apply to measurements conducted at the JPL Mesa, West Antenna Range, on the high gain antenna, low gain antenna, and RF coaxial cables.

Vincent, N. L.; Smith, C. A.; Brejcha, A. J.; Curtis, H. A.

1973-01-01

300

Assessing Hydraulic Connections Across Structural Blocks, Pahute Mesa, Nevada---Interpreting Hydraulic Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater beneath Pahute Mesa flows through a complexly layered sequence of volcanic-rock aquifers and confining units that have been faulted into distinct structural blocks. Hydraulic properties of the rocks and structures in this aquifer system control radionuclide migration away from areas of underground nuclear testing. The degree of hydraulic connection between structural blocks greatly affects the direction and distance of

K. J. Halford; J. M. Fenelon; C. Garcia; D. S. Sweetkind

2010-01-01

301

Ancient Near East.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ancient Near East has been the birthplace of some of civilization's most important advances, among them written language, the impulse to urbanism, and crop cultivation. Created and maintained by Paul James Cowie (a doctoral student at Australia's Macquarie University), the site is a fine resource for both scholars and the general public. Scholars will want to make sure and take a look at the conference diary section, which lists upcoming conferences and various calls for papers and other submissions. The announcements section is of additional interest, as it gives advance notice regarding related activities, including international symposia. For the general public, a host of sections (such as museums and galleries) offer comprehensive listings of Web-based resources ranging from Egyptology links to those dealing with cuneiform. The Web site also contains a listing of links to museums that specialize in the antiquities and archaeology of the Near East located around the world.

2000-01-01

302

East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and east yard office at left background. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

303

Transcendence East and West  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twain have long since met, with and without apocalypse, but a more insidious stereotype still infects Kipling's blithe verse: the assumption that East is East, i.e., that we can make useful generalizations about the East. However difficult it may be to characterize the West, it is far more difficult to make an observation valid from Sakhalin to Saudi Arabia.

David Loy

1993-01-01

304

Completion Report for Well ER-16-1 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-16-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June and July 2005 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit, Number 99. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology of the Shoshone Mountain area, especially in the older Tertiary and pre-Tertiary strata. The main 46.99-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 702.9 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 663.7 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters, and the well was drilled to total depth of 1,220.7 meters. A completion string set at the depth of 1,162.4 meters consisted of 13.97-centimeter stainless-steel casing, with one continuous slotted interval open to the lower carbonate aquifer. The fluid level in the borehole soon dropped, so the borehole was deepened in July 2006. To deepen the borehole, the slotted section was cemented and a 12.1-centimeter hole was drilled through the bottom of the completion string to the new total depth of 1,391.7 meters, which is 171.0 meters deeper than the original borehole. A string of 6.03-centimeter carbon-steel tubing with one continuous slotted interval at 1,361.8 to 1,381.4 meters, and open to the lower carbonate aquifer, was installed in the well with no gravel packing or cement, to serve as a monitoring string. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters (extra cuttings samples were collected from the Paleozoic rocks for paleontological analyses), sidewall core samples from 37 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated 646.8 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks and 744.9 meters of Paleozoic dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone. Three weeks after the monitoring string was installed, the water level was tagged at the drill hole depth of 1,271.9 meters, which equates to an estimated elevation of 761.7 meters, accounting for the borehole angle.

NSTec Geology Services

2006-12-01

305

The lower paleolithic of the Near East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Near East forms the geographic crossroads between Africa, Asia and Europe and was certainly a main route for the dispersal of Homo erectusinto Eurasia. The study of Lower Paleolithic sites in this region and in the neighboring Caucasus area sheds some light on several potential colonization events. Sites such as ‘Ubeidiya (Jordan Valley) and Dmanisi (Georgia) suggest the early

Ofer Bar-Yosef

1994-01-01

306

Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

Pippin, L.C.

1998-06-01

307

Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

1995-12-01

308

Stochastic source comparisons between nuclear and chemical explosions detonated at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this study is the understanding of the time function effects for chemical and nuclear explosion sources detonated in a spherical geometry. Information developed here in combination with similar studies for earthquakes and mining explosions will be used to improve current discriminants, address the transportability of the discriminants to new regions and suggest new discriminants utilizing current data sources. The quantification of the seismic source time function for nuclear and chemical explosions provides the basis for identifying source differences that may develop as a function of yield as well as explosive type (chemical or nuclear). The yield effects are useful in yield determination as well as assessing detection and identification capabilities if seismic monitoring of such sources is important. Source effects attributable to yield can be used to establish new or verify existing scaling relations.

Stump, B.W.; Pearson, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geophysics Group; Reinke, R.E. [Field Command Defense Nuclear Agency, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)

1994-07-01

309

Final design, installation and baseline testing of 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pilot plant was configured to accomplish two objectives - first to evaluate the overall performance potential of direct contact powerplants and second to develop design criteria and parameters for full-scale direct contact plants. The pilot plant includes all of the process functions that would be incorporated in a full-scale plant. Incoming brine is treated to remove undissolved gases, pumped

A. Hlinak; J. Lobach; K. Nichols; R. Olander; D. Werner

2009-01-01

310

Final design, installation and baseline testing of 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa  

SciTech Connect

The pilot plant was configured to accomplish two objectives - first to evaluate the overall performance potential of direct contact powerplants and second to develop design criteria and parameters for full-scale direct contact plants. The pilot plant includes all of the process functions that would be incorporated in a full-scale plant. Incoming brine is treated to remove undissolved gases, pumped through the direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX), and then sent to a recovery system for removal of the dissolved working fluid. The chosen working fluid is isobutane (IC/sub 4/). The working fluid loop includes a radial inflow turbine with generator, condensers, hot-well reservoir, and a feed pump. A downwell pump was installed in the geothermal well to supply the plant with unflashed brine. (MHR)

Hlinak, A.; Lobach, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Werner, D.

1980-05-30

311

110GHz, 50%-efficiency mushroom-mesa waveguide p-i-n photodiode for a 1.55-?m wavelength  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mushroom-mesa structure is proposed to reduce the CR-time constant which originates from the waveguide photodiode structure. Experimental results at a 1.55-?m wavelength show that the multimode waveguide p-i-n photodiode with mushroom-mesa structure has an electrical 3-dB bandwidth of more than 75 GHz in the frequency domain and an electrical 3-dB bandwidth of 110 GHz in the time domain. The

K. Kato; A. Kozen; Y. Muramoto; Y. Itaya; T. Nagatsuma; M. Yaita

1994-01-01

312

Observation of growth patterns during atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy regrowth of InP around etched mesas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth patterns were observed layer by layer, during the atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of InP layers around etched mesas with various shapes. Results indicate that InP layers growing from the sidewall bend over the SiO 2 mask whenever the growth step at the top end of the layer emerges out of the SiO 2 mask before the layer itself becomes significantly planar. The so-called "rabbit-ear" structure is then formed, as a combined result of enhanced growth rate at the mask edge and facet formation. The role of the mask overhang is to significantly reduce the growth rate at the mesa top, by limiting the amount of reactants available at the top corner of the mesa covered by the mask, so that the top end of the growing layer remains under the mask until the growth on the base plane is planarized. For some mesa shapes, such as reentrant mesas with concave sidewall, it was also observed that the growth rate at the top of the mesa is not sufficiently suppressed during the regrowth so that the rabbit-ear structure is formed even if a significant length of mask overhang exists. Other details of these phenomena are also discussed.

Lee, B.-T.; Logan, R. A.; Chu, S. N. G.

1993-05-01

313

Differential Sensitivity Theory applied to the MESA code for high pressure interactions  

SciTech Connect

A technique called Differential Sensitivity Theory (DST) is applied to the system of equations solved by the MESA hydrocode. DST uses adjoint techniques to determine exact sensitivity derivatives, i.e., if R is a calculational result of interest (response R) and {alpha}{sub i} is a calculational input (parameter {alpha}{sub i}), then {partial_derivative}R/{partial_derivative}{alpha}{sub i} is defined as the sensitivity. The advantage of using DST is that for an n-parameter problem all n sensitivities can be obtained by integrating the solutions from only two calculations, a MESA calculation and its corresponding adjoint calculation using an Adjoint Continuum Mechanics code (ACM). This work describes the derivation and solution of the appropriate set of adjoint and sensitivity equations for the purpose of computing sensitivities for high-rate two-dimensional, multi-component, high deformation problems. As an example, results are presented for a flyer plate problem.

Maudlin, P.J.; Henninger, R.J.; Harstad, E.N.

1993-07-01

314

Characteristics of blocking voltage for power 4H-SiC BJTs with mesa edge termination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the avalanche ionization theory, a computer-based analysis is performed to analyze the structural parameters of single- and multiple-zone junction termination extension (JTE) structures for 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) with mesa structure. The calculation results show that a single-zone JTE can yield high breakdown voltages if the activated JTE dose and the implantation width are controlled precisely and a multiple-zone JTE method can decrease the peak surface field while still maintaining a high blocking capability. The influences of the positive and negative surface or interface states on the blocking capability are also shown. These conclusions have a realistic meaning in optimizing the design of a mesa power device.

Qian, Zhang; Yuming, Zhang; Yimen, Zhang

2010-07-01

315

Evaluation of Pleistocene groundwater flow through fractured tuffs using a U-series disequilibrium approach, Pahute Mesa, Nevada, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater flow through fractured felsic tuffs and lavas at the Nevada National Security Site represents the most likely mechanism for transport of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests at Pahute Mesa. To help evaluate fracture flow and matrix–water exchange, we have determined U-series isotopic compositions on more than 40 drill core samples from 5 boreholes that represent discrete fracture surfaces, breccia zones, and interiors of unfractured core. The U-series approach relies on the disruption of radioactive secular equilibrium between isotopes in the uranium-series decay chain due to preferential mobilization of 234U relative to 238U, and U relative to Th. Samples from discrete fractures were obtained by milling fracture surfaces containing thin secondary mineral coatings of clays, silica, Fe–Mn oxyhydroxides, and zeolite. Intact core interiors and breccia fragments were sampled in bulk. In addition, profiles of rock matrix extending 15 to 44 mm away from several fractures that show evidence of recent flow were analyzed to investigate the extent of fracture/matrix water exchange. Samples of rock matrix have 234U/238U and 230Th/238U activity ratios (AR) closest to radioactive secular equilibrium indicating only small amounts of groundwater penetrated unfractured matrix. Greater U mobility was observed in welded-tuff matrix with elevated porosity and in zeolitized bedded tuff. Samples of brecciated core were also in secular equilibrium implying a lack of long-range hydraulic connectivity in these cases. Samples of discrete fracture surfaces typically, but not always, were in radioactive disequilibrium. Many fractures had isotopic compositions plotting near the 230Th-234U 1:1 line indicating a steady-state balance between U input and removal along with radioactive decay. Numerical simulations of U-series isotope evolution indicate that 0.5 to 1 million years are required to reach steady-state compositions. Once attained, disequilibrium 234U/238U and 230Th/238U AR values can be maintained indefinitely as long as hydrological and geochemical processes remain stable. Therefore, many Pahute Mesa fractures represent stable hydrologic pathways over million-year timescales. A smaller number of samples have non-steady-state compositions indicating transient conditions in the last several hundred thousand years. In these cases, U mobility is dominated by overall gains rather than losses of U.

Paces, James B.; Nichols, Paul J.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Rajaram, Harihar

2013-01-01

316

Air Pollution and Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

Background: Although research has shown that low socioeconomic status (SES) and minority communities have higher exposure to air pollution, few studies have simultaneously investigated the associations of individual and neighborhood SES with pollutants across multiple sites. Objectives: We characterized the distribution of ambient air pollution by both individual and neighborhood SES using spatial regression methods. Methods: The study population comprised 6,140 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Year 2000 annual average ambient PM2.5 and NOx concentrations were calculated for each study participant’s home address at baseline examination. We investigated individual and neighborhood (2000 U.S. Census tract level) SES measures corresponding to the domains of income, wealth, education, and occupation. We used a spatial intrinsic conditional autoregressive model for multivariable analysis and examined pooled and metropolitan area–specific models. Results: A 1-unit increase in the z-score for family income was associated with 0.03-?g/m3 lower PM2.5 (95% CI: –0.05, –0.01) and 0.93% lower NOx (95% CI: –1.33, –0.53) after adjustment for covariates. A 1-SD–unit increase in the neighborhood’s percentage of persons with at least a high school degree was associated with 0.47-?g/m3 lower mean PM2.5 (95% CI: –0.55, –0.40) and 9.61% lower NOx (95% CI: –10.85, –8.37). Metropolitan area–specific results exhibited considerable heterogeneity. For example, in New York, high-SES neighborhoods were associated with higher concentrations of pollution. Conclusions: We found statistically significant associations of SES measures with predicted air pollutant concentrations, demonstrating the importance of accounting for neighborhood- and individual-level SES in air pollution health effects research. Citation: Hajat A, Diez-Roux AV, Adar SD, Auchincloss AH, Lovasi GS, O’Neill MS, Sheppard L, Kaufman JD. 2013. Air pollution and individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status: evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Environ Health Perspect 121:1325–1333;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206337

Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Adar, Sara D.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Lovasi, Gina S.; O'Neill, Marie S.; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.

2013-01-01

317

Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

1990-04-01

318

Overview of the Multiscale Epidemiologic\\/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Decision Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multiscale Epidemiologic\\/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Decision Support System (DSS) is the product of investments that began in FY05 by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate and continue today with joint funding by both DHS and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The DSS consists of a coupled epidemiologic\\/economic model, a standalone graphical user interface

Speck

2008-01-01

319

Characteristics of blocking voltage for power 4H-SiC BJTs with mesa edge termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the avalanche ionization theory, a computer-based analysis is performed to analyze the structural parameters of single- and multiple-zone junction termination extension (JTE) structures for 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) with mesa structure. The calculation results show that a single-zone JTE can yield high breakdown voltages if the activated JTE dose and the implantation width are controlled precisely and

Zhang Qian; Zhang Yuming; Zhang Yimen

2010-01-01

320

InGaAsP/InP undercut mesa laser with planar polyimide passivation  

SciTech Connect

An undercut mesa laser is fabricated on an n/sup +/-InP substrate using a single step liquid phase epitaxy growth process and a planar structure is obtained by using a polyimide filling layer. The lasers operate at fundamental transverse mode due to a scattering loss mechanism. Threshold currents of 18 mA and stable single transverse mode operating at high currents are obtained.

Koren, U.; Chen, T.R.; Harder, C.; Hasson, A.; Yu, K.L.; Chiu, L.C.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

1983-03-01

321

Statistical modeling of Agatston score in multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA).  

PubMed

The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is an ongoing study of the prevalence, risk factors, and progression of subclinical cardiovascular disease in a multi-ethnic cohort. It provides a valuable opportunity to examine the development and progression of CAC (coronary artery calcium), which is an important risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. In MESA, about half of the CAC scores are zero and the rest are continuously distributed. Such data has been referred to as "zero-inflated data" and may be described using two-part models. Existing two-part model studies have limitations in that they usually consider parametric models only, make the assumption of known forms of the covariate effects, and focus only on the estimation property of the models. In this article, we investigate statistical modeling of CAC in MESA. Building on existing studies, we focus on two-part models. We investigate both parametric and semiparametric, and both proportional and nonproportional models. For various models, we study their estimation as well as prediction properties. We show that, to fully describe the relationship between covariates and CAC development, the semiparametric model with nonproportional covariate effects is needed. In contrast, for the purpose of prediction, the parametric model with proportional covariate effects is sufficient. This study provides a statistical basis for describing the behaviors of CAC and insights into its biological mechanisms. PMID:20711503

Ma, Shuangge; Liu, Anna; Carr, Jeffrey; Post, Wendy; Kronmal, Richard

2010-01-01

322

Exploring Stellar Evolution Models of sdB Stars Using MESA With Convective Overshoot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) to explore how well stellar evolutionary theory reproduces observational data on sdB stars. We investigate two problems. First, asteroseismological analyses of g-mode pulsators suggest He-CO cores of the order of 0.25 M?, i.e. 40-50% of the total stellar mass. Conventional stellar evolution, using MLT theory without convective overshoot, produces significantly smaller cores (˜0.1 M?). We have produced evolutionary sequences with varying amounts of overshoot. A sufficiently high value of convective overshoot does produce He-CO core masses comparable to those suggested by the asteroseismological analyses. The large amount of overshooting required gives rise to a second stage of helium-core burning for some of our models. This may not be physically realistic, since evolution following initial core helium exhaustion with large convective overshoot appears to strain some of the current modules in MESA (with regard to convective boundary layers and composition gradients, for example). The second problem is that surface gravities and effective temperatures determined from optical spectra and asteroseismology do not match very well the evolutionary paths calculated by MESA (or other stellar evolutionary codes). The more extreme overshooting needed to produce more massive He-CO cores has little effect on the effective temperatures and surface gravities.

Schindler, J.; Green, E.; Arnett, D.

2014-04-01

323

Migration of conservative and sorbing radionuclides in heterogeneous fractured rock aquifers at the Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is the United States continental nuclear weapons testing site. The larger underground tests, including BENHAM and TYBO, were conducted at Pahute Mesa. The BENHAM test, conducted in 1968, was detonated 1.4 km below the surface and the TYBO test, conducted in 1975, was detonated at a depth of 765 m. Between 1996 and 1998, several

J. R. Boryta; A. V. Wolfsberg

2003-01-01

324

Stratigraphic revision and depositional environments of the Upper Cretaceous Toreva Formation in the northern Black Mesa area, Navajo and Apache counties, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Two units previously included in the upper part of the Toreva Formation in northern Black Mesa have been assigned new stratigraphic names. One unit previously assigned to the Toreva is reassigned to the Wepo Formation. This report describes the sedimentology of the Toreva Formation and these new units and the depositional history of the Black Mesa area during middle Turonian through early Santonian time. Correlations are made among these units on Black Mesa and Cretaceous sequences in southern Utah and western New Mexico.

Franczyk, K.J.

1988-01-01

325

2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

326

55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER HOUSE AND FLUME VISIBLE TO RIGHT, TAILRACE RUNNING THROUGH CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. CRADLE TO INCLINED PLANE 3 EAST IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

327

5. EAST VIEW OF EAST END OF BRIDGELEVEL Copy photograph ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EAST VIEW OF EAST END OF BRIDGE--LEVEL Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HAER-GS05-B-1971-502L. - Falls Bridge, Spanning Schuylkill River, connecting East & West River Drives, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

328

Metolachlor metabolite (MESA) reveals agricultural nitrate-N fate and transport in Choptank River watershed.  

PubMed

Over 50% of streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed have been rated as poor or very poor based on the index of biological integrity. The Choptank River estuary, a Bay tributary on the eastern shore, is one such waterway, where corn and soybean production in upland areas of the watershed contribute significant loads of nutrients and sediment to streams. We adopted a novel approach utilizing the relationship between the concentration of nitrate-N and the stable, water-soluble herbicide degradation product MESA {2-[2-ethyl-N-(1-methoxypropan-2-yl)-6-methylanilino]-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid} to distinguish between dilution and denitrification effects on the stream concentration of nitrate-N in agricultural subwatersheds. The ratio of mean nitrate-N concentration/(mean MESA concentration * 1000) for 15 subwatersheds was examined as a function of percent cropland on hydric soil. This inverse relationship (R(2)=0.65, p<0.001) takes into consideration not only dilution and denitrification of nitrate-N, but also the stream sampling bias of the croplands caused by extensive drainage ditch networks. MESA was also used to track nitrate-N concentrations within the estuary of the Choptank River. The relationship between nitrate-N and MESA concentrations in samples collected over three years was linear (0.95 ? R(2) ? 0.99) for all eight sampling dates except one where R(2)=0.90. This very strong correlation indicates that nitrate-N was conserved in much of the Choptank River estuary, that dilution alone is responsible for the changes in nitrate-N and MESA concentrations, and more importantly nitrate-N loads are not reduced in the estuary prior to entering the Chesapeake Bay. Thus, a critical need exists to minimize nutrient export from agricultural production fields and to identify specific conservation practices to address the hydrologic conditions within each subwatershed. In well drained areas, removal of residual N within the cropland is most critical, and practices such as cover crops which sequester the residual N should be strongly encouraged. In poorly drained areas where denitrification can occur, wetland restoration and controlled drained structures that minimize ditch flow should be used to maximize denitrification. PMID:24388901

McCarty, Gregory W; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Rice, Clifford P; Hively, W Dean; McConnell, Laura L; Sadeghi, Ali M; Lang, Megan W; Whitall, David R; Bialek, Krystyna; Downey, Peter

2014-03-01

329

EAST plasma control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST), the first tokomak with ITER-like fully superconductive poloidal and toroidal coils, successfully completed its engineering commission in March 2006; had its first plasma in September 2006 [B.N. Wan, et al., The first plasma of EAST, in: 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Chengdu, China, 16–21 October, 2007. [1

B. J. Xiao; D. A. Humphreys; M. L. Walker; A. Hyatt; J. A. Leuer; D. Mueller; B. G. Penaflor; D. A. Pigrowski; R. D. Johnson; A. Welander; Q. P. Yuan; H. Z. Wang; J. R. Luo; Z. P. Luo; C. Y. Liu; L. Z. Liu; K. Zhang

2008-01-01

330

MENALIB: Middle East Virtual Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaborative venture of more than a half dozen international libraries, MENALIB is coordinated by the University and State Library Saxony-Anhalt, Halle in an attempt to combine contributors' resources into a virtual library of materials on the Middle East and North Africa. The library's primary goals are to create a subject guide for electronic resources in the areas of Middle Eastern and Islamic studies, a current contents service for scholarly journals, a virtual catalog, and databases for dissertations and conferences. The site currently contains ALMISBAH, a searchable and browseable (by source type and subject) database of Internet resources, and the classification scheme of the special subject collection (in German and English).

2000-01-01

331

14. View of interior, north and east walls featuring sink, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View of interior, north and east walls featuring sink, facing east (Note: B/W scale on wall in foreground is in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

332

Precipitation chemistry in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of precipitation in East Asia was analyzed on the basis of the results of cooperative monitoring performed during the period from 1992 to 1993. The wet deposition of soluble ions was characterized by two major factors; the geographical distribution of precursor production through natural and anthropogenic activities, and the meteorological conditions such as wind system and rainfall pattern due to the Asian monsoon. Although northeastern China had the largest anthropogenic emission source, precipitation with relatively high pH value was observed. At islands in the northern Pacific far from major anthropogenic emission sources, precipitation with relatively low pH value was observed. It was suggested that ammonia and calcium were constantly produced in the continent, and that the higher concentrations of these bases in the atmosphere were incorporated into precipitation elements and neutralized the acidity due to H 2SO 4 and HNO 3 from fossil fuel combustion. The ratio of [nssCa 2++NH 4+]/[nssSO 42-+NO 3-] in precipitation was highest on the continent, moderate in the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Islands, and lowest in the northern Pacific; in other words, this ratio decreased as the distance from the continent increased. In the central region of East Asia, which is affected by both continental cold, dry air masses and subtropical warm, humid air masses, the frequency distribution of pH of precipitation showed a bimodal pattern in which unimodal patterns of northern China and that of the Japanese Islands were superimposed. The wet deposition of nssSO 42-, NO 3-, nssCa 2+, and NH 4+ showed relatively small differences between the sites, while that of Na + and Cl -, relatively large differences between the sites, reflecting the field of ionic concentration and amount of precipitation in East Asia.

Fujita, Shin-ichi; Takahashi, Akira; Weng, Jian-Hua; Huang, Lian-Fen; Kim, Hui-Kang; Li, Cheng-Kang; Huang, Frank T. C.; Jeng, Fu-Tien

333

28. ELEVATION LOOKING EAST, ORIGINAL MARCONI ANTENNA POLES WERE 300' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. ELEVATION LOOKING EAST, ORIGINAL MARCONI ANTENNA POLES WERE 300' TALL (AT LEAST TWICE THE HEIGHT OF THOSE APPEARING IN PICTURE). - Marconi Radio Sites, Transmitting, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

334

2. TIP TOP MINE. NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF HOUSE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. TIP TOP MINE. NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF HOUSE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

335

5. TIP TOP MINE. EAST SIDE OF STRUCTURE WITH COLLAPSED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. TIP TOP MINE. EAST SIDE OF STRUCTURE WITH COLLAPSED ADIT. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

336

3. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, COLLAPSED ADIT. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, COLLAPSED ADIT. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

337

29. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF ROOM 144, A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF ROOM 144, A POST-MORTEM CELL IN THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

338

View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing thirty-acre irrigated field - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Weather Tower, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

339

Interior view to the east of an empty computer room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view to the east of an empty computer room - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Six Transmitter Building, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

340

View of EPA Farm Sioux silo, facing east. Radsafe trailer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm Sioux silo, facing east. Rad-safe trailer is to the left - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Silo Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

341

4. VIEW SHOWING MESS HALLBARRACKS, LOOKING EAST Everett Weinreb, photographer, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW SHOWING MESS HALL-BARRACKS, LOOKING EAST Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

342

20. FRONT VIEW OF PUMP HOUSE, LOOKING EAST Everett Weinreb, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. FRONT VIEW OF PUMP HOUSE, LOOKING EAST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

343

Interior of Room T105, looking east at transmitter area ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of Room T105, looking east at transmitter area - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Moscow Radar Site Transmit Sector Three Transmitter Building, At the end of Steam Road, Moscow, Somerset County, ME

344

19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND WITH DISCHARGE TO GRIZZLY AT BOTTOM OF VIEW. CONCRETE RETAINING WALL TO LEFT (SOUTH) AND BOTTOM (EAST EDGE OF EAST BIN). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

345

Estimate of tilt instability of mesa-beam and Gaussian-beam modes for advanced LIGO  

SciTech Connect

Sidles and Sigg have shown that advanced LIGO interferometers will encounter a serious tilt instability, in which symmetric tilts of the mirrors of an arm cavity cause the cavity's light beam to slide sideways, so its radiation pressure exerts a torque that increases the tilt. Sidles and Sigg showed that the strength T of this torque is 26.2 times greater for advanced LIGO's baseline cavities - nearly flat spherical mirrors which support Gaussian beams (FG cavities), than for nearly concentric spherical mirrors which support Gaussian beams (CG cavities) with the same diffraction losses as the baseline case: T{sup FG}/T{sup CG}=26.2. This has motivated a proposal to change the baseline design to nearly concentric, spherical mirrors. In order to reduce thermal noises in advanced LIGO, O'Shaughnessy and Thorne have proposed replacing the spherical mirrors and their Gaussian beams by ''Mexican-Hat'' (MH) shaped mirrors which support flat-topped, mesa shaped beams. In this paper, we compute the tilt-instability torque for advanced-LIGO cavities with nearly flat MH mirrors and mesa beams (FM cavities) and nearly concentric MH mirrors and mesa beams (CM cavities), with the same diffraction losses as in the baseline FG case. We find that the relative sizes of the restoring torques are T{sup CM}/T{sup CG}=0.91, T{sup FM}/T{sup CG}=96, T{sup FM}/T{sup FG}=3.67. Thus, the nearly concentric MH mirrors have a weaker tilt instability than any other configuration. Their thermoelastic noise is the same as for nearly flat MH mirrors, and is much lower than for spherical mirrors.

Savov, Pavlin; Vyatchanin, Sergey [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States); Physics Department, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-10-15

346

SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS: A novel compensation method for polygonized mesa structures on (100) silicon substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical compensation method for polygonized mesa structures on (100) silicon substrate during the anisotropic etching process has been developed, which contains four stages as follows: prepare the information of the etching condition; predict the structure's undercutting profile; construct the topological structure of compensation patterns; and generate practical compensation patterns from the topological structure. The reasoning process is clearly stated, and detailed steps for the undercutting prediction and topological structure construction are summarized. Conclusions are also drawn about the rules which must be obeyed during the pattern generation process. The simulation and experimental results of some polygon structures are finally given to prove this method's validity and reliability.

Han, Zhang; Weihua, Li

2010-06-01

347

Continuous 30 ?W terahertz source by a high-Tc superconductor mesa structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a modified mesa structure of high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? with a thin underlaying base superconductor (~3 ?m), the effective working temperature of the continuous and monochromatic terahertz emitter is extended up to 70 K, and the maximum power of ~30 ?W at 0.44 THz is achieved at the relatively high temperature of Tb = 55 K in a low bias current retrapping region. The diverging behavior of the intensity occurring at 55 K in the low current regime without hot spot formation may provide us an important clue for the stronger THz radiation from intrinsic Josephson junction devices.

Sekimoto, S.; Watanabe, C.; Minami, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kashiwagi, T.; Klemm, Richard A.; Kadowaki, K.

2013-10-01

348

Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits  

DOEpatents

A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides.

Vawter, Gregory A. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Robert E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

349

Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits  

DOEpatents

A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides. 7 figs.

Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.

1998-04-28

350

Evaluation of the Junior MESA Program: A Report to the Legislature in Response to Assembly Bill 610 (Hughes) of 1985 [Commission Report 89-30].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program was established in 1970 to increase the number of American Indian, Black, Mexican-American, and Puerto Rican students who graduate from a California university prepared to enter mathematics-based careers. Developed initially with an exclusive focus on high school students, MESA

California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

351

The Effectiveness of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program's Administrative and Policy-Making Processes. A Report to the Legislature in Response to Assembly Bill 610 (1985). Commission Report 89-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program was established in 1970 to increase the number of minority students in college programs. This paper reports the MESA administrative operations and policy-making processes. Part 1 summarizes the background of this study. Part 2 describes MESA's administrative operations and provides…

California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

352

Geologic surface effects of underground nuclear testing, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a new Geographic Information System composite map of the geologic surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flat Physiographic Area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a continental location for testing nuclear devices (Allen and others, 1997, p.3). Originally known as the ''Nevada Proving Ground'', the NTS hosted a total of 928 nuclear detonations, of which 828 were conducted underground (U.S. Department of Energy, 1994). Three principal testing areas of the NTS were used: (1) Yucca Flat, (2) Pahute Mesa, and (3) Rainier Mesa including Aqueduct Mesa. Underground detonations at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa were typically emplaced in vertical drill holes, while others were tunnel emplacements. Of the three testing areas, Yucca Flat was the most extensively used, hosting 658 underground tests (747 detonations) located at 719 individual sites (Allen and others, 1997, p.3-4). Figure 1 shows the location of Yucca Flat and other testing areas of the NTS. Figure 2 shows the locations of underground nuclear detonation sites at Yucca Flat. Table 1 lists the number of underground nuclear detonations conducted, the number of borehole sites utilized, and the number of detonations mapped for surface effects at Yucca Flat by NTS Operational Area.

Grasso, D.N.

2000-05-31

353

Development of ion-implantation confined, shallow mesa stripe (Pn,Sn)Te/Pb(Te,Se) DH laser diodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of a program to develop ion implantation confined, shallow mesa stripe (Pb,Sn)Te laser diodes are presented. The practicality of using a shallow mesa stripe to produce single mode laser output and to increase the single mode tuning range are demonstrated. The first results of p-type ion implantation in the lead-tin salts are also reported. It is shown that sodium and lithium both can be used to convert n-type Pb(Te,Se) to p-type. The implant and anneal procedures are described, and electrical characteristics of Li-implanted layers are presented.

Fonstad, C. G.; Harton, A.; Jiang, Y.-N.; Appelman, H.

1983-01-01

354

Associations of SNPs in ADIPOQ and subclinical cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA).  

PubMed

Circulating adiponectin is associated with both clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Variants of the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) are associated with clinical CVD, but little is known about associations with subclinical CVD. We studied the association of 11 ADIPOQ single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with common and internal carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC), and CAC scores (in those with CAC) in 2,847 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Participants were white (n = 712), African American (n = 712), Chinese (n = 718), and Hispanic (n = 705). All models were adjusted for age, sex, and field site, and stratified by race/ethnic group. African Americans with genotypes AG/GG of rs2241767 had 36% greater (95% confidence interval (CI; 16%, 59%), P = 0.0001) CAC prevalence; they also had a larger common cIMT (P = 0.0043). Also in African Americans, genotypes AG/AA of rs1063537 were associated with a 35% (95% CI (14%, 59%), P = 0.0005) greater CAC prevalence. Hispanics with the AA genotype of rs11711353 had a 37% (95% CI (14%, 66%), P = 0.0011), greater CAC prevalence compared to those with the GG genotype. Additional adjustment for ancestry in African-American and Hispanic participants did not change the results. No single SNP was associated with subclinical CVD phenotypes in Chinese or white participants. There appears to be an association between ADIPOQ SNPs and subclinical CVD in African Americans and Hispanics. Replication as well as assessment of other ADIPOQ SNPs is warranted. PMID:20930713

Wassel, Christina L; Pankow, James S; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Li, Na; Taylor, Kent D; Guo, Xiuqing; Goodarzi, Mark O; Palmas, Walter R; Post, Wendy S

2011-04-01

355

The Middle East Institute at Columbia University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1954, the Middle East Institute of Columbia University has offered a multidisciplinary approach to studying the Middle East, with a particular emphasis on the 19th and 20th century. Currently under the direction of Professor Rashid Khalidi, the Institute sponsors a number of conferences and talks each year, and also functions as a clearinghouse for information on the region. Alongside detailed information about various public programs for scholars and the general public, the institute's site also provides some helpful educational materials, such as a Research Projects section. Here visitors can download materials on educational outreach for Muslim sensitivity, and peruse other documents on researching Middle East topics on the Internet. The e-Resources section is also worth a look, as it contains a number of archived lectures on very topical themes, including Iran and Israeli and Palestinian nationalism.

356

East Asia's Recovery Gathering Force: An Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest World Bank regional brief describes East Asia's recovery from the 1997 economic crisis as "remarkable," but cautions that the region is still susceptible to another downturn. Presented by Masahiro Kawai, the bank's chief economist for East Asia and the Pacific, the 116-page report notes several signs of improvement, including high rates of economic growth, rising employment and labor earnings, increasing foreign investment, lower interest rates, and recovering currencies. The East Asian countries, Kawai concludes in the press release, "can at last return to the medium term development agenda," assisted, of course, by the World Bank. Users can download the full text of the report by section or in its entirety at the World Bank site.

357

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-11 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-11 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2009 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. A main objective was to investigate radionuclide migration down-gradient from Well Cluster ER-20-5 and Well ER-20-7 and across the northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone into the area referred to as the Bench, between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex. A secondary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the shallow- to intermediate-depth Tertiary volcanic section in the Bench area. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section to reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model (Bechtel Nevada, 2002). The main 52.1-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 507.5 meters and then opened to a diameter of 66.0 centimeters. It was cased with 50.8-centimeter casing to 504.9 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 47.0 centimeters, and drilling continued to a total depth of 979.3 meters. It was then cased with 34.0-centimeter casing set at 965.5 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters and the borehole was drilled to a total depth of 1,264.3 meters. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 1,262.5 meters, consists of 19.4-centimeter stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-centimeter carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring aquifers. Four piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-11. A string of carbon-steel 6.0-centimeter tubing with one slotted interval was inserted outside the 50.8-centimeter casing, within the 66.0-centimeter borehole for access to the Timber Mountain aquifer, and landed at 475.3 meters. A second string of 6.0-centimeter tubing with one slotted interval was inserted outside the 34.0-centimeter casing, within the 47.0-centimeter borehole for access to the Benham aquifer, and landed at 911.7 meters. A third piezometer string consists of 7.3-centimeter stainless-steel tubing that hangs from 6.0-centimeter carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. This string was landed at 1,029.5 meters to monitor the Tiva Canyon aquifer. The deepest string of 7.3-centimeter tubing was landed at 1,247.8 meters to monitor the Topopah Spring aquifer. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 meters, 67 percussion gun and rotary sidewall core samples, various geophysical logs, fluid samples (for groundwater chemistry analysis and tritium measurements), and water-level measurements. The well penetrated 1,264.3 meters of Tertiary volcanic rock, including three saturated welded-tuff aquifers and one saturated lava-flow aquifer. A water level was measured in the Timber Mountain aquifer at 449.6 meters, during open-hole geophysical logging on September 20, 2009. The fluid level measured after the total depth was reached and the upper aquifer was cased off was 450.0 meters when measured in the open borehole on October 17, 2009. Measurements on samples taken from the undeveloped well indicated that tritium levels averaging approximately 12,430 picocuries per liter (less than Safe Drinking Water Act levels) were encountered within the Benham aquifer. Tritium was below the minimum detectable activity concentration for samples collected from the Tiva Canyon aquifer and the Topopah Spring aquifer.

NSTec Environmental Management

2010-12-01

358

Evolution of antibiotic resistance on a mesa-shaped fitness landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid emergence of drug resistance is one of the biggest problems facing treatment of diseases ranging from bacterial infection to cancer. Recently it was found that, due to a novel growth-mediated positive feedback mechanism, the growth rate of bacteria exposed to sub-lethal antibiotic levels can drop abruptly when the drug level exceeds a sharp threshold (c.f. the preceding talk by Barrett Deris). This threshold level depends on the degree of expression and activity of the protein(s) providing antibiotic resistance. In environments with spatially varying antibiotic concentrations, this dependence gives rise to a mesa-shaped fitness landscape which provides a strong selective pressure for increasing the expression/activity of drug resistance near the cliff in the landscape. We have performed theoretical studies of evolution on such mesa-shaped fitness landscapes. These studies indicate a high rate of adaptation along the fitness cliff, often exceeding that of evolution on smooth fitness landscapes. The results of these studies establish a dynamic mechanism of evolution driven by a fitness cliff and environmental variability, and are conceptually distinct from the classical Darwinian notion of climbing a fitness gradient.

Hermsen, Rutger; Hwa, Terence

2010-03-01

359

Site Alias None Network of Conservation Areas (NCA) NCA Site ID NCA Site Name NCA Site Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobert Mesa is a part of the Mesa de Maya uplift straddling the Colorado\\/New Mexico state line. The area is capped with basaltic material which forms extensive cliffs around the edge of the mesa. The southern slopes are generally xeric grasses with the vegetation nearer the cliffs grading to pinon - juniper. Some Gambel oaks are found in the understory

Chapin Mesa; Mesa Verde

2009-01-01

360

Middle East Research and Information Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established 32 years ago, the Middle East Research and Information Project (MERIP) is a non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Washington, DC. The Project has been quite successful over the past few decades due to its commitment to providing a broad range of perspectives on the Middle East not generally found in some of the mainstream media and press coverage. While the organization's primary publication, the Middle East Report, is not available for free on the site (although some of its editorial pieces are), visitors will want to take a close look at the Middle East Report Online, which is available here. Recent features within the online report deal with the future of Middle East studies in American universities, ethnic unrest in Iraq, and the long-standing dispute over Western Sahara. For visitors interested in a particular subject, there is a subject index of articles, and a feature that allows interested parties to sign up to receive the online reports via email.

361

British Museum: Middle East  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the British Museum lets visitors explore the Middle East in an online tour. The main page of the Middle East section allows the visitor to explore the Middle East via the themes of "Agatha Christie and archaeology", "The kingdoms of ancient South Arabia", "The Queen of Sheba", and "Iran before Islam: The Sasanians". After the visitor clicks on a theme, they will see thumbnails of artifacts to click on, which when chosen, will be accompanied by an explanation of the artifact. Related photos, drawings, charts, etc. may also appear below the photo of the artifact, and can be enlarged by clicking on it directly. Visitors should not miss the "Queen of Sheba" theme to see some works of art that have depicted this austere leader throughout recorded history.

362

"East meets West".  

PubMed

For most of the 70s and 80s, the East was considered to be the center of hospital rate regulation and the West the center for free-market competition. Managed care in the East was "home grown" and large, national public companies generally stayed away from these markets. But, in a fascinating shift amid a great deal of turbulence, the East is starting to look at lot like the West. Economics are driving reforms and the best move for lawmakers is to stay out of the way. The train has already left the station. Perhaps the most frightening thing about the most recent Group Health Association data is that the President comes from a state with less than 3% HMO penetration. Many of his trusted advisors come from that state, including physicians who report on the home front. PMID:10135576

1994-06-01

363

Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona--2003-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2003, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,240 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 4,450 acre-feet, and municipal withdrawals were 2,790 acre-feet. From 2002 to 2003, total withdrawals decreased by 10 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by 4 percent, and municipal withdrawals decreased by 20 percent. Flowmeter testing was completed for 24 municipal wells in 2004. The median difference between pumping rates for the permanent meter and a test meter for all the sites tested was -2.9 percent. Values ranged from -10.9 percent at Forest Lake NTUA 1 to +7.8 percent at Rough Rock NTUA 2. From 2003 to 2004, water levels declined in 6 of 12 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 foot. Water levels declined in 7 of 11 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -2.7 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2003, the median water-level change for 26 wells was -23.2 feet. Median water-level change were -6.1 feet for 14 wells in the unconfined parts of the aquifer and and -72.1 feet for 12 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2003 and once in 2004 at four springs. Discharge stayed the same at Pasture Canyon Spring, increased 9 percent at Moenkopi Spring, decreased 26 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and decreased 50 percent at Burro Spring. For the past 12 years, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2003 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2003 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2003 at Dinnebito Wash, and 1994 to 2003 at Polacca Wash. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since the first continuous record of surface-water discharge in 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2004, water samples were collected from 12 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 100 to 649 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 11 of the wells and from all the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are no appreciable time trends in the chemistry of water samples from 7 wells and 2 springs; increasing trends in dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations were evident from the more than 10 years of data for 2 springs.

Truini, Margot; Macy, Jamie P.; Porter, Thomas J.

2005-01-01

364

HELMINTH INFRACOMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF THE SYMPATRIC GARTER SNAKES THAMNOPHIS EQUES AND THAMNOPHIS MELANOGASTER FROM THE MESA CENTRAL OF MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-two Mexican garter snakes (Thamnophis eques) and 126 black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) were collected from 4 localities of the Mesa Central of Mexico between July 1996 and February 1998 and examined for helminths. Both species of garter snakes occurred sympatrically in every locality except in Lake Cuitzeo. Both species of snakes shared 9 helminth species, and in general, T.

F. Agustín Jiménez-Ruiz; Luis García-Prieto; Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León

2002-01-01

365

A COMPARISON OF THE MESA-PUGET SOUND OIL SPILL MODEL WITH WIND AND CURRENT OBSERVATIONS FROM AUGUST 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

This report compares the winds and currents observed in August, 1978 in the Strait of Juan de Fuca with simulated wind and current fields taken from the MESA-Puget Sound oil spill model. This model is described in a companion report, Pease (1980). A method is developed for relati...

366

Magnetic field effects on THz radiation from Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? mesa structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous our study, coherent and continuous electromagnetic radiation phenomena in mesa structures of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? single crystal have been investigated precisely in magnetic fields up to only 150 Oe [1]. This experimental result showed that the emission intensity decreases sharply for the field parallel to the c-axis, while it decreases gradually as increasing magnetic field for the in-plane field. In order to improve the measurement, we developed a new system with a better angular resolution and much wider magnetic field range up to 6 T, and a mesa having much stronger THz emission power. The mesa structure is also changed to the stand-alone type of mesa, which produces higher power THz radiation with ideal distribution of radiation [2]. In this presentation, the recent detailed results will be shown in magnetic fields both parallel and perpendicular to the ab-plane of Bi2212, where the Josephson and pancake vortices are playing an important role for THz radiation.[4pt] [1] K. Yamaki et al., physica C 470 (2010) S804.[0pt] [2] T. Kashiwagi et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51 (2012) 010113.

Kitamura, Takeo; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Tsujimoto, Manabu; Delfanazari, Kaveh; Sawamura, Masashi; Ishida, Kazuya; Sekimoto, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Chiharu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Minami, Hidetoshi; Tachiki, Masashi; Kadowaki, Kazuo

2013-03-01

367

Comments on Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?" (2011) offers some constructive criticism regarding the conventional terminology used in second language (L2) acquisition research and language pedagogy. Although the author finds much of their evidence reasonable and is…

Reynolds, Barry Lee

2012-01-01

368

The effect of dissolution of volcanic glass on the water chemistry in a tuffaceous aquifer, Rainier Mesa, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemistry of ground water associated with the Tertiary tuffs within Rainier Mesa, southern Nevada, was investigated to determine the relative importance of glass dissolution in controlling water chemistry. Water samples were obtained both from interstitial pores in core sections and from free-flowing fractures. Cation com- positions showed that calcium and magnesium decreased as a function of depth in the mesa, as sodium increased. The maximum effect occurs within alteration zones containing clinoptilolite and montmorillonite, suggesting these minerals effectively remove bivalent cations from the system. Comparisons are made between compositions of ground waters found within Rainier Mesa that apparently have not reacted with secondary minerals and compositions of waters produced by experimental dissolution of vitric and crystalline tufts which comprise the principal aquifers in the area. The two tuff phases have the same bulk chemistry but produce aqueous solutions of different chemistry. Rapid parabolic dissolution of sodium and silica from, and the retention of, potassium within the vitric phase verify previous predictions concerning water compositions associated with vitric volcanic rocks. Parabolic dissolution of the crystalline phase results in solutions high in calcium and magnesium and low in silica. Extrapolation of the parabolic dissolution mechanism for the vitric tuff to long times successfully reproduces, at com- parable pH, cation ratios existing in Rainier Mesa ground water. Comparison of mass- transfer rates of the vitric and crystalline tuffs indicates that the apparent higher glass-surface to aqueous-volume ratio associated with the vitric rocks may account for dominance of the glass reaction.

White, Art F.; Claassen, H. C.; Benson, Larry V.

1980-01-01

369

29. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR. ALUMINUMFRAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR. ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS ARE REPLACEMENTS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

370

11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST TRUSS AND EAST SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST TRUSS AND EAST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT, SEEN FROM SOUTH BANK OF WINTER'S RUN. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

371

3. East side, details of north half of east web; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. East side, details of north half of east web; also details of roadway, railing and overhead bracing; looking northeast - Dodd Ford Bridge, County Road 147 Spanning Blue Earth River, Amboy, Blue Earth County, MN

372

13. STREET LEVEL OF EAST BUILDING LOOKING EAST ACROSS WORKSHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. STREET LEVEL OF EAST BUILDING LOOKING EAST ACROSS WORKSHOP TOWARDS DORY SKIFF UNDER CONSTRUCTION ON BUILDING BED AND WORK BENCH IN BACKGROUND WITH BUILDER. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

373

11. VIEW EAST, DETAIL OF EAST TRUSS AND SIDEWALK HANDRAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW EAST, DETAIL OF EAST TRUSS AND SIDEWALK HANDRAIL - Osborn Avenue Bridge, Spanning New Jersey Transit Raritan Valley Line at Tuttle Parkway (formerly Osborn Avenue), Westfield, Union County, NJ

374

Detail east panel of east truss showing rollling panels and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail east panel of east truss showing rollling panels and counter weights. View south - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

375

27. EAST (CANADIAN) APPROACH TO BRIDGE, FROM EAST ABUTMENT (LEFT). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. EAST (CANADIAN) APPROACH TO BRIDGE, FROM EAST ABUTMENT (LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

376

24. EAST (CANADIAN) APPROACH TO BRIDGE, LOOKING TOWARD EAST ABUTMENT. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. EAST (CANADIAN) APPROACH TO BRIDGE, LOOKING TOWARD EAST ABUTMENT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

377

INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE WALL AND DOOR, FACING EAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE WALL AND DOOR, FACING EAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

378

35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front of powerhouse and car barn. 'Annex' is right end of building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

379

50. View looking east. East bay is on the left. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. View looking east. East bay is on the left. The dismantling of the last crib. Note the identifying tags nailed to the crib sidewalls. Foundation timbers and the outline of the crib structure are visible in the foreground. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

380

17. View of north side of East Ward Street east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. View of north side of East Ward Street east of North McDonald Avenue, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

381

13. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. View of south side of East Ward Street east of Sibett Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

382

2. View of north side of East Ward Street east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View of north side of East Ward Street east of North Coweta Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

383

20. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. View of south side of East Ward Street east of South McDonald Avenue, facing southeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

384

7. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View of south side of East Ward Street east of South Coweta Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

385

Development of a StrengthsQuest-based Online Orientation Course for the Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement (MESA) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MESA Programs have been established in over 30 community colleges in California. A critical component of the Program is the development of a course that helps new students in the community college and MESA environment to adjust to both college life and begin preparing for a professional career in the math- or science-based fields. To date, programs have developed an eclectic mix of courses to orient their students to their programs and to the college. This includes actual college courses that are credit or non-credit, usually 1 or 2 college units, as well as others that are offered only from within their MESA program that meet several times during the students’ first semester in the MESA Program. At College of the Desert (COD), a one unit orientation course was developed and approved by the Curriculum committee and was offered for the first time in Fall 2001. This class met once per week and consisted of several activities to help the student succeed and provided an opportunity for them to investigate future careers.. A StrengthsQuest assessment was added to this course in Fall 2004 and more and more of the course was impacted by the knowledge that the students gained about themselves from the assessment. One ongoing problem that was experienced with this course was scheduling a time so most of the new students could attend this important class at the beginning of their participation in the MESA Program. A pilot program to offer an online orientation course has been implemented at COD for the past two semesters that utilizes the StrengthsQuest as the initial student assessment and provides several experiences that build on those results. An outline of the components of the course will be presented and its potential will be discussed.

Farmer, J.

2009-12-01

386

Test Well, East River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS test well 10 34h363 in the East River, Brunswick, Ga. The U.S. Geological Survey drilled this test well in the early 1970's and at the time it was on the edge of the marsh at Andrews Island. It is now only accessible by boat or canoe at high tide. Despite being surrounded by saltwater the artes...

2008-12-04

387

East Texas Storytellers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written and published by the students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, "Loblolly Magazine" is published twice a year. Issues are frequently devoted to a distant theme. The theme of this issue, "East Texas Storytellers," attempts to capture some of the local color and regional history of eastern Texas. The first article, "Timothy Griffith, Master…

Anderson, Brandi, Ed.

1987-01-01

388

East vs. West  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the methods of handling coal at East Coast and West Coast ports was presented. In general, West Coast ports are more efficient in terms of throughput on the basis of the amount of ground storage provided. Also, a dicussion of the Rio Grande Railroad single track rail system was included. Most western U.S. railroads have had little

Bennewitz; G. A. Jr

1983-01-01

389

Conservatism, East and West  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-national student survey was administered to about 5000 male university students, aged 22 to 24, by 42 researchers in 18 nations. A self-rated conservatism item in this questionnaire was correlated with 93 other variables in order to compare the pattern of conservatism in the West with that in the East. It was found that both Eastern and Western conservatives

William Eckhardt

1971-01-01

390

Intellectuals east and west  

Microsoft Academic Search

S the controversies sparked by a recent book by Paul Johnson (Intellectuals) indicate, the essential attributes and proper public roles of intellectuals remain in dispute. A comparison of intellectuals in the East and West may help to settle some of these matters and shed more light on the key characteristics of this group as they appear in somewhat different incarnations

Paul Hollander

1990-01-01

391

28. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE WEST GATE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE WEST GATE IN 1978. SHOWN IS BUILDING 100, THE MAIN ENTRANCE POINT TO THE SITE FROM 1969 UNTIL 1985. DURING THIS TIME EACH AUTOMOBILE THAT ENTERED THE SITE WAS SEARCHED. IN 1985, BUILDING 120 WAS BUILT AT THE OUTERMOST WEST EDGE OF THE SITE. THERE WERE 29 FACILITIES AROUND THE SITE DEDICATED TO SECURITY (5/4/78). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

392

4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, SNOWSHEDS AND TIPPLE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO EAST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

393

Software Requirements Specification: Multi-scale Epidemiological and Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Scenario Bank  

SciTech Connect

This document builds on the discussion notes from September 21, 2006. It provides a summary of the ideas relating to the scenario bank tables and their associated requirements. Two conceptual groupings were identified for the contents requirements of the scenario bank. The first, called ProjectTemplate, shall consist of groups. The second, ProjectArchive, shall consist of groups of . The figure below illustrates the multiplicity of the associations between the different tables, with color coding used to distinguish between current MESA (brown) and USDA (light green) requirements. Scenario bank tables are shown in black with their general contents specified within the box. The metadata associated with each table is expected to include database key information as well as relevant timestamps. Each File is expected to be a file with an arbitrary format.

Dahlgren, T L; Hazlett, S G; Slone, D M; Smith, S G

2006-11-08

394

Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona: Electron microscopic characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone at Black Mesa, Arizona, was characterized with high-resolution transmission and analytical electron microscope (HRTEM-AEM) and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). Here, we report the first HRTEM observation of a 10-nm thick amorphous layer on naturally weathered K-feldspar in currently slightly alkaline groundwater. The amorphous layer is probably deficient in K and enriched in Si. In addition to the amorphous layer, the feldspar surfaces are also partially coated with tightly adhered kaolin platelets. Outside of the kaolin coatings, feldspar grains are covered with a continuous 3-5 ?m thick layer of authigenic smectite, which also coats quartz and other sediment grains. Authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth and etch pits were also found on feldspar grains. These characteristics of the aged feldspar surfaces accentuate the differences in reactivity between the freshly ground feldspar powders used in laboratory experiments and feldspar grains in natural systems, and may partially contribute to the commonly observed apparent laboratory-field dissolution rate discrepancy. At Black Mesa, feldspars in the Navajo Sandstone are dissolving at ˜10 5 times slower than laboratory rate at comparable temperature and pH under far from equilibrium condition. The tightly adhered kaolin platelets reduce the feldspar reactive surface area, and the authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth reduces the feldspar reactivity. However, the continuous smectite coating layer does not appear to constitute a diffusion barrier. The exact role of the amorphous layer on feldspar dissolution kinetics depends on the origin of the layer (leached layer versus re-precipitated silica), which is uncertain at present. However, the nanometer thin layer can be detected only with HRTEM, and thus our study raises the possibility of its wide occurrence in geological systems. Rate laws and proposed mechanisms should consider the possibility of this amorphous layer on feldspar surface.

Zhu, Chen; Veblen, David R.; Blum, Alex E.; Chipera, Stephen J.

2006-09-01

395

Minor Isolated Q Waves and Cardiovascular Events in the MESA Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The significance of minor isolated Q waves in the resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) of apparently healthy individuals is unknown. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between minor isolated Q waves and incident cardiovascular disease events in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). DESIGN This analysis included 6551 MESA participants (38% white, 28% black, 22% Hispanic, 12% Chinese) who were free of cardiovascular disease at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between minor isolated Q waves defined by the Minnesota ECG Classification with adjudicated incident cardiovascular events. RESULTS During up to 7.8 years of follow-up, 423 events occurred, with a rate of 10.7 events per 1000 person-years. A significant interaction between minor isolated Q waves and race/ethnicity was observed (P = .030). In models stratified by race/ethnicity and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status, common cardiovascular risk factors, and other ECG abnormalities, presence of isolated minor Q waves was significantly associated with incident cardiovascular events in Hispanics (hazard ratio [HR] 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-4.82), but not in whites (HR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.32-1.33) or blacks (HR 1.46; 95% CI, 0.74-2.89). Despite the statistically significant association in the Chinese population, the small number of events precluded solid conclusions in this race/ethnicity. CONCLUSION The prognostic significance of minor isolated Q waves varies across races/ethnicities; they carry a high risk for future cardiovascular events in apparently healthy Hispanics, but not in whites or blacks.

Li, Yabing; Dawood, Farah Z.; Chen, Haiying; Jain, Aditya; Walsh, Joseph A.; Alonso, Alvaro; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.

2013-01-01

396

Genesis and evolution of the upper oceanic crust (ODP-IODP site 1256, East Pacific Rise): inferences from structure and composition of late magmatic veins in a lava pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete intact "in situ" section of upper oceanic crust, from extrusive lavas, through dikes into gabbros has been recently drilled for the first time in a 15 Ma old crust that formed at the East Pacific Rise with a full spreading rate of >200 mm/yr. The study area is ODP-IODP Site 1256 (6°44.2N, 91°56.1W, Pacific Ocean). Holes 1256C and 1256D have been drilled into the basaltic basement during ODP Leg 206, IODP Expeditions 309 and 312. Hole 1256D has been deepened to a depth of ca. 1500 meters below seafloor (mbsf). The upper section of the igneous basement consists of thin (<3m) basaltic sheet flows separated by chilled margins, and massive basaltic flows (>3m). The massive flows include a ponded lava flow, located near the top of both Hole 1256C and 1256D, where it has a thickness of 32m and 74m, respectively. The lava pond is interpreted as a thick lava flow delivered either on-axis or off-axis and accumulated in a topographic depression. Although very close (ca. 30m), the two holes record different structural patterns of the lava pond, probably related to different steps of the lava flow emplacement. In the lava pond, both igneous (magmatic foliation, flow-related folds, late-magmatic veins) and post-magmatic (joints, veins, shear veins, and microfaults) structures were recognized. Late magmatic veins (LMVs), which were identified as primary features typical of the lava pond, are the main goal of this work. Mm-thick LMVs are mainly clustered in the middle (290-300 mbsf in hole 1256C and 282-297 mbsf in hole 1256D) and bottom (312-313 mbsf in hole 1256C and 311-328 mbsf in hole 1256D) parts of the lava pond. Structural measurements on cores suggest that they are mostly gently dipping structures, but we also observed sub-vertical LMVs. At the bottom of the lava pond in hole 1256C, late magmatic veins are often arranged in en echelon arrays and sigmoidal pull aparts, suggesting a syn/post-magmatic shear component. Thin-section observations show that basalt including LMVs consists of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and spinel. LMVs cutting basalt are filled with quartz, quartz + plagioclase intergrowth showing a granophyric texture, clinopyroxene, ilmenite, spinel, and apatite. Rarely we observed pyrite crystals at the LMV core that cut plagioclase + quartz intergrowth. Quartz + plagioclase intergrowth (with apatite) are also present in the basalt as mm-size interstitial domains or rimming plagioclase (IDs = intergrowth domains). Rare samples display IDs with interstitial K-feldspar growing around plagioclase. LMVs often show sharp contacts with basalt. Plagioclase or pyroxene crystals of the basalt may be fragmented at the contact with LMVs (brittle rheology of basalt). Differently, IDs commonly corrode plagioclase crystals, without fragmentation (ductile rheology). The composition of basalt plagioclase ranges from Ab37 to Ab62, with a main concentration around Ab50. On the contrary, plagioclase in the LMVs intergrowth as well as that in the mm-sized IDs are Na-rich (Ab64-Ab98). Mineral analyses also highlight homogeneous clinopyroxene, spinel and ilmenite, without variations in the LMVs and IDs. Clinopyroxene usually shows a Ca-poor core (mainly augite or pigeonite) and a diopsidic rim. Opaque minerals often exhibit ilmenite-ulvospinel lamellae intergrowths. EDS mapping of IDs and LMVs cutting basalt supports the previous observations. LMVs and IDs have higher Si, Na and lower Al, Ca values than basalt. This distribution is only due to albitic plagioclase concentration in LMVs and IDs. K has low and homogeneous concentrations: rarely IDs are characterized by interstitial K enrichment (K-feldspar). Incompatible (Zr, Rb, Sr, Ba), hydrothermal elements (Cu, Cl), and F are undetectable or absent. We infer that LMVs and IDs likely crystallized from a pure Si-Al-Na-(Ca) melt. K, rarely noticed in the IDs, may be related to late magmatic fluids differentiation or to subsequent hydrothermal fluids. Core description, microstructural observations, mineral compositions and EDS mapping of the stud

Panseri, M.

2009-04-01

397

Japanese Studies Resources Guide: Duke University East Asian Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kristina Kade Troost, East Asian Librarian at Duke, has constructed an excellent collection of resources for Japanese Studies. This site describes resources available at Duke and through the Internet, including encyclopedias, general and subject bibliographies, word and name dictionaries, periodical and newspaper indexes and holdings, library and book catalogs, East Asian collections in the US, related web sites, and Japan-related discussion lists. The guide covers both English and Japanese language resources and special software is necessary to decode the Japanese. This is a rich, detailed, and easy to navigate site that serves as an excellent starting point for any search for Japanese resources on the Internet.

398

14. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE EAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 81 UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN 1952. THE GROUND RISES IN ELEVATION TOWARD THE CENTER OF THE SITE FROM THE NORTH, EAST, AND SOUTH. BUILDINGS 71, 91, AND 81 WERE BUILT INTO HILLSIDES SO THAT IN THE EVENT OF A SOVIET ATTACK, ALL THREE PLANTS WOULD NOT BE DESTROYED (1952). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

399

The East Village  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Internauts with time and bandwidth to spare might want to try out the new cyber soap opera from Marinex Multimedia, The East Village. In addition to photographs and audio and video clips, this soap allows you to join the "cyber clique" of a favorite character (after registering, of course). Once in a "clique," you will receive "secret email" from that character that gives you information not in the story line. Chat rooms are also available.

400

Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the analysis of the available hydrologic data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

Drici, Warda

2004-02-01

401

East Asian observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asian observations are of established importance in Applied Historical Astronomy. The earliest astronomical records from this part of the world (China, Japan and Korea) originate from China. These observations, mainly of lunar eclipses, are recorded on oracle bones from the period ca. 1300 - 1050 BC. Virtually all later Chinese and other East Asian astronomical records now exist only in printed copies. The earliest surviving series of solar eclipse observations from any part of the world is contained in the Chunqiu (722 - 481 BC), a chronicle of the Chinese state of Lu. However, not until after 200 BC, with the establishment of a stable empire in China, do detailed astronomical records survive. These are mainly contained in specially compiled astrological treatises in the official dynastic histories. Such records, following the traditional style, extend down to the start of the present century. All classes of phenomena visible to the unaided eye are represented: solar and lunar eclipses, lunar and planetary movements among the constellations, comets, novae and supernovae, meteors, sunspots and the aurora borealis. Parallel, but independent series of observations are recorded in Japanese and Korean history, especially after about AD 800. Sources of Japanese records tend to be more diverse than their Chinese and Korean counterparts, but fortunately Kanda Shigeru (1935) and Ohsaki Shyoji (1994) have made extensive compilations of Japanese astronomical observations down to the 1860s. Throughout East Asia, dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar.

Stephenson, F. R.

402

Karst subsidence in East Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Waste disposal site selection and facility design in regions dominated by carbonate bedrock must carefully consider karst development and the factors which contribute to subsidence activity. The Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory has completed a three phase study of karst subsidence in East Tennessee to quantify historical subsidence activity. The purpose of the study was to determine the principal factors which cause karst subsidence in the region. Techniques used and results obtained in this study form a basis for more detailed risk assessment at the local scale within the region. As development pressures diminish available land for various uses, risk-based land use decisions must be made to site critical facilities. To fulfill the study objectives a three phase study was designed including, (1) collection of subsidence data and compilation of a database, (2) performance of detailed studies of subsidence in three, two-to-five square-mile areas, and (3) synthesis of data obtained to; quantify the predominant sinkhole collapse dimensions, and identify events prior to subsidence or collapse events which may have caused the event, and estimate the intensity of subsidence as a function of geologic unit within subregional areas of higher and lower subsidence risk. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Ketelle, R.H.; Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

1988-01-01

403

Oceanography of East Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During six week survey (August - September 2008) in Southern and Eastern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. A total of 102 CTD stations were conducted along selected hydrographical transects and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, the first section between latitude 25o-26oS showed sea surface temperature values ranging between 25oC to 15oC upper 250m depth. As part of the south-west, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the tip south of the Island coast. In contrast of the west coast, in all transects performed along the south and the east coast, in most cases, the isotherms showed non stratified waters from the coast to offshore. The presence of the upwelling system in the south-east coast modifies drastically the patterns of all measured parameters. Fluorescence had a maximum values (0.25 µg/l) at surface near the coast in 2nd to 5th transects. Inversely, low temperature values were observed along the south and south-east with minimum values in the range of 18. 5oC-11oC at 50-250 m depth. These conditions were consistent along and between the 2nd to 5th transects, with more variation observed at transect 5. The salinity values (5 m depth) decreased from 35.7 psu in the south to 34.5 psu in the east. The horizontal distribution of oxygen showed non homogenous conditions with values between 5 ml/l (south) and 2.5 ml/l (south-east). Also starting from the coast to offshore, surface temperatures and surface salinities, surface fluorescence and dissolved oxygen showed non homogenous patterns.

Bemiasa, John

2014-05-01

404

The effect of crustal structure on the regional phases Pg and Lg at the Nevada test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of local strucuture on the characteristics of the regional phases Pg and Lg was investigated by analyzing events at epicentral distances less than 10° from the Nevada Test Site. The stations used are on markedly different geological structures; three on granitic intrusions, two on Pahute Mesa, a feature overlaying a buried volcanic caldera, and, finally, four on Yucca

B. W. Barker; Z. A. Der; C. P. Mrazek

1981-01-01

405

Large-area broad band saturable Bragg reflectors using oxidized AlAs in the circular and inverted mesa geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semiconductor Saturable Bragg Reflector (SBR) is a mirror structure comprising alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials with an incorporated saturable absorber. SBRs can be used to initiate and sustain ultra-short pulses in various laser systems. In order to form ultra-short pulses, SBRs with high reflectivity over a broad wavelength range are required. Furthermore, large-area SBRs facilitate easy integration in a laser cavity. One of the key elements for the realization of broad band SBRs is the development of the thermal oxidation process that creates buried low-index AlxOy layers over large areas. The design, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of broad band, high index contrast III-V/AlxOy SBRs in the form of circular mesas, as well as inverted mesa structures, is presented.

Nabanja, Sheila P.; Kolodziejski, Leslie A.; Petrich, Gale S.; Sander, Michelle Y.; Morse, Jonathan L.; Shtyrkova, Katia; Ippen, Erich P.; Kärtner, Franz X.

2013-04-01

406

Surface Characterization of 3C-SiC Mesa Heterofilms: Evidence for Growth by Edge/Corner Nucleation Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the first detailed observations of unique surface morphologies of 3C-Sic films grown on 4W6H-SIC mesas by the step-free surface heteroepitaxy technique. The top surfaces of 3C-Sic films were extensively studied by optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as both film thickness (i.e,, growth time) and growth temperature (i.e., terrace nucleation rate) were varied following complete coverage of each 4W6H mesa by an initial 3C-Sic film. Almost all surface steps observed by AFM were 0.25 nm, the height of a single Si-C bilayer. However, strikingly different step patterns were observed, suggesting that radically different processes dominate the nucleation of new 3C-Sic bilayers on top of existing 3C-Sic film surfaces.

Trunek, Andrew J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Powell, J. Anothny

2003-01-01

407

Spreading resistance and C-DLTS spectra of proton-irradiated mesa diodes made on thick epitaxial Si layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resistivity, thick silicon epitaxial layers, deposited on Czochralski silicon (CZ Si) substrate were used as a material for test diodes. Resistivity profile as a function of depth and deep-level spectra were measured by spreading resistance method and deep-level transient spectroscopy (C-DLTS) on non-irradiated and proton irradiated mesa diodes. A deep level with activation energy Ec?0.52eV, attributed to V2O defect, dominates

E. Nossarzewska-Orlowska; R. Kozlowski; A. Brzozowski

1999-01-01

408

Atmospheric Monitoring with a LIDAR and an Infrared Camera at Black Rock Mesa in the Utah desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric monitoring system has installed at Black Rock Mesa in the Utah desert to study the properties of atmosphere using a LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) system and an infra-red(IR) camera for cosmic rays experiment. The aims of atmospheric monitoring are to calibrate observed cosmic ray's energy and to determine detectable region of the fluorescence detectors. For these reasons, the

Michiyuki Chikawa; Koji Doura; Shoichi Ogio

2008-01-01

409

GaN-Based LEDs With GaN -Pillars Around Mesa, Patterned Substrate, and Reflector Under Pads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with textured sidewall, GaN mu-pillars around mesa region, patterned sapphire substrate (PSS), and highly reflective Ag-Cr-Au electrode pads were fabricated using the conventional lithography method (labeled as experimental LEDs). When a 20-mA injection current was applied, forward voltages were 3.18 and 3.4 V for the conventional and experimental LEDs, respectively. The high 20-mA Vf of LEDs

Li-Chi Peng; Wei-Chih Lai; Ming-Nan Chang; Shih-Chang Shei; Jinn-Kong Sheu

2009-01-01

410

Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs.

Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

1985-06-01

411

Unocal schedules field development off East Kalimantan  

SciTech Connect

Unocal Indonesia Ltd. has let a turnkey contract to PT Gema SemBrown (GSB) to build a platform to set in the deepest water yet off Indonesia. This paper reports on the contract, which is worth more than $40 million, and calls for GSB to engineer, procure, fabricate, install, and hook up Unocal's SA drilling and production platform in 335 ft of water in Serang field. Site is in Makassar Strait, about 25 miles off East Kalimantan. GSB in October began fabricating the Serang SA platform at its Sunda Strait fabrication yard in West Java, Indonesia. GSB is to complete the platform on a fast track schedule in time for installation in July 1993. The project includes two export trunk lines connecting Serang field with Unocal's Melahin field. Production will come ashore at Santan on East Kalimantan.

Not Available

1992-12-07

412

East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results  

SciTech Connect

Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

Deola, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Air Quality Dept.

1996-09-01

413

Angular distribution and Josephson plasma modes of THz radiation emitted from Bi2212 mesas with various shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, we have measured angular dependence of the intensity of the THz emission from mesas of high-Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? with various shapes such as rectangulars, squares, cylinders, triangulars, etc. and various dimensions larger or smaller than the penetration depth ?c. The results have been analized by a model developed by Klemm and KadowakiootnotetextRichard A. Klemm and K. Kadowaki, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22 (2010) 375701., which assumes coherent generation of the standing of wave cavity modes in a mesa due to the ac-Josephson effect. The higher harmonic modes are observed in some cases as expected in the model. However, it is often observed that the emission frequency does not obey the simple cavity mode, indicating that the cavity resonance may not be a stringent condition for the emission of the THz radiation. The implication is argued in terms of the emission dynamics from the Bi2212 mesa structure.

Kadowaki, Kazuo; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Tsujimoto, Manabu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Asai, Hidehiro; Minami, Hidetoshi

2011-03-01

414

Evaluation of a method for measurement of black carbon particles suspended in rainwater and its application to long-term measurement at a remote site in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) aerosols are produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. They contribute to global warming due to their strong absorption of solar radiation. The distribution of BC is controlled by emission, transport, and wet deposition during transport. Therefore, BC concentration in rainwater is an important parameter for understanding of the detailed processes of wet deposition of BC. Reliable data of wet deposition flux of BC is useful in validating representation of the removal processes by three-dimensional models used for assessing the impacts of BC on climate. In this study, we make detailed evaluations of a method of measuring the mass concentration and size distribution of BC particles suspended in rainwater, and then we show the results of its application to long-term measurement of wet deposition flux of BC at Cape Hedo on Okinawa Island, Japan, in the East China Sea. The method utilizes an ultrasonic nebulizer and a laser-induced incandescence technique for BC detection (Single Particle Soot Photometer: SP2). First, the rainwater sample is transferred to an ultrasonic nebulizer by a peristaltic pump at a constant flow rate. In the ultrasonic nebulizer, some fraction of the introduced rainwater is converted to small droplets in air flow, and they are dried at the downstream. Remaining non-volatile cores of individual droplets are then introduced into the SP2 for single-particle detections of BC. In order to determine the fraction of BC mass transferred into the SP2, we used carbon black AquaBlack001 and AquaBlack162 (Tokai Carbon Co. Ltd.). We determined the fraction R to be about 11% by using samples of various BC concentrations. The R value was almost independent of BC mass concentration and concentrations of other co-existing solutes. The volume of rainwater required for reliable BC measurement is less than 5 mL. We analyzed rainwater samples collected at Cape Hedo on Okinawa Island, Japan, in the East China Sea from April 2010 to March 2011. Total wet deposition of BC during this period was measured to be 54 mg m-2, and about 76% of the total deposition was found to have occurred in April due to higher BC concentrations in rainwater and larger precipitation levels.

Ohata, S.; Moteki, N.; Kondo, Y.

2011-12-01

415

East Africa continental margins  

SciTech Connect

New well data from Somalia, together with the history of sea-floor spreading in the Indian Ocean derived from magnetic anomalies, show that the East African margins from latitude 15/sup 0/S into the Gulf of Aden comprise four distinct segments that formed successively by the southward drift of Madagascar from Somalia during the Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, by the northeastward drift of India along the Owen Transform during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, and by the opening of the Gulf of Aden during the Neogene.

Bosellini, A.

1986-01-01

416

East vs. West  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of the methods of handling coal at East Coast and West Coast ports was presented. In general, West Coast ports are more efficient in terms of throughput on the basis of the amount of ground storage provided. Also, a dicussion of the Rio Grande Railroad single track rail system was included. Most western U.S. railroads have had little upgrading since the early 1900's. The Rio Grande Railroad was feasibly upgraded, including heavier rails with welded joints and new ties.

Bennewitz, G.A. Jr.

1983-02-01

417

East African Rift Valley, Kenya  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

1990-01-01

418

East and Southeast Asia: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Asian Studies program at the University of Redlands, this easy-to-navigate directory allows users to access annotated links by country and by political, historical, and cultural topics. The site specifies seventeen East and Southeast Asian countries and hundreds of specific subjects, including sections on academic and library research sites. The homepage also offers direct links to current "hot topics," such as the crackdown on Falun Gong, the Asian financial crisis, the famine in North Korea, and East Timor's "Road to Independence." Frequently link-checked and updated, this is an excellent place to begin preliminary research on the region.

Eng, Robert Y.

419

East Antarctic ice-sheet dynamics between 5.2 and 0 Ma from a high-resolution terrigenous particle size record, ODP Site 1165, Prydz Bay-Cooperation Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper discusses a 5.2-0 Ma high-resolution terrigenous particle size record recovered from a sediment drift off East Antarctica. The particle size properties of Hole 1165B are interpreted in the context of previously acquired data on a continental shelf to slope transect drilled by ODP Leg 188 in Prydz Bay and the Cooperation Sea. The new data indicate that the Lambert ice stream stayed predominantly landward of the shelf break in the early Pliocene (5.2-3.5 Ma) with periods of ice sheet recession on land. The middle Pliocene (3.5-3.1 Ma) is characterized as major ice expansion during glacials with deposition of laminated clays from meltwater plumes on the continental rise, alternating with periods of ice recession. A change in sedimentary facies and a decrease in sedimentation rates occurred at ~3.1 Ma indicating a more retreated Lambert Glacier. Between 2.5 and 1 Ma the ice stream was generally stable and had become cold-based with ice flow in a glacial trough extending to the shelf break. Three-four large pulses of coarse-grained glacigenic debris mark the record at ~1 Ma. These are interpreted as extensive calving due to decoupling of the marine terminus from its bed in response to Northern Hemisphere deglaciations and associated sea level rises.

Passchier, S.

2007-01-01

420

Well Completion Report for Well ER-20-11, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-20-11 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September 2012 as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. Well ER-20-11 was constructed to further investigate the nature and extent of radionuclidecontaminated groundwater encountered in two nearby UGTA wells, to help define hydraulic and transport parameters for the contaminated Benham aquifer, and to provide data for the UGTA hydrostratigraphic framework model. The 44.5-centimeter (cm) surface hole was drilled to a depth of 520.0 meters (m) and cased with 34.0-cm casing to 511.5 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 cm, and the borehole was drilled to a total depth of 915.6 m. The hole was completed to allow access for hydrologic testing and sampling in the target aquifer, which is a lava-flow aquifer known as the Benham aquifer. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 904.3 m, consists of a string of 6?-inch (in.) stainless-steel casing hanging from a string of 7?-in. carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has one slotted interval at 796.3 to 903.6 m. One piezometer string was installed, which consists of 2?-in. stainless-steel tubing that hangs from 2?-in. carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. This string was landed at 903.8 m and is slotted in the interval 795.3 to 903.1 m. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, fluid samples (for groundwater chemistry analysis and tritium measurements), and water-level measurements. The well penetrated 915.6 m of Tertiary volcanic rock, including one saturated lava flow aquifer. Measurements on samples taken from the undeveloped well indicated elevated tritium levels within the Benham aquifer. The maximum tritium level measured with field equipment was 146,131 picocuries per liter from a sample obtained at the depth of 912.0 m. The fluid level was measured in the piezometer string at a depth of 504.5 m on September 26, 2012. All Fluid Management Plan (FMP) requirements for Well ER-20-11 were met. Analysis of monitoring samples and FMP confirmatory samples indicated that fluids generated during drilling at Well ER-20-11 met the FMP criteria for discharge to an unlined sump or designated infiltration area. Well development, hydrologic testing, and sampling will be conducted at a later date.

NSTec Environmental Management

2013-02-27