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Sample records for east strelley belt

  1. 5. Detail, date stone in belt course above keystone, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail, date stone in belt course above keystone, east portal of Tunnel 22, view to southeast, 380mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 22, Milepost 581.85, Oakridge, Lane County, OR

  2. 141. WOOD SHOP, EAST WALL SHOWING BELT SANDER ON RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. WOOD SHOP, EAST WALL SHOWING BELT SANDER ON RIGHT AND GRUBER BUILT SPOKE TENONING MACHINE ON LEFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  3. Granitoids and Crustal Growth in the East- Kunlun Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, X.; Luo, Z.; Deng, J.; Yu, X.; Liu, C.; Yuan, W.; Bi, X.

    2011-12-01

    1MO Xuanxue, 1LUO Zhaohua, 1DENG Jinfu,1YU Xuehui, 2LIU Chengdong, 1Yuan Wanming, 1Bi Xianmei 1China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083; 2Donghua University of Technology, Nanchang, 330013 Abstract: The East- Kunlun orogenic belt (abbrev. EKOB) is one of major tectono-magmatic belts in the Tibetan plateau. Four stages of granitoid plutonism took place in Precambrian (the Proterozoic), early Paleozoic (∈-D3), late Paleozoic- early Mesozoic (D3-T3), and late Mesozoic- Cenozoic (after early Jurassic), respectively. Among them, the late Paleozoic- early Mesozoic, especially Triassic granitoids are predominant. The basement of EKOB formed in late Paleo- Proterozoic. The early Paleozoic tectono-magmatic event sequence is comparable to that in the North- Qilian orogenic belt, and became a part of the Qilian- East- Kunlun Caledonian orogenic system. However, EKOB had been involved in the Paleo- Tethyan tectonic regime during late Paleozoic- early Mesozoic period, and yield an integrated Variscian- Indo-Chinese orogenic cycle, similar to the Sanjiang Paleo-Tethyan orogeny. The south- Kunlun suture zone then defined the main boundary between the north and the south China. Subsequently, EKOB has been involved in the Tibetan collisional orogenic system in the Cenozoic since Indo- Eurasia collision. While the continental crust of EKOB mainly formed in late Paleo- Proterozoic, juvenile crust was also generated in the Phanerozoic time, similar to the Xing'anling- Mongolia, the Gangdese and the Andes orogenic belts. There are abundant conclusive evidences of underplating and magma mixing in the East- Kunlun granitoid belt (Fig.1). Initiate values of 87Sr/86Sr of the East- Kunlun granitoids are mostly less than 0.710 and ɛNd(t)values of them range from -9.2 to +3.6. Those imply that inputting of mantle materials and mixing between mantle- and crust- derived materials played an important role in crustal generation and evolution in EKOB during the Phanerozoic time

  4. Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic

  5. Lithostratigraphy and structure of the early Archaean Doolena Gap Greenstone Belt, East Pilbara Terrane (EPT), Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemer, D.; Schrank, C. E.; Murphy, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    We present a detailed lithostratigraphic and structural analysis of the Archean Doolena Gap greenstone belt to shed light on the tectonic evolution of the EPT. The study area is divided into four structural domains: i) marginal orthogneisses of the MGC (Muccan Granitoid Complex), ii) a dominantly mafic mylonitic shear zone (South Muccan Shear Zone, SMSZ) enveloping the MGC, iii) a Central Fold Belt of dominantly mafic greenschists (CFB), and iv) a lower greenschist- to sub-greenschist southern domain. Toward the dome margin, abrupt increases in deformation intensity occur across domain boundaries. Domain boundaries and intra-domain shear zones are marked by significant carbonate +/- quartz alteration and high-strain non-coaxial deformation with dome-up kinematics. The southern domain comprises pillow basalts of the Mount Ada Formation (MAF), conformably overlain by clastic sediments and minor pillow basalts of the Duffer Formation (DF). The MAF and DF are overlain by an up to 1km thick package of quartzite (Strelley Pool Formation) across an angular unconformity. Isoclinal folds (F2) within the CFB to the North deform an early foliation (S1) within dominantly mafic schists and associated carbonate veins. F2 folds are preserved within lozenges that are parallel to the axial planes of F2 folds in a regional E-W trending foliation (S2) and to the SMSZ. Lozenges are often bound by zones of significant carbonate alteration. The lozenges are folded recumbently (F3), with sub-vertical fold axes pointing towards the dome. The F3 axes are parallel to mineral stretching lineations on S2 indicating dome-up movement. The entire belt is cut by late NE-SW-striking faults that exhibit dominantly brittle deformation in the southern domain but ductile drag folding (F4) in the CFB. Therefore, the southern domain must have overlain the CFB during this D4 event. We propose a protracted structural history of the greenstone belt where successive deformation events relate to the episodic

  6. Geological mapping of the Schuppen belt of north-east India using geospatial technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tanaya; Basu, Surajit; Hazra, Sugata

    2014-01-01

    A revised geologic map of the Schuppen belt of northeast India has been prepared based on interpretation of digitally enhanced satellite images. The satellite image interpretation is supported by limited field work and existing geologic maps. Available geological maps of this fold thrust belt are discontinuous and multi-scaled. The authors are of multiple opinions regarding the trajectory of formation boundaries and fault contacts. Digital image processing of satellite images and limited field surveys have been used to reinterpret and modify the existing geological maps of this fold thrust belt. Optical data of Landsat Thematic Mapper, Enhanced Thematic Mapper and elevation data of ASTER have been used to prepare this revised geological map. The study area extends from Hajadisa in south to Digboi oilfield in north, bounded by Naga thrust in the west and Disang thrust in the east. PCA, Image fusion, Linear Contrast stretch, Histogram Equalization and Painted relief algorithms have been used for the delineation of major geological lineaments like lithological boundary, thrust and strike slip faults. Digital elevation maps have enabled in the discrimination between thrust contacts and lithological boundaries, with the former being located mostly in the valleys. Textural enhancements of PCA, colour composites and Painted relief algorithm have been used to discriminate between different rock types. Few geological concepts about the terrain have been revisited and modified. It is assumed that this revised map should be of practical use as this terrain promises unexploited hydrocarbon reserves.

  7. A Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal field inhabited by diverse microbial communities: the Strelley Pool Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Suzuki, K; Senda, R; Asahara, Y; Wallis, S; Van Kranendonk, M J

    2015-11-01

    The 3.4-Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) at the informally named 'Waterfall Locality' in the Goldsworthy greenstone belt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, provides deeper insights into ancient, shallow subaqueous to possibly subaerial ecosystems. Outcrops at this locality contain a thin (<3 m) unit of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous cherts and silicified sandstones that were deposited in a shallow-water coastal environment, with hydrothermal activities, consistent with the previous studies. Carbonaceous, sulfide-rich massive black cherts with coniform structures up to 3 cm high are characterized by diverse rare earth elements (REE) signatures including enrichment of light [light rare earth elements (LREE)] or middle rare earth elements and by enrichment of heavy metals represented by Zn. The massive black cherts were likely deposited by mixing of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal fluids. Coniform structures in the cherts are characterized by diffuse laminae composed of sulfide particles, suggesting that unlike stromatolites, they were formed dominantly through physico-chemical processes related to hydrothermal activity. The cherts yield microfossils identical to previously described carbonaceous films, small and large spheres, and lenticular microfossils. In addition, new morphological types such as clusters composed of large carbonaceous spheroids (20-40 μm across each) with fluffy or foam-like envelope are identified. Finely laminated carbonaceous cherts are devoid of heavy metals and characterized by the enrichment of LREE. This chert locally contains conical to domal structures characterized by truncation of laminae and trapping of detrital grains and is interpreted as siliceous stromatolite formed by very early or contemporaneous silicification of biomats with the contribution of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Biological affinities of described microfossils and microbes constructing siliceous stromatolites are under investigation. However, this

  8. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  9. Suprasubduction volcanic rocks of the Char ophiolite belt, East Kazakhstan: new geochemical and first geochronological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, Inna; Simonov, Vladimir; Seltmann, Reimar; Yamamoto, Shinji; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2016-04-01

    The Char ophiolite belt is located in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a world largest accretionary orogen, which has evolved during more than 800 Ma. The Char belt formed during Kazakhstan - Siberia collision. It has been known for hosting fragments of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust, MORB, OPB and OIB, of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Safonova et al., 2012). The Char is surrounded by two Paleozoic island-arc terranes: Zharma-Saur in the west and Rudny Altai in the east, however, until recent times, no island-arc units have been found within it. We were the first to find island-arc units as tectonic sheets occurring adjacent to those consisting of oceanic rocks. In places, island-arc andesites cut oceanic basalts. The Char volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of a probable suprasubduction origin are basalt, microgabbro, dolerite, andesite, tonalite and dacite. The mafic to andesitic volcanics possessing low TiO2 (0.85 wt.%av.) and show MgO vs. major elements crystallization trends suggesting two magma series: tholeiitic and calc-alkaline. The tholeiitic varieties are less enriched in incompatible elements then the calc-alkaline ones. Two samples are high-Mg and low-Ti andesibasalts similar to boninites. The rocks possess moderately LREE enriched rare-earth element patterns and are characterized by negative Nb anomalies present on the multi-element spectra (Nb/Lapm = 0.14-0.47; Nb/Thpm = 0.7-1.6).The distribution of rare-earth elements (La/Smn = 0.8-2.3, Gd/Ybn = 0.7-1.9) and the results of geochemical modeling in the Nb-Yb system suggest high degrees of melting of a depleted harzburgite-bearing mantle source at spinel facies depths. Fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and opaque minerals also affected the final composition of the volcanic rocks. Clinopyroxene monomineral thermometry indicates crystallization of melts at 1020-1180°C. Melt inclusion composition based numerical calculations show that primary melts were derived at 1350

  10. Strong Lg-wave attenuation in the Middle East continental collision orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi

    2016-04-01

    Using Lg-wave Q tomography, we construct a broadband crustal attenuation model for the Middle East. The QLg images reveal a relationship between attenuation and geological structures. Strong attenuation is found in the continental collision orogenic belt that extends from the Turkish and Iranian plateau to the Pamir plateau. We investigate the frequency dependence of QLg in different geologic formations. The results illustrate that QLg values generally increase with increasing frequency but exhibit complex relationships both with frequency and between regions. An average QLg value between 0.2 and 2.0 Hz, QLg (0.2-2.0 Hz), may be a critical index for crustal attenuation and is used to infer the regional geology. Low-QLg anomalies are present in the eastern Turkish plateau and correlate well with low Pn-velocities and Cenozoic volcanic activity, thus indicating possible partial melting within the crust in this region. Very strong attenuation is also observed in central Iran, the Afghanistan block, and the southern Caspian Sea. This in line with the previously observed high crustal temperature, high-conductivity layers, and thick marine sediments in these areas, suggests the high Lg attenuation is caused by abnormally high tectonic and thermal activities.

  11. Tectonic significance of granitoid plutons from the Andasibe paragneiss belt, east-central Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raharimahefa, T.

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of the crustal evolution of the central Madagascar is of major significance in the study of the Precambrian basement of Madagascar and the greater Gondwana supercontinent. The study area, known as Andasibe paragneiss defines a fold belt that stretches from Ambatondrazaka to Soavina area in eastern Madagascar and is intruded by extensive granitoid intrusions. The western part of Andasibe paragneiss lies within the crustal scale Angavo shear zone, and is characterized by fine to medium-grained foliated paragneiss, which also include biotite-hornblende gneiss, migmatitic quartzofeldspathic gneiss, sillimanite-bearing gneiss, garnet-bearing gneiss, graphitic gneiss intercalates with schist, quartzite, muscovite-bearing gneiss and marble. Three samples of granitoid plutons intruding the Andasibe paragneiss yielded isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb zircon ages of 801.2×3.8Ma, 776.5×4.4Ma and 772.1×4.2Ma. These dates are interpreted to represent the crystallization ages of these rocks and are comparable to other reported U-Pb emplacement ages for granitoid plutons within and along the north-central margin of the Angavo shear zone, which are suggested to be related to ca. 820 Ma successor-arc plutonism. These granitoids pre-dates the Angavo shear zone and folds affecting the plutons foliation are believed to have formed during the East-African Orogen, which in this part of the Malagasy Precambrian basement, is considered to have associated with Neoproterozoic extensive magmatism ca. 820 Ma to 540 Ma.

  12. Temporal evolution of granitic magmas in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt, east Qinling Orogen, central China: Implications for Mo metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Han, Jiangwei; Zhang, Shouting; Yan, Changhai; Cao, Huawen; Song, Yaowu

    2015-11-01

    The Luanchuan metallogenic belt, located within the eastern part of the Qinling Orogen, central China, hosts a number of world-class Mo deposits that are closely related to small late Mesozoic granitic plutons. Zircon U-Pb dating of distinct plutons in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt has yielded ages of 153 ± 1, 154 ± 2, 152 ± 2, and 148 ± 1 Ma. Molybdenite Re-Os isotopic compositions of Yuku ore district in the southern part of Luanchuan metallogenic belt has yielded an isochron age of 146 ± 1 Ma, which is consistent with the large-scale mineralization ages in the northern part of the Luanchuan metallogenic belt. A combination of previous studies and new geochronological and isotopic data show a concordant temporal and genetic link between granitic magmatism and Mo mineralization in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt, suggesting that this mineralization episode formed the most extensive Mo mineralization belt in the east Qinling Orogen. Zircon grains from Mo-related granitic plutons show similar trace element distributions. High-precision Multi Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) Pb isotope analysis of K-feldspar megacrysts from mineralization-related granites suggest that they were derived from the lower crust. Similarly, the Pb isotopic compositions of pyrite coprecipitated with molybdenite also suggest that the metals were derived form the lower crust, with probably minor mantle contribution. A continuum mineralization model that describes the sourcing of Mo from an evolving granitic magma over successive differentiation events, possibly in separate but connected magma chambers, could explain the remarkable Mo enrichment in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt. The volatile- and Mo-bearing granitic magmas ascended as diapirs from the deep crust, and were emplaced as dikes in the upper crust. Lithological differences between these Mo-bearing granites may relate to different stages in the evolution of individual magmas. Finally, ore

  13. Geometry and Kinematics of the Lamu Basin Deep-Water Fold-and-Thrust Belt (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchi, Massimiliano R.; Cruciani, Francesco; Porreca, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Even if most thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt are generated at convergent plate boundaries, in the last decades advances in seismic exploration and acquisition of large datasets have shown that they are also notably widespread along continental passive margins, driven by gravity processes in deep-water areas. In this study a composite set of modern and vintage reprocessed seismic reflection profiles is used to investigate the internal structure and kinematic evolution of the Lamu Basin Deep-Water Fold-and-Trust Belt (DW-FTB). The Lamu Basin is an example of giant-scale, gravity driven compressional belt developed in Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary along a still poorly explored sector of the East-African continental margin, at the Kenya-Somalia border. The compressional domain extends longitudinally for more than 450 km, is up to 180 km wide and shows remarkable structural complexity both along strike and along dip. The external part is dominated by ocean-verging imbricate thrusts, above a gently landward-dipping basal detachment. The internal part is characterised by almost symmetrical detachment folds and double verging structures, sustaining bowl-shaped syn-tectonic basins. Here the basal detachment surface is almost flat. The mean fold wavelength displays a progressive landward increase, from 2.5 km, at the toe of the belt, to about 10 km. This structural variability is thought to be related to the lateral variation of the section under shortening and particularly to the different thickness of the Early Cretaceous shaly unit involved in the deformations, increasing landward from about 400 m to more than 1 km. Through the sequential restoration of regional cross-sections, we evaluated that the northern portion of the thrust belt experienced a shortening of almost 50 km (corresponding to 20%), with a shortening rate (during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene main event) of about 3.5 mm/yr. Under many respects, the dimensions and internal structure of this thrust belt

  14. Cretaceous to early Tertiary paleogeography in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervoort, D.S.; Schmitt, J.G. )

    1990-06-01

    The Cretaceous to early Tertiary hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt in east-central Nevada underwent two periods of sedimentary basin development. The older (Early Cretaceous) episode is characterized by basins that formed coeval with deformation within a belt of contractional structures. Basins were characterized by periods of through-flowing fluvial drainage. The younger (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) episode of basin development was characterized by internally drained alluvial basins that subsequently expanded into more regional lacustrine basins. Basal alluvial detritus indicates that basin inception occurred as a result of rapid development of topographic relief. Synsedimentary tectonism was characterized by horizontal extension due to attainment of equilibrium topography in response to crustal thickening.

  15. Demarcation of a Late Cretaceous(. ) thrust belt near Railroad Valley and Pine Valley in east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, G.J.

    1986-08-01

    Older-over-younger low-angle faults occur within a north-south-trending belt that includes the Pancake, Fish Creek, Diamond, and Carlin/Pinon Ranges in east-central Nevada. Collectively, these ranges form the western boundary of Nevada's only oil-producing basins, Railroad Valley and Pine Valley. These structures lie parallel to, but are east of and distinct from, the Roberts Mountain thrust. The faults involve eastern assemblage Paleozoic rocks in both upper and lower plates. The Chainman Shale is commonly the surface of decollement. A Late Cretaceous and possibly younger age is assigned to the faults, based on evidence that the Late Cretaceous Newark Canyon Formation is locally overridden by Paleozoic rocks in the Diamond and Pancake Ranges. The areal extent of this thrust belt was assessed using systematic lithostratigraphy from measured sections. This method was found useful and necessary owing to the disruptive influence of younger basin-and-range block faults on the earlier structures. Lithostratigraphic parameters used include formation thicknesses, color logs, grain-size logs, chert horizons, and quartz sandstone zones within Ordovician to Devonian rocks. It is reasoned that the boundaries of displaced blocks will show relatively sharp gradients of change in a number of lithostratigraphic parameters within the Paleozoic section.

  16. Juxtaposition of Neoproterozoic units along the Baruda - Tulu Dimtu shear-belt in the East African Orogen of western Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braathen, A.; Grenne, Tor; Selassie, M.G.; Worku, T.

    2001-01-01

    Amalgamation of East and West Gondwanaland during the Neoproterozoic East African Orogen is recorded by several shear-belts or 'suture zones', some of which are associated with ultramafic and mafic complexes that have been interpreted as ophiolite fragments. The Baruda shear-belt is a major structure of this type that belongs to the N-S trending Barka - Tulu Dimtu zone. The significance of this zone has been studied within a transect in western Ethiopia which covers a variety of metasedimentary and metavolcanic sequences, ultramafic rocks and synkinematic intrusive complexes. All rocks participated in the regional D1 event as reflected in a penetrative steep foliation in supracrustal rocks and marginal parts of the intrusions. Highly strained rocks contain a stretching lineation that plunge to the east. The several-km thick Baruda shear-belt, comprising mylonitic supracrustal and plutonic rocks including mafic-ultramafic mega-lenses, is the most prominent expression of this event. Shear-sense indicators demonstrate top-to-the-west shear. Subsequent D2 deformation is recorded in 2-300 m wide, N-S striking, subvertical shear-zones with subhorizontal stretching lineation relatable to sinistral transcurrent movements. Our data indicate that rock units on either side of the Baruda shear-belt are related, rather than being exotic to each other as implied in suture zone models, since there is no major lithologic or metamorphic difference, geochemical data on metavolcanic rocks and pre-tectonic intrusions suggest a paleotectonic link, and style and extent of deformation is similar across the shear-belt. A tentative model for the transect suggests an arc and back-arc setting which experienced later continental collision and tectonic shortening. The initial setting was that of a shallow marine platform characterised by carbonates and sandstones, which covered extensive areas prior to break-up of a pre-existing supercontinent. Continental convergence is first recorded in high

  17. Hot granulite nappes — Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Harald; Tenczer, Veronika; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Wallbrecher, Eckart; Muhongo, Sospeter

    2009-11-01

    A section through the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Belt of Tanzania exposes western foreland (Archaean Tanzania Craton and Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran Belt), marginal (Western Granulites) and eastern, internal (Eastern Granulites) portions of the orogen. The assembly of granulite nappes at ca. 620 Ma displays westward emplacement along an eastward deepening basal decollement and forward propagation of thrusts, climbing from the deep crust to the surface. This goes along with eastward increase of syntectonic temperatures, derived from prevalent deformation mechanisms, and eastward decrease of the kinematic vorticity number. Distinctly different pressure - temperature paths with a branch of isothermal decompression (ITD) in Western Granulites and isobaric cooling (IBC) in Eastern Granulites reflect residence times of rocks within lower crustal levels. Western Granulites, exhumed rapidly at the orogen margin, display ITD and non-coaxial fabrics. Eastern Granulites in the internal orogen portions escaped from rapid exhumation and show IBC and co-axial flow fabrics. The vertical variation of structural elements, i.e. basement — cover relations within the Eastern Granulites, shows decoupling between lower and middle crust with horizontal west — east stretching in the basement and horizontal west — east shortening in the cover. A model of hot fold nappes [Beaumont, C., Nguyen, M.H., Jamieson, R.A., Ellis, S., 2006. Crustal flow modes in large hot orogens. In: Law, R.D., Searle, M.P., Godin, L., (eds). Channel Flow, Ductile Extrusion and Exhumation in Continental Collision Zones. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. vol. 268, 91-145] is adopted to explain flow diversity in the deep crust. The lower crust represented by Eastern Granulite basement flowed coaxially outwards (westward) in response to thickened crust and elevated gravitational forces, supported by a melt-weakened, viscous channel at the crustal base. Horizontal flow with rates faster than thermal

  18. HALO aircraft measurements of East Asian anthropogenic SO2 import into the lower stratosphere by a warm conveyor belt uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, H.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Baumann, R.; Pirjola, L.; Roiger, A.; Sailer, T.; Wirth, M.; Schumann, U.

    2012-04-01

    We report on a case study of anthropogenic SO2 pollution transport into the lower stratosphere from East Asian source regions. The pollution layer was observed over Central Europe by measurements from the new German research aircraft HALO. The layer contained enhanced SO2, HNO3 and water vapor and caused increased Lidar backscatter radiation. Meteorological analysis and air mass transport and dispersion model simulations reveal that the detected pollutants were released from ground-based sources in East-China, South-Korea, and Japan. The pollution plume was uplifted by a warm conveyor belt associated with a West-Pacific cyclone and finally injected into the lower stratosphere. Our HALO measurements were performed 5 days after the air mass uplift event, when significant parts of the Northern Hemisphere were already covered by the pollution plume. Accompanying trajectory chemistry and aerosol box model simulations indicate that H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets were generated in the SO2-rich plume and grew to sizes large enough to explain the observed increased Lidar backscatter signal. Implications of the SO2 transport pathway into the lower stratosphere presented in this study will be discussed.

  19. Generation of buckle folds in Naga fold thrust belt, north-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, B.; Dietl, C.

    2009-04-01

    Naga fold thrust belt (NFTB), India, formed as a result of northward migration of the Indian plate initiated in Eocene and its subsequent collision with the Burmese plate during Oligocene. The NW-SE oriented compression generated a spectrum of structures; among them, we intend to focus on the folds- varying from gentle to tight asymmetric in geometry. Large recumbent folds are often associated with thrusting. Buckle folds forming under shallow crustal conditions are frequently reported from NFTB. Buckle folding occurs mainly within sandstones with intercalated shale layers which are in the study area typical for the Barail, Surma and Tipam Groups. We have tried to explain the controlling factors behind the variation of the buckle fold shapes and their varying wavelengths throughout the fold thrust belt with the aid of analogue (sand box) modelling. It is undoubted that competence contrast along with the layer parallel compressive stress are the major influencing factors in generation of buckle folds. Schmalholz and Podladchikov (1999) and Jeng et al. (2002) have shown that when low strain rate and low temperature are applicable, not only the viscosity contrast, but also the elasticity contrast govern the geometry of the developing buckle folds. Rocks deforming under high temperature and high pressure deform in pure viscous manner, whereas, rocks undergoing less confining stress and less temperature, are subjected to pure elastic deformation. However, they are the end members, and most of the deformations are a combination of these two end members, i.e. of viscoelastic nature. Our models are made up of sieved sand (0.5 mm grain size) and mica layers (1-5 mm) This interlayering imparts a mechanical anisotropy in the model. Mica is not a pure viscous material, rather it displays more elastic behaviour. The mica layers in the model produce bedding parallel slip during shortening through internal reorganization of the individual mica crystals leading to the thickening

  20. Frozen subduction in the Yangtze block: insights from the deep seismic profiling and gravity anomaly in east Sichuan fold belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaosong; Gao, Rui; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Jisheng; Guo, Lianghui

    2016-04-01

    The Sichuan basin is the main part of the middle-upper Yangtze block, which has been experienced a long-term tectonic evolution since Archean. The Yangtze block was regarded as a stable block until the collision with the Cathaysia block in late Neoproterozoic. A new deep seismic reflection profile conducted in the eastern Sichuan fold belt (ESFB) discovered a serials of south-dipping reflectors shown from lower crust to the mantle imply a frozen subduction zone within the Yangtze block. In order to prove the speculation, we also obtain the middle-lower crustal gravity anomalies by removing the gravity anomalies induced by the sedimentary rocks and the mantle beneath the Moho, which shows the mid-lower crustal structure of the Sichuan basin can be divided into eastern and western parts. Combined with the geochronology and Aeromagnetic anomalies, we speculated the Yangtze block was amalgamated by the West Sichuan and East Sichuan blocks separated by the Huayin-Chongqing line. The frozen subduction zone subsequently shifted to a shear zone accommodated the lower crustal shortening when the decollement at the base of the Nanhua system functioned in the upper plate.

  1. The East Carpathians: Indications of phase transitions, lithospheric failure and decoupled evolution of thrust belt and its foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyushkov, E. V.; Baer, M. A.; Mörner, N.-A.

    1996-09-01

    gabbro in the lower crust with the formation of dense garnet granulites during nappe emplacement. A layer of these dense rocks, ˜ 20 km thick, with P-wave velocities 7.5-7.6 km/s, exists in the lower crust of the East Carpathians. According to the geophysical data, there is no cool high-velocity slab now subducting towards the Intra-Carpathian area. An increase in the mean height of the Carpathians by only ˜ 1 km since the termination of convergence precludes a recent slab detachment. Rapid metamorphism of mafic rocks in the lower crust requires the infiltration of volatiles from the asthenosphere. Infiltration of volatiles into mantle lithosphere and the upper crust could strongly reduce their viscosity. These phenomena might be the cause of an abrupt loss of lithospheric rigidity on the margin of the East European Platform in the Neogene. Lithospheric failure allowed the incorporation of this region into the Carpathian fold belt after a long period of cratonic development.

  2. Role of dust direct radiative effect on the tropical rain belt over Middle East and North Africa: A high-resolution AGCM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the influence of direct radiative effect of dust on the tropical summer rain belt across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the present study utilizes the high-resolution capability of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model, the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. Ensembles of Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project style simulations have been conducted with and without dust radiative impacts, to differentiate the influence of dust on the tropical rain belt. The analysis focuses on summer season. The results highlight the role of dust-induced responses in global- and regional-scale circulations in determining the strength and the latitudinal extent of the tropical rain belt. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet and West African Monsoon circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rain belt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Importantly, the summer precipitation over the semiarid strip south of Sahara, including Sahel, increases up to 20%. As this region is characterized by the "Sahel drought," the predicted precipitation sensitivity to the dust loading over this region has a wide range of socioeconomic implications. Overall, the study demonstrates the extreme importance of incorporating dust radiative effects and the corresponding circulation responses at various scales, in the simulations and future projections of this region's climate.

  3. Upper-mantle velocity models beneath the east Qingling orogenic belt from finite-frequency tomography of a portable seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Chen, Y. J.; An, M.; Feng, Y.; Liang, X.; Dong, S.

    2013-12-01

    The east Qinling orogenic belt is located between the North China Craton and the South China Block, and is also at the northeastern boundary of Tibetan Plateau. A temporal seismic array of over 110 portable seismic stations was deployed by Peking University and the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (CAGS) from July 2011 to October 2013 to study the complex tectonics of this region. We used earthquake data recorded at 65 stations from this array between July 2011 and October 2012 to image the seismic velocity variations of the region using finite-frequency tomography method. The travel times used in the inversion contain 10876 P-waves and 5945 S-waves at 3 different frequencies. Preliminary results show that velocity structures of P-waves and S-waves are quite similar. The upper mantle velocities under the east Qinling orogenic belt are higher in general in the east than that in the west at depth around 80 km. A higher velocity anomaly is observed under the southern Ordos plateau from 40 km to 360km deep and a low velocity anomaly is seen beneath the Taihang uplift from the depth of 40km to the depth of 200km. These velocity anomalies in the lithosphere and the upper mantle will be interpreted with the geologic observations and tectonic process of the region.

  4. Warming-induced northwestward migration of the East Asian monsoon rain belt from the Last Glacial Maximum to the mid-Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shiling; Ding, Zhongli; Li, Yangyang; Wang, Xu; Jiang, Wenying; Huang, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    Glacial–interglacial changes in the distribution of C3/C4 vegetation on the Chinese Loess Plateau have been related to East Asian summer monsoon intensity and position, and could provide insights into future changes caused by global warming. Here, we present δ13C records of bulk organic matter since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from 21 loess sections across the Loess Plateau. The δ13C values (range: –25‰ to –16‰) increased gradually both from the LGM to the mid-Holocene in each section and from northwest to southeast in each time interval. During the LGM, C4 biomass increased from <5% in the northwest to 10–20% in the southeast, while during the mid-Holocene C4 vegetation increased throughout the Plateau, with estimated biomass increasing from 10% to 20% in the northwest to >40% in the southeast. The spatial pattern of C4 biomass in both the LGM and the mid-Holocene closely resembles that of modern warm-season precipitation, and thus can serve as a robust analog for the contemporary East Asian summer monsoon rain belt. Using the 10–20% isolines for C4 biomass in the cold LGM as a reference, we derived a minimum 300-km northwestward migration of the monsoon rain belt for the warm Holocene. Our results strongly support the prediction that Earth's thermal equator will move northward in a warmer world. The southward displacement of the monsoon rain belt and the drying trend observed during the last few decades in northern China will soon reverse as global warming continues. PMID:26460029

  5. Warming-induced northwestward migration of the East Asian monsoon rain belt from the Last Glacial Maximum to the mid-Holocene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiling; Ding, Zhongli; Li, Yangyang; Wang, Xu; Jiang, Wenying; Huang, Xiaofang

    2015-10-27

    Glacial-interglacial changes in the distribution of C3/C4 vegetation on the Chinese Loess Plateau have been related to East Asian summer monsoon intensity and position, and could provide insights into future changes caused by global warming. Here, we present δ(13)C records of bulk organic matter since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from 21 loess sections across the Loess Plateau. The δ(13)C values (range: -25‰ to -16‰) increased gradually both from the LGM to the mid-Holocene in each section and from northwest to southeast in each time interval. During the LGM, C4 biomass increased from <5% in the northwest to 10-20% in the southeast, while during the mid-Holocene C4 vegetation increased throughout the Plateau, with estimated biomass increasing from 10% to 20% in the northwest to >40% in the southeast. The spatial pattern of C4 biomass in both the LGM and the mid-Holocene closely resembles that of modern warm-season precipitation, and thus can serve as a robust analog for the contemporary East Asian summer monsoon rain belt. Using the 10-20% isolines for C4 biomass in the cold LGM as a reference, we derived a minimum 300-km northwestward migration of the monsoon rain belt for the warm Holocene. Our results strongly support the prediction that Earth's thermal equator will move northward in a warmer world. The southward displacement of the monsoon rain belt and the drying trend observed during the last few decades in northern China will soon reverse as global warming continues. PMID:26460029

  6. Summary terrane, mineral deposit, and metallogenic belt maps of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; West, Timothy D.; Dawson, Kenneth M.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Baranov, Boris V.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislauv G.; Diggles, Michael F.; Eremin, Roman A.; Fujita, Kazuya; Gordey, Steven P.; Gorodinskiy, Mary E.; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Feeney, Tracey D.; Frolov, Yuri F.; Grantz, Arthur; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Koch, Richard D.; Natal'in, Boris A.; Natapov, Lev M.; Norton, Ian O.; Patton, William W., Jr.; Plafker, George; Pozdeev, Anany I.; Rozenblum, Ilya S.; Scholl, David W.; Sokolov, Sergei D.; Sosunov, Gleb M.; Stone, David B.; Tabor, Rowland W.; Tsukanov, Nickolai V.; Vallier, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is part of a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. The project is to provide critical information for collaborators and customers on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera.

  7. Style and magnitude of Mesozoic thrust faulting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt Pequop Mountains-Wood Hills-East Humboldt Range region, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, P.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Pequop Mountains (PM), Wood Hills (WH) and East Humboldt Range (EHR), NE Nevada, provide evidence that the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt experienced large-magnitude Mesozoic shortening ([>=]55 km) and crustal thickening ([>=] 30 km). These ranges expose a structurally continuous crustal cross section of unmetamorphosed to high pressure upper amphibolite facies Triassic to Precambrian miogeoclinal strata. This sequence lies structurally beneath unmetamorphosed extensional klippen that omit metamorphic grade and crustal section, but also repeat stratigraphic units. Because they repeat stratigraphic units, the underlying miogeoclinal section, or footwall, must have once lain beneath a thrust fault (herein named the Windermere thrust). The footwall of the Windermere thrust was exhumed by two generations of top-to-the-W-NW low-angle normal faults that are distinguished by whether they are depositionally overlapped by Eocene volcanic rocks or if they cut the volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. The latter phase is associated with development of the mid-Tertiary extensional mylonitic shear zone in the EHR. An integration of geobarometric, metamorphic, and map data suggest (1) a NW dip of the footwall of the Windermere thrust with metamorphic facies belts trending perpendicular to dip direction and metamorphic grade increasing down dip, and (2) a top-to-the-SE sense-of-slip for the Windermere thrust. Assuming that the Windermere thrust comprised a flat on the youngest rocks exposed in the footwall (Triassic), the Mesozoic depth to the Windermere thrust in the northern PM is [>=] 7 km, in WH is [approximately]10--16 km, and in the EHR[>=]30 km. The Windermere thrust accommodated a minimum of 50 km of shortening associated with the Independence thrust is [>=] 5 km. These data indicate that the amount of hinterland shortening in NE Nevada greatly exceeds that to the south in the Eureka belt.

  8. The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East: Terranes and the formation of continental lithosphere based on geological and isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanchuk, A. I.; Kemkin, I. V.; Kruk, N. N.

    2016-04-01

    The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East, consists of folded terranes made up of Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, turbidite basins, and island arc terranes that are overlapped unconformably by undeformed upper Cenomanian to Cenozoic volcanic deposits. The Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, together with the Early Cretaceous island arc, are related to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. The turbidite basin, which began to form at the beginning of the Early Cretaceous, is related to left-lateral movement of the Paleo-Pacific plate along the Paleo-Asian continental margin. The collage of terranes that make up the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt was amalgamated in two stages. The first began after Jurassic subduction beneath the Asian continent was terminated, and the second took place in the late Albian, when the Early Cretaceous island arc collided with the continental margin. Intense deformation of the terranes took place along the continental margin in the form of large-scale translations from south to north, together with oroclinal folding. The deformation resulted in rapid thickening of sediments in the upper crust, resulting in turn in the formation of granitic-metamorphic material in the continental lithosphere. In the southwestern part of the Sikhote-Alin orogen, granites were intruded during the Hauterivian-Aptian, while the entire orogenic belt was affected by intrusions in the late Albian-early Cenomanian. Synorogenic intraplate volcanic rocks and alkaline ultramafic-mafic intrusions also testify to the fact that the orogenic processes in the Sikhote-Alin were related to a transform continental margin, and not to subduction. Geochemical and Nd isotopic data indicate, the primary continental crust of the Sikhote-Alin was of a "hybrid" nature, consisting of juvenile basic components accreted from an oceanic plate and recycled sedimentary material derived from the erosion of ancient blocks.

  9. Crust structure, geodynamic and metallogenisis of major metallogenic belts in East China: an introduction to SinoProbe-03 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Chang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    SinoProbe is a new Chinese government-founded scientific Project with the overall aims of exploring the deep structure and geogynamic evolution of the continental crust and lithosphere beneath China. As a third sub-Project, the SinoProbe-03 is focus on two typical metallogenic belts: the South range and the middle and lower Yangtze River of Eastern China. The former is characterized by its world-class tungsten, tin and multimetal (Sb-Bi-Pb-Zn) metallogenisis which was considered to be related to crust-derived magma; whereas, the later is characterized by its iron, cupper and multimetal (Au-S-Pb-Zn) metallogenisis which was thought to be related to mantle-derived magma. The main questions related to two metallogenic belts that SinoProbe-03 plan to address are: (1) the crustal structure and geodynamic processes for generation and migration of magma, what’s the sources characteristics that eventually control the metal types; (2) the fine upper-crust structure(<10km) of the major ore district ( e.g. Luzong, Tongling and Yudu-Ganxian), and how they control the ore-forming process, and the spatial distribution of major ore-bearing strata and ore-controlling structure; (3) the efficiency of integrated geophysical methods ( e.g. AMT, CSAMT, SIP, TEM), especially the seismic reflection method, in direct detection of deep ( 2km) ore-bearing formations or ore-controlling structure. SinoProbe-03 is therefore an multidisciplinary programme, combining surface observations with deep geophysical (near-vertical reflection, wide-angle reflection, broadband seismic array and magnetotellurics) and geochemical probing, applying, adapting and developing the latest technology to obtain an integrated image of the whole crust of the two metallogenic belts. Through this programme, we try to better understanding how the mineral systems (or large deposits) was initiated and evolved under the framework of geodynamic evolution. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of Sino

  10. Early Permian East-Ujimqin mafic-ultramafic and granitic rocks from the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt, North China: Origin, chronology, and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yinhang; Teng, Xuejian; Li, Yanfeng; Li, Min; Zhang, Tianfu

    2014-12-01

    The East-Ujimqin complex, located north of the Erenhot-Hegenshan fault, North China, is composed of mafic-ultramafic and granitic rocks including peridotite, gabbro, alkali granite, and syenite. We investigated the tectonic setting, age, and anorogenic characteristics of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt (XMOB) through field investigation and microscopic and geochemical analyses of samples from the East-Ujimqin complex and LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of gabbro and alkali granite. Petrographic and geochemical studies of the complex indicate that this multiphase plutonic suite developed through a combination of fractional crystallization, assimilation processes, and magma mixing. The mafic-ultramafic rocks are alkaline and have within-plate geochemical characteristics, indicating anorogenic magmatism in an extensional setting and derivation from a mantle source. The mafic-ultramafic magmas triggered partial melting of the crust and generated the granitic rocks. The granitic rocks are alkali and metaluminous and have high Fe/(Fe + Mg) characteristics, all of which are common features of within-plate plutons. Zircon U-Pb geochronological dating of two samples of gabbro and alkali granite yielded ages of 280.8 ± 1.5 and 276.4 ± 0.7 Ma, placing them within the Early Permian. The zircon Hf isotopic data give inhomogeneous εHf(t) values of 8.2-14.7 for gabbroic zircons and extraordinary high εHf(t) values (8.9-12.5) for the alkali granite in magmatic zircons. Thus, we consider the East-Ujimqin mafic-ultramafic and granitic rocks to have been formed in an extensional tectonic setting caused by asthenospheric upwelling and lithospheric thinning. The sources of mafic-ultramafic and granitic rocks could be depleted garnet lherzolite mantle and juvenile continental lower crust, respectively. All the above indicate that an anorogenic magma event may have occurred in part of the XMOB during 280-276 Ma.

  11. Middle Proterozoic mafic magmatism, east central Idaho: Implications for age of deposition of Belt Supergroup and basin subsidence models

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, K.R. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Doughty, P.T. . Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    In the Salmon River Arch, a ca. 1,365 Ma rapikivi granite intrudes the Proterozoic Yellow Jacket Formation, which is commonly correlated with the basal Belt-Purcell Supergroup. The contact aureole of the granite contains andalusite and overprints greenschist-facies burial metamorphism in the undeformed sedimentary strata. To the north, the granite intrudes amphibolite-facies, migmatitic paragneiss and a mafic igneous complex. Textures within the migmatites attest to deformation during partial melting. Preliminary U-Pb zircon data from a quartz diorite that intrudes the Yellowjacket sediments yield an age of ca. 1,445 Ma. This is consistent with zircon ages from the Crossport C and Moyie sills in northern Idaho and southern BC that constrain the basal Belt Supergroup to be older than 1,440 Ma. U-Pb zircon data from an amphibolitized mafic dike within the mafic igneous complex along the Salmon River are nearly concordant and yield Pb/Pb ages of ca. 1,377 Ma. The zircons exhibit skeletal, magmatic morphologies and the age is interpreted to be the time of primary crystallization. This age is slightly older than the age of the rapikivi granite and overlaps with the U-Pb zircon age of leucosomes in the migmatites. Thus, bimodal magmatism and partial melting occurred ca. 1,370 Ma. Deformation accompanied these events, but was concentrated in the deeper level, high-grade rocks. These processes are syn-depositional, based on age constraints from the intrusive quartz diorite. The authors envision that burial metamorphism, deformation, partial melting mafic magmatism and granite emplacement occurred during extensional deformation in the base of the Yellowjacket basin.

  12. Climatic belt dynamics on a tropical mountain under strong anthropogenic and zoogenic impact: Mt Tsebet (3946 m a.s.l.) in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya; Yirga, Gidey; Guyassa, Etafa; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Poesen, Jean; Hemp, Andreas; Haile, Mitiku

    2010-05-01

    The links between decreasing size and volume of the glaciers in East Africa's tropical mountains and the position of climatic belts on the one hand and global warming on the other have led to various interpretations on the occurrence of global warming and its magnitude and impacts in this part of the world. Here, we investigate the existence of temperature changes in East Africa and their impacts in high mountain regions by analyzing the position of climatically determined vegetation belts on Mt. Tsebet (12°52'N, 39°30'E, 3946 m a.s.l.) in northern Ethiopia between 1986 and 2010. This 27 km² massif, which was first surveyed and photographed in 1868, was chosen as a study area because, unlike Simien Mountains or Bale Mts. (Ethiopia), the antropogenic and zoogenic impact on the environment has not been reduced through time. By choosing Tsebet, we avoided areas that have become recently protected (such as the above-mentioned national parks); there, trees that newly grow more upslope might be ascribed to the protected status. In protected areas, the position of upper cropland limits may be controlled by regulations that prevent farmers from expanding farmlands upslope, even if climatic and topographic conditions would allow doing so. On Tsebet, where direct human and zoogenic impact exists up to the highest elevations, we will establish the position of two temperature-linked vegetation limits (i.e. Erica arborea and Hordeum vulgare or barley) in 1986, 1994 and 2010, through fieldwork (February 2010) and aerial photo interpretation. Changes in population density in the villages around Mt. Tsebet will be analysed through house counting on aerial photographs. The fieldwork will include a stay in mountain villages, during which interviews will be done on dates and reasons for shifting of the cultivation limit. The results will be analysed through geostatistical methods and will provide a better understanding of the magnitude of air temperature and possibly precipitation

  13. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Jan-Peter; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Thiel, Volker; Ionescu, Danny; Strauss, Harald; Schäfer, Nadine; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight—secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰), are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰) that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies, thus

  14. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Duda, Jan-Peter; Van Kranendonk, Martin J; Thiel, Volker; Ionescu, Danny; Strauss, Harald; Schäfer, Nadine; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰), are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰) that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies, thus providing

  15. The Lamu Basin deepwater fold-and-thrust belt: An example of a margin-scale, gravity-driven thrust belt along the continental passive margin of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Francesco; Barchi, Massimiliano R.

    2016-03-01

    In recent decades, advances in seismic processing and acquisition of new data sets have revealed the presence of many deepwater fold-and-thrust belts (DW-FTBs), often developing along continental passive margins. These kinds of tectonic features have been intensively studied, due to their substantial interest. This work presents a regional-scale study of the poorly explored Lamu Basin DW-FTB, a margin-scale, gravity-driven system extending for more than 450 km along the continental passive margin of Kenya and southern Somalia (East Africa). A 2-D seismic data set was analyzed, consisting of both recently acquired high-quality data and old reprocessed seismic profiles, for the first detailed structural and stratigraphic interpretation of this DW-FTB. The system originated over an Early to mid-Cretaceous shale detachment due to a mainly gravity-spreading mechanism. Analysis of synkinematic strata indicates that the DW-FTB was active from the Late Cretaceous to the Early Miocene, but almost all of the deformation occurred before the Late Paleocene. The fold-and-thrust system displays a marked N-S variation in width, the northern portion being more than 150 km wide and the southern portion only a few dozen kilometers wide; this along-strike variation is thought to be related to the complex tectonosedimentary evolution of the continental margin at the Somalia-Kenya boundary, also reflected in the present-day bathymetry. Locally, a series of volcanic edifices stopped the basinward propagation of the DW-FTB. A landward change in the dominant structural style, from asymmetric imbricate thrust sheets to pseudo-symmetric detachment folds, is generally observed, related to the landward thickening of the detached shales.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  17. Structure of the mantle lithosphere around the TESZ - from the East European Craton to the Variscan Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecsey, Ludek; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav; Passeq Working Group

    2013-04-01

    The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) represents a distinct ~3500 km long tectonic feature, which can be traced through north-western to south-eastern Europe in various models of seismic velocities (e.g., Bijwaard et al., JGR 1998, Goes et al., JGR 2000) as well as in seismic anisotropy (e.g., Babuska et al., PAGEOPH 1998). The zone manifests the significant contact zone between the Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe. To contribute to better understanding of the structure of the upper mantle and a depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), we analyse anisotropic parameters of body waves and suggest 3D anisotropic models of individual domains of continental mantle lithosphere. Specifically, we examine lateral variations of teleseismic P-wave travel-time deviations from about 100 teleseismic events, selected to provide a good azimuth coverage, and evaluate shear-wave splitting parameters from about 20 events recorded during passive seismic experiment PASSEQ (2006-2008), whose stations spanned across the central part of the TESZ. We derive large-scale fabrics of mantle lithosphere domains in a vicinity of the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ) - the NE limit of the TESZ - and the Polish Paleozoic Platform, but also further to the SW of the suture (to the southern Saxothuringian - Moldanubian Units) and to the NE (East European Craton). Variations of anisotropic signal around the central part of TESZ are surprisingly moderate, in comparison with the western part of the TESZ, and exhibit different characteristics, which we summarize as follows: (1) There is no distinct change of anisotropic signal derived either from the P-residual pattern or shear-wave splitting parameters (the fast shear-wave polarization and slow shear-wave split delay time) across the surface trace of the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ). (2) The most distinct change of the anisotropic signal occurs at the northern boundary of the Bohemian Massif (BM), whose mantle lithosphere consists of

  18. Along-dip variations of structural style in the Somali Basin deep-water fold and thrust belt (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Francesco; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    Continental passive margins are place of extended slope-failure phenomena, which can lead to the formation of gravity-driven deep-water fold and thrust belts (DW-FTBs), in regions where no far-field compressional stress is active. These giant geological features, which are confined to the sedimentary section, consist of extensional-compressional linked systems detached over a common décollement, generally salt or shales. The continental passive margin of northern Kenya and southern Somalia is an excellent and relatively unexplored site for recognizing and understanding the DW-FTBs originated over a regional shale décollement. In this study we have interpreted a 2D seismic data-set of the 1980s, hosted by Marine Geoscience Data System at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (http://www.marine-geo.org), and recently reprocessed by ENI, in order to investigate the structural style of a DW-FTB developed offshore of northern Kenya and southern Somalia (Somali Basin). This region records the oldest sedimentary section of the Indian Ocean since the breakup of Gondwana began in the Middle-Lower Jurassic separating Madagascar from Africa. From the Upper Cretaceous to at least the Lower Miocene, the margin has been characterized by gravitational collapse leading to the formation of a DW-FTB extending more than 400 km along-strike. The northern portion of the DW-FTB is about 150 km wide, whilst in the southern portion is few tens of km wide. We analysed the northern portion along a regional seismic section. Our study represents the first detailed structural interpretation of this DW-FTB since its discovery in the 1980s. The good quality of the available reprocessed seismic data has allowed us to identify remarkable along-dip variations in the structural style. The basal detachment constantly deepens landward, in agreement with a prevailing gravity-spreading deformation process (as in the case of the Niger Delta). On the seismic data are not visible, as

  19. Dating slate belts using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon ages from crosscutting plutons: A case study from east-central Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Hind; Kunk, Michael; Ludman, Allan; Bish, David; Wintsch, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Determining the tectonic significance of slate belts is a persistent problem in many orogenic belts because of the lack of time constraints on the age of deposition and the age(s) of cleavages. We have solved this problem in east-central Maine where the ages of the regional Acadian cleavage (S1) and local ductile fault zone cleavage (S2) were both constrained using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and the ages of crosscutting plutons. Applying 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to rocks with multiple generations of muscovite was possible because each cleavage-forming muscovite records a crystallization age rather than a cooling age due to the low grade of regional metamorphism. Evidence for metamorphic crystallization in rocks dominated by regional Acadian cleavage (S1) comes from the truncations of detrital and authigenic muscovite and chlorite grains by new muscovite and chlorite grains that define the S1 foliation. In rocks that display two foliations, the evidence comes from the truncations of chlorite and muscovite grains defining all earlier fabrics by new muscovite grains in the younger folia (S2). Step-heating experiments using the 40Ar/39Ar technique on twelve samples all yielded sigmoidal age spectra. The low-temperature steps produced a hump in the age spectra, indicating 39Ar recoil into adjacent interlayered chlorite grains, the latter interlayering confirmed by back-scattered electron imaging. Continuing steps climbed steadily from those with minimum apparent ages as young as ~381 Ma to steps with maximum ages as old as 466 Ma. The samples with the lowest minimum apparent age steps are those in which the S2 cleavage-forming mica population dominates. In contrast, the oldest apparent age steps are from samples that have the highest modal abundance of detrital micas. The Middle Ordovician age of the maximum age steps is interpreted to be the minimum cooling age of the detrital micas. The minimum 40Ar/39Ar age steps of muscovite in the samples that display only S1 cleavage

  20. Stratigraphy of the Silurian outcrop belt on the east side of the Cincinnati Arch in Kentucky, with revisions in the nomenclature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Robert C.

    1983-01-01

    Silurian rocks form a narrow arcuate outcrop belt about 100 mi long on the east side of the Cincinnati Arch in Kentucky. They range from as much as 300 ft thick in the north to a pinchout edge in the south. The nomenclature of this sequence is revised to reflect mappability and lithologic uniformity on the basis of detailed mapping at a scale of 1:24,000 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kentucky Geological Survey. The Silurian rocks are divided into two parts: the Crab Orchard Group, raised in rank from Crab Orchard Formation and redefined, in the lower part of the Silurian section, and Bisher Dolomite in the upper part of the section. The Crab Orchard Group is subdivided into the Drowning Creek Formation (new name) at the base of the Silurian, overlain by the Alger Shale (adopted herein) south of Fleming County and by the Estill Shale (elevated to formational rank) north of Bath County. The Brassfield Member (reduced in rank from Brassfield Dolomite or Formation) and the Plum Creek Shale and Oldham Members of the former Crab Orchard Formation are included as members of the Drowning Creek; the Lulbegrud Shale, Waco, and Estill Shale Members of the former Crab Orchard Formation are now included in the Alger. The Drowning Creek Formation, 20 to 50 ft thick, is composed mainly of gray fine to coarse-grained dolomite with shale interbeds. The dolomite beds average several inches thick, with bedding surfaces that are locally smooth but generally irregular and are fossiliferous in many places; fossils include brachiopods, crinoid columnals, horn corals, colonial corals, trilobites, pelecypods, and bryozoans. The shale interbeds average several inches thick, except for its Plum Creek Shale Member which is entirely shale and as much as 12 ft thick, and are most abundant in the upper half of the formation. The members of the Drowning Creek intergrade and are indistinguishable in the northern part of the area. The Alger Shale, as much as 170 feet thick

  1. Petrogenesis and tectonic significance of the late Triassic mafic dikes and felsic volcanic rocks in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt, Northern Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yan; Niu, Yaoling; Li, Jiyong; Ye, Lei; Kong, Juanjuan; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Guorui

    2016-02-01

    We present zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical data on the late Triassic mafic dikes (diabase) and felsic volcanic rocks (rhyolite and rhyolitic tuffs) in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB). These rocks give a small age window of 228-218 Ma. The mafic dikes represent evolved alkaline basaltic melts intruding ~ 8-9 Myrs older and volumetrically more abundant A-type granite batholith. Their rare earth element (REE) and multi-element patterns are similar to those of the present-day ocean island basalts (OIBs) except for a weak continental crustal signature (i.e., enrichment of Rb and Pb and weak depletion of Nb, Ta and Ti). Their trace element characteristics together with the high 87Sr/86Sr (0.7076-0.7104), low εNd(t) (- 2.18 to - 3.46), low εHf(t) (- 2.85 to - 4.59) and variable Pb isotopic ratios are consistent with melts derived from metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle with crustal contamination. The felsic volcanic rocks are characterized by high LREE/HREE (e.g., [La/Yb]N of 5.71-17.00) with a negative Eu anomaly and strong depletion in Sr and P, resembling the model upper continental crust (UCC). Given the high 87Sr/86Sr (0.7213-0.7550) and less negative εNd(t) (- 3.83 to - 5.09) and εHf(t) (- 3.06 to - 3.83) than the UCC plus the overlapping isotopes with the mafic dikes and high Nb-Ta rhyolites, the felsic volcanic rocks are best interpreted as resulting from melting-induced mixing with 45-50% crustal materials and 50-55% mantle-derived mafic melts probably parental to the mafic dikes. Such mantle-derived melts underplated and intruded the deep crust as juvenile crustal materials. Partial melting of such juvenile crust produced felsic melts parental to the felsic volcanic rocks in the EKOB. We hypothesize that the late Triassic mafic dikes and felsic volcanic rocks are associated with post-collisional extension and related orogenic collapse. Such processes are probably significant in causing asthenospheric upwelling, decompression melting

  2. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2016-03-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  3. A comparison of the radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. I - The high energy electron distribution in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. II - East-west asymmetry in the radiation belts as a function of Jovian longitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, I.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison has been made between detailed model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation and the radio data at wavelengths of 6, 21, and 50 cm. The calculations were performed for a Jovian longitude of 200 deg and were based on the multipole field configurations as derived from the Pioneer data. The electron distribution in the inner magnetosphere was derived as a function of energy, pitch angle, and spatial coordinates. In addition, the hot region or east-west asymmetry in the radiation belts is investigated. It is suggested that this asymmetry is due to the combined effect of an overabundance of electrons at jovicentric longitudes of 240-360 deg and the existence of a dusk-to-dawn directed electric field over the inner magnetosphere generated by the wind system in the upper atmosphere.

  4. Genesis and evolution of the Leimengou porphyry Mo deposit in West Henan Province, East Qinling-Dabie belt, China: Constraints from hydrothermal alteration, fluid inclusions and stable isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodan; Ye, Huishou; Wang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    The Leimengou Mo deposit is located in the East Qinling-Dabie metallogenic Mo belt, located at the southern margin of the North China Craton. The deposit is hosted within the Mesozoic Leimengou granite porphyry pluton and at the contact between the granite and Late Archean gneisses. In light of mineral assemblage and crosscutting relationships among veinlets, the mineralization and alteration can be classified in four distinct stages: (1) a Mo-barren pre-mineralization stage of alteration characterized by massive K-feldspar alteration of the granite porphyry; (2) a K-feldspar-quartz vein stage that formed veinlets with minor molybdenite; (3) a quartz-sulfide veinlet stage, which is the main stage of mineralization; and (4) post-mineralization quartz-calcite vein stage.

  5. The conductivity structure and dynamic characteristics of Southern-Ningxia arcstructure belt, north-east edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, G.; Wang, G.; Chen, J.; Zhou, J.; Yin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Southern-Ningxia Arcstructural belt is the forward region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau that with the extension to northeast , it's tectonic deformation is the remoted effect which caused by the uplifting of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the compressional basin-mountain range system which formed in the cenozoic did not suffer too much change, so Southern-Ningxia Arcstructural belt become an ideal place for the geologists and geophysicists to study plateau uplifting mechanis. For the above reasons,many experts carried out a large number of geophysical investigations in this arcstructural belt, and these research made animportant contribution for us to know the deep structure of Southern-Ningxia Arcstructural belt,but limited to the instrument accuracy and data processing technology,the results had poor resolusion. so we need urgently to carry out high-precision geophysical exploration in Southern-Ningxia,to provide technical support for studying dynamic mechanism and deep structure around the epicenter. we arranged two magnetotelluric sounding profile which across the major tectonic units, the average measurement pitch is 2km,and observation time for each measuring point is more than 12 hours, using the latest 2D NLCG inversion technique with topography for the inversion of measured data, then obtain 2D electrically structure figures with the depth of 30km,which clearly revealed the typical electrical strucure and dynamics characteristics of the study area: The middle&upper crust showing the structural styles of "chunky" totally, the low-impedance&high-conductivity layers in the mid-upper crust of the study area intermittent exist,which shows structural styles of southwest deeper and northeast shallower, we can also infer that low-impedance&high-conductivity layers always termination on the edge of the high impedance ,or intersection with the detachment layers that under the thrust nappes; The low-resistivity zone caused by focal fracture of Haiyuan earthquake neither steep

  6. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  7. 1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts and drive shafts. This power system drove the tumblers which cleaned chain in building #7. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  8. 7. Band Wheel, Showing Cloth Web Belt and Wooden Bearing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Band Wheel, Showing Cloth Web Belt and Wooden Bearing Blocks, Looking West - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  9. 9. GATEHOUSE, INTERIOR, COUNTERSHAFT WHICH HELD BELT ATTACHED TO ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GATEHOUSE, INTERIOR, COUNTERSHAFT WHICH HELD BELT ATTACHED TO ENGINE FOR HYPOCHLORITE MIXER, VIEW EAST - Lake Roland Dam, Gatehouse, Spanning outlet of Lake Roland near Woodbridge Road, Towson, Baltimore County, MD

  10. Bunkhouse basement interior showing storage area and a conveyor belt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bunkhouse basement interior showing storage area and a conveyor belt (circa 1936) used to unload dry goods into the basement through an opening on the east side of the bunkhouse. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  11. 5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, EAST VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  12. 13. VIEW OF SWEEP ARMDRIVE MECHANISM AND BELT CHAIN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF SWEEP ARM-DRIVE MECHANISM AND BELT CHAIN FROM MOOR, LOOKING EAST - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  13. Geochronology and fluid inclusion study of the Yinjiagou porphyry-skarn Mo-Cu-pyrite deposit in the East Qinling orogenic belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guang; Chen, Yuchuan; Li, Zongyan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Xinsheng; Qiao, Cuijie

    2014-01-01

    The Yinjiagou Mo-Cu-pyrite deposit of Henan Province is located in the Huaxiong block on the southern margin of the North China craton. It differs from other Mo deposits in the East Qingling area because of its large pyrite resource and complex associated elements. The deposit's mineralization process can be divided into skarn, sulfide, and supergene episodes with five stages, marking formation of magnetite in the skarn episode, quartz-molybdenite, quartz-calcite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite-sphalerite, and calcite-galena-sphalerite in the sulfide episode, and chalcedony-limonite in the supergene episode. Re-Os and 40Ar-39Ar dating indicates that both the skarn-type and porphyry-type orebodies of the Yinjiagou deposit formed approximately 143 Ma ago during the Early Cretaceous. Four types of fluid inclusions (FIs) have been distinguished in quartz phenocryst, various quartz veins, and calcite vein. Based on petrographic observations and microthermometric criteria the FIs include liquid-rich, gas-rich, H2O-CO2, and daughter mineral-bearing inclusions. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz phenocrysts of K-feldspar granite porphyry ranges from 341 °C to >550 °C, and the salinity is 0.4-44.0 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-molybdenite veins is 382-416 °C, and the salinity is 3.6-40.8 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-calcite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite-sphalerite ranges from 318 °C to 436 °C, and the salinity is 5.6-42.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-molybdenite stockworks is in a range of 321-411 °C, and the salinity is 6.3-16.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-sericite-pyrite is in a range of 326-419 °C, and the salinity is 4.7-49.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The ore-forming fluids of the Yinjiagou deposit are mainly high-temperature, high-salinity fluids, generally with affinities to an H2O-NaCl-KCl ± CO2 system. The δ18OH2O values of ore

  14. Eocene Total Petroleum System -- North and East of the Eocene West Side Fold Belt Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 19 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Hosford Scheirer, Allegra

    2009-01-01

    The North and East of Eocene West Side Fold Belt Assessment Unit (AU) of the Eocene Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province comprises all hydrocarbon accumulations within the geographic and stratigraphic limits of this confirmed AU. Oil and associated gas accumulations occur in Paleocene through early middle Miocene marine to nonmarine sandstones found on the comparatively stable northeast shelf of the basin. The assessment unit is located north and east of the thickest accumulation of Neogene sediments and the west side fold belt. The area enclosed by the AU has been affected by only mild deformation since Eocene time. Traps containing known accumulations are mostly low-relief domes, anticlines, and up-dip basin margin traps with faulting and stratigraphic components. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 19.1 and 19.2; this assessment unit replaces the Northeast Shelf of Neogene Basin play 1006, the East Central Basin and Slope North of Bakersfield Arch play 1010, and part of the West Side Fold Belt Sourced by Pre-middle Miocene Rocks play 1005 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in their 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). Stratigraphically, the AU includes rocks from the uppermost crystalline basement to the topographic surface. In the region of overlap with the Central Basin Monterey Diagenetic Traps Assessment Unit, the North and East of Eocene West Side Fold Belt AU extends from basement rocks to the top of the Temblor Formation (figs. 19.3 and 19.4). In map view, the northern boundary of the assessment unit corresponds to the northernmost extent of Eocene-age Kreyenhagen Formation. The northeast boundary is the eastern limit of possible oil reservoir rocks near the eastern edge of the basin. The southeast boundary corresponds to the pinch-out of Stevens sand of Eckis (1940) to the south, which approximately coincides with the northern flank of the Bakersfield Arch (fig. 19.1). The AU is bounded on the

  15. Belt attachment and system

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  16. 49. EAST TO DETAIL OF EAST INTERIOR WALL OF WELLSERVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. EAST TO DETAIL OF EAST INTERIOR WALL OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. HANGING FROM AND LEANING AGAINST THE WALL ARE TOOLS USED IN WATER WELL SERVICE, SUCH AS BAILER, 'FISHING' TOOLS, WINDMILL AND STEEL TOWER PARTS, CHAINS, WRENCHES, PULLEYS, ROPE, AND SAFETY BELT. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  17. On the structure of coronal streamer belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eselevich, V. G.

    1998-02-01

    In an attempt to separate the temporal and spatial variations in polarization brightness (plasma density) along the coronal streamer belt, a study is made of the parts of the belt which are longitudinally aligned with the west or east limb of the sun. It is shown that the brightness distribution along streamer belts is inhomogeneous with relative brightness variations of about 1.1-2.0. Streamer belts consist of a sequence of coronal rays (streamers), each of which at distances of greater than 3 solar radii from the solar center has a cross section with a typical angular size of about 10-70 deg along the belt and about 10-30 deg across the belt with neighboring rays separated by L of about 10-70. Examples from CRs 1591 and 1592 show that in the absence of the influence of coronal mass ejection, the distribution of streamer rays along the streamer belt can be stable for nearly two complete Carrington rotations.

  18. The Southeast Asian Tin Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. O.; Rajah, S. S.; Askury, A. K.; Putthapiban, P.; Djaswadi, S.

    1995-07-01

    The Southeast Asian Tin Belt is a north-south elongate zone 2800 km long and 400 km wide, extending from Burma (Myanmar) and Thailand to Peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian Tin Islands. Altogether 9.6 million tonnes of tin, equivalent to 54% of the world's tin production is derived from this region. Most of the granitoids in the region can be grouped geographically into elongate provinces or belts, based on petrographic and geochronological features. - The Main Range Granitoid Province in western Peninsular Malaysia, southern Peninsular Thailand and central Thailand is almost entirely made up of biotite granite (184-230 Ma). Tin deposits associated with these granites contributed 55% of the historic tin production of Southeast Asia. - The Northern Granitoid Province in northern Thailand (0.1% of tin production) also has dominant biotite granite (200-269 Ma) but it is distinguished by abundant post-intrusion deformation. - The Eastern Granitoid Province extends from eastern Peninsular Malaysia to eastern Thailand. The Malaysian part is subdivided into the East Coast Belt (220-263 Ma), Boundary Range Belt (197-257 Ma) and Central Belt (79-219 Ma). The granitoids cover a wide compositional range from biotite granite to hornblende-biotite granite/granodiorite and diorite-gabbro. Tin deposits are associated with biotite granite in the East Coast Belt (3% of tin production). The granitoids in the other areas of the Eastern Granitoid Province are barren. - The Western Granitoid Province (22-149 Ma) in northern Peninsular Thailand, western Thailand and Burma has biotite granite and hornblende-biotite granite/granodiorite. Tin deposits are associated with biotite granite, which probably is the dominant phase (14% of tin production). The granitoids of the Indonesian Tin Islands (193-251 Ma) do not permit grouping into geographically distinct units. Main Range-type and Eastern Province-type plutons occur next to each other. Most of the tin deposits are associated with Main

  19. Saturn's North Temperate Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In this Voyager 2 false-color photograph, obtained Aug. 20 from a distance of 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles), north is to the upper left. This view of the northern edge of Saturn's North Temperate Belt, the brownish region in the lower right of the image, was made from frames taken through violet, blue and green filters. The bright disturbance in the lower left has been coiled into a figure '6' by the wind shear in the planet's atmosphere; this same feature was seen in an earlier release (P-23912, S-2-9). To the south of it, winds blow westward at 20 meters-per-second (45 mph). Within the white zone to the north, wind speeds are in excess of 130 meters-per-second (290 mph) to the east. Wavelike structures can be seen along the ribbon feature that roughly follows the core of this strong eastward-flowing jet. The smallest observable features in this image are about 120 km. (75 mi.) across. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  20. A continental rift model for the La Grande greenstone belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulski, T.; Hynes, A.; Liu, M.; Francis, D.; Rivard, B.; Stamatelopoulou-Seymour, K.

    1986-01-01

    Stratigraphic relationships and the geochemistry of volcanic rocks contrain the nature and timing of the tectonic and magmatic processes in the pre-deformational history of the La Grande greenstone belt in the Superior Province of north-central Quebec. The lowermost supracrustals in this belt are obscured by syntectonic granitoid intrusives. The supracrustal succession in the western part of the belt consists of a lower sequence of immature clastic sediments and mafic volcanoclastics, overlain by pillowed and massive basalts. Further east, along tectonic strike, a lower sequence of mafic volcanoclastics and immature clastic sediments is overlain by a thick sequence of pillowed and massive basalts, and resedimented coarse clastic sediments and banded iron formation. These are overlain by assive basaltic andesites, andesites and intermediate volcanoclastics intercalated with immature clastic sediments. In contrast, in the eastern part of the belt lenses of felsic volcanics and volcanoclastics occur at the base of the succession and pillowed and massive basalts are overlain by komatiites at the top. The La Grande greenstone belt can be explained as the product of continental rifting. The restricted occurence of komatiites, and eastwardly directed paleocurrents in clastic sediments in the central part of the belt are consistent with rifting commencing in the east and propagating westward with time. The increase in depth of emplacement and deposition with time of the lower three units in the central part of the belt reflects deposition in a subsiding basin. These supracrustal rocks are believed to represent the initial rift succession.

  1. To Belt or Not To Belt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) is in the midst of the first school-bus crash tests in more than 10 years. Its report is expected in June 2000, and those on both sides of the seat-belt debate are waiting to see what NHTSA will recommend on passenger restraints in large school buses. A sidebar lists sources…

  2. Geometry, evolution, and tectonic framework of the Skeena Fold Belt, north central British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenchick, Carol A.

    1991-06-01

    The Intermontane Belt of the Canadian Cordillera has long been viewed as a passive, relatively rigid block between two metamorphic-plutonic belts, the Coast Plutonic Complex and the Omineca Belt. However, the Skeena Fold Belt, which spans most of the width of the northern Intermontane Belt, exhibits shortening comparable with that in the Rocky Mountain Fold and Thrust Belt. The Skeena Fold Belt has many features of thin-skinned fold and thrust belts, such as thrust faults which sole into a detachment, a wide variety of structural styles which depend on rock type, a foreland basin which was cannibalized by continued deformation, a frontal triangle zone, and a hinterland of metamorphic and plutonic rocks (Coast Plutonic Complex). The Skeena Fold Belt thus is comparable with the Rocky Mountain Fold and Thrust Belt, but rather than deforming a continental terrace wedge, it developed in a terrane (Stikinia) which had accreted to North America in the early Mesozoic, and in Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic successions (Bowser Lake and Sustut groups) which overlie Stikinia. Structural and stratigraphic relationships show that the earliest deformation occurred between Oxfordian and Albian time and that the last folds developed in latest Cretaceous or early Tertiary time. As much as 160 km of northeastward shortening in the Skeena Fold Belt was broadly contemporaneous with crustal thickening in the Coast Plutonic Complex and Omineca Belt, with dextral strike-slip faulting east of the Skeena Fold Belt, and with shortening in the Rocky Mountain Fold and Thrust Belt. Therefore, between latest Jurassic and early Tertiary times, horizontal shortening occured across most of the width of the northern Canadian Cordillera. Concurrent shortening across the Cordillera suggests that a common detachment (or detachments) fed all of these zones as far east as the Rocky Mountain Fold and Thrust Belt.

  3. Seat-belt Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    The drivers and passengers of two cars which collided head-on all wore lap and diagonal seat-belts. Three of the four suffered ruptured viscera and two incurred flexion-compression fractures of the neck. A victim of a traffic accident who was wearing a seat-belt and who has superficial bruising or pain presents a difficult diagnostic problem. Visceral injury should be suspected in such cases. PMID:5697665

  4. Belt conveyor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  5. Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic gneisses reworked during a Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) high-grade event in the Mozambique belt of East Africa: Structural relationships and zircon ages from the Kidatu area, central Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, M.; Kröner, A.; Poller, U.; Sommer, H.; Muhongo, S.; Wingate, M. T. D.

    2006-06-01

    This study presents new zircon ages and Sm-Nd whole-rock isotopic compositions for high-grade gneisses from the Udzungwa Mountain area in the central part of the Mozambique belt, Tanzania. The study area comprises a succession of layered granulite-facies para- and orthogneisses, mostly retrograded to amphibolite-facies. The original intrusive contacts became obscured or severely modified during non-coaxial ductile deformation, and extensive shearing occurred during retrogression. Structures reflecting the early deformational history were mostly obscured when the rocks were transported into the lower crust as documented by severe flattening. Only the fragmented gneisses in the eastern part of the area testify to a brittle regime. Structures in narrow low strain zones that predate the currently observed layering are preserved in rootless isoclinal folds and boudins. Magmatic and detrital zircons from tonalitic to felsic orthogneisses and a metapelite sample were dated using the U-Pb and Pb-Pb evaporation methods and SHRIMP II. Cathodoluminiscence images reveal ubiquitous xenocrystic cores, rimmed by clear, unzoned overgrowth due to high-grade metamorphism. Discordant U-Pb data therefore reflect core-rim relationships, and it was not always possible to obtain precise crystallisation ages. The analyses reveal Neoarchaean, Palaeoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic protolith ages. Nd isotopic systematics yielded strongly negative ɛNd( t) -values and Neoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic model ages, even for gneisses emplaced in the Neoproterozoic. The trace element distribution suggests upper crustal derivation of the gneisses. Therefore, our study provides evidence that recycling of older crust played a major role during the evolution of the Kidatu area. Neoarchaean rocks are interpreted to represent fragments of the Tanzania craton. Our results, together with those of earlier workers, lead to the conclusion that the central part of the Mozambique belt mainly consists of ancient

  6. 7. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, BOARD AND BATTEN WALL AND WINDOW, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, BOARD AND BATTEN WALL AND WINDOW, EAST SIDE OF PASSAGE, FROM NORTH - Seton Belt Barn, West Side of Church Road, north of Central Avenue (Route 214), Mitchellville, Prince George's County, MD

  7. 8. DETAIL VIEW, BOARD AND BATTEN WALL AND WINDOW, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW, BOARD AND BATTEN WALL AND WINDOW, EAST SIDE OF PASSAGE, FROM NORTH - Seton Belt Barn, West Side of Church Road, north of Central Avenue (Route 214), Mitchellville, Prince George's County, MD

  8. ERECTING SHOP, EAST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTH. LEFT FOREGROUND BREAK IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTING SHOP, EAST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTH. LEFT FOREGROUND BREAK IN WALL IS FOR PASSAGE OF STEAM-POWERED BELTING FROM POWERHOUSE. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Erecting Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. 8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF JUNCTION OF EAST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF JUNCTION OF EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS AT PORCH ROOF LEVEL SHOWING GLAZED HEADERS AND BELT COURSE - David Sterrett House, State Game Lands Plot No. 169 (Upper Mifflin Township), Newville, Cumberland County, PA

  10. 73. INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP LOOKING EAST, NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP LOOKING EAST, NOTE THE MAIN DRIVE SHAFT ON THE CEILING AND DRIVE BELTS TO THE MACHINERY. MAY 8, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. 1. VIEW EAST OF GENERATOR; BELTTIGHTENING MECHANISM AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST OF GENERATOR; BELT-TIGHTENING MECHANISM AT LEFT - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 5, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  12. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  13. Moving belt radiator development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Alan

    1988-01-01

    Development of the Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) as an advanced space radiator concept is discussed. The ralative merits of Solid Belt (SBR), Liquid Belt (LBR), and Hybrid Belt (HBR) Radiators are described. Analytical and experimental efforts related to the dynamics of a rotating belt in microgravity are reviewed. The development of methods for transferring heat to the moving belt is discussed, and the results from several experimental investigations are summarized. Limited efforts related to the belt deployment and stowage, and to fabrication of a hybrid belt, are also discussed. Life limiting factors such as seal wear and micrometeroid resistance are identified. The results from various MBR point design studies for several power levels are compared with advanced Heat Pipe Radiator technology. MBR designs are shown to compare favorable at both 300 and 1000 K temperature levels. However, additional effort will be required to resolve critical technology issues and to demonstrate the advantage of MBR systems.

  14. Age spectra of detrital zircon of the Jurassic clastic rocks of the Mino-Tanba AC belt in SW Japan: Constraints to the provenance of the mid-Mesozoic trench in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Wataru; Isozaki, Yukio; Maki, Kenshi; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2014-07-01

    U-Pb ages of detrital zircon grains were determined from an upper Middle Jurassic siliceous mudstone and two lower Upper Jurassic sandstones of the Mino-Tanba belt, Southwest Japan, by Laser-ablation ICPMS. The age spectra of detrital zircon grains of the three analyzed samples show multiple age clusters: 175-198 Ma (Early Jurassic), 202-284 Ma (Permian to Triassic), 336-431 Ma (Silurian to Carboniferous), and 1691-2657 Ma (Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic). As per the Precambrian grains, the prominent peak exists around 1800-2000 Ma in all analyzed samples. The age clusters of 175-198 Ma, 202-284 Ma, and 336-431 Ma suggest that pre-Middle Jurassic Japan has exposed older granitic batholiths. The corresponding batholiths occur in the Cathaysian part of South China block. In contrast, the absence of them in modern Japan suggests that these batholiths were totally consumed by post-Jurassic tectonic erosion. The Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic detrital zircon grains were derived from South China, North China, or possibly both of them; nonetheless, the circumstantial geologic lines of evidence point to South China, in particular to Cathaysia, rather than North China.

  15. Tectonic setting of the Kolar Schist Belt, Karnataka, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, G. N.; Krogstad, E. J.; Rajamani, V.

    1988-01-01

    The tectonic setting of the Kolar Schist Belt and why the belt may represent a late Archean suture was discussed. The isotopic and chronological evidence that suggest diverse origins of the various packages of supracrustal rocks within the schist belt and the two gneiss terrains adjoining the belt were summarized. The eastern and western amphibolites were derived from sources at similar depths in the mantle (probably at similar ages, ca. 2.7 Ga), but these sources had distinct trace element compositions and histories. A distinctive feature of these differences was shown by the differences between the east and west amphibolites on a Ce vs. Nd diagram. In the gneisses the age and isotopic evidence suggest that the two terranes had distinct histories until after 2520 Ma and by 2420 Ma (Ar-40/Ar-39 age of muscovite in the sheared margin of the schist belt). Based on these data, the schist belt probably represents the site of accretion of diverse fragments (terrains) to the margin of the craton in the latest Archean, possibly as an Archean analog to the Phanerozoic North American Cordillera.

  16. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  17. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model. PMID:20558705

  18. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain

    2015-04-01

    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  19. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Infrared Kuiper Belt Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitz, V.L.; Stern, S.A.; Anderson, J.D.; Rosenbaum, D.; Scalise, R.J.; Wentzler, P.

    1999-05-01

    We compute the temperature and IR signal of particles of radius {ital a} and albedo {alpha} at heliocentric distance {ital R}, taking into account the emissivity effect, and give an interpolating formula for the result. We compare with analyses of {ital COBE} DIRBE data by others (including recent detection of the cosmic IR background) for various values of heliocentric distance {ital R}, particle radius {ital a}, and particle albedo {alpha}. We then apply these results to a recently developed picture of the Kuiper belt as a two-sector disk with a nearby, low-density sector (40{lt}R{lt}50{endash}90 AU) and a more distant sector with a higher density. We consider the case in which passage through a molecular cloud essentially cleans the solar system of dust. We apply a simple model of dust production by comet collisions and removal by the Poynting-Robertson effect to find limits on total and dust masses in the near and far sectors as a function of time since such a passage. Finally, we compare Kuiper belt IR spectra for various parameter values. Results of this work include: (1) numerical limits on Kuiper belt dust as a function of ({ital R}, {ital a}, {alpha}) on the basis of four alternative sets of constraints, including those following from recent discovery of the cosmic IR background by Hauser et al.; (2) application to the two-sector Kuiper belt model, finding mass limits and spectrum shape for different values of relevant parameters including dependence on time elapsed since last passage through a molecular cloud cleared the outer solar system of dust; and (3) potential use of spectral information to determine time since last passage of the Sun through a giant molecular cloud. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  1. Tectonics of the Tongbai-Dabie fold belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenpu, Ma

    The Qinling fold belt is the northernmost branch of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Tethys in eastern Asia and contains all the inter-reacting records of the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB). The Tongbai-Dabie fold belt is its eastern section. The Qinling belt was a collage of two orogens. The north Qinling is a late Paleozoic collision orogen, which started with Proterozoic rifting, transforming into active continental margin during the middle Ordovician. The intermitten ophiolite fragments indicate the existence of an oceanic crust at that time. The collision that occurred in the Devonian was an east-west diachronous process. The main suture zone is marked by ophiolitic melange extending nearly 500 km. The late Mesozoic molasse, volcano-plutonic activity and huge imbricate thrust system all respond to the further shortening of the crust and adjustment of the intracontinental strain. The south Qinling east of the Nanyang Basin is located to the south of Tongbai mountain. A pile of thick Sinian-Silurian volcanic and marine clastic deposits imply another marine incursion. Its history in south Shaanxi could continue to the Mesozoic. The flysch trough represented by Xinyang group may be the key area for revealing the relationship between north and south Qinling. The discussion in the paper is mainly focused on the nature and evolution of the Tongbai-Dabie fold belt.

  2. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  3. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  4. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  5. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  6. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  7. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  8. Moving belt metal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl V.; Mendat, Deborah P.; Huynh, Toan B.

    2006-05-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has developed a prototype metal detection survey system that will increase the search speed of conventional technology while maintaining high sensitivity. Higher search speeds will reduce the time to clear roads of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IED) and to locate unexploded ordnance (UXO) at Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) sites, thus reducing remediation costs. The new survey sensor system is called the moving belt metal detector (MBMD) and operates by both increasing sensor speed over the ground while maintaining adequate sensor dwell time over the target for good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reducing motion-induced sensor noise. The MBMD uses an array of metal detection sensors mounted on a flexible belt similar to a tank track. The belt motion is synchronized with the forward survey speed so individual sensor elements remain stationary relative to the ground. A single pulsed transmitter coil is configured to provide a uniform magnetic field along the length of the receivers in ground contact. Individual time-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) receivers are designed to sense a single time-gate measurement of the total metal content. Each sensor module consists of a receiver coil, amplifier, digitizing electronics and a low power UHF wireless transmitter. This paper presents the survey system design concepts and metal detection data from various targets at several survey speeds. Although the laboratory prototype is designed to demonstrate metal detection survey speeds up to 10 m/s, higher speeds are achievable with a larger sensor array. In addition, the concept can be adapted to work with other sensor technologies not previously considered for moving platforms.

  9. Intrusive rocks and plutonic belts of southeastern Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, David A.; Morrell, Robert P.

    1983-01-01

    About 30 percent of the 175,000-km2 area of southeastern Alaska is underlain by intrusive igneous rocks. Compilation of available information on the distribution, composition, and ages of these rocks indicates the presence of six major and six minor plutonic belts. From west to east, the major belts are: the Fairweather-Baranof belt of early to mid-Tertiary granodiorite; the Muir-Chichagof belt of mid-Cretaceous tonalite and granodiorite; the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt of porphyritic granodiorite, quartz diorite, and diorite of probable Cretaceous age; the Klukwan-Duke belt of concentrically zoned or Alaskan-type ultramafic-mafic plutons of mid-Cretaceous age within the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt; the Coast Plutonic Complex sill belt of tonalite of unknown, but perhaps mid-Cretaceous, age; and the Coast Plutonic Complex belt I of early to mid-Tertiary granodiorite and quartz monzonite. The minor belts are distributed as follows: the Glacier Bay belt of Cretaceous and(or) Tertiary granodiorite, tonalite, and quartz diorite lies within the Fair-weather-Baranof belt; layered gabbro complexes of inferred mid-Tertiary age lie within and are probably related to the Fairweather-Baranof belt; the Chilkat-Chichagof belt of Jurassic granodiorite and tonalite lies within the Muir-Chichagof belt; the Sitkoh Bay alkaline, the Kendrick Bay pyroxenite to quartz monzonite, and the Annette and Cape Fox trondhjemite plutons, all interpreted to be of Ordovician(?) age, together form the crude southern southeastern Alaska belt within the Muir-Chichagof belt; the Kuiu-Etolin mid-Tertiary belt of volcanic and plutonic rocks extends from the Muir-Chichagof belt eastward into the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt; and the Behm Canal belt of mid- to late Tertiary granite lies within and next to Coast Plutonic Complex belt II. In addition, scattered mafic-ultramafic bodies occur within the Fairweather-Baranof, Muir-Chichagof, and Coast Plutonic Complex belts I and II. Palinspastic

  10. Gould Belt Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Leticia; Loinard, Laurent; Dzib, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Using archive VLA data and recent observations on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array it is worked on a semi-automatic python/CASA code to select, reduce and plot several young stars belonging to the Ophiuchus core. This code mean to help to select observations made along the 30 years of the VLA done in the selected area with the wide configurations A and B, and in the X and C band, to determine their position and compare it with the most recent ones. In this way it is possible to determinate their proper motion with very high precision. It is presented the phases of the process and our first results worked on three well know stars: S1, DoAr 21 and VLA1623. This is the tip of a bigger work that includes Taurus molecular cloud and other important recent star formation regions belonging to the Gould Belt. Our goal is to support the most suitable among several theories about Gould Belt origin or provide a new one taking in count the dynamics of those regions.

  11. Metamorphism and plutonism in the Quetico Belt, Superior Province, N.W. Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Quetico Belt lies between the metavolcanic Wawa-Shebandowan and Wabigoon Belts. It consists of marginal metasedimentary rocks and central pelitic, gneissic and plutonic rocks. Metamorphism is Barrovian, at depths less than 10 km, and grade increases from margins to core of the belt: the outermost pelites are at chlorite-muscovite grade; inward a garnet-andalusite zone formed throughout the inner margin; and the central zone ranges form garnet-andalusite in the west and garnet-sillimanite-muscovite to garnet-sillimanite-cordierite and rare kyanite 6 to 150 km to the east. This increase is correlated with granitic intrusives. Migmatites in the core have intrusive leucosomes in the west and locally derived ones in the east. Isograd surfaces are steep where the belt is narrow and dip gently where it is wide. The Quetico Park intrusive complex of the central region of the Quetico Belt shows a zonation across it 20 to 50 km width from older, medium grained biotite composition to younger, coarse to pegmatitic granitic composition. Sediment of the Quetico basin had its source in the bordering metavolcanic belts and was deposited ca. 2.75 to 2.70 Ga ago. Boundaries of the belt dip inward, so it essentially is a graben of inter-arc or back-arc type.

  12. Geography of the asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  13. Controls on the architecture of the Himalayan thrust belt, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Paul, S. K.; Chambers, J. A.; Kohn, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, the syntaxes at the eastern and western terminations of the orogen connect a 2400 km long thrust belt. If the two syntaxes are locked, the behavior of the thrust belt may be different in the syntaxes than in the central part of the thrust belt. In fact, recent work in the central part of the Himalayan thrust belt reveals shortening estimates of ~700-900 km while closer to the syntaxes, the amount of shortening may be nearly half that (~470 km). Thus, there should be an identifiable region where the character of the thrust belt changes from that of the syntaxes to that of the central part of the thrust belt. In the Himachal Pradesh region of NW India, a transition exists in the architecture of the thrust belt. North of the Kanga reentrant, the high mountains are close to the frontal part of the thrust belt; yet, near the Beas River, ~90 km to the east, and further east still in the Sutlej and Yamuna valleys, the high mountains of the thrust belt are located far into the hinterland. The presence or absence of the Greater Himalayan rocks at the surface appears to control this pattern: when Greater Himalayan rocks are absent at the surface, as near the town of Dharamsala, the thrust belt is very narrow (<20 km) and the high mountains are located near the front of the thrust belt; however, when Greater Himalayan rocks are present, as they are further eastward, the thrust belt is wider (>150 km) and the high mountains are located in the hinterland. The presence/absence of Greater Himalayan rocks at the surface also appears to control where focused erosion is presently occurring and, subsequently, the erosional exposure of Lesser Himalayan rocks. Three models reveal the possible kinematic roles of the Greater Himalayan rocks and its subsequent control of the architecture of the thrust belt: 1) the fault that carries Greater Himalayan rocks may tip out at depth; 2) slip on that fault may continue to the surface; 3) the fault tips out and

  14. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing...

  16. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... installed, the belt, harness, or other restraining means and its supporting structure must meet the...

  17. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... installed, the belt, harness, or other restraining means and its supporting structure must meet the...

  18. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... installed, the belt, harness, or other restraining means and its supporting structure must meet the...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing...

  1. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... installed, the belt, harness, or other restraining means and its supporting structure must meet the...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing...

  3. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-12-31

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  5. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  6. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  10. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  12. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  13. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five). PMID:23679502

  14. Previously Undetected Radiation Belt Revealed

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth'€™s Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. Observations f...

  15. The earth's trapped radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, R. B.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    The near-earth charged particle environment is discussed in terms of spacecraft design criteria. Models are presented of the trapped radiation belts and based on in-situ data obtained from spacecraft.

  16. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  17. Magmatic and metamorphic belts and plutonic-metamorphic complexes of southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Brew, D.A.; Himmelberg, G.R.; Ford, A.B.; Loney, R.A. . Branch of Alaskan Geology Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Cordilleran orogen in southeastern Alaska includes 24 distinct magmatic belts, ranging in age from Cambrian to Holocene, that are defined by map relations, lithology, age, and chemical composition. The youngest magmatic features are Quaternary-age pre- and post-glacial volcanic rocks that occur in three major fields in the region, as well as in isolated locations. Cenozoic magmatic features consist of four major and three minor belts. The major Tkope-Portland Peninsula belt of Oligocene age includes both volcanic and plutonic rocks. The major calcalkalic Coast Mountains belt of early and middle Eocene age is the single largest magmatic feature of the region. Early Tertiary and latest Cretaceous magmatism is represented by the major calcalkalic great tonalite sill belt, a remarkable long and narrow feature along the west side of the Coast Mountains. Cretaceous and Jurassic intrusive rocks occur in five major belts and two minor belts in the region and Paleozoic intrusive rocks occur in four major and two minor belts. The three major plutonic-metamorphic complexes (PMC), from east to west, are: the Coast PMC in the Coast Mountains; the Glacier Bay-Chichag of plutonic complex (Chugach MC) in the northern outer islands. The Coast PMC records dynamothermal and regional contact metamorphic events related to regional plutonism within several juxtaposed terranes; its lengthy and complicated history is related to the Late Cretaceous collision of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes and the Gravina overlap assemblage to the west against the Yukon prong and Stikine terrane to the east. The relatively simple Glacier Bay PC history is recorded as the roots of a Late Jurassic through late Early Cretaceous island arc that probably developed during the early stages of the above tectonic event. The complicated Chugach MC history developed during and after the Late Cretaceous collision of the Chugach terrane with the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes.

  18. Seat belt use among rear passengers: validity of self-reported versus observational measures

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, Francesco; Fedeli, Ugo; Marchesan, Maria; Schievano, Elena; Ferro, Antonio; Spolaore, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt usage, and to what extent, have yet to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the over-reporting factor for rear seat passengers and whether this varies by gender and under different compulsory seat belt use conditions. Methods The study was conducted in the Veneto Region, an area in the North-East of Italy with a population of 4.7 million. The prevalence of seat belt use among rear seat passengers was determined by means of a cross-sectional self-report survey and an observational study. Both investigations were performed in two time periods: in 2003, when rear seat belt use was not enforced by primary legislation, and in 2005, after rear seat belt use had become compulsory (June 2003). Overall, 8138 observations and 7902 interviews were recorded. Gender differences in the prevalence of rear seat belt use were examined using the chi-square test. The over-reporting factor, defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of rear seat belt use, was calculated by gender before and after the rear seat belt legislation came into effect. Results Among rear seat passengers, self-reported rates were always higher than the observational findings, with an overall over-reporting factor of 1.4. We registered no statistically significant changes over time in the over-reporting factor, nor any major differences between genders. Conclusion Self-reported seat belt usage by rear passengers represents an efficient alternative to observational studies for tracking changes in actual behavior, although the reported figures need to be adjusted using an appropriate over-reporting factor in

  19. Applications of radiation belt research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2011-10-01

    When Arthur Clark and John Pierce proposed geosynchronous and low-Earth-orbiting (GEO and LEO) communications satellites, respectively, they did not envision that the environment in which their concepts would fly would be anything but benign. Discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts in 1958 fundamentally altered understanding of Earth's near-space environment and its impacts on technologies. Indeed, the first commercial telecommunications satellite, Telstar 1, in LEO, failed some 6 months after launch (10 July 1962) due to trapped radiation that had been enhanced from the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test on the day prior to launch. Today radiation trapped in the geomagnetic field, as well as solar energetic particles that can access the magnetosphere, forms critical constraints on the design and operations of satellite systems. These considerations were important factors in the planning of the AGU Chapman Conference on radiation belts that was hosted in July 2011 by the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John's, Canada (see "Chapman Conference on Radiation Belts and the Inner Magnetosphere," page 4). The conference presentations, discussions, and hallway conversations illuminated current understanding of Earth's radiation belts and critical issues remaining. Certainly, fundamental understanding of radiation belt origins remains elusive. The relative roles of adiabatic processes, geomagnetic storm injections, and wave heating, among other considerations, are central topics of intense debate and of competing modeling regimes by numerous active groups.

  20. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  1. Apparatus for forming drive belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers.

  2. Launching jets from accretion belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-05-01

    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications on a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  3. Geodynamics of the Baikal-Stanovoy seismic belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1983-01-01

    The convection generated tensional stress field in the earth, as inferred from satellite gravity data, reveals an anomalous lens of upwelling mantle rocks under the Baikal rift zone. The point of no strain at 56 deg N 116 deg E forms a seismic gap along the Baikal-Stanovoy seismic belt. East of this point, the stress field changes from extension to compression. Therefore, the position of no strain at the eastern termination of the rift accounts for the dying-out of the rift zone and for the appearance of a compressive structure in the Stanovoy Range.

  4. Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission Trailer

    NASA Video Gallery

    With launch scheduled for 2012, the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) are two identical spacecraft that will investigate the doughnut shaped Van Allen radiation belts, the first discovery of the sp...

  5. Tectonic structure of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leychenkov, German; Grikurov, Garrik; Golynsky, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    First overviews of tectonic structure of the Southern Continent were made by the pioneers of Antarctic earth science investigations almost 100 years ago. Despite rapidly advancing international geological studies under the Antarctic Treaty, the presentations of Antarctic tectonic structure remained largely speculative until the end of the past century when implementation of modern analytical and remote-sensing research technologies enabled compilation of more credible tectonic models of Antarctica. The East Antarctic bedrock consists mainly of the Precambrian crystalline complexes and the Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic platform units. Crystalline Shield is locally complicated by Neoproterozoic aulacogenes and Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic rifts. Shield assemblages reliably recognized in coastal outcrops indicate the predominant occurrence of Archean cratonic nuclei and Mesoproterozoic mobile belts. The undisturbed platform cover strata are exposed in East Antarctica mainly along its boundary with West Antarctica. Tectonic structure of ice-covered regions (more that 99% of the East Antarctic territory) is interpreted using mostly magnetic and bedrock topography data, but other geophysical and geological information (satellite, airborne and over-ice gravity; seismology; active seismics; erratics; detrital zircons dates; etc.) is also important. Archean cratons are geologically documented in western Dronning Maud Land, Enderby Land, Princess Elizabeth Land and in the southern Prince Charles Mts. Their distribution under the ice is marked by a specific magnetic pattern including low-amplitude mosaic and/or high-amplitude long-wavelength anomalies. The most extensive ancient craton being 1000 km across is believed to extend from the southern Prince Charles Mts. to the Gamburtsev Mts. Mesoproterozoic mobile belts are distinguished by elongated high-amplitude magnetic anomalies and are mapped along the costal area as the zone of 250-600 km wide. The Gamburtsev Mts. area is also

  6. Overthrust belt status and outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Trushenski, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1974 the Overthrust Belt has stimulated the imaginations of many major oil companies and independents because of a series of significant oil and gas discoveries in SW. Wyoming and NE. Utah. Intensive exploration and development continues to this day. The specifics of some of the key discoveries are discussed.

  7. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  8. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint

    PubMed Central

    Go, Seung Je; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-01-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  9. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  10. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  11. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  13. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  14. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  16. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint.

    PubMed

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-08-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  17. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  18. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  19. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  20. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  2. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  4. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  5. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  6. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  7. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  9. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  10. 44. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH THE DOOR TO THE WOOD SHOP; ON THE LEFT IS THE D. H. POTTS TIRE SHRINKER; TO THE RIGHT OF THE DOOR IS THE BELT CHASE FROM THE BASEMENT LINESHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  11. Geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the Wawa greenstone belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, K. J.; Sylvester, P. J.; Attoh, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Wawa greenstone belt is located in the District of Algoma and extends east-northeast from Lake Superior to the western part of the Sudbury District in Ontario, Canada. Recent mapping by Attoh has shown that an unconformity at the base of the Dore' Formation and equivalent sedimentary rocks marks a significant stratigraphic break which can be traced throughout the volcanic belt. This break has been used to subdivide the volcanic-sedimentary into pre- and post-Dore' sequences. The pre-Dore' sequence includes at least two cycles of mafic-to-felsic volcanism, each capped by an iron-formation unit. The post-Dore' sequence includes an older mafic-to-felsic unit, which directly overlies sedimentary rocks correlated with the Dore' Formation, and a younger felsic breccia unit interpreted to have formed as debris flows from a felsic volcanic center. In the present study, samples of both the pre-and post-Dore' volcanic sequences were analyzed for major and trace elements, incuding rare earths (REE). This preliminary study is part of an ongoing program to assess the petrogenesis of the volcanic rocks of the Wawa greenstone belt.

  12. Tectonics of some Amazonian greenstone belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone belts exposed amid gneisses, granitoid rocks, and less abundant granulites along the northern and eastern margins of the Amazonian Craton yield Trans-Amazonican metamorphic ages of 2.0-2.1 Ga. Early proterozoic belts in the northern region probably originated as ensimatic island arc complexes. The Archean Carajas belt in the southeastern craton probably formed in an extensional basin on older continental basement. That basement contains older Archean belts with pillow basalts and komatiites. Belts of ultramafic rocks warrant investigatijon as possible ophiolites. A discussion follows.

  13. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  15. Digital files for northeast Asia geodynamics, mineral deposit location, and metallogenic belt maps, stratigraphic columns, descriptions of map units, and descriptions of metallogenic belts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Diggles, Michael F.; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Obolensky, Alexander A.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Yan, Hongquan

    2004-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. It contains all of the data that are on the disc but extra files have been removed: index files, software installers, and Windows autolaunch files. This publication contains a a series of files for Northeast Asia geodynamics, mineral deposit location, and metallogenic belt maps descriptions of map units and metallogenic belts, and stratigraphic columns. This region includes Eastern Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, Northeast China, South Korea, and Japan. The files include: (1) a geodynamics map at a scale of 1:5,000,000; (2) page-size stratigraphic columns for major terranes; (3) a generalized geodynamics map at a scale of 1:15,000,000; (4) a mineral deposit location map at a scale of 1:7,500,000; (5) metallogenic belt maps at a scale of 1:15,000,000; (6) detailed descriptions of geologic units with references; (7) detailed descriptions of metallogenic belts with references; and (8) summary mineral deposit and metallogenic belt tables. The purpose of this publication is to provide high-quality, digital graphic files for maps and figures, and Word files for explanations, descriptions, and references to customers and users.

  16. The Scattered Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, C. A.; Jewitt, D. C.; Luu, J. X.

    1999-09-01

    We describe a continuing survey of the Kuiper Belt conducted at the 3.6-m Canada France Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The survey employs a 12288 x 8192 pixel CCD mosaic to image the sky to red magnitude 24. All detected objects are targeted for systematic follow-up observations, allowing us to determine their orbital characteristics. Three new members of the rare Scattered Kuiper Belt Object class have been identified, bringing the known population of such objects to four. The SKBOs are thought to have been scattered outward by Neptune, and are a potential source of the short-period comets. Using a Maximum Likelihood method, we place observational constraints on the total number and mass of the SKBOs.

  17. The southern and central parts of the "Souttoufide" belt, Northwest Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Michel; Gärtner, Andreas; Youbi, Nasrrddine; El Archi, Abdelkrim; Vernhet, Elodie; Rjimati, Ech-Cherki; Linnemann, Ulf; Bellon, Hervé; Gerdes, Axel; Guillou, Omar; Corsini, Michel; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2015-12-01

    The Souttoufide belt is situated between the High-Atlas in the north, the Mauritanides in the south and the West African Craton as well as the Tindouf basin in the east. Thus, this belt is a part of the West African fold belt system which surrounds the West African Craton. Outcrops occur only in three areas, while the rest of the Souttoufide belt is covered by Meso- to Cenozoic sediments. These areas are, from the south to the north, the Adrar Souttouf Massif, the Smara Zemmour area, and the western part of the Anti-Atlas. Because of the continuing processing and numerous publications, the Anti-Atlas cannot be dealt with in detail. Fundamental geological work in both of the other areas was mainly done during the second third of the 20th century, followed by several decades of inactivity. Numerous studies were done in the Adrar Souttouf massif during the last decade, while the Smara-Zemmour area still remains poorly investigated. Most of them were focused on geochronological analyses and geochemistry. Accordingly, the obtained data led to a new interpretation. The Adrar Souttouf is interpreted as a Pan-African belt exhibiting a Neoproterozoic island arc reworked by the Variscan collision between the North American Craton (NAC) and the West African Craton (WAC). The Smara-Zemmour area is considered as the external part of this Variscan belt thrusted onto the Palaeozoic Tindouf basin. The western Anti-Atlas as considered as a Pan-African active margin reworked during the Variscan orogen. Together, these three areas, lead to the hypothesis of a Late Pan-African belt capped by the Early and Middle Palaeozoic covers and then affected by the Middle Carboniferous tectonic event (330 Ma) related to the Pangaean assembly. Correlations with adjacent belts (Mauritanides and Anti-Atlas) are considered.

  18. A new interpretation for the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Peternel, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Andre; Heilbron, Mônica; Vinagre, Rodrigo; Duffles, Patrícia; Trouw, Camilo C.; Fontainha, Marcos; Kussama, Hugo H.

    2013-12-01

    In southeastern Brazil, the Neoproterozoic NNW-SSE trending southern Brasília belt is apparently truncated by the ENE-WSW central Ribeira belt. Different interpretations in the literature of the transition between these two belts motivated detailed mapping and additional age dating along the contact zone. The result is a new interpretation presented in this paper. The southern Brasília belt resulted from E-W collision between the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent, on the western side, now forming the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, with the passive margin of the São Francisco paleocontinent on the eastern side. The collision produced an east vergent nappe stack, the Andrelândia Nappe System, along the suture. At its southern extreme the Brasília belt was thought to be cut off by a shear zone, the "Rio Jaguari mylonites", at the contact with the Embu terrane, pertaining to the Central Ribeira belt. Our detailed mapping revealed that the transition between the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (Brasília belt) and the Embu terrane (Ribeira belt) is not a fault but rather a gradational transition that does not strictly coincide with the Rio Jaguari mylonites. A typical Cordilleran type magmatic arc batholith of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe with an age of ca. 640 Ma intrudes biotite schists of the Embu terrane and the age of zircon grains from three samples of metasedimentary rocks, one to the south, one to the north and one along the mylonite zone, show a similar pattern of derivation from a Rhyacian source area with rims of 670-600 Ma interpreted as metamorphic overgrowth. We dated by LA-MC-ICPMS laser ablation (U-Pb) zircon grains from a calc-alkaline granite, the Serra do Quebra-Cangalha Batholith, located within the Embu terrane at a distance of about 40 km south of the contact with the Socorro Nappe, yielding an age of 680 ± 13 Ma. This age indicates that the Embu terrane was part of the upper plate (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) by this time. Detailed mapping

  19. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott; Trujillo, Chad

    2012-02-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a medium wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System.

  20. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2012-06-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System. We will also explore the Neptune Trojans and scattered disk populations through the survey.

  1. Liquid belt radiator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

  2. Tectonic entities connection between West Junggar (NW China) and East Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; He, Guoqi

    2013-08-01

    West Junggar (NW China) and East Kazakhstan are situated in the southwest of the Central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB). Tectonic entities in the two areas share the same tectonic evolution history and make up the famous horseshoe-shaped orocline in Central Asia. This paper presents a newly compiled cross-border tectonic sketch map of West Junggar and East Kazakhstan and proposes the extension of the Chingiz-Tarbagatai belt and the North Balkhash-West Junggar belt. The Chingiz-Tarbagatai Belt in East Kazakhstan consists mainly of Middle-Late Ordovician differentiated volcanic rocks, pyroclastic sediments and flysch; while in the Tarbagatai Mountain in China, Tarbagatai (Kujibai) ophiolite is newly found with zircon (gabbro) age of 478 ± 3 Ma and the Ordovician flysch metamorphosed to a greenschist facies is distinguished from Devonian-Carboniferous rock associations. Therefore, the Early Paleozoic Chingiz-Tarbagatai belt of East Kazakhstan evidently extends to the northern part of West Junggar along the Tarbagatai orogenic belt. The North Balkhash-West Junggar belt lying south to the Chingiz-Tarbagatai belt is separated by the EW-trending Baiyanghe-Heshituoluogai depression in West Junggar. Early Ordovician-Early Silurian ophiolitic fragments and related pyroclastic sediments are widely exposed in Tekturmas, North Balkhash and Agadyr of East Kazashtan. Similarly, Early Paleozoic ophiolites have also been verified in Tangbale, Mayile, Baerluke, Darbut and Karamay of West Junggar in recent years. Therefore, nearly all ophiolites in West Junggar and East Kazakhstan are proved to have formed in Early Paleozoic, which suggests that the evolution of the paleo-ocean in the two areas reached its peak in the Early Paleozoic. Based on the ages of the Tangbale, Karamay and Hongguleleng ophiolites, an Early Paleozoic continental accretionary belt extending from Tangbale to Hongguleleng is determined at the NW margin of the Junggar basin for the first time. According to

  3. Gravity survey of the southwestern part of the sourthern Utah geothermal belt

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.T.; Cook, K.L.

    1981-03-01

    A gravity survey covering an area of 6200 km/sup 2/ was made over the southwestern part of the southern Utah geothermal belt. The objective of the gravity survey is to delineate the geologic structures and assist in the understanding of the geothermal potential of the area. A total of 726 new gravity stations together with 205 existing gravity stations, are reduced to give: (1) a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map, and (2) a fourth-order residual gravity anomaly map; both maps have a 2-mgal contour interval. The complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map shows an east-trending regional gravity belt with a total relief of about 70 mgal which crosses the central portion of the survey area. The gravity belt is attributed to a crustal lateral density variation of 0.1 gm/cc from a depth of 5 to 15 km.

  4. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  5. Statistical analysis of slab-window related plutons: The Sanak-Baranof belt of southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, D. W.; Paterson, S.

    2002-12-01

    The Sanak-Baranof belt of southern Alaska is a chain of near-trench plutons that formed during the subduction of a spreading-ridge and the subsequent formation of a slab-window. Intrusions within this belt have a time-transgressive distribution that ranges from 61-50 Ma over its 2100 km length, and they are thought to track the movement of the ridge-trench-trench triple junction and the slab-window. We analyzed the spatial distribution, the orientation and the frequency-size statistics of 64 plutons within the Sanak-Baranof belt. These data indicate that intrusions within the Sanak-Baranof belt have a power-law frequency-size distribution. The power-law has the form N~A{ -0.76} +/-0.15 which is quite similar to that calculated for other magmatic systems (Pelletier, 1999). We hypothesize that such a distribution is related to how magma propagates through the crust, which is similar for both the Sanak-Baranof belt and `normal' arc environments. A statistical analysis of the spatial relationships of the Sanak-Baranof belt plutons indicate that magmatism has a uniform nearest-neighbor distribution at the scale of individual plutons, but is clustered at scales larger than 100-200 km. One interpretation is that the spacing of magmatic centers is related to segmentation of the subducting ridge. However, between the western and eastern portions of the Sanak-Baranof belt there is a change in the spacing of magmatic centers. In the western portion, magmatic centers have a spacing of approximately 165 km, whereas in the east (within the Chugach metamorphic complex), magmatism is continuous at the scale of our analysis. We hypothesize that in the western portion of the belt the subducting spreading-ridge was oriented at an oblique angle (30°) to the trench, and the triple junction was migrating rapidly to the east at 19 cm/yr. In the eastern portion of the Sanak-Baranof belt, the trailing edge of the plate was parallel to the subduction zone causing the rate of spreading

  6. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  7. Workshop on Techtonic Evolution of Greenstone Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewit, M. J. (Editor); Ashwal, Lewis D. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics addressed include: greenstone belt externalities; boundaries; rock terranes; synthesis and destiny; tectonic evolution; rock components and structure; sedimentology; stratigraphy; volcanism; metamorphism; and geophysics.

  8. Investigation of Moving Belt Radiator Technology Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. Peter; Aguilar, Jerry L.

    1994-01-01

    The development of an advanced spacecraft radiator technology is reported. The moving belt radiator is a thermal radiator concept with the promise of lower specific mass (per kW rejected) than that afforded by existing technologies. The results of a parametric study to estimate radiator mass for future space power systems is presented. It is shown that this technology can be scaled up to 200 MW for higher rejection temperatures. Several aspects of the design concept are discussed, including the dynamics of a large rotating belt in microgravity. The results of a computer code developed to model the belt dynamics are presented. A series of one-g experiments to investigate the dynamics of small belts is described. A comprehensive test program to investigate belt dynamics in microgravity aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft is discussed. It was found that the desired circular shape can readily be achieved in microgravity. It is also shown that a rotating belt is stable when subjected to simulated attitude control maneuvers. Heat exchanger design is also investigated. Several sealing concepts were examined experimentally, and are discussed. Overall heat transfer coefficients to the rotating belt are presented. Material properties for various belt materials, including screen meshes, are also presented. The results presented in this report indicate that the moving belt radiator concept is technically feasible.

  9. Safety belt promotion: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G D; Moffit, P B

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide practitioners a rationale and description of selected theoretically based approaches to safety belt promotion. Theory failure is a threat to the integrity and effectiveness of safety belt promotion. The absence of theory driven programs designed to promote safety belt use is a concern of this paper. Six theoretical models from the social and behavioral sciences are reviewed with suggestions for application to promoting safety belt use and include Theory of Reasoned Action, the Health Belief Model, Fear Arousal, Operant Learning, Social Learning Theory, and Diffusion of Innovations. Guidelines for the selection and utilization of theory are discussed. PMID:3276342

  10. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2009-01-01

    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  11. Puzzling Snowballs: Main Belt Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Meech, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Main belt comets (MBCs) are a class of newly discovered objects that exhibit comet-like appearances and yet are dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary main belt asteroids. The measured size and albedo of MBCs are similar to those of classical comets. At present, six MBCs have been discovered, namely 133P/Elst-Pizarro, 176P/LINEAR, 238P/Read, P/2008 R1, P/La Sagra and P/2006 VW139. The total number of active MBCs is estimated to be at the level of a few hundreds (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006). Several explanations for the activity of MBCs have been suggested. These include impact ejection, sublimation and rotational instability. However, since renewed activity has been observed in 133P and 238P at successive perihelion passages, the most likely explanation may be a thermally-driven process - e.g sublimation of exposed surface ice. Although the proximity of MBCs to the Sun (r ~ 3 AU) makes the survival of surface ice improbable, thermal models have shown that water ice is thermally stable under a regolith layer a few meters thick. The study of MBCs has recently been complicated by the discoveries of two asteroid collisional events (P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) and (596) Scheila) in 2010, where comet-like dust coma/tail have been attributed to recent impacts. If MBCs are indeed icy, they represent the closest and the third established reservoir of comets (after the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt). As such, they may have been an important source of water for the Earth's oceans. I will review the current state of MBC studies, present the latest observational results and discuss possible mechanisms that could produce the observed activity. I will also talk about current and future space missions that are dedicated or closely related to MBC studies.

  12. Terrestrial heat flow in east and southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Pollack, Henry N.; Jones, D. L.; Podmore, Francis; Mushayandebvu, Martin

    1990-10-01

    We report 26 new heat flow and 13 radiogenic heat production measurements from Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania, together with details and some revisions of 18 previous heat flow measurements by other investigators from Kenya and Tanzania. These measurements come from Archean cratons, Proterozoic mobile belts, and Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts. Heat flow data from eight new sites in the Archean Zimbabwe Craton are consistent with previous measurements in the Archean Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton and Limpopo Belt (Kalahari Craton) and do not change the mean heat flow of 47±2 mW m-2 (standard error of the mean) in the Kalahari Craton based on 53 previous measurements. Eight new sites in the Archean Tanzania Craton give a mean heat flow of 34±4 mW m-2. The mean heat flow from nine sites in the Proterozoic Mozambique Belt to the east of the Tanzania Craton in Kenya and Tanzania is 47±4 mW m-2. Twelve measurements in the Mesozoic rifted continental margin in east Africa give a mean heat flow of 68±4 mW m-2; four measurements in the Mesozoic Luangwa and Zambezi Rifts range from 44 to 110 mW m-2 with a mean of 76±14 mW m-2. In comparing heat flow in east and southern Africa, we observe a common heat flow pattern of increasing heat flow away from the centers of the Archean cratons. This pattern suggests a fundamental difference in lithospheric thermal structure between the Archean cratons and the Proterozoic and early Paleozoic mobile belts which surround them. Superimposed on this common pattern are two regional variations in heat flow. Heat flow in the Tanzania Craton is lower by about 13 mW m-2 than in the Kalahari Craton, and in the Mozambique Belt in east Africa heat flow is somewhat lower than in the southern African mobile belts at similar distances from the Archean cratonic margin. The two regional variations can be explained in several ways, none of which can as yet be elevated to a preferred status: (1) by variations in crustal heat production, (2) by thin

  13. Exploring the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Chatzichristou, E. T.; Ropokis, G.; Giannakis, O.

    2012-09-01

    We present the outreach efforts of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, intended to provide the general public with simplified information concerning the scientific objectives of the project, its focus and its expected outcomes. MAARBLE involves monitoring of the geospace environment through space and ground-based observations, in order to understand various aspects of the radiation belts (torus-shaped regions encircling the Earth, in which high-energy charged particles are trapped by the geomagnetic field), which have direct impact on human endeavors in space (spacecraft and astronauts exposure). The public outreach website of MAARBLE, besides regular updates with relevant news, also employs a variety of multimedia (image and video galleries) and impressive sounds of space (characteristic sounds such as whistlers or tweeks) related to very low and ultra low frequency (VLF/ULF) electromagnetic waves. It also provides links to some of the most interesting relevant educational activities, including those at partner institutions such as the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at UCLA, the University of Alberta, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics and the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.

  14. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2012B to recover interesting objects that will be discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population.

  15. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2013B to recover a very interesting object that we discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population. This one night was awarded to us in 2012B but lost because of instrument problems.

  16. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  17. Thrust belt geometry in the central Carolina slate belt North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Huntsman, J.R.; Dockal, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Newly recognized eastward-directed thrust faults and associated folds and cleavage constitute a major structural element in the central Carolina slate belt near Albemarle, North Carolina. At least two northwest-trending imbricate thrusts occur in a 10 km wide zone that trends 30 km along a northeast strike. Reconnaissance mapping suggests the presence of faults with similar style towards the west of this zone. Rocks directly involved in the thrust include the deep water rhythmites of the Tillery Formation that act as surface of detachment, and, also, a mafic rock that previously was mapped as a gabbro sill. Other field evidence documenting the thrusts includes: drag folds with a pronounced axial planar cleavage that parallels the faults; ramp areas with characteristic rootless folds; dragging of an earlier cleavage into fault surfaces; shear zones and kink bands with the same sense of movement as the thrusts. Axial planar cleavage results in part from pressure solution. The intensity of cleavage and the relative overall strain of the rocks increases from west to east across the thrust zone and suggests that thrusting progressed by successive propogation of footwall faults. Systematic and regular changes in the ratio of Bouma sequence intervals ((A+B+C+D)/E) show a marked discontinuity at the faults and suggest relative horizontal displacements of up to 14 km. Reconnaissance work suggests that the thrust may pre-date but are not younger than the regional low grade metamorphism.

  18. Tectonic development of southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.A.

    1984-07-01

    The region of southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho, north of the Snake River plain and east of the Idaho batholith, has been affected by a complex sequence of orogenic events from the Proterozoic through Holocene time. Deposition of Proterozoic Belt Supergroup rocks and rocks of similar age in east-central Idaho occurred in basins that were clearly fault controlled. Many of these faults were reactivated repeatedly at later times and controlled or affected the development of younger tectonic features. This study encompasses the entire width of the Sevier orogenic belt in this part of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt. The thrust belt comprises several major eastward-transported thrust plates that are successively younger to the east. These plates juxtapose distinct stratigraphic packages that were deposited in eugeoclinal, miogeoclinal, and continental platform settings. As a consequence, the thrust plates can be distinguished on the basis of facies and thickness distribution as well as, to some extent, structural style. In southwest Montana, Sevier-type structures overlap with, and butt against, basement-involved Laramide structures. The extension of southwest Montana basement trends into Idaho suggests that this overlap may extend into east-central Idaho. Superimposed on these older structures are mid-Tertiary to Holocene normal faults that formed present-day basins and ranges. Many of these are reactivated older fault zones, some of which can be shown to have Precambrian ancestry. The region has excellent oil and gas potential, because reservoir and source rocks and trapping mechanisms are all clearly present. However, an understanding of the effect of overlapping tectonic elements is necessary to predict accurately where favorable rock packages are preserved.

  19. 47. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM SYSTEM WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM SYSTEM WITH BACK BELT DROPPING HARDENED NAILS ON THE FRONT BELT TO BE TEMPERED; MOTION STOPPED - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  20. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  1. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  6. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  7. Seat belt use and stress in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schichor, A; Beck, A; Bernstein, B; Crabtree, B

    1990-01-01

    This study explored the association of adolescent seat belt use with psychosocial risk factors in an urban minority population after the enactment of a mandatory seat belt law. Data on seat belt use, family support, feelings of being down, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual activity, school troubles, and problems with the law were obtained from 541 self-report intake forms administered to an adolescent medicine clinic population from 1986 to 1987. Respondents were almost exclusively black and Hispanic; 315 (59%) were females and 222 (41%) males, with a mean age of 15.4. Seat belt use was reported by 249 (46%) and no or intermittent use by 292 (54%). Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sums tests were used to examine associations between seat belt use and risk factors. Results showed that the group comprised of those reporting no and intermittent seat belt use was significantly more likely to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, have been on probation, and feel that life in general was not going very well. No association was found between seat belt use and cigarette, drug, or alcohol use or sexual activity without contraceptives. Taking into account the lack of observed behavioral information to validate such self-report questionnaires, these data nevertheless point to the nonuse or intermittent use of seat belts as a possible manifestation of a lack of self-care due to feeling down and/or preoccupation with family, school, or societal problems. PMID:2275431

  8. Situational characteristics of safety belt use.

    PubMed

    Fockler, S K; Cooper, P J

    1990-04-01

    Past research concerning the use and nonuse of safety belts has tended to stereotype users and nonusers as distinct entities on the basis of a single observed situation. The thought processes underlying the reasons given by drivers for using or not using seat belts have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to observe belt use by a group of drivers and describe factors contributing to their use or nonuse as defined by the drivers themselves. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 239 drivers whose safety belt wearing behavior was observed in specific city or highway driving locations. Vehicle license numbers, gender, and age group of selected drivers were used to retrieve driver records and insurance policy data. Open-ended questions were asked concerning their reasons for use or nonuse and their attitudes towards safety belts and other types of traffic safety countermeasures. Driver attitudes, characteristics, and records were compared between observed safety belt user and nonuser groups to validate variables predicting use or nonuse. Respondents' descriptions of the social and personal context of their choice to use or not use safety belts provide a broader view of seat belt wearing that suggests implications for planning future enforcement and education programs. PMID:2331287

  9. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety...

  10. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  11. Apparatus for heat treating plastic belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus performs programed rotating, stretching/shrinking and heat treatment necessary to fabrication of high-performance plastic belts. Belts can be treated in lengths varying from 7 to 48 in., in widths up to 1 in., and in thicknesses up to approximately 0.003 in.

  12. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury or death in the event of a car crash. You should wear a seat belt no matter where you sit in the car. How should I wear my seat belt? The ... together keep you from being thrown from the car during an accident. The shoulder strap also keeps ...

  13. Tensioning of a belt around a drum using membrane element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    An application of the membrane element to the problem of the tensioning of a conveyer belt which wraps around a drum is presented. Two cases were investigated: (1) belt tension increase due to drum edge wear; and (2) material trapped between the drum and the belt. In both cases it was found that the increase in belt tension was due to the additional stretching of the belt resulting from the drum radius change rather than from the transverse deflection of the belt.

  14. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  15. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the Northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. C.; Simpson, R. W.

    2013-09-01

    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  16. Belt separation system under slat in fattening pig housing: effect of belt type and extraction frequency.

    PubMed

    Alonso, F; Vázquez, J; Ovejero, I; Garcimartín, M A; Mateos, A; Sánchez, E

    2010-08-01

    The efficiency of manure separation by a conveyor belt under a partially slatted floor for fattening pigs was determined for two types of belts, a flat belt with an incline of up to 6 degrees transversely and a concave belt with an incline of up to 1 degrees longitudinally. A 31.20% and 23.75% dry matter content of the solid fraction was obtained for the flat and concave belt, respectively. The flat belt was more efficient at 6 degrees than other slope angles. The residence time of the manure on the two belt types influenced the separation efficiency from a live weight of 63.00 kg upwards. The quantity of residue produced with this system was reduced to 25-40% with respect to a pit system under slat. This could mean a remarkable reduction in costs of storage, transport and application of manure. PMID:20338748

  17. Inner Radiation Belt Dynamics and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, P. P.; Looper, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick et al. Inner Zone Model (SIZM). By varying modeled physics parameters and solar particle injection parameters to generate many ensembles of the inner belt, then optimizing the ensemble weights according to inner belt observations from SAMPEX/PET at LEO and HEO/DOS at high altitude, we obtain the best-fit state of the inner belt. We need to fully sample the range of solar proton injection sources among the ensemble members to ensure reasonable agreement between the model ensembles and observations. Once this is accomplished, we find the method is fairly robust. We will demonstrate the data assimilation by presenting an extended interval of solar proton injections and losses, illustrating how these short-term dynamics dominate long-term inner belt climatology.

  18. Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N J

    1992-01-01

    Use of seatbelts in late model cars with automatic or manual belt systems was observed in suburban Washington, DC, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. In cars with automatic two-point belt systems, the use of shoulder belts by drivers was substantially higher than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts. This finding was true in varying degrees whatever the type of automatic belt, including cars with detachable nonmotorized belts, cars with detachable motorized belts, and especially cars with nondetachable motorized belts. Most of these automatic shoulder belts systems include manual lap belts. Use of lap belts was lower in cars with automatic two-point belt systems than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts; precisely how much lower could not be reliably estimated in this survey. Use of shoulder and lap belts was slightly higher in General Motors cars with detachable automatic three-point belts compared with the same model cars with manual three-point belts; in Hondas there was no difference in the rates of use of manual three-point belts and the rates of use of automatic three-point belts. PMID:1561301

  19. Collisions in the Kuiper belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael

    2007-07-01

    For most of the 15 year history of observations of Kuiper belt objects, it has been speculated that impacts must have played a major role in shaping the physical and chemical characteristics of these objects, yet little direct evidence of the effects of such impacts has been seen. The past 18 months, however, have seen an explosion of major new discoveries giving some of the first insights into the influence of this critical process. From a diversity of observations we have been led to the hypotheses that: {1} satellite-forming impacts must have been common in the Kuiper belt; {2} such impacts led to significant chemical modification; and {3} the outcomes of these impacts are sufficiently predictable that we can now find and study these impact-derived systems by the chemical and physical attributes of both the satellites and the primaries. If our picture is correct, we now have in hand for the first time a set of incredibly powerful tools to study the frequency and outcome of collisions in the outer solar system. Here we propose three linked projects that would answer questions critical to the multiple prongs of our hypothesis. In these projects we will study the chemical effects of collisions through spectrophotometric observations of collisionally formed satellites and through the search for additional satellites around primaries with potential impact signatures, and we will study the physical effects of impacts through the examination of tidal evolution in proposed impact systems. The intensive HST program that we propose here will allow us to fully test our new hypotheses and will provide the ability to obtain the first extensive insights into outer solar system impact processes.

  20. East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

    2012-04-01

    Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa

  1. Vision for a Virtual Radiation Belt Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. C.; Baker, D. N.; Kroehl, H. W.; Kihn, E. A.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H.; McGuire, R. E.; Fung, S. F.; Kanekal, S. G.; Mason, G. M.; Rigler, E. J.; Weigel, R. S.; Elkington, , S. R.

    2004-05-01

    Satellite engineers, operators, and scientists now share a common desire to understand the structure and variability of the earth's radiation belts. Continuing upsets to space operations demonstrate a need for improved scientific understanding of the radiation belts, more accurate models, and better transfer of scientific understanding to space technology and operations. Currently, the resources necessary for such advancements are beyond the scope of an individual researcher. Thus, we discuss plans to advance our understanding of the radiation belts and mitigate the hazards they pose to society by creating a Virtual Radiation Belt Observatory (ViRBO). The observatory will be an open access near real time and long term archive of observed and simulated radiation belt model data. It will enable scientists to test theoretical mechanisms proposed to explain how particles are accelerated and removed from the radiation belts and it will provide improved tools for engineers designing satellites and operators assessing satellite malfunctions. The observatory will capitalize on radiation belt modeling efforts currently underway at institutions throughout the country and support the goals of the electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) endorsed by the world wide community.

  2. Southwest U. S. -East Antarctic (SWEAT) connection: A hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Moores, E.M. )

    1991-05-01

    A hypothesis for a late Precambrian fit of western North America with the Australia-Antarctic shield region permits the extension of many features through Antarctica and into other parts of Gondwana. Specifically, the Grenville orogen may extend around the coast of East Antarctica into India and Australia. The Wopmay orogen of northwest Canada may extend through eastern Australia into Antarctica and thence beneath the ice to connect with the Yavapai-Mazatzal orogens of the southwestern US. The ophiolitic belt of the latter may extend into East Antarctica. Counterparts of the Precambrian-Paleozoic sedimentary rocks along the US Cordilleran miogeocline may be present in the Transantarctic Mountains. Orogenic belt boundaries provide useful piercing points for Precambrian continental reconstructions. The model implies that Gondwana and Laurentia rifted away from each other on one margin and collided some 300 m.y. later on their opposite margins to from the Appalachians.

  3. Records of geomagnetism, climate, and tectonics across a Paleoarchean erosion surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Kyle; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Buick, Roger

    2015-06-01

    Paleomagnetism has provided key constraints on the evolution of Earth's climate, geomagnetic field, and continental geography through Phanerozoic and Proterozoic time. Extending these constraints into the Archean eon has been particularly challenging due to the paucity of the ancient rock record. Here we report paleomagnetic measurements on the NASA Astrobiology Drilling Project (ABDP)-8 core drilled through one of the world's least deformed and least metamorphosed Paleoarchean [3200-3600 million year old (Ma)] rock successions located in the East Strelley Belt of the eastern Pilbara Craton, Australia. Our results show that the ∼3350 Ma Euro Basalt preserves a shallow magnetic inclination that appears to have formed as a result of early seafloor hydrothermal alteration, suggesting that the evaporitic carbonate platform of the conformably underlying Strelley Pool Formation was deposited in a near-equatorial location. This is consistent with (although does not require) late Paleoarchean climatic zoning, low orbital obliquity, and a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) field geometry similar to that of the Phanerozoic. The Euro Basalt paleopole overlaps with previously published Paleoarchean poles from the East Pilbara craton and with time-equivalent poles reported from the Barberton Greenstone Belt of the Kaapvaal craton, supporting the existence of a Paleoarchean Vaalbara continental aggregation.

  4. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1983-09-20

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

  5. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  6. Depletion of the Outer Asteroid Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Malhotra, Renu

    1997-01-01

    During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.

  7. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.

    1982-02-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream. The apparatus includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  8. Canadian radiation belt science in the ILWS era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, I. R.

    The Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration, and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) is a Canadian Space Agency small satellite mission proposed as a Canadian contribution to the satellite infrastructure for the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. Planned to operate contemporaneously with the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), the ORBITALS will monitor the energetic electron and ion populations in the inner magnetosphere across a wide range of energies (keV to tens of MeV) as well as the dynamic electric and magnetic fields, waves, and cold plasma environment which govern the injection, transport, acceleration and loss of these energetic and space weather critical particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. Currently in Phase A Design Study, the ORBITALS will be launched into a low-inclination GTO-like orbit which every second orbit maximizes the long lasting apogee-pass conjunctions with both the ground-based instruments of the Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) array as well as with the GOES East and West and geosynchronous communications satellites in the North American sector. In a twelve-hour orbit, every second apogee will conjunct with instrumentation 180 degree in longitude away in the Asian sector. Specifically, the ORBITALS will make the measurements necessary to reach reveal fundamental new understanding of the relative importance of different physical processes (for example VLF verses ULF waves) which shape the energetic particle populations in the inner magnetosphere, as well as providing the raw radiation measurements at MEO altitudes necessary for the development of the next-generation of radiation belt specification models. On-board experiments will also monitor the dose, single event upset, and deep-dielectric charging responses of electronic components on-orbit. Supporting ground-based measurements of ULF and higher frequency wave fields from the Canadian CARISMA (www.carisma.ca) magnetometer array, as well as from

  9. Controls on thrust belt curvature, Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.M. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Structural curvature in the northern part of the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt (WITB) may be the result of either along-strike variations in pre-thrust stratigraphy or a buttress which physically concentrated shortening, or possibly both. Most thrust sheets of the WITB strike northward and were translated eastward, but in the Snake River Range (SRR) (the northernmost range in the WITB), structural strike curves from northward to nearly westward. Structural cross sections of the SRR are generally drawn in a radial pattern creating a volumetric imbalance in regional palinspastic restorations. Stratigraphic separation diagrams of major, through-going thrust faults in the SRR show extensive cut off in upper Paleozoic strata. New measured sections of upper Paleozoic stratigraphy at locations in several major thrust sheets of the WITB and in the foreland, new structural cross sections and mapping, and existing paleomagnetic data are used in a new interpretation of the origin of structural curvature in the WITB. Published paleomagnetic data require counterclockwise rotation of frontal thrust sheets along the northern boundary of the WITB, but no rotation of eastward-translated thrust sheets farther south along most of the WITB. Evidence for both a pre-existing west-trending depositional margin and rotation of frontal thrust sheets suggests that buttressing and modification of structural strike occurred along an oblique ramp where differences in stratigraphic thickness and possible pre-existing fault partitioning of the Paleozoic strata are localized.

  10. Seismogenic nodes in the Mediterranean orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A.; Panza, G.; Soloviev, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2003-04-01

    The central segment of the Mediterranean orogenic belt (the Apennines, Alps, Carpathians, Balkanides, and Dinarides) has been studied to identify seismogenic nodes, specific structures formed at the intersections of fault zones. The nodes have been delineated with the morphostructural zoning (MSZ) based on the concept that the lithosphere is built-up by different-scale blocks, separated by mobile boundaries. With MSZ we compiled the morphostructural map (scale 1:1,000,000) for the study region using the GIS technology. The map shows the hierarchical block-structure of the region, the boundary zones bounding blocks, and the loci of the nodes. Three-level hierarchy has been established for the blocks and their boundaries. All the recorded M >= 6.0 earthquakes nucleate at the nodes delineated by MSZ, i.e. ignoring the seismic record. The nodes capable of M >= 6.5 earthquakes are identified with the criteria of high seismicity nodes, previously derived from pattern recognition in the Pamirs -Tien Shan region. In the study region, with the employed criteria 29 out of the 33 nodes, hosting the observed M >= 6.5 events, have been classified as prone to M >= 6.5 earthquakes. With the exception of the Carpatho-Balkanides system, where the recognition procedure is inapplicable due to the insufficient number of sample nodes for the learning stage, we recognized the seismogenic nodes (D), prone to M >= 6.0 earthquakes, with the pattern recognition algorithm CORA-3. The recognition is performed using geomorphic, morphostructural, and gravity parameters relevant to seismicity. The majority of D nodes is associated with the first and second rank boundaries, i.e. larger earthquakes originate at the boundaries of larger blocks. Characteristic traits of D nodes selected by CORA-3 suggest an increased fragmentation of the crust and high intensity of tectonic movements in the D nodes vicinities. We identify a number of D nodes, where strong earthquakes are not recorded till present

  11. Thermagraphic Observation Of Mechanical Power Transmission Belt Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmody, Tim

    1986-03-01

    A description of observations made on test performed on V-belt drives and a form of synchronous belt drive the HTD using a thermal video image system. How infrared viewing can improve temperature reading and recording in drive efficiency and belt life testing. Projections on new application areas for infrared in belt development and marketing.

  12. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  20. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  17. Web belt load measuring instrument has excellent stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. R.

    1967-01-01

    Web belt system measures belt or strap load. It is partially disassembled and installed on an existing belt without cutting or re-threading the belt. A strain gage, installed on one of the support beams, eliminates errors due to uneven loading.

  18. Visualization of Radiation Belts from REPT Data

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization, created using actual data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes (REPT) on NASA’s Van Allen Probes, clearly shows the emergence of new third belt and second slot reg...

  19. Congressional panel makes recommendations on belt safety

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-12-15

    The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act) called for a Technical Study Panel to present a review and make recommendations on the use of belt air and the composition and fire retardant properties of belt materials in underground coal mining. In October 2007 the Panel released 20 recommendations publicly. These are presented in the article. Many recommendations encouraged the MSHA to enforce existing laws of maintenance and fire protection or example more vigorously. Maybe the biggest change recommended was that the industry should adopt the Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT) standard proposed in 1992. Another important recommendation was one that would help eliminate hazards associated with point feeding. 1 photo.

  20. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  1. Electron Flux of Radiation Belts Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows meridional (from north-south) plane projections of the REPT-A and REPT-B electron flux values. The animation first shows the expected two-belt Van Allen zone structure; from Se...

  2. Safety Belt Laws and Disparities in Safety Belt Use Among US High-School Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Flaura K.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We compared reported safety belt use, for both drivers and passengers, among teenagers with learner’s permits, provisional licenses, and unrestricted licenses in states with primary or secondary enforcement of safety belt laws. Methods. Our data source was the 2006 National Young Driver Survey, which included a national representative sample of 3126 high-school drivers. We used multivariate, log-linear regression analyses to assess associations between safety belt laws and belt use. Results. Teenaged drivers were 12% less likely to wear a safety belt as drivers and 15% less likely to wear one as passengers in states with a secondary safety belt law than in states with a primary law. The apparent reduction in belt use among teenagers as they progressed from learner to unrestricted license holder occurred in only secondary enforcement states. Groups reporting particularly low use included African American drivers, rural residents, academically challenged students, and those driving pickup trucks. Conclusions. The results provided further evidence for enactment of primary enforcement provisions in safety belt laws because primary laws are associated with higher safety belt use rates and lower crash-related injuries and mortality. PMID:22515851

  3. Grenville foreland thrust belt hidden beneath the eastern US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Grenville foreland thrust structures are observed beneath the eastern US midcontinent on COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) line OH-1 and a short seismic line in southwest Ohio. These structures represent the first evidence for a significant Grenville foreland thrust belt preserved in eastern North America. On the COCORP lines, the structures include a thrust ramp anticline and an associated asymmetric syncline. The Grenville front tectonic zone appears to truncate these foreland structures, indicating a later, second phase expressed as a deeply penetrating, out-of-sequence thrust zone associated with the main uplift of the Grenville province on the east. A short, shallow seismic line in southwestern Ohio reveals an east-dipping sequence of prominently layered rocks that may lie above a footwall ramp to a deeper Grenville thrust fault. A drill hole into the less reflective top of this dipping sequence encountered unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks like those increasingly reported from other drill holes in southwestern Ohio and adjacent states. Although possibly part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift, these clastic sedimentary rocks may instead preserve evidence of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin in eastern North America. Alternatively these Precambrian sedimentary rocks together with an underlying, but yet undrilled, strongly layered sequence may correlate with similarly layered rocks observed on COCORP and industrial seismic lines within the Middle Proterozoic granite-rhyolite province to the west in Indiana and Illinois and indicate that unmetamorphosed sedimentary material is an important constituent of the granite-rhyolite province. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Jupiter's radiation belts: Can Pioneer 10 survive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  5. Oil generation in overthrust belts

    SciTech Connect

    Angevine, C.L.; Turcotte, D.L.

    1983-02-01

    The burial of immature sediments beneath a thrust sheet may result in sufficient heating to generate hydrocarbons. The authors present a model for the thermally activated generation of oil from kerogen and the subsequent destruction of the oil through cracking. Using this oil generation model in conjunction with a model applicable to the thermal evolution of overthrust belts, the evolution is studied of oil in sediments beneath a thrust sheet composed of sedimentary rocks. Oil generation may begin soon after emplacement of the thrust sheet. Beneath thick thrust sheets (>8 km), all oil in the sedimentary section may be destroyed less than 5 m.y. after thrusting. The authors results to the timing of oil generation in the sedimentary section beneath the Absaroka thrust plate in the Fossil syncline of western Wyoming. Calculations indicate that the Paleozoic and a part of the Mesozoic section were thermally mature prior to emplacement of the Absaroka plate. The remaining part of Mesozoic sediments matured only after thrusting. The results are in agreement with Warner's 1980 observations that oil being produced from reservoirs in the Absaroka plate was generated in the underthrust Mesozoic section.

  6. The Jura Thrust Belt: Tectonic history and prospectivity of a leading edge of the western Alps

    SciTech Connect

    Yann, P.; Jacquart, G.; Mascle, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Jura Thrust Belt developed in Pliocene times as the result of the late stage of advance to the northwest of the western Alps. The main decollement level is hosted in late and/or middle Triassic salt layers. The belt is superimposed on a Mesozoic platform partially eroded in early Tertiary times. In Oligocene times, the present Jura area was actually a regional high between the Molasse Basin alpine foredeep to the east, and the Bresse rift basin to the west. At depth several isolated and enlongated Stephanian-Permian troughs have been recognized from seismic and well data. They unconformably rest on a Paleozoic basement that was once part of the European segment of the Variscan Thrust Belt. Several small gas fields have been developed in the past and significant oil shows have more recently been tested. Source rocks are generally believed to be late Paleozoic coals and oil shales. Producing horizons are early Triassic continental sandstones with excellent petrophysical characteristics, and slightly less prospective middle Jurassic limestones and dolostones. Untested plays could also be present in the underlying early Permian sandstones. Recent studies have focused on the geometry of the thrust belt through regional laterally coherent balanced sections, and oil-source rock correlations.

  7. Decay rate of the second radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  8. Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data to Map Pervasive Folding in the Lithologically Indistinct Franciscan Coastal Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, G. A.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    We use high-resolution aeromagnetic data to map magnetic bodies of graywacke of limited exposure that are either interbedded or structurally emplaced within broader areas of non-magnetic graywacke within the Franciscan Complex Coastal belt in northern California, which is bounded by the San Andreas Fault on the west and the Franciscan Complex Central belt on the south and east. Previous work has not extensively subdivided the Coastal belt because of the poor exposure and the fact that the exposed lithology is primarily graywacke indistinguishable in outcrop and hand sample and is thus difficult to map in the field. A hand-held magnetic susceptibility meter, however, in combination with thin-section analysis, reveals that some Coastal belt graywackes are magnetic. The thin-section analysis shows that the magnetic samples have a significant component of andesitic grains, whereas the non-magnetic samples do not. Further, the locations of these magnetic rocks correspond to elongate regions of high magnetic intensity (magnetic anomalies) kilometers to tens of kilometers in length. Previous 2D modeling showed that the bodies of magnetic graywacke can be modeled as a folded sheet, with antiformal limbs near or exposed at the surface and synformal limbs reaching a depth of about 1 km. Locations of edges of magnetic source bodies can be extracted from their magnetic anomalies. Near surface, steeply dipping edges lie beneath local maxima in the horizontal gradient of the magnetic potential surface. The edges are demarcated by locating discrete points along the local maxima. We connected these points, using an algorithm with a specific set of parameters, to delineate the edges of the magnetic graywacke bodies. Together with the previous 2D modeling, the anomalies and their edges show that the Coastal belt contains antiformal structures 5 to 20 km in length and 1.5 km in width, with a wavelength approximately 1.5 km. The modal direction of elongation is oriented approximately

  9. Contrasting styles of mineralization in the Chinese Altai and East Junggar, NW China: implications for the accretionary history of the southern Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Bo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The Chinese Altai-East Junggar collage in the southern Altaids hosts three metallogenic belts, which are, from north to south: (1) a volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) Cu-Pb-Zn belt; (2) a belt of shear zone-related gold deposits; (3) a porphyry Cu-Au-Mo belt. The VMS deposits formed in two pulses (c. 405 Ma and c. 375 Ma) in the Chinese Altai arc. The porphyry deposits developed in three pulses in the East Junggar arc, the first two synchronous with the VMS mineralization, and the third at c. 330 Ma. The shear zone-related gold deposits developed in the late Carboniferous to Permian at the contact between the Chinese Altai and East Junggar arcs. Time-space distributions of diverse ore deposits across the Altai-East Junggar collage indicate that the collage developed from two independent arcs, the Chinese Altai and the East Junggar. The VMS and porphyry deposits developed in the Chinese Altai and East Junggar arcs, respectively. The Chinese Altai arc is interpreted to be a Japanese-type arc, and the East Junggar arc a Mariana-type arc. During the latest Palaeozoic, the two arcs were juxtaposed by the Erqis Fault, when many shear zone-related lode gold deposits were emplaced. These metallogenic distributions were a likely response to spatially localized mechanisms of crust growth and to the tectonic evolution of the Altai-East Junggar collage, and they are consistent with interpretation of the Altaids as a multiple subduction-accretion collage.

  10. East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and east yard office at left background. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  11. Tectonic wedging, back-thrusting and basin development in the frontal parts of the Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole belt in NW Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koegelenberg, C.; Kisters, A. F. M.

    2014-09-01

    Structural complexities in the Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole fold belt in northwest Tanzania have led to conflicting interpretations of regional kinematics and the geodynamic significance of the belt. Structural mapping of an eastern portion of the belt indicates that the regional-scale (>100 km) Mugera-Nyakahura basement inlier may be considered a forethrusted tectonic wedge. Tectonic wedging in the frontal parts of the belt occurred during top-to-the southeast thick-skinned thrusting of the gneissic Archaean basement. The diagnostic feature of tectonic wedging is the reversal of vergence directions of kinematic fabrics on either side of the basement wedge, resulting in hinterland-directed, top-to-the northwest kinematics in front and on top of the wedge. Strain is localised into the often graphitic metapelitic rocks of the Upper Muyaga Group. The mainly coarse-grained clastic Mesoproterozoic sediments of the Bukoba Group represent the foreland, molasse-type deposits of the Karagwe-Ankole fold belt. The only gently folded Bukoba Group is separated from the underthrusted, highly deformed Muyaga Group by a passive roof thrust. This corresponds to the regional-scale asymmetry of the synclinal structure of the Bukoba basin in the frontal parts of the belt. The gentle folding is the result of the underthrusting and lifting of the Bukoba sediments above the basement wedge creating a triangle zone. The kinematics and geometry of the frontal parts of the Karagwe-Ankole belt described here confirm the belt to represent a top-to-the-east and -southeast verging foreland fold-and-thrust belt. The actual timing of deformation is, at present, unknown, but regional-scale kinematics and the metamorphic zonation are compatible with an origin of the belt during convergence between the Congo and Tanzania Cratons in the west.

  12. The Modi Taung-Nankwe gold district, Slate belt, central Myanmar: mesothermal veins in a Mesozoic orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A. H. G.; Ausa, C. A.; Deiparine, L.; Hlaing, T.; Htay, N.; Khine, A.

    2004-07-01

    The recently discovered quartz-gold veins comprising the Modi Taung-Nankwe gold district in central Myanmar are largely hosted by mudstones of the late Palaeozoic Slate belt. Mesozoic rocks of the Paunglaung-Mawchi zone separate the Slate belt from the Shan Scarp and Shan Plateau to the east. At Modi Taung 5 km of exploration adits indicate that the veins, within steeply dipping oblique reverse-slip shear zones, are displaced by movements along the shears, intruded by late Jurassic calc-alkaline dykes, and offset on conjugate cross-faults. Drill intercepts show that mineralization extends vertically for more than 500 m. Coarse visible gold, book-and-ribbon texture and stylolitic laminations, and trace metal values are consistent with mineralization at mesothermal depths of several kilometres in the brittle-ductile regime. Our field observations suggest that mineralization took place in the early Jurassic following collision of Myanmar on the passive western margin of a Greater Shan-Thai continental block with an oceanic arc on the overriding plate to the west. Collision generated intra-continental thrusting in and east of the Paunglaung-Mawchi zone, metamorphism of Plateau rocks thrust west beneath the Slate belt to form the Mogok Metamorphics, and ascent of mineralizing fluids expelled from dehydrating underthrust rocks. Reversal in orogenic polarity initiated late Jurassic eastward subduction of oceanic crust beneath Myanmar, and generation of a magmatic arc with dykes cutting the quartz-gold veins. Renewed east-directed thrusting translated the Slate belt over arc clastics, and probably resulted in exhumation of the Mogok Metamorphics and offsets of the veins on conjugate faults. Young K/Ar, Rb 87/Sr 86 and Ar 40/Ar 39 ages on the Mogok Metamorphic belt imply renewed Tertiary uplift and possibly intrusion of mid-Tertiary or Palaeogene granites.

  13. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: inscribed date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: inscribed date panel "hospital 1885", corbelled brick belt course, parapet, second floor historic four-over-four window with brick lintels, quoins and decorative metal grilled, cantilever wooden walkway; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  14. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structures of Pocatello region: transition from thrust belt to hinterland, southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Burgel, W.D.; Rodgers, D.W.; Link, P.K.

    1987-08-01

    Remapping of upper Proterozoic and Cambrian rocks in the northern Bannock Range south and east of Pocatello, Idaho, indicates a polyphase deformation history characterized by both shortening and extension. Map-scale folds and faults, related to shortening in the transition zone between the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt and the hinterland to the west, are present, but have been offset and rotated along superimposed normal faults. The oldest structure evident is the north-trending, east-vergent Rapid Creek fold. This fold involves upper Proterozoic and Cambrian strata in the hanging wall of the Putnam thrust fault. The fold is truncated by east-striking subvertical faults that are inferred to be coeval tear faults. Fold and fault geometries suggest the Rapid Creek fold formed over a footwall ramp, whose location may have been controlled by basement normal faults related to Proterozoic rifting. Further evidence of Mesozoic uplift lies in the sub-Neogene unconformity on Cambrian rocks in the Pocatello area, compared to areas of the thrust belt 15 km (9.3 mi) to the northeast, where similar tuffaceous strata rest on Triassic limestones, indicating 7 km (4.3 mi) of pre-Neogene erosion near Pocatello.

  15. The dynamic history of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Mexico subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Luca; Orozco-Esquivel, Teresa; Manea, Vlad; Manea, Marina

    2012-02-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is a 1000 km long Neogene continental arc showing a large variation in composition and volcanic style, and an intra-arc extensional tectonics. It overlies the Rivera and Cocos slabs, which display marked changes in geometry. Geophysical studies indicate that lithospheric mantle is very thin or absent beneath the forearc and arc, the fluids from the slab are released in a 40 to 100 km wide belt beneath the frontal part of the arc, and the lower crust beneath the arc is partially molten. East of 101°W the TMVB is built on a Precambrian to Paleozoic crust with thickness of 50-55 km. West of 101°W the TMVB is underlain by Jurassic to Cenozoic marine and continental arcs with a 35-40 km thick crust. The evolution of the TMVB occurred in four stages: 1) from ~ 20 to 10 Ma the initial andesitic arc moved inland showing progressively drier melting and, eventually, slab melting, suggesting flattening of the subducted slab; 2) since ~ 11 Ma a pulse of mafic volcanism migrated from west to east reaching the Gulf of Mexico by 7 Ma. This mafic lavas marks the lateral propagation of a slab tear, triggered by cessation of subduction beneath Baja California; 3) thereafter, the volcanic front started moving trenchward, with a marked phase of silicic volcanism between 7.5 and 3 Ma, local emplacement of small volume intraplate-like basalts since 5 Ma, and development of extensional faulting. These features are related to slab rollback, enhancing asthenophere flux into the mantle wedge and promoting partial melting of the crust; 4) the modern arc consists of a frontal belt dominated by flux and slab melting, and a rear belt characterized by more differentiated rocks or by mafic lavas with little or no evidence of subduction fluids but higher asthenosphere fingerprint.

  16. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-05-20

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r {approx} 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  17. Tectonic evolution of the west Spitsbergen fold belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, C.; Hauser, E. C.; Maher, H. D.; Sun, A. Y.; Guo-Qiang, Zhu

    1985-04-01

    The west Spitsbergen fold belt has a complex tectonic history which is recorded in a thick, nearly complete upper Proterozoic-Phanerozoic layered sequence. Work since 1977 near Bellsund allows recognition of the main deformational events in that segment of the fold belt. The strata are grouped informally into the metamorphosed Hecla Hoek (HH) sequence (Proterozoic) and the Van Keulenfjorden (VK) sequence (Carboniferous-Cretaceous), separated by a pronounced unconformity. The HH is divided into the Antoniabreen succession, the Chamberlindalen succession, and the Kapp Lyell tillite; the first two consist of diverse clastic and carbonate rocks, along with some volcanic rocks. The VK is a platform sequence of shallow marine and terrestrial sedimentary rocks. These layered rocks are intruded by a few Mesozoic dolerite sills and dikes. Subhorizontal Paleogene sedimentary rocks are preserved in a small graben. Both layered sequences have undergone strong deformation. Structures (mainly Caledonian age) in the HH can be grouped as phase 1 (small isoclinal folds, subhorizontal axial planar foliation, ridge-groove lineation in the foliation, and large recumbent folds), phase 2 (tight to isoclinal folds, axial planar foliation), and younger (weak folds and foliations, kink bands, crinkles). Structures (mainly Tertiary age) in the VK include faults (thrust, reverse, down-to-the-east bedding-plane normal, other normal); folds (symmetric, asymmetric, overturned, recumbent, isoclinal); and foliation (in some tightly folded Triassic shales). Six deformational events can be identified here, each described below in terms of age, intensity, and kinematic pattern: D 1 - Vendian or early Paleozoic; very strong; NNW-SSE shortening?, NNW transport? D 2 - Early Paleozoic (pre-Carboniferous); strong; NE-SW shortening, NE vergence. D 3 - Middle (?) Carboniferous; moderate; unclear (limited exposure). D 4 - Early Cretaceous (?); weak; extension, direction unclear. D 5 - Early (?) Tertiary

  18. Paleoproterozoic postcollisional magmatic belt of the southern Siberian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salnikova, E. B.; Larin, A. M.; Kotov, A. B.; Levitsky, V. I.; Reznitsky, L. Z.; Kovach, V. P.; Yakovleva, S. Z.

    2003-04-01

    Paleoproterozoic time is characterized by large-scale collisional and postcollisional magmatic activity evidenced in the most of ancient cratons. This global event is related to the Arctic supercontinent assemblage (Rogers, 1996). The formation of postcollisional magmatic belt at 1.9-1.8 Ga within the south-west flanking of the Siberian craton is a remarkable example of these processes happened during overall lithospheric convergence. This belt is extends for about 3000 km from the southern Enisey ridge at the west to the central Aldan shield at the east. Within the central Aldan shield the latest collisional event occurred 1925+/-5 Ma (Kotov et al, 2003) and post-collisional subalkaline S- and I-type granites emplaced at 1916+/-10 Ma (Bibikova et al., 1989), 1901+/-1 Ma (Frost et al., 1998) and 1899+/-6 Ma (Kotov et al, 2003). However at the southern Olekma terrain (western Aldan shield) the syncollisional granites have formed at 1906+/-4 Ma and postcollisional Kodar granitoids were generated at 1876-1873 Ma (Larin et al., 2000). The is a tendency outlined in timing of postcollision processes to the west (in modern coordinates). Ages of postcollisional Kevakta granitoid plutons (1846+/-8 Ma) and volcanics of North-Baikal volcano-plutonic belt (1869+/-6 Ma 1856+/-3 Ma), Baikal folded area, support this tendency. Emplacement of the Primorsky complex postcollisional rapakivi-type granitoids (southern Baikal lake) occurred at 1859+/-16 Ma (Donskaya et al., 2002). New results of U-Pb single zircon and baddeleyite dating demonstrate that formation of late-synkinematic syenite, charnockite and pegmatitic veins (1856±12 Ma, 1853±20 Ma) and calciphyre (1868±2 Ma) within the eastern part of the Sharyzhalgay block (southern Baikal lake) occurred virtually within the same episode. Postcollisional intrusive charnockite of the Shumikha complex from the western Sharyzhalgay block dated at 1861±1 Ma (Donskaya et al., 2001) and 1871±17 Ma (Levitsky et al., 2002). Subalcaline

  19. Tectonic style and regional relations of the central Nevada thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, J.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Taylor, W.J. . Dept. of Geoscience); Fryxell, J.E. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Walker, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Mesozoic( ) Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) lies in a geographically and structurally central position in the Great Basin. Understanding the structural geometries and timing of deformation in this belt is critical to reconstructing pre-thrusting sedimentary basins, post-thrusting sediment source locations and the syn- to post-thrusting Cretaceous Newark Canyon basins. The authors recent detailed studies in the thrust belt better constrain the structural geometries, associated sedimentary basins and timing of deformation in the CNTB. They suggest that contractile structures in the CNTB east and south of Railroad Valley are part of the same orogen as the Eureka belt which north and west of that valley. Therefore, the CNTB is an essentially continuous orogen for 250 km along strike, from Alamo to Eureka, Nevada. The structural style effects paleogeographic reconstructions. The CNTB is made up of a stack of at least six separate thrusts. Many thrusts have long ramps that cut from the Mississippian into the Cambrian ([approximately] 2,200 m of section) suggesting large vertical uplifts. Shortening in the CNTB is bracketed between Late Permian and Cretaceous, but regional correlations indicate it may be Jurassic to Cretaceous. The youngest contraction is no younger than Early Cretaceous as indicated by (1) folding and thrusting of parts of the Albian-Aptian Newark Canyon Formation, (2) intrusion of an anticline by the 84.6 Ma (new date) Troy stocked, and (3) intrusion of another anticline by the [approximately]100 Ma (new date) Lincoln stock. The onset of shortening is more difficult to ascertain because Triassic and Jurassic rocks are not present. Rocks as young as Pennsylvanian in the south and Permian in central region are deformed. A Jurassic age is based on regional correlations with the Jurassic Elko orogenic belt.

  20. Basement involvement in the south-central Taiwan thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Dennis; Camanni, Giovanni; Alvarez, Joaquina; Ayala, Concepcion; Wu, Yih-Min; Hsieh, Hsien-Hsiang

    2015-04-01

    The Taiwan mountain belt is generally thought to develop above a shallow, through-going basal detachment confined to within the sedimentary cover of the Eurasian continental margin. Recently acquired surface geology, when combined with seismic tomography, earthquake hypocenter, and gravity data suggest, however, that basement is also involved in the deformation in south-central Taiwan. Since basement does not crop out in south central Taiwan, we adopt a P-wave velocity of 5.2 km/s has a proxy for the basement-cover interface and use it as a reference horizon. This interpretation is then tested as a density contrast by 3D modeling of the Bouguer anomaly data. The good fit between the two suggests that this surface provides a reasonable proxy as an interpretation for the top of the basement in what follows. The data suggests that, in the west, beneath the Coastal Plain and the Western Foothills, the mountain belt is evolving above a southward deepening level of detachment that is illuminated by sub-horizontal clusters of earthquake hypocenters located near the basement-cover interface. In much of the study area, this detachment appears to be below the depth of the basal thrust determined from geological constraints provided by the thrust system mapped at the surface. Furthermore, when viewed in a northwest-southeast orientation, the hypocenters cluster that defines the detachment appears to mimic the rugose extensional fault architecture imaged in the off shore to the west of Taiwan. This suggests that pre-existing faults on the margin, although oriented at a high angle to the convergence direction, are playing an active role in the development of thrust belt while still not being completely inverted. Eastward, the detachment at the basement-cover interface joins with an east-dipping hypocenter cluster that is interpreted to form a ramp that extends to greater than 20 km depth, into the middle crust. Above this ramp, basement rocks (P-wave > 5.2 km/s) are uplifted to

  1. Distribution of Dust from Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkavyi, Nick N.; Ozernoy, Leonid; Taidakova, Tanya; Mather, John C.; Fisher, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Using an efficient computational approach, we have reconstructed the structure of the dust cloud in the Solar system between 0.5 and 100 AU produced by the Kuiper belt objects. Our simulations offer a 3-D physical model of the 'kuiperoidal' dust cloud based on the distribution of 280 dust particle trajectories produced by 100 known Kuiper belt objects; the resulting 3-D grid consists of 1.9 x 10' cells containing 1.2 x 10" particle positions. The following processes that influence the dust particle dynamics are taken into account: 1) gravitational scattering on the eight planets (neglecting Pluto); 2) planetary resonances; 3) radiation pressure; and 4) the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) and solar wind drags. We find the dust distribution highly non-uniform: there is a minimum in the kuiperoidal dust between Mars and Jupiter, after which both the column and number densities of kuiperoidal dust sharply increase with heliocentric distance between 5 and 10 AU, and then form a plateau between 10 and 50 AU. Between 25 and 45 AU, there is an appreciable concentration of kuiperoidal dust in the form of a broad belt of mostly resonant particles associated with Neptune. In fact, each giant planet possesses its own circumsolar dust belt consisting of both resonant and gravitationally scattered particles. As with the cometary belts simulated in our related papers, we reveal a rich and sophisticated resonant structure of the dust belts containing families of resonant peaks and gaps. An important result is that both the column and number dust density are more or less flat between 10 and 50 AU, which might explain the surprising data obtained by Pioneers 10 & 11 and Voyager that the dust number density remains approximately distance-independent in this region. The simulated kuiperoidal dust, in addition to asteroidal and cometary dust, might represent a third possible source of the zodiacal light in the Solar system.

  2. The ophiolite belts of northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congzhou, Cao

    Four ophiolite belts, i.e. the Wendur Miao-Xar Moron River, the Solon Mt.-Hegen Mt., the Mudangjiang and the Raohe ophiolite belts, are recognized in northeastern China in various tectogenetic environments, with different ages and geological significance. They may be present in the Upper Proterozoic, lower Lower Paleozoic, lower Upper Paleozoic or Triassic, respectively. They are also formed in oceanic basin, mid-oceanic ridge, island-arc and back-arc basin, and either within plate or between two plates respectively.

  3. A shell model for tyre belt vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, C.; Graham, W. R.; Dale, M.

    2010-05-01

    We present a new formulation for the prediction of tyre belt vibrations in the frequency range 0-500 Hz. Our representation includes the effects of belt width, curvature and anisotropy, and also explicitly models the tyre sidewalls. Many of the associated numerical parameters are fixed by physical considerations; the remainder require empirical input. A systematic and general approach to this problem is developed, and illustrated for the specific example of a Goodyear Wrangler tyre. The resulting predictions for the radial response to radial forcing show good correspondence with experiment up to 300 Hz, and satisfactory agreement up to 1 kHz.

  4. Lavinia Region Ridge Belts, Plains and Lava Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a Magellan full resolution radar mosaic of the Lavinia region of Venus. The mosaic is centered at 50 degrees south latitude, 345 degrees east longitude, and spans 540 kilometers (338 miles) north to south and 900 kilometers (563 miles) east to west. As with all Magellan images acquired thus far, the illumination of the radar is from the left hand side of the image. This area shows a diverse set of geologic features. The bright area running from the upper right to the lower left is interpreted as part of a belt of ridges, formed by compression and thickening of the upper layers of the planet. The areas between ridges suggest flooding by radar dark (and thus presumably) smoother lavas. The varied texture of the lavas can be seen in the mottled appearance of the plains which are cut by the ridges; brighter, rougher flows are also quite common. The particularly bright flows in the lower right corner are the northern extension of Mylitta Fluctus. The bright ridges adjacent to Mylitta Fluctus at the bottom center of the image also appear to have been affected by the volcanic activity. Some of these bright features have been interpreted as down dropped areas roughly 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide. This would imply a region of extension where the crust has been pulled apart and thus was more easily flooded by the later lava flows. The thinner fractures running from the upper left seem to end at the ridge belt in the center of this mosaic. These thinner fractures are a continuation of a pattern seen throughout much of Lavinia and suggest a pattern of compression over a very large region. At the bottom of the image, overlying the ridges, is an impact crater 10 to 15 kilometers (6 to 10 miles) in diameter. The double or overlapped crater structure and asymmetrical ejecta pattern suggests that the incoming body broke up shortly before it hit, leaving closely spaced craters. The placement of the crater on top of the ridges implies it is younger than the ridges; in fact

  5. 29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for belt to gangway (in background) connecting with elevator no. 2, facing northwest - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  6. Ultra-fast Electrons Explain Third Radiation Belt

    NASA Video Gallery

    In September 2012, NASA's Van Allen Probes observed the radiation belts around Earth had settled into a new configuration, separating into three belts instead of two. Scientists think the unusual p...

  7. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  8. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  9. Radiation Belts Throughout the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.

    2008-12-01

    The several preceding decades of deep space missions have demonstrated that the generation of planetary radiation belts is a universal phenomenon. All strongly magnetized planets show well developed radiation regions, specifically Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The similarities occur despite the tremendous differences between the planets in size, levels of magnetization, external environments, and most importantly, in the fundamental processes that power them. Some planets like Jupiter are powered overwhelmingly by planetary rotation, much like astrophysical pulsars, whereas others, like Earth and probably Uranus, are powered externally by the interplanetary environment. Uranus is a particularly interesting case in that despite the peculiarities engendered by its ecliptic equatorial spin axis orientation, its magnetosphere shows dynamical behavior similar to that of Earth as well as radiation belt populations and associated wave emissions that are perhaps more intense than expected based on Earth-derived theories. Here I review the similarities and differences between the radiation regions of radiation belts throughout the solar system. I discuss the value of the comparative approach to radiation belt physics as one that allows critical factors to be evaluated in environments that are divorced from the special complex conditions that prevail in any one environment, such as those at Earth.

  10. Is the Cameron River greenstone belt allochthonous?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    Many tectonic models for the Slave Province, N.W.T., Canada, and for Archean granite - greenstone terranes in general, are implicitly dependent on the assumption that greenstone belt lithologies rest unconformably upon older gneissic basement. Other models require originally large separations between gneissic terranes and greenstone belts. A key question relating to the tectonics of greenstone belts is therefore the original spatial relationship between the volcanic assemblages and presumed-basement gneisses, and how this relationship has been modified by subsequent deformation. What remains unclear in these examples is the significance of the so-called later faulting of the greenstone - gneiss contacts. Where unconformities between gneisses and overlying sediments are indisputable, such as at Point Lake, the significance of faults which occur below the base of the volcanic succession also needs to be evaluated. As part of an on-going investigation aimed at answering these and other questions, the extremely well-exposed Cameron River Greenstone Belt and the Sleepy Dragon Metamorphic Complex in the vicinity of Webb Lake and Sleepy Dragon Lake was mapped.

  11. Mean motion resonances. [of asteroid belt structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froeschle, CL.; Greenberg, R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent research on the resonant structure of the asteroid belt is reviewed. The resonant mechanism is discussed, and analytical models for the study of mean motion resonances are examined. Numerical averaging methods and mapping methods are considered. It is shown how fresh insight can be obtained by means of a new semianalytical approach.

  12. Glauconite from the precambrian belt series, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulbrandsen, R.A.; Goldich, S.S.; Thomas, H.H.

    1963-01-01

    Glauconite from the upper part of the Missoula Group of the Belt Series, Flathead County, Montana, has been dated at 1070 million years by potassium-argon and rubidium-strontium analyses. This is the first glauconite of Precambrian age reported in North America.

  13. 30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Belt air course ventilation. 75.350 Section 75.350 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.350 Belt air course ventilation. (a) The belt air course must not be...

  14. 30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Belt air course ventilation. 75.350 Section 75.350 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.350 Belt air course ventilation. (a) The belt air course must not be...

  15. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where...

  17. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  19. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  20. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  1. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  3. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  6. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  8. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  12. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  14. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  15. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where...

  16. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt...

  17. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  18. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  3. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the...

  6. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the...

  8. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  10. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  13. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be...

  14. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  15. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  17. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  3. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where...

  4. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  6. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  8. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  10. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  13. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt...

  14. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt...

  15. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  16. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  17. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...-slippage shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley....

  20. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within confined areas where evacuation would be restricted in the event of a fire resulting from...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...-slippage shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley....

  2. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within confined areas where evacuation would be restricted in the event of a fire resulting from...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...-slippage shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley....

  4. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within confined areas where evacuation would be restricted in the event of a fire resulting from...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within confined areas where evacuation would be restricted in the event of a fire resulting from...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within confined areas where evacuation would be restricted in the event of a fire resulting from...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...-slippage shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley....

  8. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...-slippage shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley....

  9. The state of knowledge concerning the Kuiper belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, Harold F.

    1992-01-01

    The arguments for and against the idea that most short-period comets originate in the Kuiper belt are discussed. Observational constraints on the distribution of mass in the Kuiper belt are reviewed as well as a model of the physical conditions that now exist. Finally, predictions from this model about the detectability of the Kuiper belt are compared to optical surveys.

  10. 45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT CHASE FOR TWO BELTS FROM THE BASEMENT, THE W. E. & J. BARNES CO. DRILL PRESS, AND THE DRILL PRESS USED FOR REAMING. THE BELT PASSING THROUGH THE WALL POWERS THE SANDER IN THE WOOD SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  11. Charging belt noise in a Van de Graaff accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    With the aid of a Fast Fourier Transformer (FFT) spectrum analyzer it has been possible to decompose Van de Graaff terminal voltage noise into components that can be related to various properties of the charging belt. One consequence has been the elimination of the fundamental belt frequency component by a novel belt charge transfer device. 18 figs.

  12. Early evolution of large micro-organisms with cytological complexity revealed by microanalyses of 3.4 Ga organic-walled microfossils.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Lepot, K; Ito, S; Javaux, E J

    2015-11-01

    The Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) is widely distributed in the East Pilbara Terrane (EPT) of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, and represents a Paleoarchean shallow-water to subaerial environment. It was deposited ~3.4 billion years ago and displays well-documented carbonate stromatolites. Diverse putative microfossils (SPF microfossils) were recently reported from several localities in the East Strelley, Panorama, Warralong, and Goldsworthy greenstone belts. Thus, the SPF provides unparalleled opportunities to gain insights into a shallow-water to subaerial ecosystem on the early Earth. Our new micro- to nanoscale ultrastructural and microchemical studies of the SPF microfossils show that large (20-70 μm) lenticular organic-walled flanged microfossils retain their structural integrity, morphology, and chain-like arrangements after acid (HF-HCl) extraction (palynology). Scanning and transmitted electron microscopy of extracted microfossils revealed that the central lenticular body is either alveolar or hollow, and the wall is continuous with the surrounding smooth to reticulated discoidal flange. These features demonstrate the evolution of large micro-organisms able to form an acid-resistant recalcitrant envelope or cell wall with complex morphology and to form colonial chains in the Paleoarchean era. This study provides evidence of the evolution of very early and remarkable biological innovations, well before the presumed late emergence of complex cells. PMID:26073280

  13. Radiation belt electron precipitation by man-made VLF transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, Rory J.; Rodger, Craig J.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Thomson, Neil R.; Stewart, S. L.; McCormick, Robert J.; Parrot, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2008-10-01

    Enhancements of drift-loss cone fluxes in the inner radiation belt have been observed to coincide with the geographic location of the powerful VLF transmitter NWC. In this paper we expand upon the earlier study to examine the occurrence frequency of drift-loss cone enhancements observed above transmitters and the intensity of the flux enhancements and to demonstrate the linkage to transmitter operation. Our study has confirmed the strong dependence that these enhancements have upon nighttime ionospheric conditions. No enhancements were observed during daytime periods, consistent with the increased ionospheric absorption. We have also confirmed the persistent occurrence of the wisp features east of the NWC transmitter. The enhancements are initially observed within a few degrees west of NWC and are present in 95% of the nighttime orbital data east of the transmitter for time periods when the transmitter is broadcasting. No enhancements are observed when NWC is not broadcasting. This provides conclusive evidence of the linkage between these drift-loss cone electron flux enhancements and transmissions from NWC. When contrasted with periods when NWC is nonoperational, there are typically ˜430 times more 100-260 keV resonant electrons present in the drift-loss cone across L = 1.67-1.9 owing to NWC transmissions. There are almost no wisp-like enhancements produced by the transmitter NPM, despite its low-latitude location and relatively high output power. The lack of any wisp enhancement for L < 1.6 suggests that nonducted propagation is an inefficient mechanism for scattering electrons, which explains the lower cutoff in L of the NWC-generated wisps and the lack of NPM-generated wisps.

  14. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution and concentrated mineralization in Balkhash and West Junggar, western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuwen; Chen, Xuanhua; Chen, Zhengle

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is an important area with significant growth of the crust and metallogeny in the Late Paleozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt consists of the Balkhash, the West Junggar, and the East Junggar tectono-metallogenic belts in western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). According to the structural geological relationship, the East Junggar, the West Junggar, and the Balkhash belts are considered to be once a continuous E-W-trending tectono-metallogenic belt in Late Carboniferous. The West Junggar belt is featured with NE-trending left-lateral strike-slip faulting tectonic system (WJTS), while the left-lateral strike-slip faults are E-W-trending in the Balkhash belt. The WJTS consists of the Darabut, the Mayile, and the Baerluke faults, and the blocks among them. All these left-lateral strike-slip faults are forming due to the transition of tectonic settings from syn-collisional orogeny to post-collisional extension during the closure of the ocean (the Junggar Sea) in Late Carboniferous, with significant intrusion of batholiths and crust growth occurred in this period. These faults are truncated by the right-lateral strike-slip faults, such as the Chingiz-Junggar fault, and the Central Balkhash fault in Mesozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt is important for the occurrence of many well-known super-large and large porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (such as the Kounrad, the Aktogai, the Borly, and the Baogutu deposits), large skarn Cu deposits (in the Sayak ore-filed), large rare metal deposits (such as the East Kounrad, the Zhanet, and the Akshatau deposits), and large gold deposits (such as the Hatu deposit). Zircon U-Pb ages, Re-Os isotopic dating of molybdenites, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of hornblendes, muscovites, biotites, and K-feldspars, and zircon and apatite fission track (FT) and (U-Th)/He dating and thermal history modeling, provide a multidisciplinary approach to constrain the whole

  15. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar

    2014-04-01

    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  16. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Kun, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications. PMID:25332845

  17. The Broken Belt: Meteorite Concentrations on Stranded Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    Since the first Antarctic meteorite concentrations were discovered more than 25 years ago, many theories regarding the role of iceflow in the production of meteorite concentrations have been put forward, and most agree on the basic principles. These models suggest that as the East Antarctic icesheet flows toward the margins of the continent, meteorites randomly located within the volume of ice are transported toward the icesheet margin. Where mountains or subsurface obstructions block glacial flow, diversion of ice around or over an obstruction reduces horizontal ice movement rates adjacent to the barriers and creates a vertical (upward) component of movement. If local mechanisms for ice loss (ablation) exist at such sites, an equilibrium surface will develop according to the balance between ice supply and loss, and the cargo of meteorites is exhumed on a blue ice surface. The result is a conceptual conveyor belt bringing meteorite-bearing volumes of ice from the interior of the continent to stagnant or slowmoving surfaces where ice is then lost and a precious cargo is left as a lag deposit. Cassidy et al. provides an excellent overview of how this model has been adapted to several Antarctic stranding surfaces.

  18. Transpression as the main deformational event in an Archaean greenstone belt, northeastern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudleston, P. J.; Schultz-Ela, D.; Bauer, R. L.; Southwick, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Deformed and metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Vermilion district constitute an Archean greenstone belt trending east-west between higher grade rocks of the Vermilion Granitic Complex to the north and the Giants Range batholith to the south. Metamorphic grade is low throughout, being lowest in the center of the belt (chlorite zone of the greenschist facies). All the measured strain, a cleavage or schistosity, and a mineral lineation in this belt are attributed to the main phase of deformation D sub 2 that followed an earlier nappe-forming event D sub 1, which left little evidence of penetrative fabric. Previous work assumed that the D sub 2 deformation resulted from north-south compression across the district. It is now believed that a significant component of this deformation resulted from dextral shear across the whole region. Thus the Vermilion fault, a late-state largely strike-slip structure that bounds the Vermilion district to the north, may simply be the latest, most brittle expression of a shear regime that was much more widespread in space and time. Features that are indicative of shear include ductile shear zones with sigmoidal foliation patterns, highly schistose zones with the development of shear bands, feldspar clasts or pyrite cubes with asymmetric pressure shadows, and the fact that the asymmetry of the F sub 2 folds is predominantly Z for at least 15 km south of the Vermilion fault.

  19. Seismic reflection structure of intracratonic palmyride fold-thrust belt and surrounding Arabian platform, Syria

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.H.; Barazangi, M.; Best, J. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Al-Otri, M.; Gebran, A. )

    1990-03-01

    Seismic reflection and drill-hole data from central Syria provide a detailed view of the subsurface structure (10-15 km depth) of the relatively little-studied intracratonic Palmyride fold and thrust belt. The data set, together with surface geologic mapping, constrains a structural/stratigraphic section spanning the northeast sector of the belt and the surrounding subprovinces of the Arabian platform. The seismic reflection and drill-hole data show Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences thickening abruptly into the Palmyrides from the adjacent, arched Paleozoic platforms Neogene (alpine) folding and thrusting of the Mesozoic basin, as documented on the seismic data, are sharply restricted to the narrow width of the belt ({approximately}100 km), in contrast to the relatively undeformed Phanerozoic strata of the platforms to the north and south. The seismic and drill-hole data support the hypothesis that the palmyrides began as a Permian-Triassic failed rift connected to the Levantine passive continental margin, which was inverted and complexly deformed by the interfering effects of Cenozoic movements along the Dead Sea transform fault system and the Turkish Bitlis convergent zone. The seismic data provide a first view into the extent and depth of the early basin formation and subsequent compressional deformation, and as such represent a necessary element for constraining reconstructions of northern Middle East plate motions. 20 figs.

  20. Structure and kinematics of a major tectonic contact, Michipicoten greenstone belt, Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.

    1992-01-01

    The Michipicoten greenstone belt, Ontario, experienced a complex history of folding, faulting, and fabric development. Near Wawa, a major east-west contact, here named the Steep Hill Falls (SHF) contact, extends entirely across the belt. The SHF contact is both an angular unconformity and a fault and is interpreted to be a regionally significant tectonic contact separating distinct northern and southern terranes, both of which include volcanic rocks of probable island-arc origin. The amount of horizontal transport involved in bringing the two terranes together along the SHF contact is not known. Mapping and structural analysis suggest that regionally significant horizontal displacements took place, with movement vectors that changed with time. Early faults, folds, and fabrics imply north-south to northeast-southwest (with respect to present directions) convergence, with a vergence reversal occurring during this complex event. The most likely models infer early south vergence and later north vergence. Transecting the earliest structures are younger (but still Archean) northeast-striking steep cleavages with associated upright folds that may relate to northwest-southeast assembly of the Superior Province craton. The craton assembly event thus involved a transport direction at a high angle to that inferred for the earlier assembly of the Michipicoten greenstone belt.

  1. 8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, METAL RAILINGS, AND PORTION OF EAST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  2. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM EAST. SHOWS EAST ELEVATION. IT IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM EAST. SHOWS EAST ELEVATION. IT IS LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF THE MANSION'S BACKYARD. Photo date: February 1978 - Faber House, North Dependency, 631 East Bay Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  3. 55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER HOUSE AND FLUME VISIBLE TO RIGHT, TAILRACE RUNNING THROUGH CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. CRADLE TO INCLINED PLANE 3 EAST IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  4. 3. VIEW FROM EAST. EAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE ROOF INTERSECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW FROM EAST. EAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE ROOF INTERSECTION OF THE EAST AND NORTH WINGS OF THE BUILDING. - Navy Yard, Ordnance Building, Intersection of Paulding & Kennon Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 15. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING RETAINING WALL ON EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING RETAINING WALL ON EAST SIDE OF PARK, SOUTH OF ENGINE HOUSE (4' X 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  7. Anisotropic Shear-wave Velocity Structure of East Asian Upper Mantle from Waveform Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Yuan, H.; French, S. W.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Ni, S.

    2012-12-01

    East Asia is a seismically active region featuring active tectonic belts, such as the Himalaya collision zone, western Pacific subduction zones and the Tianshan- Baikal tectonic belt. In this study, we applied full waveform time domain tomography to image 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic upper mantle shear velocity structure of East Asia. High quality teleseismic waveforms were collected for both permanent and temporary stations in the target and its adjacent regions, providing good ray path coverage of the study region. Fundamental and overtone wave packets, filtered down to 60 sec, were inverted for isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave structure using normal mode asymptotic coupling theory (NACT: Li and Romanowicz, 1995). Joint inversion of SKS measurements and seismic waveforms was then carried out following the methodology described in (Marone and Romanowicz, 2007). The 3D velocity model shows strong lateral heterogeneities in the target region, which correlate well with the surface geology in East Asia. Our model shows that Indian lithosphere has subducted beneath Tibet with a different northern reach from western to eastern Tibet,. We also find variations of the slab geometry in Western Pacific subduction zones. Old and stable regions, such as, Indian shield, Siberia platform, Tarim and Yangtze blocks are found to have higher shear wave velocity in the upper mantle. Lower velocity anomalies are found in regions like Baikal rift, Tienshan, Indochina block, and the regions along Japan island-Ryukyu Trench and Izu-bonin Trench. The dominant fast and slow velocity boundaries in the study region are well correlated with tectonic belts, such as the central Asian orogenic belt and Alty/Qilian-Qinling/Dabie orogenic belt. Our radially anisotropic model shows Vsh> Vsv in oceanic regions and at larger depths(>300km), and Vsv > Vsh in some orogenic zones.. We'll show preliminary results of azimuthally anisotropic joint inversion of SKS

  8. The (East) Indian Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Josephine

    The focus of this paper is on the social, cultural, and psychological problems women of East Indian origin share with other immigrant women in Canada. Also examined are problems that are unique to the East Indian woman and the ways in which she deals with the challenges, conflicting cultural values, and expectations that confront her. The…

  9. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  10. Pluto's small satellites in the context of the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. H.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Porter, S.; Spencer, J. R.; Olkin, C.; Howett, C.; Grundy, W. M.; Buie, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    New Horizons is now beyond Pluto and flying deeper into the Kuiper Belt. The small satellites in the Pluto system are the closest analogues to typical Kuiper Belt Objects yet observed at close-range by the spacecraft, and we will review these observations in the greater context of the Kuiper Belt and as they pertain to New Horizons' exploration of a similarly-sized classical Kuiper Belt target in late 2018 or early 2019. Finally, we will summarize the current state-of-knowledge regarding the potential long-range and close-range Kuiper Belt targets.

  11. Morphotectonics of the central Muertos thrust belt and Muertos Trough (northeastern Caribbean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granja, Bruna J. L.; ten Brink, U.S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Munoz-Martin, A.; Gomez, Ballesteros M.

    2009-01-01

    Multibeam bathymetry data acquired during the 2005 Spanish R/V Hesp??rides cruise and reprocessed multichannel seismic profiles provide the basis for the analysis of the morphology and deformation in the central Muertos Trough and Muertos thrust belt. The Muertos Trough is an elongated basin developed where the Venezuelan Basin crust is thrusted under the Muertos fold-and-thrust belt. Structural variations along the Muertos Trough are suggested to be a consequence of the overburden of the asymmetrical thrust belt and by the variable nature of the Venezuelan Basin crust along the margin. The insular slope can be divided into three east-west trending slope provinces with high lateral variability which correspond to different accretion stages: 1) The lower slope is composed of an active sequence of imbricate thrust slices and closed fold axes, which form short and narrow accretionary ridges and elongated slope basins; 2) The middle slope shows a less active imbricate structure resulting in lower superficial deformation and bigger slope basins; 3) The upper slope comprises the talus region and extended terraces burying an island arc basement and an inactive imbricate structure. The talus region is characterized by a dense drainage network that transports turbidite flows from the islands and their surrounding carbonate platform areas to the slope basins and sometimes to the trough. In the survey area the accommodation of the ongoing east-west differential motion between the Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands blocks takes place by means of diffuse deformation. The asymmetrical development of the thrust belt is not related to the geological conditions in the foreland, but rather may be caused by variations in the geometry and movement of the backstop. The map-view curves of the thrust belt and the symmetry of the recesses suggest a main north-south convergence along the Muertos margin. The western end of the Investigator Fault Zone comprises a broad band of

  12. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  13. Radial Boundary Vibration of Misaligned V-Belt Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MOON, J.; WICKERT, J. A.

    1999-08-01

    Mechanical imperfections, including misalignment of the sheaves, can significantly influence the levels of vibration and noise that are produced in power transmission belt drives. In this paper, laboratory measurements identify a particular source of vibration excitation for v-belts that is attributed to lateral misalignment of the sheaves. The belt is shown to undergo a fine, periodic, radial motion on the sheave at a frequency and amplitude that depend on the level of misalignment, the belt's bending stiffness, pre-tension, and wedge angle, the sheave's radius, and the belt-to-sheave friction coefficient, among other modelled variables. Periodic radial oscillation and slippage of the belt in this manner result from frictional stick-slip response at the belt/sheave interface. The belt experiences a prescribed sawtooth-like motion on its boundary, which is one source of its high-frequency vibration and noise. An optical displacement sensor is used to record motion of the belt on the sheave, and those measurements are correlated with the near-field sound pressure. A theoretical model is developed to describe boundary excitation of the belt as is caused by misalignment, and in particular to predict the frequency and amplitude of the boundary motion. The model's predictions are compared with measurements for parameter studies in the belt's pre-tension and in the sheave's radius.

  14. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-01-01

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use. PMID:27309488

  15. Geochonology and Tectonic Significance of post-collisional porphyry in Qulong area, southeast segment of the Gangdese belt, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Zeren, Z.; Du, C.; Feng, L.; Nima, C.; Zhang, L.

    2012-12-01

    With the collision of Indian plate and Eura-Asian plate, there developed complicated tectono-magmanism during Meso-Cenozoic in Gangdese belt, Xizang Tibet. Therefore, it resulted that plentiful tectonism and post-collision high-K calc-alkaline magmatism related to mineralization distrubted from east to west in the belt. And this is quite significant for us to do some rearch on large-scale metallogenetics, uplifting epoch and EW-striking extension during the post-collision in Xizang-Qinghai Plateau. Zircon samples from Cangrila Granodiorite-porphyry in Qulong area, Southeast of Gangdese porphyry copper belt, Xiangbeishan diorite-porphyrite and from Jiama Granite-porphyry give LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of 16.3Ma, 14. 4Ma, and 15.4Ma, respectively, and all these ages represent the porphyries' forming ages. From barren Xiangbeishan diorite-porphyrite through intermediately mineralized Jiama Granite-porphyry to stongly mineralized Cangrila Granodiorite-porphyry, the LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of zircon become younger and younger. According to the regional data and geochemical characteristics, these porphyries were mainly derived directly from the thickened mafic lower-crust formed in south Tibet during collision and epeirogeny. During post-collisional extension stage, for inter-earth thermal flowing, SN-striking normal faulting systems across the Tibetan orogen caused rapid rising and localization of porphyry magmas and adequately separating of massive ore-bearing fluids from the magmatic hydrothermal systems. All these data indicate that Gandese belt has experienced from post-collisional extrusion changed into intra-plate extension since Miocene. During Miocene, Gangdese belt undergone violent intraplate extension, post-collisional porphyry intrusion and paroxysmal massive mineralization of porphyry-type, and all these was controlled by deep dynamics. Key Words: Qulong area; Gangdese tectonic belt; Tibet;Zircon La-ICP-MS U-Pb dating; intra-plate extension; Image Information For CL

  16. Structural controls on Tertiary orogenic gold mineralization during initiation of a mountain belt, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craw, D.; Begbie, M.; MacKenzie, D.

    2006-10-01

    Two types of structurally controlled hydrothermal mineralization have occurred during folding of fissile schist in southern New Zealand: fold-related mineralization and normal fault-related mineralization. Both types have the same mineralogy and textures, and are dominated by quartz-ankerite veins and silicified breccias with ankeritic alteration. Most mineralized zones are thin (centimetre scale), although host schist is commonly impregnated with ankerite up to 20 m away. Thick (up to 5 m wide) mineralized zones are generally gold-bearing and contain pyrite and arsenopyrite with stibnite pods locally. Some of these auriferous zones have been extensively mined historically despite rugged topography and difficult access. Mineralization occurred during regional tectonic compression in the initial stages of development of the Southern Alps mountain belt at the Pacific-Australian plate boundary in the Miocene. Most of the gold-bearing deposits occur in east to south-east, striking normal faults that cut across mesoscopic folds in a belt that coincides with the southern termination of a regional-scale north trending antiform. Mineralized zones have similar structural control and relative timing to a nearby swarm of Miocene lamprophyre dykes and carbonatites. Limited stable isotopic data (C and O) and trace element geochemistry suggest that there was probably no genetic link between the igneous activity and gold mineralization. However, these two types of fluid flow have been controlled by the same tectonically created crustal plumbing system. This Miocene hydrothermal activity and gold deposition demonstrates that orogenic (mesothermal) mineralization can occur during the inception of an orogenic belt, not just in the latter stages as is commonly believed. These Miocene structures have been preserved in the orogen because the locus of uplift has moved northwards, so the early-formed gold deposits have not yet been structurally overprinted or eroded.

  17. Dynamic load sharing for conveyor belts with multiple drive stations

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, F.T.

    1995-05-01

    The characteristics and limitations of multiple drive station belt conveyors are explored and a computational method is presented as a means of providing drive coordination which can skirt some of the limitations. This paper will describe some of the design parameters of concern for belt conveyors, including belt tension and how it varies with load, how the unpredictably non-uniform loading of the belt affects performance, and will explore the relationship of friction between the belt and a drive pulley and how this limits the amount of horsepower which can be transmitted to the belt. The way in which these parameters change in configurations with multiple drives and multiple drive stations is outlined. The two main means of employing booster drives are presented; tripper booster and linear booster. The tripper booster technology is amenable to tension control, in which the torque provided by each drive station is controlled by the tension in the belt measured immediately downstream of the drive station. This approach has proved successful in belt systems with as many as four booster drive stations, operating at belt loads in excess of 3200 tons per hour over 12,000 ft of belt. The linear booster arrangement does not allow a convenient method of measuring belt tension, thus a computational algorithm was devised to take advantage of the geometry of the belt system to control tension of the belt within certain limits without the use of tension feedback. This approach has proven useful in 10,000 foot belt system which has a single booster drive station, operating at loads up to 4000 tons per hour.

  18. The Cape Fold Belt and Syntaxis and the rotated Falkland Islands: dextral transpressional tectonics along the southwest margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. T.

    2000-07-01

    Two enigmas concerning the Cape Fold Belt (CFB), part of the Gondwanide Orogen that formerly stretched across southern Gondwana, are (1) its apparent development far-removed (≥1 500 km) from the convergent margin of Gondwana; and (2) the origin of the Cape Syntaxis, a 40-80° bend in the strike of the belt that occurs near Cape Town. An additional puzzle is how the Falkland Islands, which are believed to have originally been situated off the southeastern coast of Africa and may have formed the eastern continuation of the CFB, came to be rotated 180° during, or prior to, the break-up of Gondwana. In an attempt to address these enigmas, I review recent developments in the study of the CFB and of the South American, Falkland Islands and Antarctic portions of the Gondwanide Orogen, provide reinterpretations of some data and suggest a new tectonic model. Structural data (orientations relative to an east-west-trending CFB) are consistent with interpretation of the South America and Antarctic portions of the Gondwanide Orogen as northwest-trending dextral transpressional belts. The east-west-trending CFB, including the Falkland Islands, forms an inboard- or left-step within this intracontinental dextral shear zone. Dextral margin-parallel translation of the crustal block outboard of the orogen (extending from the Gondwanide Belt south to the margin of Gondwana) was accommodated by strike-slip deformation in South America and Antarctica, and by convergence and the development of a foreland-verging fold and thrust belt, across the CFB. The Cape Syntaxis, and the partially obscured Port Elizabeth Antitaxis, are oroclinal bends of the CFB that developed in response to continued dextral shear along the Gondwanide Belt. Clockwise rotation of the Falkland Islands occurred in two stages: (1) ~ 90° during oroclinal bending (the islands were incorporated in the short east limb of the Port Elizabeth Antitaxis); and (2) > 60° during solid body rotation about the Euler Pole to

  19. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasi, A.; Kassi, A.; Friis, H.; Umar, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas the Zhob Valley Thrust and Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite mark the eastern boundary. The Belt is divisible into six tectono-stratigraphic zones bounded by major thrusts. Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite is the base and Zone-I of this belt. Zone-II comprises shallow marine and flysch successions of the Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation. The Early to Middle Miocene Dasht Murgha group comprises Zone-III, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Malthanai formation comprises Zone-IV, the Pleistocene Bostan Formation makes Zone-V, and the flat-laying Holocene deposits of the Zhob Valley comprise Zone-VI. The Neogene molasse successions of the Pishin Belt include the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan Formation; these are mostly composed of sandstone, claystone and conglomerate lithologies. Sandstones have been classified as lithic arenites and their QFL values suggest quartzolithic composition. Twelve distinct lithofacies have been recognized in the succession and thus grouped into four types of facies associations. Lithofacies include clast-supported massive gravel (Gcm), clast-supported crudely bedded gravel (Gh), cross-stratified conglomerate (Gt and Gp), trough cross-stratified sandstone (St), planar cross-stratified sandstone (Sp), ripple cross-laminated sandstone (Sr), horizontally stratified sandstone (Sh), low-angle cross-stratified sandstone (Sl), massive sandstones (Sm), massive mudstone and siltstone (Fm) and paleosol carbonate (P). The lithofacies associations include channel facies association (CHA), crevasse-splay facies association (CSA), natural-levee facies association (LVA) and floodplain facies association (FPA). The lithofacies associations suggest

  20. The Rwenzori Mountains, a Palaeoproterozoic crustal shear belt crossing the Albertine rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, D.; Link, K.; Sachau, T.; Passchier, C. W.; Aanyu, K.; Spikings, A.; Harbinson, R.

    2015-04-01

    This contribution discusses the development of the Palaeoproterozoic Buganda-Toro belt in the Rwenzori Mountains and its influence on the western part of the East African Rift System in Uganda. The Buganda-Toro belt is composed of several thick-skinned nappes consisting of Archaean Gneisses and Palaeoproterozoic cover units that are thrusted northwards. The high Rwenzori Mountains are located in the frontal unit of this belt with retrograde greenschist facies gneisses towards the north, which are unconformably overlain by metasediments and amphibolites. Towards the south, the metasediments are overthrust by the next migmatitic gneiss unit that belongs to a crustal-scale nappe. The southwards dipping metasedimentary and volcanic sequence in the high Rwenzori Mountains shows an inverse metamorphic grade with greenschist facies conditions in the north and amphibolite facies conditions in the south. Early D1 deformation structures are overgrown by cordierite, which in turn grows into D2 deformation, representing the major northwards directed thrusting event. We argue that the inverse metamorphic gradient develops because higher grade rocks are exhumed in the footwall of a crustal-scale nappe, whereas the exhumation decreases towards the north away from the nappe leading to a decrease in metamorphic grade. The D2 deformation event is followed by a D3 E-W compression, a D4 with the development of steep shear zones with a NNE-SSW and SSE-NNW trend including the large Nyamwamba shear followed by a local D5 retrograde event and D6 brittle reverse faulting. The Palaeoproterozoic Buganda-Toro belt is relatively stiff and crosses the NNE-SSW running rift system exactly at the node where the highest peaks of the Rwenzori Mountains are situated and where the Lake George rift terminates towards the north. Orientation of brittle and ductile fabrics show some similarities indicating that the cross-cutting Buganda-Toro belt influenced rift propagation and brittle fault development

  1. Petrology and geobarometry of Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt granitoids near Petersburg, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hammarstrom, J.M. ); Brew, D.A. )

    1993-04-01

    The Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt (ARB) of southeastern Alaska is an approximately 400 mile long northwest-trending belt of Late Cretaceous ([approximately]95 Ma) calcalkalic plutons that extends from Juneau to Ketchikan. The ARB is bounded on the east by the younger Coast plutonic complex sill and on the west by the mid-Cretaceous Muir-Chichagof plutonic belt. Near Petersburg, the ARB consists of a variety of plutons that include equigranular and porphyritic quartz diorite, tonalite, quartz monzodiorite, and granodiorite. Minerals in these plutons are: hornblende, biotite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, apatite, zircon, titanite, and ilmenite [+-] epidote, minor allanite, magnetite, grossular-almandine garnet, clinopyroxene, and locally trace amounts of sulfide minerals. New geochemical data for six samples from three plutons near Petersburg overlap data for the rest of the ARB, which is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. The central ARB granitoids are moderately LREE-enriched with slightly negative to slightly positive europium anomalies. High strontium (700 to 800 ppm) and low rubidium contents in central ARB plutons overlap compositions of ARB plutons to the north and south, and magmatic epidote-bearing plutons elsewhere. Pressure estimates for pluton emplacement based on hornblende geobarometry (6 to 9 kbars) are compatible with pressure estimates for plutons to the south and for metamorphic aureole assemblages around ARB plutons elsewhere in the western metamorphic belt of southeastern Alaska. These data support the chemical consanguinity of plutons along the length of the magmatic arc now preserved as the ARB and suggest that the whole ARB has been uplifted and eroded to expose plutons emplaced at relatively deep crustal levels.

  2. The petrology and geochemistry of a metabasite belt along the southern margin of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Bruand, E.; Gasser, D.; Bonnand, P.; Stuewe, K.

    2011-01-01

    A 600 km long metabasite belt is exposed at the southern border of the Chugach terrane in southern Alaska, south of the Eocene Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC). In this contribution, we present petrologic and geochemical results for parts of this metabasite belt. The metabasites studied are amphibolite grade and their PT conditions are evaluated with hornblende–plagioclase thermometry and the average PT method. From west to east the peak metamorphic conditions calculated are: about 730–793 °C for pressures between 5 and 15 kbar in the westernmost part, about 740–760 °C and 5 kbar in the middle locality and about 640–675 °C and 8 kbar in the easternmost locality. These results are comparable with the metamorphic conditions obtained on metapelite of the CMC for the westernmost and easternmost localities. In contrast, in the central part of the CMC, the metabasites experienced probably lower pressures than the metapelites to the north. Rare earth and trace element patterns of the metabasite belt are comparable with typical altered basalt patterns and reveal MORB and arc-tholeiitic geochemical characteristics. The presence of Ba and U anomalies are interpreted as a result of alteration prior to subduction, the Pb anomaly as a result of an intra-oceanic island arc signature and the Sr anomaly as a result of the interaction of sediments with the metabasites during subduction. We suggest that the association of MORB and arc tholeiitic rocks in the metabasite belt is likely derived from an intra-oceanic island arc which accreted to the Alaskan margin. PMID:26523072

  3. The Ancylus Lake stage of the Baltic Sea in Fehmarn Belt: Indications of a new threshold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldens, Peter; Schwarzer, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    The Baltic Ice Lake, Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea stages of regression and transgression controlled the history of the Baltic Sea since the last glacial period. Many details regarding their development remain unknown, including the question whether the regression of the Ancylus Lake (between 10,700 and 10,200 cal yr BP) took place west of the Darss Sill, or elsewhere. This study addresses whether a drowned river system in Fehmarn Belt (SW Baltic Sea) can be related to the drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The river channel is cut into glacial till in the western part of Fehmarn Belt. Here, the channel reaches an incision depth of up to 12 m at a base level of 40 m b.s.l. (below sea level). Near Mecklenburg Bay, the buried channel is incised down to 60 m b.s.l. and widens rapidly from several hundred meters to more than 1 km, fading towards east. It was mainly shaped as part of a glacial meltwater system at a maximum water level of 30 m b.s.l., and is therefore not related to the Ancylus Lake drainage. During the lowstand of the Baltic Ice Lake, local shallow water bodies covered the study area. A previously reported westward directed drainage of a lake in the eastern Fehmarn Belt could be restricted to a time interval between the highstand of the Ancylus Lake and prior to the Littorina Transgression. Timing, water level and potential water discharge of this event suggest a connection to a partial drainage of the Ancylus Lake. It is concluded that the threshold separating the Ancylus Lake from the North Sea needs to be located west of Fehmarn Belt.

  4. Numerical investigation of the geodynamic mechanism for the late Jurassic deformation of the Ordos block and surrounding orogenic belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yujun; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-12-01

    Orogenic belts have developed along the edges of the stable Ordos block, in northern China. Three main geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the formation of these orogenic belts. They have included the collision between the North China and South China blocks, subduction of the Pacific plate, and stresses transmitted over long distances from the closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean. However, these explanations are still controversial and not universally accepted, leaving the mechanisms that formed the orogenic belts poorly understood. To address these fundamental questions, we developed a 3D numerical model using the finite element method to explore the geodynamic mechanism for the late Jurassic deformation of the Ordos block and its surrounding orogenic belts. We investigated the effect of different dynamic regimes on the late Jurassic deformation of this region. Our primary results suggest that strong and stable Ordos block remains undeformed despite its location at the center of a region of deformation. East-west trending fold-and-thrust belts would have developed along the north and south edges of the Ordos block during the closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean or the collision between the North China and South China blocks. North-south trending fold-and-thrust belts would have developed along the east and west edges of the Ordos block due to subduction of the Pacific plate. However, the paleo-stress field in the late Jurassic indicates that the orientations of the maximum compressive principle stress were nearly perpendicular to the edge of the Ordos block and the compressive deformation around it was coeval. It is difficult to explain the distribution of belts of deformation with a single stress regime. Our numerical model reveals that multi-direction convergence pattern with time during the transformation of these three regimes can be used to interpret the formation and deformation styles of ringed mountains around the Ordos block during the late

  5. QUAOAR: A ROCK IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-05-10

    Here we report Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 observations of the Quaoar-Weywot Kuiper Belt binary. From these observations, we find that Weywot is on an elliptical orbit with an eccentricity of 0.14 {+-} 0.04, a period of 12.438 {+-} 0.005 days, and a semimajor axis of 1.45 {+-} 0.08 x 10{sup 4} km. The orbit reveals a surprisingly high-Quaoar-Weywot system mass of (1.6 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 21} kg. Using the surface properties of the Uranian and Neptunian satellites as a proxy for Quaoar's surface, we reanalyze the size estimate from Brown and Trujillo. We find, from a mean of available published size estimates, a diameter for Quaoar of 890 {+-} 70 km. We find Quaoar's density to be {rho} = 4.2 {+-} 1.3gcm{sup -3}, possibly the highest density in the Kuiper Belt.

  6. A belted kingfisher flies above KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A belted kingfisher soars over the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The pigeon-sized, blue-gray male is identified by the blue-gray breast band; females show a chestnut belly band. The belted kingfisher ranges throughout the United States and Canada, wintering south to Panama and the West Indies. They dive into the water for fish and may also take crabs, crayfish, salamanders, lizards, mice and insects. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  7. Greenstone belts: Their components and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vearncombe, J. R.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Vanreenen, D. D.; Phillips, G. N.; Wilson, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone sucessions are defined as the nongranitoid component of granitoid-greenstone terrain and are linear to irregular in shape and where linear are termed belts. The chemical composition of greenstones is described. Also discussed are the continental environments of greenstone successions. The effects of contact with granitoids, geophysical properties, recumbent folds and late formation structures upon greenstones are examined. Large stratigraphy thicknesses are explained.

  8. Debiasing the Main-Belt Asteroid Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Timothy Bruce

    1998-12-01

    We present here two general techniques to remove observational selection effects from asteroid surveys. When applied to two specific asteroid surveys, these methods have allowed the first computation of the debiased distribution of asteroidal orbital elements and sizes for the first time. The first survey was conducted in 1960. Advances in computing have allowed the data to be re-analyzed using an existing computer program and given a much more rigorous statistical treatment. The survey was confined to the near-ecliptic at opposition, therefore its usefulness is limited with regard to highly inclined orbits. To compensate for this limitation, we conducted our own survey aimed specifically at high-inclination objects. Since these orbits are, in general, distributed differently than lower-inclination orbits, removing observational selection effects required creating a statistical technique using Monte-Carlo type simulations. The results of this work show no evidence for differing slopes of the size-frequency distribution throughout the asteroid belt, from the highly inclined Hungaria-type asteroids in the inner edge of the belt (1.8-2.0 AU), to the outer belt (3-3.5 AU). The slopes of the absolute-magnitude frequency distributions, being less than 0.5, show that the asteroidal size distribution is somewhat shallower than what would be predicted assuming the asteroids to be a collisionally evolved population of bodies with size-independent impact strengths. Also determined are rough numbers of asteroids in the main dynamical families of Eos, Maria, Themis, and Koronis, which comprise a significant fraction of the total number of objects in the main belt. This work has also resulted in the discovery of a new asteroid dynamical family, and possibly two new asteroid groups.

  9. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison

    This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1).

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present.

    The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight.

    In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.)

    In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  10. Recent Breakups in the Asteroid Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorny, D.

    2005-08-01

    Much of what we see in the asteroid belt today is a consequence of past collisions, which shaped the size-frequency distribution of asteroids and led to their heavily-cratered surfaces. Perhaps the most remarkable features of the belt are the asteroid families [1]. An asteroid family is a group of asteroid fragments with similar orbits and spectra produced by a collisional breakup of a large parent body. More than fifty families have been identified to date in the main belt [2]. These structures, when properly analyzed, hold important clues to the interior structure of asteroids, the physics of large scale collisions, and the overall evolution of the main belt since its formation [3]. Most of the known families are very old and thus have experienced significant dynamical and collisional erosion since their formation. This makes it difficult to clearly distinguish between features produced by the original breakup and those produced by on-going processes. Recent dynamical studies, however, have identified several asteroid families that are extremely young: the Iannini, Karin and Veritas families apparently formed at <5, 5.8 and 8.3 Ma, respectively [4,5]. These families represent nearly pristine examples of ejected fragments produced by disruptive asteroid collisions, because the observed remnants of recent breakups have apparently suffered limited dynamical and collisional erosion. Here we will discuss how studies of young asteroid families help us glean insights into the physics of large scale collisions, dynamical processes that affect small bodies in the Solar System, and the surface and interior properties of asteroids. [1] Hirayama, 1918, AJ 31, 185--188. [2] Zappala et al., 2002, In Asteroids III, pp. 619-629. [3] Bottke et al., 2005, Icarus, 175, 111-140. [4] Nesvorny et al., 2002, Nature 417, 720--722. [5] Nesvorny et al., 2003, ApJ 591, 486--497.

  11. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF REDUCTION PLANT NO. 6 WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF REDUCTION PLANT NO. 6 WITH PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LIMESTONE REDUCTION ('CRUSHING') IN PROGRESS. FEEDER (RIGHT) FEEDS TO CONVEYOR BELTS (CENTER) AND CRUSHER (LEFT). LIMESTONE PROCESSED THROUGH THIS OPERATION IS FURTHER SCREENED AND PROCESSED AT ANOTHER PLANT ON THE THOMAS SITE. OPERATION OF THIS PLANT, WHICH BEGAN IN 1960, INCORPORATES WITHIN THE FEEDER A CONCRETE RETAINING WALL DATING TO A TURN OF THE CENTURY QUARRY OPERATION FORMERLY ON THIS SITE. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, Reduction Plant No. 6, State Route 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER AT LOWER LEFT, AND FOUNDATIONS FOR ROD MILL BETWEEN COOLER AND STEPHENS-ADAMSON INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE BELT CONVEYOR TO RIGHT OF ELEVATOR FED ELEVATOR FROM ROD MILL. 100-TON ORE BIN AND DUST COLLECTOR IS BEHIND FRAMING BENT. NOTE CONVEYOR EMERGING FROM BOTTOM OF ORE BIN, THIS AND THE INCLINED ELEVATOR FED THE SYMONS SCREEN (MISSING). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. The East Asian summer monsoon: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yihui, Ding; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2005-06-01

    The present paper provides an overview of major problems of the East Asian summer monsoon. The summer monsoon system over East Asia (including the South China Sea (SCS)) cannot be just thought of as the eastward and northward extension of the Indian monsoon. Numerous studies have well documented that the huge Asian summer monsoon system can be divided into two subsystems: the Indian and the East Asian monsoon system which are to a greater extent independent of each other and, at the same time, interact with each other. In this context, the major findings made in recent two decades are summarized below: (1) The earliest onset of the Asian summer monsoon occurs in most of cases in the central and southern Indochina Peninsula. The onset is preceded by development of a BOB (Bay of Bengal) cyclone, the rapid acceleration of low-level westerlies and significant increase of convective activity in both areal extent and intensity in the tropical East Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. (2) The seasonal march of the East Asian summer monsoon displays a distinct stepwise northward and northeastward advance, with two abrupt northward jumps and three stationary periods. The monsoon rain commences over the region from the Indochina Peninsula-the SCS-Philippines during the period from early May to mid-May, then it extends abruptly to the Yangtze River Basin, and western and southern Japan, and the southwestern Philippine Sea in early to mid-June and finally penetrates to North China, Korea and part of Japan, and the topical western West Pacific. (3) After the onset of the Asian summer monsoon, the moisture transport coming from Indochina Peninsula and the South China Sea plays a crucial “switch” role in moisture supply for precipitation in East Asia, thus leading to a dramatic change in climate regime in East Asia and even more remote areas through teleconnection. (4) The East Asian summer monsoon and related seasonal rain belts assumes significant variability at

  14. The Beaufort Sea fold-and-thrust belt, northwestern Canada: Implications for thrust-belt evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Root, K.G. )

    1991-06-01

    The northeasternmost segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt of western North American underlies the Beaufort Sea continental margin. Folds and associated northesat-directed thrusts in this region formed synchronously with Tertiary sedimentation. As a result, the times of fold development can be determined from reflection seismic data by analyzing lateral thickness changes in stratigraphic sequences of known ages, and onlap and truncation relationships at unconformities. Thrust faulting occurred throughout the late Paleocene-Pliocene. The abundant temporal data indicate the deformational seuqence was significantly differet from the simple, steplike, foreland-propagating model formulated in other less well-dated thrust belts. Many thrusts were active simultaneously, especially during the late Eocnee, when the region of active thrusting had an across-strike width of greater than 200 km. This observation calls into question the popular concept that only one thrust moves at a time as a thrust belt develops. The thrust belt propagated along, as well as across, strike. During the late Paleocene-middle Eocene, the area of active thrusting was bounded on the southeast by poorly imaged zones of right-lateral strike-slip faults that apparently are the northern offshore continuation of the Rapid fault array. The change in the age of thrusting along strike results in no obvious geometrical anomalies and could not be deduced without timing information. This has an important implication: temporal data cannot necessarily be projected along strike in a thrust belt.

  15. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  16. The gravitational sculpting of the Kuiper belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, H. F.; Duncan, M. J.

    1993-03-01

    Results are presented of numerical integrations over billion year time scales of the orbital evolution of more than one thousand test particles on initially low-inclination, low-eccentricity orbits within the proposed Kuiper belt beyond Neptune. Particles which eventually crossed Neptune's orbit often showed long periods (up to several billion years) of relatively low-eccentricity oscillations punctuated by a very rapid jump to Neptune-crossing eccentricity. This flux may be the ultimate source of present-day short-period comets. It is found here that there exists a correlation between Liapunov and crossing times in the Kuiper belt. None of the particles in the study with Liapunov time scales greater than about 1 Myr actually became a Neptune-crosser in 4 Gyr. An intricate structure to the region between 35 and 45 AU is found at the end of the billion year simulation. Implications for the origins of short-period comets and the detectability of objects currently in the Kuiper belt are discussed.

  17. Radiation Belt Loss at the Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, T. G.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Bourdarie, S.

    2005-12-01

    A critical factor controlling the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt is the abrupt electron loss from the magnetosphere that frequently occurs. Although the major loss mechanisms are known to be transport out across the magnetopause and precipitation into the atmosphere, it is not known quantitatively how effective either of these mechanisms is under any set of circumstances. It is thought that a compression of the magnetopause should cause a reduction of the electron fluxes at the larger L shells, but it is not known what the magnitude of the flux reduction should be. In this study, we investigate the depletion of radiation belt electron flux associated with the compression of the magnetopause to inside geosynchronous orbit. Multiple geosynchronous satellites are used to determine the local-time dependence of the flux dropouts. A clear local-time dependence is observed as the flux decreases during the earthward compression of the magnetopause and during the recovery of the flux as the magnetopause expands back outward. Surprisingly, the flux recovers immediately to levels moderately below the original flux levels with the relaxation of the magnetopause to outside geosynchronous orbit. These results are used to quantify the loss of radiation belt electrons due to the inward motion of the magnetopause and the subsequent recovery.

  18. Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.

  19. The Kuiper Belt of Four Gigayears Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu

    2008-09-01

    The Kuiper belt is largely dynamically stable on gigayear timescales, but weak orbital instabilities - also known as chaotic diffusion - have eroded its population by several tens of percent over the past 4 gigayears. Each of the dynamical subclasses in the Kuiper belt has slightly different loss rates. In this paper, I reconstruct the populations of the different subclasses as they were 4 gigayears ago, an epoch when the presently observed dynamical structure is thought to have been established. This exercise shows that the resonant/classical population ratio was significantly higher in the past, as also the scattered/classical population ratio; the resonant Twotino/Plutino population ratio was also much greater in the past. Such a historical projection is necessary for testing and constraining theories for the origin of the dynamical structure of the Kuiper belt. The differential loss rates of the various KB dynamical classes are also of interest for understanding the sources of impactors that are recorded in the impact craters on solid planetary bodies, as well as for establishing the provenance of transient small bodies, such as the Centaurs and the Jupiter family comets. This research was supported in part by grants from NASA's Origins of Solar Systems and Outer Planets Research programs.

  20. What is a radiation belt enhancement event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, G. D.; Niehof, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Statistical studies of radiation belt enhancement events typically rely on other observations to define an "event". Those other observations could be based on Dst, solar wind speed, CME or CIR occurrence, etc. It is also interesting to start with an electron event and ask which geomagnetic or solar wind driving conditions are (or are not) related to those events. However, such studies have been hindered by the absence of a uniform, quantitative definition of "events". This is particularly true in phases of the solar cycle where background radiation belt fluxes are low but relative changes are large. Such events would be missed by picking an arbitrary flux threshold to define events. We examine two solar cycles of geosynchronous measurements to define the probability distribution of events with both fixed and solar cycle-dependent event criteria. These distributions allow us to define events based on radiation belt electron data alone, to classify types of enhancement events, and to ask: What conditions produced that class of events? The same distributions have important space weather forecasting applications as well. We can now quantify the criteria that define enhancement events that can be expected to occur once per month, once per year, or once per solar cycle.

  1. CHAOTIC DIFFUSION OF RESONANT KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Malhotra, Renu

    2009-09-15

    We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the two strongest mean-motion resonances of Neptune in the Kuiper Belt, the 3:2 (Plutinos) and 2:1 (Twotinos). Our primary results include a computation of the relative volumes of phase space characterized by large- and small-resonance libration amplitudes, and maps of resonance stability measured by mean chaotic diffusion rate. We find that Neptune's 2:1 resonance has weaker overall long-term stability than the 3:2-only {approx}15% of Twotinos are projected to survive for 4 Gyr, compared to {approx}27% of Plutinos, based on an extrapolation from our 1-Gyr integrations. We find that Pluto has only a modest effect, causing a {approx}4% decrease in the Plutino population that survives to 4 Gyr. Given current observational estimates, and assuming an initial distribution of particles proportional to the local phase-space volume in the resonance, we conclude that the primordial populations of Plutinos and Twotinos formerly made up more than half the population of the classical and resonant Kuiper Belt. We also conclude that Twotinos were originally nearly as numerous as Plutinos; this is consistent with predictions from early models of smooth giant planet migration and resonance sweeping of the Kuiper Belt and provides a useful constraint for more detailed models.

  2. Recent estimates of safety belt use.

    PubMed

    Glassbrenner, Donna; Carra, Joseph S; Nichols, James

    2004-01-01

    The National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS) has shown that safety belt use in the United States has increased steadily over the past decade. Increases have been consistent since 2000, when the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in partnership with the Air Bag & Seat Belt Safety Campaign, increased its encouragement of states to implement highly visible enforcement programs. In 2003, significant increases were found in the South; in secondary law states; in all types of vehicles; during both weekdays and weekends; and during both rush-hours and non-rush-hours. In spite of these increases, use remains significantly lower in secondary law states; pickup trucks; the Northeast; and the Midwest. The differences between primary and secondary law states and between pickups and other passenger vehicles have been consistent from year to year. A controlled intersection study, which is part of the NOPUS, has shown that safety belt use has increased for both sexes, for nearly all age groups, and for all races for which data are available. Finally, the NOPUS suggests that children are 3-4 times as likely to be unrestrained when riding with an unbuckled driver as when driving with a buckled driver. PMID:15178244

  3. Substyles of belting: phonatory and resonatory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Johan; Thalén, Margareta; Popeil, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Belting has been described as speechlike, yell-like, or shouting voice production commonly used in contemporary commercial music genres and substantially differing from the esthetic of the Western classical voice tradition. This investigation attempts to describe phonation and resonance characteristics of different substyles of belting (heavy, brassy, ringy, nasal, and speechlike) and the classical style. A professional singer and voice teacher, skilled in these genres, served as the single subject. The recorded material was found representative according to a classification test performed by an expert panel. Subglottal pressure was measured as the oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. The voice source and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering the audio signal. The subglottal pressure and measured flow glottogram parameters differed clearly between the styles heavy and classical assuming opposite extremes in most parameters. The formant frequencies, by contrast, showed fewer less systematic differences between the substyles but were clearly separated from the classical style with regard to the first formant. Thus, the differences between the belting substyles mainly concerned the voice source. PMID:21439776

  4. Structure of the Cordillera de la Costa Belt, North-Central Venezuela: Implications for plate tectronic models

    SciTech Connect

    Ave Lallemant, H.G.; Sisson, V.B.; Wright, J.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary results of an on-going study of the Cordillera de la Costa belt between Puerto Cabello and Choroni, north-central Venezuela, indicate that the deformational history is far more complicated than expected from simple plate-tectonic models. The Cordillera de la Costa belt consists of oceanic rocks (e.g., serpentinites, amphibilites, with lenses of eclogite and blueschist) intimately intermixed with metamorphosed continental margin deposits (e.g., mica and graphite schist, quartzite, marble). Locally, large granitic (basement ) complexes of Lower Paleozoic age are included as well. In late Cretaceous time, the entire belt was involved in four synmetamorphic deformations phases (D[sub 1a] to D[sub 1d]); the first (D[sub 1a]) occurred at depths of at 35-40 km and the later ones at successively shallower depths. This deformation occurred in a subduction zone, related to right-oblique convergence of the Farallon and Atlantic plates. The most penetrative structures resulted from (all in present coordinates) north-south contraction and east-west dextral simple shear (D[sub 1b]). During an Early Tertiary ( ) event (D[sub 2]), the belt was emplaced southward onto the South American continental margin. Subsequent deformational structures (D[sub 3]) resulted in cross folds and faults (with small pull-apart basins) which are consistent with the eastward passage of the Caribbean past the South American plate.

  5. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Barro, Alassane S.; Fegan, Mark; Moloney, Barbara; Porter, Kelly; Muller, Janine; Warner, Simone; Blackburn, Jason K.

    2016-01-01

    The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP), historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies. PMID:27280981

  6. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Barro, Alassane S; Fegan, Mark; Moloney, Barbara; Porter, Kelly; Muller, Janine; Warner, Simone; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP), historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies. PMID:27280981

  7. Attitudes of commercial motor vehicle drivers towards safety belts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karl; Yamashita, Eric Y

    2007-11-01

    Despite the fact that Hawaii has one of the highest seat belt use rates for passenger vehicles in the United States, and has had a mandatory seat belt use law since the 1980s, studies have shown that commercial motor vehicles (CMV) seat belt use rates are low. To better understand this phenomenon, a comprehensive survey of commercial vehicle drivers was conducted in Hawaii to ascertain attitudes and self-reported behaviors regarding seat belt use. A total of 791 drivers responded to a written questionnaire implemented at weigh stations and distributed to various trucking firms and transport centers. Approximately 67% reported that they use seat belts "always" when driving a CMV (commercial motor vehicle), yet when asked how often do other CMV drivers use seat belts, only 31% responded "always." Interestingly, 86% of these same drivers reported that they use seat belts "always" when driving a personal vehicle. The major reason cited for non-use of belts was "frequent stops/inconvenience" (29%), and "not safety conscious" (23%). Notably, the self-reported use of safety belts is highest among operators of vans (88% said "always"), followed by buses (87% said "always") and lowest among truck drivers (only 60% said "always"). In this paper, some of the differences between self-reported users and non-users are explored and a multivariate logit model was developed to predict the odds of belt use as a function of various factors. PMID:17920831

  8. 19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND WITH DISCHARGE TO GRIZZLY AT BOTTOM OF VIEW. CONCRETE RETAINING WALL TO LEFT (SOUTH) AND BOTTOM (EAST EDGE OF EAST BIN). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. Planet Imager Discovers Young Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    A debris disk just discovered around a nearby star is the closest thing yet seen to a young version of the Kuiper belt. This disk could be a key to better understanding the interactions between debris disks and planets, as well as how our solar system evolved early on in its lifetime. Hunting for an analog The best way to understand how the Kuiper belt — home to Pluto and thousands of other remnants of early icy planet formation in our solar system — developed would be to witness a similar debris disk in an earlier stage of its life. But before now, none of the disks we've discovered have been similar to our own: the rings are typically too large, the central star too massive, or the stars exist in regions very unlike what we think our Sun's birthplace was like. A collaboration led by Thayne Currie (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) has changed this using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), part of a new generation of extreme adaptive-optics systems. The team discovered a debris disk of roughly the same size as the Kuiper belt orbiting the star HD 115600, located in the nearest OB association. The star is only slightly more massive than our Sun, and it lives in a star-forming region similar to the early Sun's environment. HD 115600 is different in one key way, however: it is only 15 million years old. This means that observing it gives us the perfect opportunity to observe how our solar system might have behaved when it was much younger. A promising future GPI's spatially-resolved spectroscopy, combined with measurements of the reflectivity of the disk, have led the team to suspect that the disk might be composed partly of water ice, just as the Kuiper belt is. The disk also shows evidence of having been sculpted by the motions of giant planets orbiting the central star, in much the same way as the outer planets of our solar system may have shaped the Kuiper belt. The observations of HD 115600 are some of the very first to emerge from GPI and the new

  10. Normative Misperceptions of Peer Seat Belt Use Among High School Students and Their Relationship to Personal Seat Belt Use

    PubMed Central

    LITT, DANA M.; LEWIS, MELISSA A.; LINKENBACH, JEFFREY W.; LANDE, GARY; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research examined gender-specific perceptions of peer seat belt use norms among high school students and their relationship with one’s own seat belt use. We expected that students would underestimate the seat belt use of their peers and that these perceptions would be positively associated with their own seat belt use. Methods High school students from 4 schools (N = 3348; 52% male) completed measures assessing perceived seat belt use and personal seat belt use. Results Findings demonstrated that students perceived that others engaged in less seat belt use than they do and that perceived norms were positively associated with one’s own seat belt use. Conclusions Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents’ behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seat belt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms–based interventions designed to increase seat belt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents. PMID:24628560

  11. Seat belt usage: A potential target for applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geller, E. Scott; Casali, John G.; Johnson, Richard P.

    1980-01-01

    Results of 1,579 observations of cars entering or exiting campus parking lots showed direct relationships between seat belt wearing and the intrusiveness of the engineering device designed to induce belt usage, and between device intrusiveness and system defeat. For example, all drivers with working interlocks or unlimited buzzer reminders were wearing a seat belt; but 62% of the systems with interlocks or unlimited buzzers had been defeated, and only 15.9% of the drivers in these cars were wearing a seat belt. The normative data indicated marked ineffectiveness of the negative reinforcement contingencies implied by current seat belt inducement systems; but suggested that unlimited buzzer systems would be the optimal system currently available if contingencies were developed to discourage the disconnection and circumvention of such systems. Positive reinforcement strategies are discussed that would be quite feasible for large-scale promotion of seat belt usage. PMID:16795638

  12. Are 1974-1975 automotive belt systems hazardous to children?

    PubMed

    Snyder, R G; O'Neill, B

    1975-08-01

    The 1974 and early-1975 model automobiles are equipped with belt interlock systems that require front outboard seat occupants who weigh more than 21.5 kg (47.3 lb) to wear threepoint lap and diagonal upper-torso belts (or wear the lap belt and position upper-torso belt behind them), assuming that the interlock has not been circumvented. Recent legislation has eliminated the interlock requirement, but new models are still likely to be fitted with three-point restraints for the front outboard seating positions. These restraint systems were designed and tested for adult use. Thus, based on the different structure of a younger child and the fact that there is a wide variation of belt orientation, child size, and seating environments, there is legitimate concern that the upper diagonal belt might contribute to injury of the child under certain impact conditions. PMID:1163506

  13. A population of comets in the main asteroid belt.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Henry H; Jewitt, David

    2006-04-28

    Comets are icy bodies that sublimate and become active when close to the Sun. They are believed to originate in two cold reservoirs beyond the orbit of Neptune: the Kuiper Belt (equilibrium temperatures of approximately 40 kelvin) and the Oort Cloud (approximately 10 kelvin). We present optical data showing the existence of a population of comets originating in a third reservoir: the main asteroid belt. The main-belt comets are unlike the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud comets in that they likely formed where they currently reside and may be collisionally activated. The existence of the main-belt comets lends new support to the idea that main-belt objects could be a major source of terrestrial water. PMID:16556801

  14. Greenstone belts: Their boundaries, surrounding rock terrains and interrelationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, J. A.; Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone belts are an important part of the fragmented record of crustal evolution, representing samples of the magmatic activity that formed much of the Earth's crust. Most belts developed rapidly, in less than 100 Ma, leaving large gaps in the geological record. Surrounding terrains provide information on the context of greenstone belts. The effects of tectonic setting, structural geometry and evolution, associated plutonic activity and sedimentation are discussed.

  15. New compounds will help coal operators comply with BELT standards

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    US coal producers will soon have a new set of conveyor belting standards, which are currently proposed as a rulemaking by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), to bring higher levels of resistance to propagation of fire by a secondary source. The new test being put into effect is known as a Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT). The article, submitted by Fenner Dunlop, discusses the company's testing procedures and the development of conveyors to comply with regulations. 2 photos.

  16. Jupiters radiation belts and their effects on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.; Divita, E. L.; Gigas, G.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of electron and proton radiation on spacecraft which will operate in the trapped radiation belts of the planet Jupiter are described, and the techniques and results of the testing and simulation used in the radiation effects program are discussed. Available data from the Pioneer 10 encounter of Jupiter are compared with pre-encounter models of the Jupiter radiation belts. The implications that the measured Jovian radiation belts have for future missions are considered.

  17. Dyke belt in North Western margin of Siberian platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, Victor

    2015-04-01

    The Early Triassic dyke swarm belt is strengthening at about 500 km (50-60 km width) along the northern margin of Siberian platform. Its locations is limited from the north by rift structure of the Yenisei-Khatanga trough, and from the south by Kystyktah-Ayan-Ambardah uprise. From west to east dyke belt is crossing Norilsk, Kamensky and Maimecha-Kotuiskaya province. In this direction the composition of dykes changing from basic rthrough alkali-basic to alkali-ultramafic varieties. The sickness of dykes varies from 0,5-10m up to 90 m and length - from 5-15 m to 140 km. The orientation of the bulk of dykes coincides with the direction of the major structural and tectonic lineaments of the region. Dykes are often refer to the fault planes. The composition of dykes may vary along the stretches. The density of hundreds of basaltic dykes and small intrusions in the dyke swarms is not permanent and sometimes essentially uneven. They form a compact dyke swarms of dykes, stocks and sub layering bodies veins. In dyke package on Huor-Uyallah river here are 20 subparallel dykes of different chemical composition at a distance of 2 km Lack of the evidence of the dykes crossing allows to assume their formation during the same magmatic cycle. Dykes cross cut through the entire incision of basaltic plateau. They did not created the flow effusions and refer to the final stage trap magmatism. Ar/Ar age of the youngest dykes in the province Kamenska 238-247 Ma. the age of lamproite dyke in Norilsk province is 235 Ma. Dykes are represented by dolerites trachydolerites, syenites, minettes, lamprophyres (camptonite, spessartite, vosgesite), avgitites, melanephelinite, alnoites, limburgites alkaline picrites, meimechites. Their content vary widely: SiO2 - 35,7-62,6; TiO2- 0,4-7,5; Al2O3- 4,4-17,5; Fe2O3- 4,6-20,6; MnO- 0,08-0,44; MgO- 0,8-31,5; CaO- 0,7-15,4; Na2O- 0,01-6,5; K2O 0,8-5,3 wt.%; P2O5 0,1-1,2 wt.%. The h Bolsheavamskaya volcanic basin in Kamensky province is most abundant in

  18. Imaging Jupiter's radiation belts down to 127 MHz with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. N.; Zarka, P.; Tasse, C.; Hess, S.; de Pater, I.; Santos-Costa, D.; Nenon, Q.; Sicard, A.; Bourdarie, S.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Breton, R. P.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Ciardi, B.; Corbel, S.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Moldon, J.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Rowlinson, A.; Schwarz, D.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.

    2016-03-01

    Context. With the limited amount of in situ particle data available for the innermost region of Jupiter's magnetosphere, Earth-based observations of the giant planets synchrotron emission remain the sole method today of scrutinizing the distribution and dynamical behavior of the ultra energetic electrons magnetically trapped around the planet. Radio observations ultimately provide key information about the origin and control parameters of the harsh radiation environment. Aims: We perform the first resolved and low-frequency imaging of the synchrotron emission with LOFAR. At a frequency as low as 127 MHz, the radiation from electrons with energies of ~1-30 MeV are expected, for the first time, to be measured and mapped over a broad region of Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. Methods: Measurements consist of interferometric visibilities taken during a single 10-hour rotation of the Jovian system. These visibilities were processed in a custom pipeline developed for planetary observations, combining flagging, calibration, wide-field imaging, direction-dependent calibration, and specific visibility correction for planetary targets. We produced spectral image cubes of Jupiter's radiation belts at the various angular, temporal, and spectral resolutions from which flux densities were measured. Results: The first resolved images of Jupiter's radiation belts at 127-172 MHz are obtained with a noise level ~20-25 mJy/beam, along with total integrated flux densities. They are compared with previous observations at higher frequencies. A greater extent of the synchrotron emission source (≥4 RJ) is measured in the LOFAR range, which is the signature - as at higher frequencies - of the superposition of a "pancake" and an isotropic electron distribution. Asymmetry of east-west emission peaks is measured, as well as the longitudinal dependence of the radial distance of the belts, and the presence of a hot spot at λIII = 230° ± 25°. Spectral flux density measurements are on the low

  19. The persistence and role of basin structures on the 3D architecture of the Marañón Fold-Thrust Belt, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrenberg, Arne F.; Holcombe, Rodney J.; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-04-01

    The 3D architecture of fold-thrust belts commonly involves thin-skinned and thick-skinned deformation. Both thick- and thin-skinned deformation styles have been suggested to occur in the Marañón Fold-Thrust Belt (MFTB) in Peru, but the relative timing and strain partitioning associated with them are not well understood. We demonstrate that inherited basement structures along the Peruvian convergent margin reactivated during the evolution of the MFTB. We present results from field mapping, interpretation of remote sensing imagery, and cross section construction and restoration. The results show that the Chonta Fault, a median pre-folding basin normal fault, was inverted and acted as a mechanical buttress during initial east-vergent contraction of the fold-thrust belt. This fault separates the belt into two domains of distinctly different structural styles. During the Eocene, units to the west of the Chonta Fault deformed by folding, using the fault as a buttress, and subsequently propagated eastward by thin-skinned thrusting. This was followed in the Miocene by west-vergent, basement-involved deformation, which overprinted the earlier east-vergent, thin-skinned structures. The proposed tectonic model of the MFTB highlights the role of basement-fault reactivation during orogenesis and the involvement of deep structures in partitioning deformation styles.

  20. Structural inversion of the Tamworth Belt: Insights into the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G.; Robinson, J.; Glen, R.; Roberts, J.

    2016-05-01

    The middle to late Permian Hunter Bowen Event is credited with the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, yet contention surrounds the structural dynamics responsible for the development of this curvature. Debate is largely centred on the roles of orogen parallel strike-slip and orogen normal extension and contraction to explain the development of curvature. To evaluate the dynamic history of the Hunter Bowen Event, we present new kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt. The Tamworth Belt formed as a Carboniferous forearc basin and was subsequently inverted during the Hunter Bowen Event. Kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt are based on new maps and cross-sections built from a synthesis of best-available mapping, chronostratigraphic data and new interpretations of depth-converted seismic data. The following conclusions are made from our study: (i) the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly driven by margin normal contraction (east-west shortening; present-day coordinates), and; (ii) variations in structural style along the strike of the Tamworth Belt can be explained by orthogonal vs. oblique inversion, which reflects the angular relationship between the principal shortening vector and continental-arc margin. Given these conclusions, we suggest that curvature around the controversial Manning Bend was influenced by the presence of primary curvature in the continental margin, and that the Hastings Block was translated along a sinistral strike-slip fault system that formed along this oblique (with respect to the regional east-west extension and convergence direction) part of the margin. Given the available temporal data, the translation of the Hastings Block took place in the Early Permian (Asselian) and therefore preceded the Hunter Bowen Event. Accordingly, we suggest that the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly associated with enhancing curvature that was either primary in origin, or associated with fault block translation

  1. Young drivers' decision making and safety belt use.

    PubMed

    Calisir, Fethi; Lehto, Mark R

    2002-11-01

    Past research in safety belt use has primarily focused on describing the relationship between drivers' demographic characteristics and safety belt use. This study compared the impact of situational factors (the direction of collision, the type of road, and the presence of an airbag system), demographic factors, and constructs (criteria) elicited from subjects regarding safety belt use. Based on the results obtained, a conceptual model was developed. The model indicated that drivers' decision-making process when judging the level of accident risk and usefulness of safety belts differs from those that determine actual behavior. Perceived risk was related to road type, perceived consequences of an accident, perceived usefulness of safety belts, self responsibility, the time available for the driver to warn the other driver, dangerous behavior, and gender. These variables showed that people were able to rationally judge the risk. Despite the fact that people judge behavior in what appeared to be a rational manner, risk perception was not a good predictor of belt use. Belt use was mainly influenced by individual factors such as gender, grade point average (GPA), and age. Other factors impacting safety belt use included the perceived frequency of an accident and the S.D. of perceived usefulness of safety belts. PMID:12371784

  2. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  3. Decomposition of noise sources of synchronous belt drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang (Sheng); Zheng, Hui; Qatu, Mohamad

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the noise sources of synchronous belt are decomposed and formulated based on the analysis of the impact dynamics of belt-sprocket tooth interface. The impact/contact of belt-sprocket tooth and the vibration of belt span are modeled. The friction-vibrations interaction of belt tooth and the airflow-induced acoustic wave during belt-sprocket tooth engagement are comprehensively formulated. The structure-borne noise consists of structural impact noise and friction-induced noise. The airborne noise is due to airflow-induced acoustic wave during belt-sprocket tooth engaging. The spectral signatures of the varied noise are quantified, and the case studies are given to illustrate the influences of the tooth parameters and operation conditions on noise. The noise due to belt span vibration under impact ranges from hundreds to several thousand Hz. The impact noise, friction-induced noise and airflow-induced noise of belt tooth ranges from 3 kHz to 10 kHz.

  4. COLORS OF INNER DISK CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J. E-mail: Stephen.Tegler@nau.ed

    2010-07-15

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  5. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

    1986-04-03

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  6. Predicting Facies Patterns within Fluvial Channel Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, B. J.; Sech, R.; Sun, T.; Pyrcz, M.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs (aquifers) in fluvial channel belt sandstones can have very different subsurface flow behavior depending on the degree and distribution of internal heterogeneities. Fluvial channel belts are composed of multiple "storeys" formed as individual channel segments increase in sinuosity and then are cut off and abandoned. Heterogeneities are defined by depositional variations across storeys and inter-story connectivity patterns along the channel belt. Although commonly inferred to reflect the formative river pattern (sinuosity & braiding), the spatial arrangement of facies depend most directly on the relative preservation of deposits formed within different areas of the migrating channels and the lateral stacking arrangement of storeys due to style of bend cutoff. Grains are poorly sorted across the inner bank along upstream parts of channel bends and become better sorted laterally in downstream areas adjacent to a deeper thalweg scour. If deposition occurs evenly along the entire inner bank (bar), this grain size pattern leads to an elliptical body in planview with weak vertical grain size trends upstream and more fining-upward trend downstream. As channel bend segments migrate to a greater extent downstream, preserved inner-bank-bar deposits are increasingly dominated by upward-fining deposits and more outer-bank-deposits are preserved ("concave bank" deposits). Although concave bank deposits have highly variable character in different systems, vertical-grainsize trends tend to be weaker in straighter systems dominated by downstream-accretion, and more strongly upward-fining in higher sinuosity systems where these deposits form by eddy accretion or low flow aggradation. River cutoffs of straighter channel segments abandon slowly, leading to more gradual vertical fining. Subsurface heterogeneity prediction requires documentation of shape and character of deposits preserved in different zones within the channel (upstream and downstream inner bank, concave bank

  7. Shallow crustal structure of eastern-central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Ramón, V. M.; Lermo-Samaniego, J.

    2015-12-01

    Central-eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is featured by large basins (i.e., Toluca, Mexico, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Libres-Oriental). It has been supposed that major crustal faults limit these basins. Sierra de Las Cruces range separates the Toluca and Mexico basins. The Sierra Nevada range separates Mexico basin from the Puebla-Tlaxcala basin. Based in gravity and seismic data we inferred the Toluca basin is constituted by the Ixtlahuaca sub-basin, to the north, and the Toluca sub-basin to the south, which are separated by a relative structural high. The Toluca depression is more symmetric and bounded by sub-vertical faults. In particular its eastern master fault controlled the emplacement of Sierra de Las Cruces range. Easternmost Acambay graben constitutes the northern and deepest part of the Ixtlahuaca depression. The Toluca-Ixtlahuaca basin is inside the Taxco-San Miguel de Allende fault system, and limited to the west by the Guerrero terrane which continues beneath the TMVB up to the Acambay graben. Mexico basin basement occupies an intermediate position and featured by a relative structural high to the north-east, as established by previous studies. This relative structural high is limited to the west by the north-south Mixhuca trough, while to the south it is bounded by the east-west Copilco-Xochimilco-Chalco sub-basin. The Puebla-Tlaxcala basin basement is the shallowest of these 3 tectonic depressions. In general, features (i.e., depth) and relationship between these basins, from west to east, are controlled by the regional behavior of the Sierra Madre Oriental fold and thrust belt basement (i.e., Oaxaca Complex?). This study indicates that an active east-west regional fault system limits to the south the TMVB (from the Nevado de Toluca volcano through the Popocatepetl volcano and eastward along southern Puebla-Tlaxcala basin). The Tenango and La Pera fault systems constituting the western part of this regional fault system coincide with northern

  8. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  9. Stratospheric Polar Freezing Belt Causes Denitrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Jensen, E. J.; Toon, O. B.; Drdla, K.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Trajectory cloud model calculations are presented to show that homogeneous freezing of nitric acid hydrates can produce a polar freezing belt in both hemispheres that can cause denitrification. While hydrate cloud microphysical properties are similar over both poles, the shorter persistence of clouds in the Arctic prevents the depth of the denitrified layers from growing beyond a few kilometers. The 1999-2000 Arctic winter is unique in showing a distinct denitrification profile with a depth of approx. 4.5 km that is nearly half as deep as that computed for a typical Antarctic winter.

  10. Inner main belt asteroids in Slivan states?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The spin state of ten asteroids in the Koronis family has previously been determined. Surprisingly, all four asteroids with prograde rotation were shown to have spin axes nearly parallel in the inertial space. All asteroids with retrograde rotation had large obliquities and rotation periods that were either short or long. The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect has been demonstrated to be able to explain all these peculiar facts. In particular, the effect causes the spin axes of the prograde rotators to be captured in a secular spin-orbit resonance known as Cassini state 2, a configuration dubbed "Slivan state". Aims: It has been proposed based on an analysis of a sample of asteroids in the Flora family that Slivan states might also exist in this region of the main belt. This is surprising because convergence of the proper frequency s and the planetary frequency s6 was assumed to prevent Slivan states in this zone. We therefore investigated the possibility of a long-term stable capture in the Slivan state in the inner part of the main belt and among the asteroids previously observed. Methods: We used the swift integrator to determine the orbital evolution of selected asteroids in the inner part of the main belt. We also implemented our own secular spin propagator into the swift code to efficiently analyze their spin evolution. Results: Our experiments show that the previously suggested Slivan states of the Flora-region asteroids are marginally stable for only a small range of the flattening parameter Δ. Either the observed spins are close to the Slivan state by chance, or additional dynamical effects that were so far not taken into account change their evolution. We find that only the asteroids with very low-inclination orbits (lower than ≃4°, for instance) could follow a similar evolution path as the Koronis members and be captured in their spin state into the Slivan state. A greater number of asteroids in the inner main-belt Massalia

  11. Euclid Asteroseismology and Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew; Huber, Daniel; Stello, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    Euclid, which is primarily a dark-energy/cosmology mission, may have a microlensing component, consisting of perhaps four dedicated one-month campaigns aimed at the Galactic bulge. We show that such a program would yield excellent auxilliary science, including asteroseismology detections for about 100,000 giant stars, and detection of about 1000 Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), down to 2--2.5 mag below the observed break in the KBO luminosity function at I˜ 26. For the 400 KBOs below the break, Euclid will measure accurate orbits, with fractional period errors ≲ 2.5%.

  12. Aircraft radial-belted tire evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Davis, Pamela A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.

  13. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  14. An Evaluation Study of a CALL Application: With BELT or without BELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genc, Humeyra

    2012-01-01

    The present study tried to evaluate the 6th grade students' attitudes towards the use of a CALL program which is called BELT Success used in English language learning course in a private school, the relationship to students' attitudes to their English language proficiency level, and finally teachers` experiences and opinions towards the use of…

  15. Anatomy of an intracratonic fold belt: Examples from the southwestern Palmyride fold belt in central Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Chaimov, T.A.; Barazangi, M.; Best, J.A. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Palmyride fold belt, a 400 {times} 100 km, NE-trending, transpressive belt in central Syria, represents the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic inversion of a linear intracratonic basin. The southwestern Palmyrides are characterized by short wavelength (2-5 km) folds separated by small intermontane basins. To elucidate the subsurface structure, a three-dimensional model, based mainly on about 450 km of two-dimensional seismic reflection data, was generated using a LandMark{reg sign} graphics workstation. The new model includes many features not identified in outcrop. Short, NW-trending transcurrent, or transfer, faults link the short, en echelon NE-trending thrust faults and blind thrusts of the Palmyrides. Varying structural styles are observed within the southwestern part of the belt. In one instance the structure of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks mimics that in deeper Paleozoic rocks; elsewhere, a strong discordance between Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks appears to be related to the development of a regional detachment in Triassic rocks at about 4 km depth. Shortening the southwestern palmyrides totals about 20-25 km, based on palinspastic restoration of a balanced cross section across the belt. Seismic stratigraphy constrains the timing of at least three distinct episodes of Palmyride shortening: Late Cretaceous, middle Eocene, and Miocene to present. All three episodes were penecontemporaneous with specific tectonic events along the northern Arabian plate boundaries.

  16. MAPES Plans at EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Guang-Nan

    2013-10-01

    The Material and Plasma Evaluation System (MAPES) has been successfully built up at the H section of EAST tokamak, consisting of a mid-plane material probe with both active cooling and heating, and multiple diagnostics of sample and boundary plasma. Samples or PFC mock-ups with a weight less than 20 kg and a diameter less than 500 mm can be inserted into the main scrape-off layer plasma from the low field side of EAST. Local background plasma could be characterized by Langmuir probes and thermocouples embedded in the samples, visible and infrared cameras are set at M and D sections. During the 2012 EAST campaign, MAPES has been used to address a variety of PMI issues relevant to ITER. In 2014, several new optical systems will be constructed. A WI emission spectroscopy system and an IR imaging system are being developed and dedicated to the monitoring of the W influx profile and temperature distribution. A set of lens will also be set at H upper port to collect the visible emission light from the lower divertor. The laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is planned to be installed to detect the first wall surface composition at the high field side. In the next EAST campaign, more experiment proposals have been accepted and are being prepared. EAST-MAPES is oriented towards a bridge for international collaborations and is playing an active role in supporting PWI-related researches under tokamak plasma environment.

  17. Fold and thrust belt structures and strike-slip faulting at the SE margin of the Salar de Atacama basin, Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Dirk

    2002-07-01

    A tectonic reinterpretation is reported for the southeastern margin of the Salar de Atacama basin of northern Chile. Detailed structural mapping revealed the presence of an east vergent thin-skinned fold and thrust belt affecting Oligocene-Miocene Paciencia Group rocks and the overlying Plio-Pleistocene volcanic rocks. Along-strike segmentation of the main fold implies local foreland influence on footwall ramp geometry leading to local thrust sheet rotation. To the east the adjacent western slope of the Western Cordillera displays two different structural domains, probably controlled by preexisting basement structures. The southern domain comprises two N-S oriented sigmoidal belts of linear arranged pressure ridges, indicating left-lateral transpression. In contrast, the northern domain is characterized by east vergent fold and thrust belt structures and reactivated NW-SE striking sinistral strike-slip faults, governing clockwise block rotations. An indenter-driven deformation model is proposed to explain sinistral transpression and clockwise block rotations around vertical axes. This variant of a small-block rotation mechanism is discussed in the context of oroclinal bending of the central Andes, emphasizing the significance of ancient structures in controlling rotations.

  18. Geophysical profiling across the Sulu ultra-high-pressure metamorphic belt, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wencai

    2002-09-01

    The largest ultra-high pressure metamorphic (UHPM) belt in the world is located along the Dabie-Sulu region, which tectonically belongs to the east part of the central orogenic belt of China. Integrated geophysical investigations of using deep seismic reflection, MT, and geothermal observations have been carried out in the Sulu area since 1997. The results of integrated interpretation suggest the existence of three features: (1) a rift beneath the Lianshui basin by the Jiashan-Xionshui fault; (2) a special crustal pattern, called the magmatic multi-arch structure occurs beneath the northern Sulu UHPM zone; and (3) a northwest-dipping regional thrust crosses the Sulu crust, representing the intracontinental subduction of the Yangtze craton beneath the Sulu metamorphic belts after collision between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. A magmatic multi-arch structure consists of some arched reflectors that occur in both the lower and the upper crust where arched reflectors coincide with granitoid plutons. The multi-arch structures are common in eastern China where many Mesozoic granitoid plutons of different scales occur. The crustal structures in the Sulu metamorphic belts resulted from intensive dynamic processes following the Triassic collision between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. The formation and exhumation of UHPM rocks followed the collision, and then intracontinental subduction of the Yangtze craton beneath the Dabie-Sulu terranes took place in the early and middle Jurassic. In the late Jurassic, the Sulu lithosphere turned to an extensional regime, large-scale granitic intrusions occurred in eastern China; these likely resulted from lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric uplifting. The granitic intrusions came to a climax during the Cretaceous and were followed by rifting along existing faults in the early Eogene, resulting in many petroleum basins. The granitoid emplacement that generated the magmatic multi-arch structure and the rift were

  19. Insights on Continental Collisional Processes from GPS Data: Dynamics of the Peri-Adriatic Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metois, Marianne; D'Agostino, Nicola; Avallone, Antonio; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Rabaute, Alain; Duni, Llambro; Kuka, Neki; Koci, Rexhep; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in GPS technology and processing strategies make now spatial geodesy a suitable tool to image intra-continental slowly deforming areas such as collisional mountain belts and to get further insights on their kinematics and dynamics. Here, using the peri-Adriatic belts as a test case, we propose a methodology based on accurate GPS velocities to discriminate whether the current day deformation pattern over a mountain belt is controlled at the first order by gravity through gradients of gravitational potential energy. We calculate a new GPS velocity field covering the peri-Adriatic region and the entire Balkan Peninsula, taking advantage of newly available measurements coming from private networks operating since several years in this area. Based on these velocities, we derive the strain rate tensor and an interpolated velocity field using the method of Haines & Holt (1993). Opposite to the commonly accepted hypothesis considering the Balkans as part of the stable Eurasia, we show that the peninsula experiences significant compression across the Dinarides belt and extension toward the Aegean domain South of 44°N. We image a clockwise rotation of the entire peninsula around North Albania, and propose that the lithosphere under the old Scutari-Peck transform zone is weak and acts as a pivot point for this rotation since early Miocene. The Hellenic slab suction and the release of stress in the northern Hellenides subduction zone may favour the southwestward motion of the inner Balkan lithosphere, flowing between the rigid Apulia and Black sea blocks consequently. Because our velocity field is unusually dense in Slovenia and Austria, we picture the Eastern Alps deformation with great details and show that the Austrian Alps are moving eastward together with the Alpine foreland and Bohemian Promontory relative to stable Eurasia. Based on these new GPS data, we investigate the dynamics of the peri-Adriatic mountain belts, in particular of Albania and Eastern

  20. The structural history and mineralization controls of the world-class Geita Hill gold deposit, Geita Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanislav, I. V.; Brayshaw, M.; Kolling, S. L.; Dirks, P. H. G. M.; Cook, Y. A.; Blenkinsop, T. G.

    2016-05-01

    The Geita Hill gold deposit is located in the Archean Geita Greenstone Belt and is one of the largest gold deposits in East Africa. The Geita Greenstone Belt experienced a complex deformation and intrusive history that is well illustrated and preserved in and around the Geita Hill gold deposit. Deformation involved early stages of ductile shearing and folding (D1 to D5), during which episodic emplacement of large diorite intrusive complexes, sills, and dykes occurred. These ductile deformation phases were followed by the development of brittle-ductile shear zones and faults (D6 to D8). The last stages of deformation were accompanied by voluminous felsic magmatism involving the intrusion of felsic porphyry dykes, within the greenstone belt, and the emplacement of large granitic bodies now forming the margins of the greenstone belt. Early, folded lamprophyre dykes, and later lamprophyre dykes, crosscutting the folded sequence are common, although volumetrically insignificant. The gold deposit formed late during the tectonic history of the greenstone belt, post-dating ductile deformation and synchronous with the development of brittle-ductile shear zones that overprinted earlier structural elements. The main mineralizing process involved sulfide replacement of magnetite-rich layers in ironstone and locally the replacement of ferromagnesian phases and magnetite in the diorite intrusions. The intersection between the brittle-ductile (D6) Geita Hill Shear Zone and different structural elements of ductile origin (e.g., fold hinges), and the contact between banded ironstone and folded diorite dykes and sills provided the optimal sites for gold mineralization.

  1. Evidence for spreading in the lower Kam Group of the Yellowknife greenstone belt: Implications for Archaean basin evolution in the Slave Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmstaedt, H.; Padgham, W. A.

    The Yellowknife greenstone belt is the western margin of an Archean turbidite-filled basin bordered on the east by the Cameron River and Beaulieu River volcanic belts (Henderson, 1981; Lambert, 1982). This model implies that rifting was entirely ensialic and did not proceed beyond the graben stage. Volcanism is assumed to have been restricted to the boundary faults, and the basin was floored by a downfaulted granitic basement. On the other hand, the enormous thickness of submarine volcanic rocks and the presence of a spreading complex at the base of the Kam Group suggest that volcanic rocks were much more widespread than indicated by their present distribution. Rather than resembling volcanic sequences in intracratonic graben structures, the Kam Group and its tectonic setting within the Yellowknife greenstone belt have greater affinities to the Rocas Verdes of southern Chile, Mesozoic ophiolites, that were formed in an arc-related marginal basin setting. The similarities of these ophiolites with some Archean volcanic sequences was previously recognized, and served as basis for their marginal-basin model of greenstone belts. The discovery of a multiple and sheeted dike complex in the Kam Group confirms that features typical of Phanerozoic ophiolites are indeed preserved in some greenstone belts and provides further field evidence in support of such a model.

  2. Evidence for spreading in the lower Kam Group of the Yellowknife greenstone belt: Implications for Archaean basin evolution in the Slave Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstaedt, H.; Padgham, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Yellowknife greenstone belt is the western margin of an Archean turbidite-filled basin bordered on the east by the Cameron River and Beaulieu River volcanic belts (Henderson, 1981; Lambert, 1982). This model implies that rifting was entirely ensialic and did not proceed beyond the graben stage. Volcanism is assumed to have been restricted to the boundary faults, and the basin was floored by a downfaulted granitic basement. On the other hand, the enormous thickness of submarine volcanic rocks and the presence of a spreading complex at the base of the Kam Group suggest that volcanic rocks were much more widespread than indicated by their present distribution. Rather than resembling volcanic sequences in intracratonic graben structures, the Kam Group and its tectonic setting within the Yellowknife greenstone belt have greater affinities to the Rocas Verdes of southern Chile, Mesozoic ophiolites, that were formed in an arc-related marginal basin setting. The similarities of these ophiolites with some Archean volcanic sequences was previously recognized, and served as basis for their marginal-basin model of greenstone belts. The discovery of a multiple and sheeted dike complex in the Kam Group confirms that features typical of Phanerozoic ophiolites are indeed preserved in some greenstone belts and provides further field evidence in support of such a model.

  3. Overview of radiometric ages in three allochthonous belts of Northern Venezuela: Old ones, new ones, and their impact on regional geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, V.B.; Ave Lallemant, H.G.; Ostos, M.; Blythe, A.E.; Snee, L.W.; Copeland, Peter; Wright, J.E.; Donelick, R.A.; Guth, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    The margin of northern Venezuela is a complex zone representing the orogenic events from basement formation to subsequent subduction and exhumation during transpressional collision. This boundary zone has six east-west-trending belts that each record a different segment of its development. This geologic complexity requires radiometric ages to unravel, and we herein provide 48 new ages including U-Pb (4), Rb-Sr (2), 40Ar/39Ar (24), zircon and apatite fission-track (17), and 14C (1) ages to constrain the evolution of three of these belts. These three belts are the Cordillera de la Costa, Caucagua-El Tinaco, and Serran??a del Interior belts. In the Cordillera de la Costa belt, U-Pb geochronologic data indicate portions of the basement igneous and metaigneous rocks formed in the Cambro-Ordovician (513-471 Ma). New 40Ar/39Ar data from Margarita Island indicate that some of the subduction complex was rapidly cooled and exhumed, whereas other portions indicate slower cooling. This contrasts with new 40Ar/39Ar data from the Puerto Cabello. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  4. Small-Scale Convection Raising East Anatolia and Northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogus, O.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Sengul Uluocak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The East Anatolia and Iranian plateaus (originally referred as a Turkish-Iranian plateau) are characterized by 1.5-2 km average elevation and have been deformed through Alpine-Himalayan continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Recent seismological and geological studies suggest that the lithospheric structure between these two plateaus differs significantly since the Zagros fold-thrust belt in western Iran is associated with a thick lithospheric root (up to 225 km) whereas the East Anatolia seems to be lacking its mantle lithosphere. In this work, we use 2-D numerical experiments to test the applicability of small-scale convection model to account for the anomalous topography and uplift across the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Our models are designed to track the evolution of the surface topography as a response to a mantle flow activity in the step like morphology of the lithospheric base as wells as the temperature field. We test the role of several rheological parameters (e.g., viscosity) and variation in the lithospheric thickness in a series of experiments. Modeling results are tested against various observables for eastern Anatolia and Iran such as surface topography, crustal thickness, and surface strain rate. Our results provide new insight in the geodynamic evolution of Alpine type orogenic systems and suggest alternative mechanism to lithospheric delamination and/or slab break-off for the uplift of mountain belts.

  5. Detrital zircon analysis of Mesoproterozoic and neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of northcentral idaho: Implications for development of the Belt-Purcell basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, R.S.; Vervoort, J.D.; Burmester, R.F.; Oswald, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyzed detrital zircon grains from 10 metasedimentary rock samples of the Priest River complex and three other amphibolite-facies metamorphic sequences in north-central Idaho to test the previous assignment of these rocks to the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell Supergroup. Zircon grains from two samples of the Prichard Formation (lower Belt) and one sample of Cambrian quartzite were also analyzed as controls with known depositional ages. U-Pb zircon analysis by laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry reveals that 6 of the 10 samples contain multiple age populations between 1900 and 1400 Ma and a scatter of older ages, similar to results reported from the Belt- Purcell Supergroup to the north and east. Results from the Priest River metamorphic complex confirm previous correlations with the Prichard Formation. Samples from the Golden and Elk City sequences have significant numbers of 1500-1380 Ma grains, which indicates that they do not predate the Belt. Rather, they are probably from a relatively young, southwestern part of the Belt Supergroup (Lemhi subbasin). Non-North American (1610-1490 Ma) grains are rare in these rocks. Three samples of quartzite from the Syringa metamorphic sequence northwest of the Idaho batholith contain zircon grains younger than the Belt Supergroup and support a Neoproterozoic age. A single Cambrian sample has abundant 1780 Ma grains and none younger than ~1750 Ma. These results indicate that the likely protoliths of many high-grade metamorphic rocks in northern Idaho were strata of the Belt-Purcell Supergroup or overlying rocks of the Neoproterozoic Windermere Supergroup and not basement rocks.

  6. Single zircon ages for felsic to intermediate rocks from the Pietersburg and Giyani greenstone belts and bordering granitoid orthogneisses, northern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, A.; Jaeckel, P.; Brandl, G.

    2000-05-01

    Previous models for the temporal evolution of greenstone belts and surrounding granitoid gneisses in the northern Kaapvaal Craton can be revised on the basis of new single zircon ages, obtained by conventional UPb dating and PbPb evaporation. In the Pietersburg greenstone belt, zircons from a metaquartz porphyry of the Ysterberg Formation yielded an age of 2949.7±0.2 Ma, while a granite intruding the greenstones, and deformed together with them, has an age of 2853 + 19/-18 Ma. These data show felsic volcanism in this belt to have been coeval with felsic volcanism in the Murchison belt farther east, and the date of ˜2853 Ma provides an older age limit for deformation in the region. In contrast, a meta-andesite of the Giyani greenstone belt has a zircon age of 3203.3±0.2 Ma, while a younger and cross-cutting feldspar porphyry has an emplacement age of 2874.1±0.2 Ma. The meta-andesite is intercalated with various mafic and ultramafic rocks and, therefore, the age of 3.2 Ga appears plausible for the bulk of the Giyani greenstones. Granitoid gneisses surrounding the Pietersburg and Giyani belts vary in composition from tonalite to granite and texturally from well-layered to homogeneous but strongly foliated. These rocks yielded zircon ages between 2811 and 3283 Ma. The pre-3.2 Ga gneisses are polydeformed and may have constituted a basement to the Giyani greenstone sequence, while the younger gneisses are intrusive into the older gneiss assemblage and/or into the greenstones. The Giyani and Pietersburg belts probably define two separate crustal entities that were originally close together but were later displaced by strike-slip movement.

  7. Effects of driver characteristics on seat belt fit.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Hallman, Jason J

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m^2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced by moving the buckle, outboard-upper (D-ring), and outboard-lower anchorages. An investigator recorded the three-dimensional locations of landmarks on the belt and the participant's body using a coordinate measurement machine. The location of the belt with respect to the underlying skeletal structures was analyzed, along with the length of belt webbing. Using linear regression models, an increase in age from 20 to 80 years resulted in the lap belt positioned 18 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, 26 mm greater lap belt webbing length, and 19 mm greater shoulder belt length. An increase in stature of 350 mm (approximately the range from 5th-percentile female to 95th-percentile male in the U.S. population) was associated with the lap belt 14 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, the shoulder belt 37 mm more outboard relative to the body centerline, and 38 mm less shoulder belt webbing length. Among the driver factors considered, body mass index had the greatest effects. An increase of BMI in 20 kg/m^2, which spans approximately the central 90% of U.S. adults, was associated with the lap belt being placed 102 mm further forward and 94 mm higher, relative to the pelvis, and increases in lap and shoulder belt webbing length of 276 and 258 mm, respectively. Gender did not have important effects on the analyzed belt fit measures after taking into account stature and body mass index. These results offer important considerations for future crash safety assessments and suggest that further research is needed to consider belt fit for older and obese occupants. PMID:24435726

  8. CO depletion in the Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, H.; Viti, S.; Yates, J.; Hatchell, J.; Fuller, G. A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Buckle, J. V.; Graves, S.; Roberts, J.; Nutter, D.; Davis, C.; White, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Butner, H.; Richer, J.; Di Francesco, J.

    2012-05-01

    We present a statistical comparison of CO depletion in a set of local molecular clouds within the Gould Belt using Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) and Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP) data. This is the most wide-ranging study of depletion thus far within the Gould Belt. We estimate CO column densities assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and, for a selection of sources, using the radiative transfer code RADEX in order to compare the two column density estimation methods. High levels of depletion are seen in the centres of several dust cores in all the clouds. We find that in the gas surrounding protostars, levels of depletion are somewhat lower than for starless cores with the exception of a few highly depleted protostellar cores in Serpens and NGC 2024. There is a tentative correlation between core mass and core depletion, particularly in Taurus and Serpens. Taurus has, on average, the highest levels of depletion. Ophiuchus has low average levels of depletion which could perhaps be related to the anomalous dust grain size distribution observed in this cloud. High levels of depletion are often seen around the edges of regions of optical emission (Orion) or in more evolved or less dynamic regions such as the bowl of L1495 in Taurus and the north-western region of Serpens.

  9. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-06-15

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice-perhaps mixed with ammonia-that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the {approx}20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  10. Benefits of Seat Belt Reminder Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael; Koppel, Sjaanie; Vulcan, Peter; Brooks, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether fitting a more aggressive seat belt reminder system to new vehicles would be cost-beneficial for Australia. While seat belt wearing rates have been observed around 95% in the front seat, non-wearing rates in casualty crashes are as high as 33% among persons killed and 19% among seriously injured occupants. Benefits were computed for three device options (simple, simple-2 and complex) and three introduction scenarios (driver-only, front seat occupants and all occupants). Four levels of effectiveness were assumed, from 10% to 40%, depending on the type of device fitted. Unit benefits were computed assuming a 5% discount rate and a 15yr fleet life. Various industry experts provided the costs. The findings showed that Benefit-Cost-Ratios ranged from 4.0:1 at best (simple device for the driver only) to 0.9:1 for all seating positions. These figures are conservative, given the assumptions made and the discounted human capital methods used. PMID:12941229

  11. Appropriate frontal barrier tests for belted occupants.

    PubMed

    Hill, J R; Frampton, R J; Mackay, M

    1995-12-01

    Vehicle damage from frontal impacts was classified and investigated together with injuries sustained by belted front seat occupants. The sample consisted of 1872 frontal crashes from the Midlands of England. Analysis focused on impacts with broad objects that might conceivably be simulated by a barrier test. Two asymmetrical front-end damage patterns were commonly identified, and these gave the greatest rates of non-minor (Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) > or = 2) injuries in a range of Estimated Test Speeds from 35 to 52km/h which is the regime of current legislative crash tests. The most injurious type involved oblique damage caused by a substantial overlap of the struck object. The other type was from a small overlap. Objects struck and passenger compartment intrusions were compared. Appropriate asymmetrical and deformable barrier concepts were discussed. Other findings were connected with the future role of full face barriers as used in current tests such as Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208. Fuller overlaps (> 50%) tended to give more torso injuries rated > or = AIS 2 caused by seat belt loads and, at high speeds (53-79km/h), caused the most fatalities. Full overlaps (100%) rarely resulted in symmetrical intrusion into the passenger compartment. PMID:8749284

  12. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  13. Population of the Scattered Kuiper Belt.

    PubMed

    Trujillo; Jewitt; Luu

    2000-02-01

    We present the discovery of three new scattered Kuiper Belt objects (SKBOs) from a wide-field survey of the ecliptic. This continuing survey has to date covered 20.2 deg2 to a limiting red magnitude of 23.6. We combine the data from this new survey with an existing survey conducted at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope to constrain the number and mass of the SKBOs. The SKBOs are characterized by large eccentricities, perihelia near 35 AU, and semimajor axes greater than 50 AU. Using a maximum likelihood model, we estimate the total number of SKBOs larger than 100 km in diameter to be N=&parl0;3.1+1.9-1.3&parr0;x104 (1 sigma errors) and the total mass of SKBOs to be M approximately 0.05 M plus sign in circle, demonstrating that the SKBOs are similar in number and mass to the Kuiper Belt inside 50 AU. PMID:10622765

  14. United States East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Snowy to the north and west and cloudy to the east, this MODIS image from February 28, 2002, shows the eastern U.S. Piedmont, a region of relatively low-lying, rolling plateau that runs between New Jersey to the north and Alabama to the south. Bounded on the west by the Appalachians and on the east by the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Piedmont is fertile agricultural land, and appears to be greening up in (from bottom left) Georgia, South Carolina, and parts of North Carolina, while winter has left its snowy mark on West Virginia (left of center), and to the northeast in Pennsylvania, New York, and New England.

  15. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  16. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  17. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  18. INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE WALL AND DOOR, FACING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE WALL AND DOOR, FACING EAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST TRUSS AND EAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST TRUSS AND EAST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT, SEEN FROM SOUTH BANK OF WINTER'S RUN. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  20. 35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front of powerhouse and car barn. 'Annex' is right end of building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 3. East side, details of north half of east web; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East side, details of north half of east web; also details of roadway, railing and overhead bracing; looking northeast - Dodd Ford Bridge, County Road 147 Spanning Blue Earth River, Amboy, Blue Earth County, MN

  2. Detail east panel of east truss showing rollling panels and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail east panel of east truss showing rollling panels and counter weights. View south - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 12. East abutment and approach span column detail. View east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. East abutment and approach span column detail. View east - Ashton Viaduct, State Route 116 (Washington Highway) spanning Blackstone River, Blackstone Canal, & Providence & Worcester Railroad, Ashton, Providence County, RI

  4. 29. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR. ALUMINUMFRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR. ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS ARE REPLACEMENTS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  5. 8. View east. East abutment, showing bearings on concrete pads, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View east. East abutment, showing bearings on concrete pads, drainage pipes for approach, and scupper downspouts. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  6. 10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS OF COLD STORAGE, ALSO SHOWING REMNANTS OF COOLING PIPES - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 13. STREET LEVEL OF EAST BUILDING LOOKING EAST ACROSS WORKSHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. STREET LEVEL OF EAST BUILDING LOOKING EAST ACROSS WORKSHOP TOWARDS DORY SKIFF UNDER CONSTRUCTION ON BUILDING BED AND WORK BENCH IN BACKGROUND WITH BUILDER. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  8. 48. AUXILIARY CHAMBER (EAST END), VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AUXILIARY CHAMBER (EAST END), VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING ELECTRICAL PENETRATION AND AIR LOCK (LOCATION GGG) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  9. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  10. Anorthosite belts, continental drift, and the anorthosite event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herz, N.

    1969-01-01

    Most anorthosites lie in two principal belts when plotted on a predrift continental reconstruction. Anorthosite ages in the belts cluster around 1300 ?? 200 million years and range from 1100 to 1700 million years. This suggests that anorthosites are the product of a unique cataclysmic event or a thermal event that was normal only during the earth's early history.

  11. [The safety belt: effects on injury patterns of automobile passengers].

    PubMed

    Teifke, A; Degreif, J; Geist, M; Schild, H; Strunk, H; Schunk, K

    1993-09-01

    Since 1984 the law concerning safety belts has been implemented; this paper deals with the findings in 386 victims of motor accidents who were x-rayed between 1981 and 1989. Minor injuries have been ignored. The number of passengers wearing belts increased by 30% after 1984. The number of passenger injuries did not decrease. Injuries directly caused by the belts included a small number of fractures of clavicles, the sternum and ribs and one pelvic fracture, one serious abdominal injury with tearing of the mesenteric artery and one ruptured spleen. An indirect result of wearing seat belts was a marked increase in cervical whiplash injuries and some increase in thoracic vertebral fractures. None of the belt induced injuries proved fatal. Amongst those using seat belts there was a significantly lower fatality rate and injuries causing prolonged disability. In particular, using seat belts, serious injuries to the skull and brain were reduced by 80%. Similarly injuries to the abdomen, the odontoid, pelvis and hip joint were greatly reduced. The advantages of wearing a seat belt greatly outweigh the disadvantages. PMID:8374116

  12. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  13. 133. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. COUNTER WEIGHTED CHUTE COVERS BELT THAT DRIVES SANDER. DOOR TO BLACKSMITH SHOP IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  14. CORN BELT PLAIN RIVER AND STREAMS PROJECT - 3 BIOCRITERIA PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort resulted in eight products, as follows: 1) Development of Index of Biotic Integrity Expectations for the Ecoregions of Indiana I. Central Corn Belt Plain; 2) Ibid. II. Huron-Erie Lake Plain; 3) Ibid III. Northern Indiana Till Plain; 4) Ibid .IV.Eastern Corn Belt Plain...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  16. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  17. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  3. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  4. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  5. Anorthosite belts, continental drift, and the anorthosite event.

    PubMed

    Herz, N

    1969-05-23

    Most anorthosites lie in two principal belts when plotted on a predrift continental reconstruction. Anorthosite ages in the belts cluster around 1300 +/- 200 million years and range from 1100 to 1700 million years. This suggests that anorthosites are the product of a unique cataclysmic event or a thermal event that was normal only during the earth's early history. PMID:17775597

  6. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person...

  7. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person...

  8. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person...

  9. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person...

  10. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person...

  11. Radiation-belt dynamics during solar minimum. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Holeman, E.

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45 deg. and 55 deg. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  12. Neptune's Eccentricity and the Nature of the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The small eccentricity of Neptune may be a direct consequence of apsidal wave interaction with the trans-Neptune population of debris called the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is subject to resonant perturbations from Neptune, so that the transport of angular momentum by density waves can result in orbital evolution of Neptune as well as changes in the structure of the Kuiper belt. In particular, for a belt eroded out to the vicinity of Neptune's 2:1 resonance at about 48 astronomical units, Neptune's eccentricity can damp to its current value over the age of the solar system if the belt contains slightly more than an earth mass of material out to about 75 astronomical units.

  13. Neptune's eccentricity and the nature of the kuiper belt

    PubMed

    Ward; Hahn

    1998-06-26

    The small eccentricity of Neptune may be a direct consequence of apsidal wave interaction with the trans-Neptune population of debris called the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is subject to resonant perturbations from Neptune, so that the transport of angular momentum by density waves can result in orbital evolution of Neptune as well as changes in the structure of the Kuiper belt. In particular, for a belt eroded out to the vicinity of Neptune's 2:1 resonance at about 48 astronomical units, Neptune's eccentricity can damp to its current value over the age of the solar system if the belt contains slightly more than an earth mass of material out to about 75 astronomical units. PMID:9641913

  14. East Texas Quilts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Karen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Patchwork quilting is an original folk art in the United States. Pilgrims first used worn out scraps of cloth to make bed covers in an age of scarcity. Featured here are stories on East Texas Quilts, their origins, the love and hard work which goes into the making of a quilt (Ira Barr and others). The techniques needed to construct a quilt are…

  15. 'East Basin' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'East Basin' Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to obtain this view of the impact feature called 'East Basin' to the northeast of 'Husband Hill.' The images combined into this mosaic were taken during Spirit's 653rd Martian day, or sol (Nov. 3, 2005), just before Spirit descended eastward onto 'Haskin Ridge.' The view is about 150 degrees wide. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 480-nanometer filters.

    Dark features on the far side of the basin, just left of center in this view, are basaltic sand deposits that were emplaced on the lee sides of hills by northwesterly winds. Haskin Ridge is visible along the right margin of the image, capped by a light-toned layer of rock. Spirit investigated the light-toned rock unit after taking this image. The basaltic plains located east of the 'Columbia Hills' can be seen in the distance beyond 'East Basin.' The rim of Thira crater is just visible on the distant horizon some 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) away.

  16. East Texas Storytellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brandi, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, "Loblolly Magazine" is published twice a year. Issues are frequently devoted to a distant theme. The theme of this issue, "East Texas Storytellers," attempts to capture some of the local color and regional history of eastern Texas. The first article, "Timothy Griffith, Master…

  17. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  18. The East African rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowicz, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia

  19. 10. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST TOWER IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST TOWER IS SEEN AT THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH ON THE SKYLINE, AND THE EAST WALKWAY ABUTMENT IS SEEN AT THE LEFT OF THE VIEW. THE VERTICAL CABLE RUNS FROM THE EYEBOLT TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE SPACER. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 50. View looking east. East bay is on the left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. View looking east. East bay is on the left. The dismantling of the last crib. Note the identifying tags nailed to the crib sidewalls. Foundation timbers and the outline of the crib structure are visible in the foreground. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN