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Sample records for eastern indian coast

  1. Eastern American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert K.

    Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

  2. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes... the purposes of this section, “Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes” and their “usual and...

  3. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes... the purposes of this section, “Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes” and their “usual and...

  4. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes... the purposes of this section, “Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes” and their “usual and...

  5. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tribal consensus. (e) Identification. A valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.324 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  6. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  7. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  8. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  9. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  10. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  11. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emaneting from its crest. On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of

  12. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  13. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  14. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  15. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  16. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  17. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

  18. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

  19. Tsunami Hazards along the Eastern Australian Coast from Potential Earthquakes: Results from Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, H. L.; Ding, R. W.; Yuen, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Australia is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean and, thus, may suffer from tsunamis due to its proximity to the subduction earthquakes around the boundary of Australian Plate. Potential tsunami risks along the eastern coast, where more and more people currently live, are numerically investigated through a scenario-based method to provide an estimation of the tsunami hazard in this region. We have chosen and calculated the tsunami waves generated at the New Hebrides Trench and the Puysegur Trench, and we further investigated the relevant tsunami hazards along the eastern coast and their sensitivities to various sea floor frictions and earthquake parameters (i.e. the strike, the dip and the slip angles and the earthquake magnitude/rupture length). The results indicate that the Puysegur trench possesses a seismic threat causing wave amplitudes over 1.5 m along the coast of Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales, and even reaching over 2.6 m at the regions close to Sydney, Maria Island, and Gabo Island for a certain worse case, while the cities along the coast of Queensland are potentially less vulnerable than those on the southeastern Australian coast.

  20. Intraseasonal variability of upwelling in the equatorial Eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Han, Weiqing; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Dongxiao; Shinoda, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    By analyzing satellite observations and conducting a series of ocean general circulation model experiments, this study examines the physical processes that determine intraseasonal variability (ISV) of the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) upwelling for the 2001-2011 period. The ISV of EIO upwelling—as indicated by sea level, thermocline depth, and sea surface temperature (SST)—is predominantly forced by atmospheric intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs), and shows larger amplitudes during winter-spring season (November-April) when atmospheric ISOs are stronger than summer-fall (May-October). The chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration, another indicator of upwelling, however reveals its largest intraseasonal variability during May-October, when the mean thermocline is shallow and seasonal upwelling occurs. For both winter-spring and summer-fall seasons, the ISV of EIO sea level and thermocline depth is dominated by remote forcing from the equatorial Indian Ocean wind stress, which drives Kelvin waves that propagate along the equator and subsequently along the Sumatra-Java coasts. Local wind forcing within the EIO plays a secondary role. The ISV of SST, however, is dominated by upwelling induced by remote equatorial wind only during summer-fall, with less contribution from surface heat fluxes for this season. During winter-spring, the ISV of SST results primarily from shortwave radiation and turbulent heat flux induced by wind speed associated with the ISOs, and local forcing dominates the SST variability. In this season, the mean thermocline is deep in the warm pool and thus thermocline variability decouples from the ISV of SST. Only in summer-fall when the mean thermocline is shallow, upwelling has important impact on SST.

  1. 78 FR 15797 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Disaster #NC-00049

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Disaster NC-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration... Assistance Only for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (FEMA-4103-DR), dated 03/01/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Areas: Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and Associated...

  2. Origin of crude oil in eastern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of rock and crude oil samples suggests that three source rocks have given rise to most crude oil in reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coast. Carbonate source rocks of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are characterized by algal-derived kerogen preserved in an anoxic and hypersaline environment, resulting in crude oils with distinct compositions. Migration commenced during the Cretaceous, explaining the emplacement of Smackover-derived crude oil in Jurassic and in some Cretaceous reservoirs. Upper Cretaceous clastic and carbonate source rocks are also present. Much crude oil in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs has been derived from organic-rich marine shales of the Tuscaloosa Formation. These shales are characterized by algal and higher plant kerogen, resulting in distinct crude oil compositions. Migration commenced during the Tertiary, but was mostly focused to Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Tertiary shales, including those of the Wilcox Formation, are quite organic-rich and include downdip marine facies characterized by both algal and higher plant kerogen. Crude oils in lower Tertiary reservoirs are dissimilar to crude oils from deeper and older source rocks. Migration from lower Tertiary shales commenced during the late Tertiary and charged Tertiary reservoirs. Although most crude oil in the eastern Gulf Coast has been emplaced by short-range migration, often with a strong vertical component, some long-range lateral migration (>100 km) has occurred along Tertiary sands.

  3. Impact of Climate change in the Mangrove Distribution across the Indian Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, P.; Gouda, K. C.; Bhat, N.; Goswami, P.

    2015-12-01

    India is a tropical country surrounded by oceans in three sides i.e. Bay of Bengal in east, Arabian Sea in west, north Indian Ocean in south and by the large mountain system the Himalayas in north. Due to large coast line there is wide range of Mangroves in the coastal India. Mangroves are generally salt tolerant as well as rainfall and temperature dependent, so in this study an approach is being made for the trend analysis of the coastal weather parameters like Temperature, Rainfall, wave pattern and tide in the coastal region of India to understand the climate variability both in multiple spatial and temporal scale and also to correlate the impact of climate change on the Mangrove distribution. The weather parameters from multiple sources like satellite and reanalysis data are being analyzed in terms of the inter annual variability and trend analysis. The corresponding mangrove distribution also monitored and the correlation analysis of the weather parameters and the mangrove population are presented. The study is being carried out in country as a whole as well as along the state coast lines. Comparison of the distribution of mangrove as well as the associated parameters along the eastern and western coast are compared and it is found that there is higher variability in the mangrove distribution.

  4. Tectonic boundaries of the eastern Gulf Coast of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, C. Jr.; Phillips, R.R. )

    1993-09-01

    Two Precambrian extensional fault episodes, recorded in mapping from central Arkansas across Mississippi, central Alabama, southern Georgia, and into the Atlantic Ocean affected later Pennsylvanian and Triassic tectonics. This interpretation is from magnetic anomaly data and is supported by seismic, gravity, core, and well-log data. The fault system was first suspected from an anomalous magnetic high, representing a feature that affected tectonism during the Ouachita and the Alleghenian orogenies of the eastern Gulf Coast and southeastern United States. The northernmost upthrown block is considered part of an ancient passive continental margin developed during the late Precambrian. The southern downthrown block is deformed by left-lateral transverse faults active during the Ouachita Orogeny. The Ouachita Orogeny may have deformed terrain farther east than the Black Worrior basin. These transverse fault blocks were buttressed by the footwall of the extensional fault system. These left-lateral faults extending from Florida and Georgia into Alabama, Mississippi, and southern Arkansas.

  5. T-wave Generation Around The Eastern Coast Of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, T.; Wu, Y.; Lin, C.

    2006-12-01

    T-waves excited by local earthquakes and propagated within the SOFAR channel within oceans are often reported in eastern Taiwan. However, it is not quite well known how T-waves are generated due to the complicated tectonics and bathymetry in that area. To improve the understanding of T-wave generation, we have examined a number of short-period seismic data generated by 180 local earthquakes (M>4) and recorded at the seismic stations (CWBSN) along eastern coast of Taiwan and at the island of Lanyu in 2004. A high-frequency band-pass filter (5-10Hz) has been applied to enhance the signal of the T-phases. Possible ray-paths for most of T-waves are carefully estimated from detailed analyses of travel-time differences between T-phases and P- or S-arrivals. The preliminary results show T-waves were basically generated on the slope of around 1000 m in depth beneath oceans, but it is surprising to see that some converted points from seismic waves to T-waves were far away from both hypocenters and seismic stations. Furthermore, the observation of T-waves generated by both shallow and deep earthquakes indicates T-wave generation was not dependent with the focal depths of local earthquakes. The further characteristics of the T-wave generation will be significantly improved by examining more seismic data in the future.

  6. 78 FR 17422 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (FEMA-4103-DR), dated... Band of Cherokee Indians resulting from severe storms, flooding, landslides, and mudslides during...

  7. 77 FR 5265 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians-Cherokee Code Chapter 18B, Regulation of Alcoholic Beverages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians--Cherokee Code Chapter 18B, Regulation of... publishes the Amendment to the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians--Cherokee Code Chapter 18B, Regulation of... within the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians' Reservation. This Ordinance will increase the ability of...

  8. Assessment of coastal erosion along Indian coast on 1 : 25, 000 scaleusing satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajawat, A. S.; Chauhan, H. B.; Ratheesh, R.; Rhode, S.; Bhanderi, R. J.; Mahapatra, M.; Kumar, M.; Yadav, R.; Abraham, S. P.; Singh, S. S.; Keshri, K. N.; Ajai

    2014-11-01

    The long stretch of coastline on the either side of Indian peninsula is subjected to varied coastal processes and anthropogenic pressures, which makes the coast vulnerable to erosion. There is no systematic inventory of shoreline changes occurring along the entire Indian coast on 1:25, 000 scale, which is required for planning measures to be taken up for protecting the coast at national level. It is in this context that shoreline change mapping on 1:25, 000 scale for the entire Indian coast based on multidate satellite data in GIS environment has been carried out for 1989-91 and 2004-06 time frame. The paper discusses salient observations and results from the shoreline change inventory. The results show that 3829 km (45.5 %) of the coast is under erosion, 3004 km (35.7 %) of the coast is getting accreted, while 1581 km (18.8 %) of the coast is more or less stable in nature. Highest percentage of the shoreline under erosion is in Nicobar Islands (88.7 %), while percentage of accreting coastline is highest for Tamil Nadu (62.3 %) and the state of Goa has highest percentage of stable shoreline (52.4 %). The analysis shows that the Indian coast has lost a net area of about 73 sq km during 1989-91 and 2004-06 time frame. In Tamilnadu, a net area of about 25.45 sq km have increased due to accretion, while along Nicobar Island about 93.95 sq km is lost due to erosion. The inventory has been used to prepare "Shoreline Change Atlas of the Indian Coast", brought out as Six Volumes for the entire Indian coast.

  9. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey. PMID:12592459

  10. Indian Ocean Dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoop, T. R.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Shanas, P. R.; Glejin, J.; Amrutha, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Intrinsic modes of variability have a significant role in driving the climatic oscillations in the oceanic processes. In this paper, we investigate the influence of an inter-annual mode of variability, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), on the wave climate of the eastern Arabian Sea (AS). Using measured, modeled and reanalysis wave data and reanalysis wind data, we show that the IOD plays a major role in the variability of wave climate of the study region. Due to the IOD-induced changes in equatorial sea surface temperature and sea level pressure, the winds from the northern AS gets modified and cause inter-annual variability in the wave climate over the eastern AS. The changes in wind field over the AS due to the IOD influence the generation or dissipation of the wave field and hence cause a decrease in northwest short-period waves during positive IOD and an increase during negative IOD.

  11. Indian Ocean Dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoop, T. R.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Shanas, P. R.; Johnson, G.; Amrutha, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    Intrinsic modes of variability have a significant role in driving climatic oscillations in the ocean. In this paper, we investigate the influence of inter-annual variability, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), on the wave climate of the eastern Arabian Sea (AS). Using measured, modeled and reanalysis wave data and reanalysis wind data, we show that the IOD plays a major role in the variability of wave climate of the study region due to the IOD induced changes in equatorial sea surface temperature and sea level pressure. Inter-annual variability in the wave climate over the eastern AS during the IOD is due to the modification of winds from the northern AS. The change in wind field over the AS due to IOD influences the generation or dissipation of wave field and hence causes the decrease in northwest short period waves during positive IOD and increase during negative IOD.

  12. American Indian Family Support Systems and Implications for the Rehabilitation Process: The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine A.; Cerveny, Lee K.

    This project focused on the role of the family in providing support to a relative with a disability in two American Indian cultures, the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. A review of the literature notes the documented importance of involving family in the rehabilitation process. Ten families in each…

  13. High Resolution Regional Climate Modeling for Lebanon, Eastern Mediterranean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katurji, Marwan; Soltanzadeh, Iman; Kuhnlein, Meike; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2013-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean coast consists of Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Israel and a small part of southern Turkey. The region lies between latitudes 30 degrees S and 40 degrees N, which makes its climate affected by westerly propagating wintertime cyclones spinning off mid-latitude troughs (December, January and February), while during summer (June, July and August) the area is strongly affected by the sub-tropical anti-cyclonic belt as a result of the descending air of the Hadley cell circulation system. The area is considered to be in a transitional zone between tropical to mid-latitude climate regimes, and having a coastal topography up to 3000 m in elevation (like in the Western Ranges of Lebanon), which emphasizes the complexity of climate variability in this area under future predictions of climate change. This research incorporates both regional climate numerical simulations, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite derived and surface rain gauge rainfall data to evaluate the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 ability to represent both the mean and variance of observed precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, with emphasis on the Lebanese coastal terrain and mountain ranges. The adopted methodology involves dynamically down scaling climate data from reanalysis synoptic files through a double nesting procedure. The retrospective analysis of 13 years with both 50 and 10 km spatial resolution allows for the assessment of the model results on both a climate scale and specific high intensity precipitating events. The spatial averaged mean bias error in precipitation rate for the rainy season predicted by RegCM 50 and 10 km resolution grids was 0.13 and 0.004 mm hr-1 respectively. When correlating RegCM and TRMM precipitation rate for the domain covering Lebanon's coastal mountains, the root mean square error (RMSE) for the mean quantities over the 13-year period was only 0.03, while the RMSE for the standard deviation was higher by one

  14. Teleseismic receiver functions modeling of the eastern Indian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Biswas, Koushik

    2016-09-01

    We estimate receiver functions (RFs) through the time-domain deconvolution using three-component broadband data of 100 teleseismic events (30° ⩽ ∧ ⩽ 90°) from 15 seismographs in the eastern Indian craton. Estimated radial RFs show a positive phase at 4.6-5.8 s delay time corresponding to the crustal thicknesses of 37-46 km. Through the differential evolution (DE) waveform inversion modeling of radial receiver functions, we delineate the crustal structure at 15 broadband stations. On an average, the Archean Singhbhum Odisha Craton (SOC) is characterized by a thick crust of 43 ± 3 km in comparison to a relatively thin crust of 41 ± 1 km underlying the Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic terrain (CGGT). While, a thin crust of 38 ± 1 km characterizes the younger Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB). The main results of our modeling reveal a 46 km thick Archean crust underlying the Singhbhum granite (SG) of 3.6 Ga, which is characterized by a 3 km crustal thickening probably resulted from the Archean subduction process. Our modeling also detects a 2-3 km crustal thinning with the thinnest crust of 37 km below the region near South Singhbhum Shear Zone, which could be attributed to the 1.6 Ga plume activity associated with Dalma volcanic. Our modeling also led to the delineation of a crustal thinning of 2-3 km underlying the region in EGMB, which was influenced by a much younger (∼117 Ma) Rajmahal magmatism associated with the Gondwana break-up episode. However, our study could not detect any age-dependent variation of crustal thicknesses in the eastern Indian craton. The main result of our modeling suggests a two-phase crustal evolution process for the SOC viz. older E-W crustal thickening due to E-W plate compression and later crustal thinning episodes associated with the Dalma volcanism in the north and the Rajmahal volcanism in the South.

  15. Upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene angiosperm pollen biostratigraphy of the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1998-01-01

    Strata comprising most of the upper Paleocene in eastern North America are divided into two new pollen zones, the Carya and Platycarya platycaryoides Interval Zones. Pollen data have proven to be important for correlations between Alabama-western Georgia and eastern Mississippi and between the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia. Migration of tropical plant taxa from the Caribbean to the Gulf Coast began at least 4 m.y. before the end of the Paleocene. The Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event, accompanied by a distinct pulse of plant immigration from Europe, began several hundred thousand years before the end of the Paleocene.

  16. Salinity dominance on the Indian Ocean Eastern Gyral current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Viviane V.; Phillips, Helen E.; Schiller, Andreas; Domingues, Catia M.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of salinity gradients to the formation of the Eastern Gyral Current (EGC) in the South Indian Ocean. The EGC flows eastward near 15∘S, opposite to the direction predicted by classical theories of wind-driven circulation and is a source of water for the Leeuwin Current. In the upper ocean, a strong salinity front exists between fresh water from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the South Equatorial Current (SEC) and salty subtropical waters. In that region, salinity overwhelms the temperature contribution to density gradients, generating eastward geostrophic shear and establishing the EGC. Without the salinity front the EGC cannot be maintained: If the salinity contribution is neglected in the calculation of geostrophic currents, the EGC vanishes. Our observational analysis associated with the fact that both Sverdrup and Ekman theories produce westward flows in the region strongly supports the idea that the EGC is a salinity-driven current.

  17. MAGSAT anomaly profiles of the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sailor, R. V. (Principal Investigator); Lazarewicz, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Ground tracks from SEASAT were used in an effort to develop qualititative relationships between the gravity field and MAGSAT magnetic anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean. Investigation of data quality led to analyses of the average value (over 80 vector data points, or approximately 36 km intervals) and of the standard deviation of this average, as a mean of identifying noisy portions of the data. It was discovered that the plots of the average value minus the individual (measured) point value are most useful for identifying noisy areas and data spikes. Spectrum analysis using edited (spikes removed) data show that the noise floor is less than 1 nT and the slope of the spectrum in the region of wavelengths between 1200 km and 250 km is approximately -3. Consequently the estimated resolution limit improved from approximately 360 km to approximately 250 km.

  18. Three Cultures: The Hopi Indians of the Southwest Desert, the Indians of the Northwest Pacific Coast, and the People of Midwest U.S.A. An Anthropological Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marksberry, Mary Lee

    Intended to acquaint fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade children with the concept of culture, this anthropology unit focuses on two groups of Indians who lived in prehistoric times and present-day non-Indian families living in the Midwest. Objectives are to help students understand the behavior of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians, the Hopi…

  19. Tropical cyclone track Analysis over Indian Coast Using Spatio-Temporal data-mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Gyanendranath; Manjunath, Swetha; Behera, Sasmita; Mohanty, Pratap Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Tropical cyclones are a natural hazard which largely affects the lives and property with its destructive wind and heavy rainfall. Fluctuations in the frequency and intensity complicate the detection of long-term trends and play an important role in the global climate system; therefore understanding and predicting tropical cyclones track, intensity, and landfall location is of both societal and scientific significance. In this study a data-mining approach is being used to analyze the tropical cyclone track both in the temporal and spatial scale. Basically, the Indian coast line is divided into four zones viz. north east, south east in the eastern side adjoining Bay of Bengal and North west and south west in the western side adjoining Arabian sea as these coastal areas are very much vulnerable for disaster due to maximum number of landfall of Tropical Cyclones. The track and landfall associated with all the cyclones are clustered based on their intensity (Severe, moderate and low) and landfall location. The analyses are carried out for landfall location and the extent of track separately for the events happening in two seasons i.e. pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period. Along with categorization of intensity, trend analysis of track and the targeted zone of maximum damage also been studied. Algorithms are being developed for potential resilient and impact assessment of the parameters associated with cyclone disaster in the coastal region of India. One of the important objectives of this present work is also the identification of most disaster prone coastal area and becoming a part of the information support system during the cyclone period. Based on the statistics like mean, Standard Deviation, regression and correlation analysis, an index is developed which determines the level of damage and vulnerability along the coastal region. This index can be used for the early warning system of particular coastal areas for the preparedness and mitigation of future cyclone

  20. Coral Radiocarbon Records of Indian Ocean Water Mass Mixing and Wind-Induced Upwelling Along the Coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Grumet, N S; Abram, N J; Beck, J W; Dunbar, R B; Gagan, M K; Hantoro, W S; Suwargadi, B W

    2004-02-06

    Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the skeletal aragonite of annually banded corals track radiocarbon concentrations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, oceanic uptake of excess {sup 14}C in the atmosphere has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean {sup 14}C concentrations. We present accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements of radiocarbon isotope ({Delta}{sup 14}C) in Porites corals from the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra (0 S, 98 E) and Watamu, Kenya (3 S, 39 E) to document the temporal and spatial evolution of the {sup 14}C gradient in the tropical Indian Ocean. The rise in {Delta}{sup 14}C in the Sumatra coral, in response to the maximum in nuclear weapons testing, is delayed by 2-3 years relative to the rise in coral {Delta}{sup 14}C from the coast of Kenya. Kenya coral {Delta}{sup 14}C values rise quickly because surface waters are in prolonged contact with the atmosphere. In contrast, wind-induced upwelling and rapid mixing along the coast of Sumatra entrains {sup 14}C-depleted water from the subsurface, which dilutes the effect of the uptake of bomb-laden {sup 14}C by the surface-ocean. Bimonthly AMS {Delta}{sup 14}C measurements on the Mentawai coral reveal mainly interannual variability with minor seasonal variability. The interannual signal may be a response to changes in the Walker circulation, the development of easterly wind anomalies, shoaling of the eastern thermocline, and upwelling of {sup 14}C-depleted water along the coast of Sumatra. Singular spectrum analysis of the Sumatra coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record reveals a significant 3-year periodicity. The results lend support to the concept that ocean atmosphere interactions between the Pacific and Indian Oceans operate in concert with the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  1. Extraordinary capture of a Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus in the temperate south-eastern Indian Ocean and its molecular phylogenetic relationship within the Etelinae.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, C B; Moore, G I; Bertram, A E; Snow, M; Newman, S J

    2016-02-01

    The capture of a rarely encountered Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus (female, 587 mm fork length) from the upper continental slope (c. 350 m) off the south coast of Western Australia (c. 34·5° S; 122·5° E) in January 2014 represents its first record from the temperate Indian Ocean and a southern range extension. This record suggests that spawning of this predominantly tropical species may probably be occurring in the eastern Indian Ocean, considering the extensive, and unlikely, distance the progeny would have otherwise travelled from its typical distribution in the western and central Pacific Ocean. PMID:26511767

  2. 78 FR 32414 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of.... SUMMARY: This notice amends the notice of a major disaster for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (FEMA... follows: I have determined that the damage to the lands associated with the Eastern Band of...

  3. The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies. Volume 3, Great Basin/Plateau Indian Catalog, Northwest Coast/Arctic Indian Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Judith A., Ed.

    Two catalogs inventory wax cylinder collections, field recorded among Native American groups, 1890-1942. The catalog for Great Basin and Plateau Indian tribes contains entries for 174 cylinders in 7 collections from the Flathead, Nez Perce, Thompson/Okanagon, Northern Ute, and Yakima tribes. The catalog for Northwest Coast and Arctic Indian tribes…

  4. Sea breeze Initiated Rainfall over the east Coast of India during the Indian Southwest Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M; Warrior, H; Raman, S; Aswathanarayana, P A; Mohanty, U C; Suresh, R

    2006-09-05

    Sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation is investigated along the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon season. The sea breeze circulations are observed approximately 70 to 80% of the days during the summer months (June to August) along the Chennai coast. Observations of average sea breeze wind speeds are stronger at a rural location as compared to the wind speeds observed inside the urban region of Chennai. The sea breeze circulation is shown to be the dominant mechanism for initiating rainfall during the Indian southwest monsoon season. Roughly 80% of the total rainfall observed during the southwest monsoon over Chennai is directly related to the convection initiated by sea breeze circulation.

  5. PROFILE: Marine Protected Areas and Dugong Conservation Along Australia's Indian Ocean Coast

    PubMed

    Preen

    1998-03-01

    / The coastal zone of the Indian Ocean is coming under increasing pressure from human activities. Australia may be one of the few countries in this region that can afford to take adequate conservation measures in the near future. As it also has one of the longest Indian Ocean coastlines, Australia has the opportunity, and responsibility, to make a meaningful contribution to the conservation of Indian Ocean biodiversity. Threatened species, including marine turtles, inshore dolphins, and dugongs are an important component of that biodiversity. The dugong has been exterminated from several areas in the Indian Ocean, and it appears to be particularly threatened by mesh netting andhunting. Its long-term survival may depend on adequate protection in Australia, which contains the largest known Indian Ocean populations. This protection will require, in part, an appropriate system of marine protected areas (MPAs). This paper examines the adequacy of MPAs along Australia's Indian Ocean coast. Dugongs occur in two MPAs in Western Australia. The proposed expansion of the system of marine reserves is based primarily on representative samples of ecosystems from each biogeographic region. It is inadequate because it does not take into account the distribution and relative abundance of threatened species. If the conservation of biodiversity is to be maximized, the system of MPAs should incorporate both representativeness and the needs of threatened species. The level of protection provided by MPAs in Western Australia is low. Under current government policy potentially damaging activities, including commercial fishing, seismic surveys, and oil and gas drilling are permitted in protected areas.KEY WORDS: Marine protected areas; Dugongs; Western Australia; Indian Ocean; Conservation; Biodiversity PMID:9465127

  6. Role of the Kerguelen Plume in generating the eastern Indian Ocean seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Dominique; Frey, Frederick A.

    1996-06-01

    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) in the Indian Ocean have Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics that distinguish them from seafloor basalts in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. These differences have important implications for mantle dynamics. We discuss the isotopic variation with eruption age of seafloor basalts recovered by deep sea drilling at 10 sites in the eastern Indian Ocean ranging in age from Eocene to Late Jurassic. Except for alkalic basalts recovered from near Christmas Island in the northeast Indian Ocean, the basement lavas are tholeiitic basalts that are characterized by a wide range in incompatible element abundance ratios, such as La/Yb and Zr/Nb. Most of the tholeiitic basalts from seven sites are geochemically similar to recent Indian Ocean MORB, but the alkalic basalts and tholeiitic lavas from two other sites have isotopic and incompatible element abundance ratios similar to lavas associated with the Kerguelen Plume. Two of these three sites, however, are not close to the track of this plume. The Dupal isotopic signature (relatively high 87Sr/86Sr and high 208Pb/204Pb at a given 206Pb/204Pb) is characteristic of lavas that have been attributed to the Kerguelen Plume, i.e., the Kerguelen Archipelago, Ninetyeast Ridge, and Kerguelen Plateau. Among eastern Indian Ocean seafloor basalts, a Dupal component is apparent in basement lavas from six of the seven drill sites in the eastern Indian Ocean that range in inferred age from ˜57 to 125 Ma. The oldest (˜155 Ma) seafloor lavas recovered from the Indian Ocean, derived from a spreading center in the Argo Abyssal Plain near northwest Australia, have high 143Nd/144Nd and low 87/86Sr similar to the most depleted recent Indian MORB. Because the oldest volcanism on the Kerguelen Plateau (˜118 Ma) is the first evidence of the activity of the Kerguelen Plume, this plume is inferred to be the source of Dupal isotopic characteristics in Indian Ocean MORBs. Some recent Indian Ocean MORB are also distinctive

  7. Creations of Mystics and Philosophers: The White Man's Perceptions of Northwest Coast Indian Art from the 1930s to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Aldona

    1981-01-01

    Traces and analyzes the societal forces which have affected non-Indian interpretations of Northwest Coast Indian art from its acceptance as art in the 1930s to the shamanic and structural interpretations of more recent years. (CM)

  8. Phytoplankton variability in relation to some environmental factors in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mohamed Z; El-Din, Nihal G Shams; Gharib, Samiha M

    2015-10-01

    Water samples were seasonally collected from 12 stations of the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during autumn of 2012 and winter, spring, and summer of 2013 in order to investigate phytoplankton community structure in relation to some physicochemical parameters. The study area harbored a diversified phytoplankton community (138 species), belonging to 67 genera. Four algal groups were represented and classified as Bacillariophyceae (90 species), Dinophyceae (28 species), Cyanophyceae (16 species), and Chlorophyceae (4 species). The results indicated a relative high occurrence of some species namely.; Pleurotaenium trabecula of green algae; Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Proboscia alata var. gracillima, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens of diatoms; Trichodesmium erythraeum and Pseudoanabaena limnetica of cyanophytes. Most of other algal species were fairly distributed at the selected stations of the study area. The total abundance of phytoplankton was relatively low (average of 2989 unit/L) in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, as compared its western coast and the northern part of the Red Sea. The diversity of phytoplankton species was relatively high (2.35-3.82 nats) with an annual average of 3.22 nats in the present study. The results concluded that most of eastern coast of Suez Gulf is still healthy, relatively unpolluted, and oligotrophic area, which is clearly achieved by the low values of dissolved phosphate (0.025-0.3 μM), nitrate (0.18-1.26 μM), and dissolved ammonium (0.81-5.36 μM). Even if the occurrence of potentially harmful algae species was low, the study area should be monitored continuously. The dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.77 and 8.41 mg/L and pH values between 7.6 and 8.41. The multiple regression analysis showed that the dissolved nitrate and pH values were the most effective factors that controlled the seasonal fluctuations of phytoplankton along the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during 2012-2013. PMID:26407862

  9. Indian Education in Eastern Oklahoma. A Report of Fieldwork Among the Cherokee. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Murray L.; And Others

    A field study of Cherokee Indians in Eastern Oklahoma revealed the following information: (1) educators were ignorant of and indifferent to the language, values, and cultural traditions of the Tribal (rural) Cherokee; (2) the Tribal Cherokees were an impoverished people; (3) both adults and children were educationally disadvantaged; and (4) Tribal…

  10. The Drunken Indian Stereotype and the Eastern Cherokees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence; Bertoluzzi, Renitia

    1975-01-01

    The article explores the: 1) various causes of drinking pathologies and their relevance to Indians in general and the Qualla Cherokees in particular; 2) ways different groups view the drinking situation on the Boundary; and 3) some insights into the particular drinking patterns of the Qualla Cherokees. (NQ)

  11. The consequences of opening the Sunda Strait on the hydrography of the eastern tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Riza Yuliratno; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Southon, John; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Steinke, Stephan; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2015-10-01

    The advection of relatively fresh Java Sea water through the Sunda Strait is presently responsible for the low-salinity "tongue" in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean with salinities as low as 32‰. The evolution of the hydrologic conditions in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean since the last glacial period, when the Sunda shelf was exposed and any advection via the Sunda Strait was cutoff, and the degree to which these conditions were affected by the Sunda Strait opening are not known. Here we have analyzed two sediment cores (GeoB 10042-1 and GeoB 10043-3) collected from the eastern tropical Indian Ocean off the Sunda Strait that cover the past ~40,000 years. We investigate the magnitude of terrigenous supply, sea surface temperature (SST), and seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) changes related to the sea level-driven opening of the Sunda Strait. Our new spliced records off the Sunda Strait show that during the last glacial, average SST was cooler and δ18Osw was higher than elsewhere in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. Seawater δ18O decreased ~0.5‰ after the opening of the Sunda Strait at ~10 kyr B.P. accompanied by an SST increase of 1.7°C. We suggest that fresher sea surface conditions have persisted ever since due to a continuous transport of low-salinity Java Sea water into the eastern tropical Indian Ocean via the Sunda Strait that additionally increased marine productivity through the concomitant increase in terrigenous supply.

  12. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.; Janeković, I.

    2014-12-01

    The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind - ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast) and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed) when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  13. Severe flooding along the eastern Adriatic coast: the case of 1 December 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Međugorac, Iva; Pasarić, Miroslava; Orlić, Mirko

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses an extraordinary storm surge in the Northern Adriatic that was more pronounced on the eastern than on the western shore. On 1 December 2008, Adriatic monitoring stations detected exceptionally high sea levels; the oldest Croatian tide gauge station recorded the highest water level in its operating history at the time. Apart from the Northern Adriatic, large portion of the Dalmatian Coast was also exposed to high water levels, while Venice experienced a less-dramatic event. This marine storm was different from the capital storm of 4 November 1966 during which the surge had the highest impact ahead of Venice and along the north-western coastline. The 2008 event is studied here in detail, and the mechanisms that resulted in the different flooding of the two shores are identified. The study is based on hourly sea level, air pressure and wind data measured along both basin sides together with ECMWF reanalysis fields. Four components of sea-level evolution are identified: the storm surge, tide, Adriatic seiche and, low-frequency variability. The 2008 event was the outcome of a fine interplay between the first three components, which were all superimposed on the raised sea level due to low-frequency variability. The marine storm differed from the 1966 storm in the atmospheric forcing and relative timing of all contributing processes. The 2008 flooding of the eastern coast was mainly due to the Sirocco-wind shear, whereas the 1966 flooding of the western coast was due to the combined effect of almost uniform Sirocco and bottom slope.

  14. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  15. Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present. Proceedings of the Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference (5th, Pensacola, Florida, February 7-9, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, John K., Ed.

    A product of the 1974 Fifth Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, this compilation of 13 essays on American Indians of the South includes the following sections and titles: (1) Teaching the Indian Past in History Courses ("The Southeastern Indian Oral History Program at the University of Florida"; "Notes on the Literature of the Gulf…

  16. More-frequent extreme northward shifts of eastern Indian Ocean tropical convergence under greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Weller, Evan; Cai, Wenju; Min, Seung-Ki; Wu, Lixin; Ashok, Karumuri; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean exhibits strong interannual variability, often co-occurring with positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events. During what we identify as an extreme ITCZ event, a drastic northward shift of atmospheric convection coincides with an anomalously strong north-minus-south sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Such shifts lead to severe droughts over the maritime continent and surrounding islands but also devastating floods in southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Understanding future changes of the ITCZ is therefore of major scientific and socioeconomic interest. Here we find a more-than-doubling in the frequency of extreme ITCZ events under greenhouse warming, estimated from climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 that are able to simulate such events. The increase is due to a mean state change with an enhanced north-minus-south SST gradient and a weakened Walker Circulation, facilitating smaller perturbations to shift the ITCZ northwards. PMID:25124737

  17. The Previous Occurrence of Indian Ocean Tsunami- Geological Evidence from the Southeastern Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C.; Srinivasalu, S.; Rajendran, K.; Kumar, S.

    2008-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami is generally considered to be an event without any historical precedence. No known historical record exists on similar sized prior event of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami magnitude. However, a closer look at the "Manimekhalai" an ancient Tamil literature from South India reveal references to a sea surge event around A.D. 1000 that may have affected the town of Pumbuhar (a ~2000 year old historical port town also known as Kaveripattinam), located at southeastern coast of India. The literary references, however, cannot be taken as historical facts unless geological evidence supports them. With this in mind, we had trenched some selected sites in the southeast Indian coastal village of Vanagiri located near Pumbuhar (Kaveripattinam). Our shallow trench sites placed roughly 1 km from present coastal margin exposed parallel laminated paleobeach facies at base of the trench overlain by relatively thick low-angle cross-bedded sand sheets sandwiched between clayey beds followed by thick soil horizon that forms the present day surface. The cross-bedded sand sheet units are bounded by fining upward transitional contact on top and an erosional contact at the bottom and is characterized by presence of heavy mineral lamination, rip-up clay clasts, contortions, occasional mud drapes and rare pottery shards. The sand sheet units are typically thick towards sea and pinches out landward forming a wedge-shaped body. The grain size and micro faunal analyses of sand sheets indicate bimodal grain size distribution and presence of foraminifera, respectively. Preliminary thermal luminescence ages obtained from the pottery shards preserved in units from below and above the sand sheets bracket age of the event between 1836+/-172 and 1017+/-168 ybp, which roughly corresponds to the age of sea surge referenced in "Manimekhalai". Further work is underway to understand geometry, fauna, lithology, age, sedimentary and chemistry of this candidate paleo tsunami deposits.

  18. Vertical distributions of molecular hydrogen off the eastern and Gulf coasts of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Harriss, Robert C.; Levine, Joel S.; Edahl, Robert A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The vertical distributions of molecular hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were determined during spiraling maneuvers from aircraft off the eastern coast of the United States and over the Gulf of Mexico. H2 was always at its lowest levels in the boundary layer, averaging about 500 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). H2 mixing ratios determined in the free troposphere were typically higher (600-700 ppbv), and often suggested a small progressive increase with altitude. Several large free-tropospheric H2 plumes (mixing ratios as high as 1-2 parts per million by volume) were implied by the data. These H2 plumes were not always accompanied by corresponding increases in CO mixing ratios. This result is most difficult to explain when it is noted that the primary atmospheric sources for molecular H2 are considered to be combustion and photochemistry, both of which should be strong CO sources also.

  19. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources. PMID:27053053

  20. Observation of summertime upwelling off the eastern and northeastern coasts of Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peigen; Hu, Jianyu; Zheng, Quanan; Sun, Zhenyu; Zhu, Jia

    2016-03-01

    Using cruise observations and reanalysis data, this study analyzes the effects of wind, freshwater, and turbulent mixing on the two upwellings: one is off the eastern coast of Hainan Island (HEU) and the other is off the northeastern coast of Hainan Island (HNEU). During the cruise in 2009, the HNEU occurred with southwesterly to southeasterly wind. The relative large values of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and diffusivity estimated from the Thorpe scale indicate that the upwelling water is further uplifted to the surface by strong turbulent mixing in the HNEU region. But the HEU was not observed under the southeasterly wind. During the cruise in 2012, the HNEU disappeared in the upper layer with freshwater covered and southeasterly wind, while the apparent HEU only accompanied with southwesterly wind. To obtain the general characteristics, we define three types of upwelling patterns, i.e., the intensified HEU, the intensified HNEU, and both HEU and HNEU in one day, using the reanalysis data. The composites of sea surface temperature (SST), wind, and precipitate for each upwelling pattern identify that the HNEU is associated with the prevailing southeasterly wind and can be limited in the lower layer when it is covered by freshwater. But the HEU is mainly driven by southwesterly wind but is not remarkably affected by freshwater.

  1. Boulder accumulations related to extreme wave events on the eastern coast of Malta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biolchi, S.; Furlani, S.; Antonioli, F.; Baldassini, N.; Causon Deguara, J.; Devoto, S.; Di Stefano, A.; Evans, J.; Gambin, T.; Gauci, R.; Mastronuzzi, G.; Monaco, C.; Scicchitano, G.

    2015-10-01

    The accumulation of large boulders related to waves generated either by tsunamis or extreme storm events has been observed in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Along the NE and E low-lying rocky coasts of Malta tens of large boulder deposits have been surveyed, measured and mapped. These boulders have been detached and moved from the seafloor and lowest parts of the coast by the action of sea waves. In the Sicily-Malta channel, heavy storms are common and originate from the NE and NW winds. Conversely, few severe earthquakes and tsunamis are recorded in historical documents to have hit the Maltese archipelago, originated by seismicity activity related mainly to the Malta Escarpment, the Sicily Channel Rift Zone and the Hellenic Arc. We present a multi-disciplinary study, which aims to define the characteristics of the boulder accumulations along the eastern coast of Malta, in order to assess the coastal geo-hazard implications triggered by the sheer ability of extreme waves to detach and move large rocky blocks inland. The wave heights required to transport coastal boulders were calculated using various hydrodynamic equations. Particular attention was devoted to the quantification of the input parameters required in the workings of these equations. The axis sizes of blocks were measured with 3-D digital photogrammetric techniques and their densities were obtained throughout the use of a N-type Schmidt Hammer. Moreover, AMS ages were obtained from selected marine organisms encrusted on some of the boulders in various coastal sites. The combination of the results obtained by hydrodynamic equations and the radiocarbon dating suggests that the majority of the boulders has been detached and moved by intense storm waves. Nonetheless, it is possible that some of them may have been transported by tsunami.

  2. Biomonitoring of organochlorine compounds and trace metals along the Eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia) using Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Kljaković-Gaspić, Zorana; Herceg-Romanić, Snjezana; Kozul, Darija; Veza, Jere

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the results of monitoring trace organic contaminants (17 PCBs and 7 OCPs) and 6 trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in the coastal waters of the eastern Adriatic in 2006 using Mytilus galloprovincialis as indicator species. OCPs were found in all samples (0.07-14.3 ng g(-1)d.wt.), while in positive samples concentrations of PCBs ranged between 0.16 and 20.5 ng g(-1)d.wt. The α-HCH/γ-HCH and DDE/DDT ratios indicated recent input of γ-HCH and DDT. Spatial distributions of HCB, PCBs, DDTs and Hg were significantly correlated with population density. Although elevated concentrations of all trace metals and organic contaminants were recorded in the densely populated and industrialized areas, overall data point to relatively low level of contamination of the eastern Adriatic coast. Evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the mussels suggested that there is no health risk for moderate shellfish consumers. PMID:20696441

  3. In situ observation of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Murakami, Hirishi; Miyamura, Kazuyoshi; Siawanto, Eko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Joji

    2014-05-01

    Oita coast, where is in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan, is a richly fish aquaculture area. However, sometimes harmful algal blooms occur in this region, especially harmful dinoflagellates blooms, and cultured fish mortality occurs. Ocean color remote sensing is expected as a useful tool to reduce the financial damage of harmful algal blooms. However, ocean color data is low accuracy in the coastal region because colored dissolved organic matter and suspended solid are dominant. More optical data of harmful algal blooms are required because there are few data in harmful algal blooms. The field observation was conducted to understand the inherent optical property of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Oita prefecture on April and August 2013. Chlorophyll-a maximum (>24 mg m^-3) was observed in the subsurface layer on April 2013. The dominant phytoplankton species in this chlorophyll-a maximum layer was dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides (>300 cells ml^-1) and early stage of the bloom was formed. Peak of the remote sensing reflectance was near 565nm due to strong phytoplankton absorption within 400 ~ 500 nm domain from the subsurface bloom layer. Moreover, high phytoplankton absorption coefficient was observed at the shorter wavelength (< 400nm). This strong absorption might be due to mycosporine-like amino acids, which absorb the UV (Kahru and Mitchell, 1998). And this subsurface C. polykrikoides bloom was detected by using dinoflagellate bloom detection algorithm, which is a simpler new satellite remote sensing-based harmful algal blooms detection method for JAXA's GCOM-C/SGLI (Siswanto et al., 2013). However, detection of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi bloom by using the algorithm on August 2013 was difficult as colored dissolved organic matter and detritus absorptions were high. Although the algorithm could detect the early stage of C. polycrikoides bloom, the algorithm improvement to detect the harmful algal blooms in the case II

  4. An observational and numerical study of the sea breeze in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ander Arrillaga, Jon; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The sea breeze and its characteristics are well studied in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, but not so in the Cantabrian coast, perhaps due to a lower prevalence of stable synoptic conditions during the summer period. However, it was found that the sea breeze was one of the main drivers of pollution episodes in the industrialised metropolitan area of Bilbao. In addition, an accurate prediction of this mesoscale phenomenon is fundamental for forecasting hot spells with predominant southerly gradient winds, especially in the eastern half of the Cantabrian Sea, during which can be recorded up to 40 °C close to the shore. In this work, an automated method is used for selecting sea breeze days [1], based in 6 filters that evaluate the observed synoptic and surface conditions in the Eastern Cantabrian, provided by the Basque and Spanish meteorological agencies. The main objective is to make an observational and numerical analysis of this phenomenon in the aforementioned region, focusing on the predictability of the Sea Breeze Index (SBI) [2] and the evolution of turbulent parameters such as the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE). Numerical simulations are performed using the mesoscale model Weather Research and Forecast (WRF). The selection method fails filtering a non-sea-breeze day owing to a shift hint in the wind direction, which is predominantly southerly making temperature reach around 40 °C in one of the meteorological stations. This day is simulated both with and without updating the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The latter simulation leads to a more unrealistic situation. Furthermore, the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height evolution given by the model is compared for a sea breeze and a non-sea-breeze day, concluding that the establishment of a maritime flux results in a lower diffusive capacity in the lower atmosphere, which would lead to a higher concentration of pollutants close to the surface. It is also found that the cause of the

  5. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Eric J.; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A.; McInnes, Allison S.; Waite, Anya M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180–250 O2 μmol.kg-1) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  6. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean. PMID:20547419

  7. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Raes, Eric J; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A; McInnes, Allison S; Waite, Anya M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180-250 O2 μmol.kg(-1)) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  8. Boulder accumulations related to extreme wave events on the eastern coast of Malta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biolchi, Sara; Furlani, Stefano; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Baldassini, Niccoló; Causon Deguara, Joanna; Devoto, Stefano; Di Stefano, Agata; Evans, Julian; Gambin, Timothy; Gauci, Ritienne; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Monaco, Carmelo; Scicchitano, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    The accumulation of large boulders related to waves generated by either tsunamis or extreme storm events have been observed in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Along the eastern low-lying rocky coasts of Malta, five sites with large boulder deposits have been investigated, measured and mapped. These boulders have been detached and moved from the nearshore and the lowest parts of the coast by sea wave action. In the Sicily-Malta channel, heavy storms are common and originate from the NE and NW winds. Conversely, few tsunamis have been recorded in historical documents to have reached the Maltese archipelago. We present a multi-disciplinary study, which aims to define the characteristics of these boulder accumulations, in order to assess the coastal geo-hazard implications triggered by the sheer ability of extreme waves to detach and move large rocky blocks inland. The wave heights required to transport 77 coastal boulders were calculated using various hydrodynamic equations. Particular attention was given to the quantification of the input parameters required in the workings of these equations, such as size, density and distance from the coast. In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages were determined from selected samples of marine organisms encrusted on some of the coastal boulders. The combination of the results obtained both by the hydrodynamic equations, which provided values comparable with those observed and measured during the storms, and radiocarbon dating suggests that the majority of the boulders have been detached and moved by intense storm waves. These boulders testify to the existence of a real hazard for the coasts of Malta, i.e. that of very high storm waves, which, during exceptional storms, are able to detach large blocks of volumes exceeding 10 m3 from the coastal edge and the nearshore bottom, and also to transport them inland. Nevertheless, the occurrence of one or more tsunami events cannot be ruled out, since

  9. The role of Equatorial Undercurrent in sustaining the Eastern Indian Ocean upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Han, Weiqing; Shu, Yeqiang; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Dongxiao; Xie, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    By combining volume transport and salinity analysis from 1958 to 2014, this paper investigates how the transient Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) sustains the summer-fall equatorial eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) upwelling. On seasonal time scales, the EIO upwelling is mainly supplied by the salty water from the western basin through a buffering process: The winter-spring EUC carries the salty water from the western basin eastward, induces downwelling in the EIO, and pushes portion of the salty water below the central thermocline, which subsequently upwells to the central thermocline during summer-fall and sustains the EIO upwelling. On interannual time scales, enhanced upwelling occurs during positive Indian Ocean Dipole (+IOD) years. The strong summer-fall EUC associated with the +IOD supplies water for the intensified upwelling. This research provides new knowledge for basin-scale mass and property exchanges associated with the EIO upwelling, contributing to our understanding of three-dimensional ocean circulation and climate variability.

  10. Evolution of the eastern Indian Ocean since the Late Cretaceous - Constraints from Geosat altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royer, Jean-Yves; Sandwell, David T.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the tectonic evolution of the eastern Indian Ocean from the Late Cretaceous to the present is constructed. Reinterpretations of seafloor magnetic anomalies are used to place constraints on spreading rates and the timing of major reorganizations. Vertical deflection profiles from 22 repeat cycles of Geosat altimeter data are used to determine the tectonic fabric associated with fracture zones. The Geosat data place constraints on paleospreading directions. Consideration is given to the implications of the model for the relative motions between India, Australia, and Antarctica.

  11. Post Tyrrhénian deformation analysis in the Sahel coast (Eastern Tunisia): seismotectonic events implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejrei, H.; Ghribi, R.; Bouaziz, S.; Balescu, S.

    2012-04-01

    The eastern coast of Tunisia is characterized by Pleistocene coastal deposits considered as a reference of interglacial high sea levels. In this region, the stratigraphy of Tunisian Pleistocene deposits was first established on the basis of geomorphological, lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic criteria and U/Th data. They have been subdivided into three superimposed formations, from the oldest to the recent "Douira, Rejiche and Chebba" including coastal marine (Strombus bubonius), lagoonal and eolian sediments. These marine formations are organized into parallel bars to the actual shoreline overlaying unconformably the Mio-Pliocene and "Villafranchian" deposits. A luminescence dating method IRSL applied to alkali feldspar grains from the two sandy marines units of the Douira formation demonstrate for the first time the presence of two successive interglacial high sea level events correlative of MIS 7 and MIS 9. These sandy marine units are separated by a major erosional surface and by a continental pedogenised loamy deposit related to a low sea level event which might be assigned to MIS 8. Variations in the height of these marine unit (+13 to +32m) in the Sahel coast reflect a significant tectonic deformations and show precious geomorphological and tectonic markers. An extensive brittle deformations analysis has been carried out in several sites. A detailed analysis of fracturing is based on studies of fault-slip data population and of joint sets. It allows reconstructions of post Tyrrhenian stress regimes which are characterized by N170-016 compression and N095-100 extension. In this paper we present, the combination of IRSL data applied to these raised marine deposits and a reconstruction of tectonic evolution in term of stress pattern evolution since the Tyrrhenian allowed us to assign an accurate the recent tectonic calendar. These reconstituted events will be replaced and will be discussed in the regional setting of sismotectonic activities of the north

  12. Three new species of Ammonicera from the Eastern Pacific coast of North America, with redescriptions and comments on other species of Omalogyridae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia).

    PubMed

    Sartori, André F; Bieler, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    The family Omalogyridae comprises some of the smallest known marine snails. Like all micromolluscs, they have been historically neglected and are underrepresented in faunistic surveys. Based on a few focused studies of the family, 15 valid omalogyrid species were previously recognised in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. To these, we add 3 new species based on a morphological analysis of material in the dry collection of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, applying light and scanning electron microscopies. The new species, Ammonicera mcleani, A. mexicana and A. sleursi, are the first omalogyrid species described from the Eastern Pacific coast of North America. Redescriptions of the Australian omalogyrids Ammonicera sucina (Laseron, 1954) and Omalogyra liliputia (Laseron, 1954) are also presented, detailing for the first time ultrastructural aspects of their shell morphology. Additionally, we present here the first record of Ammonicera binodosa Sleurs, 1985b in Sri Lanka, introduce the new combination Ammonicera vangoethemi (Sleurs, 1985c) for Omalogyra vangoethemi, and formally remove Transomalogyra Palazzi & Gaglini, 1979 from Omalogyridae by fixing its type species as Homalogyra densicostata Jeffreys, 1884. Finally, we present lists, geographic records and a bibliography of all currently recognised omalogyrid species in the Indian, Pacific and Antarctic Oceans, as well as an update to a previously published compilation of the Atlantic and Mediterranean representatives of the family. PMID:25544067

  13. Molecular phylogeny of commercially important lobster species from Indian coast inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Jeena, N S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Radhakrishnan, E V; Kizhakudan, Joe K; Basheer, V S; Asokan, P K; Jena, J K

    2016-07-01

    Lobsters constitute low-volume high-value crustacean fishery resource along Indian coast. For the conservation and management of this declining resource, accurate identification of species and larvae is essential. The objectives of this work were to generate species-specific molecular signatures of 11 commercially important species of lobsters of families Palinuridae and Scyllaridae and to reconstruct a phylogeny to clarify the evolutionary relationships among genera and species included in this study. Partial sequences were generated for all the candidate species from sampling sites along the Indian coast using markers like Cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 16SrRNA, 12SrRNA, and 18SrRNA genes, and analyzed. The genetic identities of widely distributed Thenus species along the Indian coast to be Thenus unimaculatus and the sub-species of Panulirus homarus to be P. homarus homarus were confirmed. Phylogeny reconstruction using the individual gene and concatenated mtDNA data set were carried out. The overall results suggested independent monophyly of Scyllaridae and Stridentes of Palinuridae. The interspecific divergence was found to be highest for the 12SrRNA compared with other genes. Significant incongruence between mtDNA and nuclear 18SrRNA gene tree topologies was observed. The results hinted an earlier origin for Palinuridae compared with Scyllaridae. The DNA sequence data generated from this study will aid in the correct identification of lobster larvae and will find application in research related to larval transport and distribution. PMID:26065848

  14. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  15. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  16. Three Anisakis spp. isolated from toothed whales stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Kristina; Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning cetacean ecology in the Mediterranean is limited but important for sustainable planning and enforcement of appropriate conservation measures. Any information that might help to elucidate their ecology is essential. We explored the population and genetic structures of Anisakis spp. nematodes isolated from four toothed whale species - bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) - stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast (1990-2012) to reveal more information on host ecological patterns. Lower parasite prevalence was observed in resident dolphin species compared with occasionally occurring species, as well as in young compared with adult dolphins, indicating different feeding habits related to age. No unequivocal relationship between the biological traits of a host (age, body length, body mass and blubber depth) and Anisakis population parameters was observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new geographical record of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (1.96%) and Anisakis physeteris (1.31%) in the Adriatic Sea in addition to resident Anisakis pegreffii (96.73%). In an assessment of the Adriatic Sea and oceans worldwide, the genetic structure of Anisakis revealed that A. pegreffii populations do not differ among various final host species but do differ with respect to geographical location in contrast to previously accepted Anisakis panmixia. PMID:25449948

  17. Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

  18. Late Quaternary sea-level highstands in the central and eastern Indian Ocean: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2005-11-01

    The relative sea-level history of several atolls in the central and eastern Indian Ocean, including the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Chagos Archipelago, and the Maldives-Laccadive Archipelagoes, has been debated for over a century but takes on a particular significance in the face of anticipated climate change. For each of these central and eastern Indian Ocean atolls Pleistocene limestone is encountered at depths of 6-20 m below sea level. On the Cocos (Keeling) Islands this has been dated to Last Interglacial age. Conglomerate platform underlies the reef islands on Cocos within which a sequence of fossil microatolls of massive and branching Porites records a gradual fall of sea level relative to the atoll. In the Maldives, the significance of outcrops of 'reef rock' has been vigorously debated without resolving sea-level history. Although in situ Heliopora occurs on the reef flat of Addu Atoll, dated at around 2700 radiocarbon yrs BP, other evidence for higher sea level remains poorly constrained. Conglomerates of a similar age have been described from the Chagos Archipelago, but it has not been unequivocally demonstrated that they formed under conditions of relatively higher sea level. In contrast to reefs further west in the Indian Ocean, each of these atolls has living microatolls of massive Porites that have been constrained in their upward growth by sea level. Interpretation of the upper surface of two such specimens from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands indicates broad fluctuations in the sea surface over the past century; similar microatolls are described from the Maldives implying little change in sea level over recent years. Regardless of minor past fluctuations, most reef islands in the Maldives are particularly low-lying and appear vulnerable to inundation, and extracting a more detailed sea-level history remains an important challenge.

  19. Chemical composition of selected seaweeds from the Indian Ocean, KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Magura, Judie; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-08-01

    The chemical composition of three edible seaweeds (Codium capitatum, Hypnea spicifera and Sargassum elegans) and two inedible seaweeds (Halimeda cuneata and Spyridia hypnoides) from the Indian Ocean along the KwaZulu-Natal East Coast, South Africa were investigated as a function of seasonal variation. The proximate compositions of the edible seaweeds were determined. In edible seaweeds, the moisture level ranged from 85.4 to 89.5%, protein from 6.1 to 11.8%, lipids from 7.5 to 13.1% and carbohydrates from 37.8 to 71.9%. Elemental concentrations in the five studied seaweeds varied significantly with season (P < 0.05) with mean elemental concentrations (in µg g(-1), dry weight) being: Ca (29 260), Mg (6 279), Fe (1 086), Cu (145.9), Mn (48.32), As (24.29), Zn (15.65), Ni (9.83), Cr (5.78), Pb (4.84), Co (0.87) and Se (0.86). The concentrations of As were particularly high in S. elegans, ranging from 94.70 ± 6.6 µg g(-1) in winter to 65.10 ± 2.3 µg g(-1) in summer. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed similar distribution of elements in edible seaweeds which was dissimilar to that in inedible seaweeds. This study suggests that edible macro alga, C. capitatum and H. spicifera, could be potential sources of most essential nutrients and may contribute positively to the diet without posing the risk of adverse health effects due to low concentrations of toxic elements. However, due to high levels of As in S. elegans, its consumption should be moderated to reduce dietary exposure to this toxic element. PMID:27153179

  20. Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

  1. Variability of Zonal Currents in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean on Seasonal to Interannual Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyadjro, E. S.; McPhaden, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present results on the zonal current variations along the equator in the upper layers of eastern Indian Ocean in relation to variations in the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Our study utilizes data from the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) and model outputs from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ECMWF-ORAS4) for 1960-2011. Surface currents are characterized by strong semi-annual eastward flowing Wyrtki jets in boreal spring and fall, forced by westerly monsoon transition winds along the equator. The fall jet intensifies during negative IOD (NIOD) events when westerlies are stronger than normal but significantly weakens during positive IOD (PIOD) events when westerlies are weaker than normal. Associated with weakened PIOD zonal wind stresses, sea surface height becomes unusually low in the eastern basin and high in the west, setting up an anomalous pressure force that drives increased eastward transport in the thermocline. In contrast, during NIOD events when equatorial westerlies and the normal zonal surface height gradient intensify, the eastward zonal current in the thermocline significantly weakens. A surface layer mass budget calculation for the eastern pole of the IOD indicates upwelling at a rate of ~2.9±0.7 Sv during normal periods, increasing by 40-50% during PIOD events and reducing to zero during NIOD events. IOD-related variations in Wyrtki jet and thermocline transports are major influences on these upwelling rates, which are consistent with observed sea surface temperature changes.

  2. Variability of zonal currents in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean on seasonal to interannual time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyadjro, Ebenezer S.; McPhaden, Michael J.

    2014-11-01

    This study examines equatorial zonal current variations in the upper layers of eastern Indian Ocean in relation to variations in the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The analysis utilizes data from the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ECMWF-ORAS4). Surface currents are characterized by semiannual eastward flowing Wyrtki jets along the equator in boreal spring and fall, forced by westerly monsoon transition winds. The fall jet intensifies during negative IOD (NIOD) events when westerlies are anomalously strong but significantly weakens during positive IOD (PIOD) events when westerlies are anomalously weak. As zonal wind stress weakens during PIOD events, sea surface height becomes unusually low in the eastern basin and high in the west, setting up an anomalous pressure force that drives increased eastward transport in the thermocline. Opposite tendencies are evident during NIOD events in response to intensified equatorial westerlies. Current transport adjustments to anomalous zonal wind forcing during IOD events extend into the following year, consistent with the cycling of equatorial wave energy around the basin. A surface layer mass budget calculation for the eastern sea surface temperature (SST) pole of the IOD indicates upwelling of ˜2.9±0.7 Sv during normal periods, increasing by 40-50% during PIOD events and reducing effectively to zero during NIOD events. IOD-related variations in Wyrtki jet and thermocline transports are major influences on these upwelling rates and associated water mass transformations, which vary consistently with SST changes.

  3. Indian Castle Shale: late synorogenic siliciclastic succession in an evolving Middle to Late Ordovician foreland basin, eastern New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Gordon C.; Brett, Carlton E.

    2002-01-01

    The thick, organic-rich, Indian Castle Shale, is a major component of the greater Utica Shale basinal facies succession associated with the Taconian Orogeny. Detailed correlations of numerous Indian Castle sections, presented herein, are based on physical matching of numerous altered ash layers (K-bentonites) coupled with use of submarine discontinuities and other distinctive beds. Several important trends are observed: first, the Dolgeville Formation extends eastward into the eastern Mohawk Valley region (Hoffmans Fault area) lithologically separating an older Utica division (Flat Creek Shale) from Indian Castle Shale proper. Second, Indian Castle Shale strata are observed to overlap the regional top-Dolgeville and post-Trenton disconformity towards the northwest. Third, the lower part, and possibly the upper part, of the Indian Castle succession is differentially thickened in the west-central Mohawk Valley region due to differential subsidence and syntectonic fault activity. Fourth, the lower part of the Indian Castle Shale succession in the central-to-eastern part of the Mohawk Valley region continues to thin slightly with little evidence for major eastward transition of Utica facies into turbiditic Schenectady deposits. Fifth, K-bentonitic beds, many displaying distinctive sedimentological features, are clustered in intervals of apparent Indian Castle stratigraphic condensation. Ashes also display an overall upward decrease in abundance within the Indian Castle Shale succession. These patterns indicate that Indian Castle deposition, influenced by lithospheric flexural processes, localized fault activity and eustatic fluctuations, occurred when the foreland basin was maximally developed. Indian Castle deposition was probably linked to a collisional tectophase of Taconian overthrusting.

  4. Phosphorus speciation and availability in sediments off the eastern coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Su-Mei; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Surface and core sediments were collected off the eastern coast of Hainan Island (South China Sea), and a sequential extraction method (SEDEX) was used to separate and quantify five sedimentary phosphorus (P) reservoirs: exchangeable or loosely sorbed P (Ex-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), authigenic P (Ca-P), detrital P (De-P) and organic P (OP). Total P (TP) in the surface and core sediments ranged from 7.96 to 22.34 μmol g-1, and was dominated by inorganic P (IP). De-P and Ca-P were the main chemical species of P in surface and core sediments. The distribution of the P species in surface and core sediments was governed by various factors, including terrigenous input, biological processes, Fe oxides/hydroxides, organic matter degradation, and sediment grain size. The organic carbon (OC)/OP ratio ranged from 37 to 293 (average, 107±58) in surface sediments, suggesting that the organic matter in sediments had been subject to degradation and comprised mostly refractory compounds. The OC/Preactive ratio (37-69) was relatively low in the core sediments, suggesting an excess of sedimentary reactive P compared with OC. The Fe/P ratio ranged from 2 to 19 in surface and core sediments, which indicates that the higher proportions of the crystalline phases occurred in estuarine areas relative to the offshore areas. The potential bioavailable P accounted for 20.3-54.2% of TP in the surface and core sediments.

  5. Hourly Precipitation Downscaling With Empirical Statistical Methods: Case Study near the US Eastern Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Sivandran, G.

    2014-12-01

    Statistical downscaling methods are widely used to reconcile the spatial and temporal difference between climate model outputs and input requirements of climate change impact assessments. Quantile-mapping, due to its simplicity and general good performance, is one of the most popular. However, its simplicity also leads to variations in the procedure among studies, and it is not always well cross-validated. There is also less attention paid to sub-daily precipitation downscaling which is important for urban hydrologic purposes. The study explores the potential of quantile-mapping by comparing four of its variations, and extends its application by linking it to an hourly k nearest-neighbor resampling disaggregation. The methods are trained with NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis. Seven-fold cross-validation on various mean, variability, and extreme precipitation statistics is performed with hourly observations at rain gauges along the eastern coast of the United States. The best performance on mean monthly precipitation and annual maximum 5-day precipitation is found when quantile-mapping is trained without regard to seasonality. However, the best performance on all other statistics is contingent upon the method being trained separately for each month and combined with a monthly bias-correction factor. Deficiencies in quantile-mapping carry over to the hourly disaggregation step. When the downscaled daily precipitation is satisfactory, the hourly disaggregation performs very well on all statistics after careful selection of its two parameters. These results demonstrate the importance to consider seasonality in the implementation of quantile-mapping and highlight some clear, though limited, deficiencies. That it is feasible to generate realistic hourly precipitation series with easy-to-implement empirical methods is also of interest to water managers.

  6. Genetic isolation among the northwestern, southwestern and central-eastern Indian Ocean populations of the pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566-571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986-1.0000 and π = 0.031593-0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents. PMID:24865488

  7. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents. PMID:24865488

  8. Distinctive mutation spectrum of the HBB gene in an urban eastern Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Subhransu Sekhar; Biswal, Sebaranjan; Dixit, Manjusha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hemoglobinopathies such as β-thalassemia (β-thal) and sickle cell anemia (or Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val]) impose a major health burden in the Indian population. To determine the frequencies of the HBB gene mutations in eastern Indian populations and to compare with the available data, a comprehensive molecular analysis of the HBB gene was done in the normal Odisha State population. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and DNA sequencing techniques, β-thal and sickle cell anemia mutations were characterized in 267 healthy individuals. Entire HBB gene sequencing showed 63 different mutations including 11 new ones. The predominant mutation HBB: c.9T > C was observed at a high frequency (19.57%) in the normal population. In the urban population of Odisha State, India, carrier frequency of hemoglobinopathies was found to be 18.48%, and for β-thal, the carrier rate was 14.13%, which is very high indeed. In the absence of a complete cure by any expensive treatment and drug administration, this information would be helpful for planning a population screening program and establishing prenatal diagnosis of β-thal in order to reduce the burden of such a genetic disease. PMID:24099628

  9. MAGSAT investigation of crustal magnetic anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sailor, R. V.; Lazarewicz, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies in a region of the eastern Indian Ocean were studied using data from NASA's MAGSAT mission. The investigation region (0 deg to 50 deg South, 75 to 125 deg East) contains several important tectonic features, including the Broken Ridge, Java Trench, Ninetyeast Ridge, and Southeast Indian Ridge. A large positive magnetic anomaly is associated with the Broken Ridge and smaller positive anomalies correlate with the Ninetyeast Ridge and western Australia. Individual profiles of scalar data (computed from vector components) were considered to determine the overall data quality and resolution capability. A set of MAGSAT ""Quiet-Time'' data was used to compute an equivalent source crustal magnetic anomaly map of the study region. Maps of crustal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility were computed from the equivalent source dipoles. Gravity data were used to help interpretation, and a map of the ratio of magnetization to density contrasts was computed using Poisson's relation. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of induced magnetization of a crustal layer having varying thickness and composition.

  10. Surface and subsurface oceanic variability observed in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during three consecutive Indian Ocean dipole events: 2006 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, I.; Mardiansyah, W.; Setiabudidaya, D.; Affandi, A. K.; Syamsuddin, F.

    2014-09-01

    8-year and 4-year long velocity time series records from the equatorial Indian Ocean successfully captured, for the first time, complete evolution of subsurface currents associated with three consecutive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events in 2006 - 2008. It is found that strong eastward subsurface zonal currents in the layer between about 90 m and 150 m were observed, which were opposite to the normal conditions. Vertical structure of the zonal currents resembles that of the typical zonal currents in the equatorial Pacific with an eastward subsurface current lies beneath the surface westward currents. This vertical structure of the zonal currents was associated with anomalous easterly winds along the equatorial Indian Ocean during the maturing phase of the IOD events. In addition, subsurface temperature structures obtained from RAMA buoy network show negative temperature anomalies preceded the surface temperature evolution associated with the IOD events. The negative subsurface temperature anomaly lasted for several months before it changes into positive anomaly as the IOD terminated. The surface temperature structure indicated by the Dipole Mode Index (DMI) revealed that the 2006 IOD was a strong event, while the 2007 and 2008 events were weaker and short-lived events. The evolution of the IOD events were linked to the dynamics of oceanic equatorial wave. It is found that upwelling equatorial Kelvin waves forced by anomalous easterly wind stress play an important role in generating cooling tendency during the development and maturing phase of the IOD events. The demise of the IOD events, on the other hand, was linked to eastern-boundary-reflected Rossby waves that terminated the cooling tendency in the eastern Indian Ocean induced by the wind-forced Kelvin waves. Weakening of the zonal heat advection, then, provided a favor condition for the surface heat flux to warm the sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

  11. The influence of Indian summer monsoon on the climatic regime of Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizou, D.; Flocas, H. A.; Bartzokas, A.; Helmis, C. G.

    2012-04-01

    In a previous study, composite analysis demonstrated that there are significant differences in the atmospheric circulation over the greater Mediterranean region at the upper and lower levels between strong and weak monsoon years. More specifically, in the lower atmosphere the geopotential height anomaly patterns for the extreme Indian summer monsoon (ISM) years indicated the intensification (weakening) of the Azores anticyclone and the Persian trough, which extends from the Asian monsoon towards the Aegean Sea, during strong (weak) ISM years. This further implies that the ISM has an impact on the strong northerly winds blowing over the Aegean Sea, namely "Etesians", which result from the combined action of the two aforementioned major systems. The accompanied continual cool advection in the area was identified in the negative anomalies of the strong 1000 hPa temperature composite over the region. At the same time, in the 500 hPa ω anomaly field it was found that a pronounced subsidence (upward motion) dominates over Eastern Mediterranean during years of strong (weak) ISM, counteracting the advective cooling in the area. The objective of this study is to further investigate the ISM impact on the temperature and wind regime of the Eastern Mediterranean region, with the aid of multivariate statistics. For this purpose, the standardized Dynamic Indian Monsoon Index by Wang and Fan (1999) was used for a period of 44 years (1958-2001) along with ERA40 Reanalysis data, including monthly means of surface air temperature and wind at 850hPa with a horizontal resolution of 0.25° latitude x 0.25° longitude. Initially, the correlation maps of the seasonal anomalies of the two variables upon ISM index are computed and subsequently Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis (EOF) is carried out on individual fields. Under this framework, correlation coefficients between the derived EOF amplitudes and ISM index are calculated and in order to validate the results from the first

  12. Crustal structure of the Wharton Basin of the eastern Indian Ocean- Geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopala Rao, D.; Krishna, K. S.; Levchenko, O. V.

    2012-12-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection, magnetic and bathymetric data along seven northwest-southeast regional profiles across the Wharton Basin (WB), eastern Indian Ocean between lat.18N to 14N and 98E to 112E collected as part of Trans Indian Ocean Geotraverse (TIOG) project studies together with earlier published data have been analyzed to interpret crustal structure. Varied geomorphic and crust features identified include; Investigator Ridge System (IRS), Abandoned Spreading Ridge System (ASRS), Western Plains (WP) and Eastern Plains (EP) from west to east. The N-S trending IRS and faults and prominent trough parallel to it and sediments are seismically imaged. The NNE-SSW trending ASRS, >100 km wide is segmented by four NW-SE Fracture Zones: between 108°E and 104E; 106E and 102E, 103.5E and 101E and 103E and 99.5E offsetting the ridge axis. Axial graben and associated magnetic low of it in the north and highs in the south and lack of geomorphic expression in further south imply varied spread rates. Absence of linear magnetic anomalies points to probable spreading during late Cretaceous Magnetic Quite Period. The WP is flanked by the dense tectonic elements and deformed sediments in between. Seismic images of the EP and plains have revealed numerous grabens bounded by vertical faults extend from basement through the sediments in the east, limited mostly to basement in west and turbidities along axial parts. Sediments, up to 0.8 S thick consisting of five seismic sequences carpet Cretaceous oceanic basement. Their acoustic character, stratal and on-lap pattern have revealed deformation of pelagic sediments of ASRS (in northeast), WP and EP during Paleogene and extension subsequently. The basin's crust, thus, depicts 1) north-south structural trends of IRS in east compared to northeast-southwest of WB. 2) Ocean crust is Mesozoic-Cretaceous in age, 3) northwest-southeast compression in contrast to east-west of the Central Indian Ocean Basin. 4) Most of the faults

  13. The Mamook Book: Activities for Learning About the Northwest Coast Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sharon; And Others

    A student activity book about the Northwest Coast provides "to-do" activities, such as reading, coloring, cutting out and putting together, while learning about the Northwest Coast tribes, their language, legends, clothing and ways of living. A map identifies the tribes and their location along the shores of Alaska, British Columbia, western…

  14. The Fate of Organic Carbon Released by Permafrost Decay, Eastern Coast of Hudson Bay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivel, M.; Allard, M.

    2009-05-01

    Recent evaluations indicate that large amounts of organic carbon can be released in fluvial and costal systems because of permafrost degradation, with impacts on ecosystems. In order to obtain quantitative data on those transfers, we have installed instrumentation and have made first measurements in an intensive permafrost degradation area. The study area is located on the eastern coast of Hudson Bay, in the region of the Sheldrake river (drainage basin, river mouth and offshore area), near Umiujaq, in the discontinuous permafrost zone. Permafrost mounds (palsas, lithalsas) and plateaus are the most abundant permafrost landforms. This area contains one of the largest concentrations of frost heave landforms in the world. They developed principally in east-west oriented valleys in postglacial marine silts from the Tyrrell Sea which inundated low areas around Hudson Bay, following the receding ice front eastward and inland, about 8000 years BP. Palsas are covered by peat. Organic matter and clay released by thermokarst are transferred to the sea through the river system as suspended sediments, suspended organic matter and dissolved organic carbon. We postulate that continuing warming will further accelerate permafrost erosion, favour thermokarst and have an impact on carbon transfers. The adopted methodology should permit to quantify the release of clay and carbon through fluvial transport and deposition in coastal marine depocenters. Two leveloggers and two Optical Backscatter Sensors (OBS) have been installed during summer 2008, about 2km upstream from the Sheldrake river mouth in order to estimate transportation. Moreover, bathymetric surveys (eco-sounder coupled with sidescan sonar) have been made in a 20km2 area offshore the Sheldrake river mouth. We have located deeper basins (88m deep) in submerged valleys, which are likely efficient sediments traps for recent river inputs. Some sediment cores will be extracted in March 2009 from the ice pack in order to

  15. Complex Indian subduction style with slab fragmentation beneath the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis revealed by teleseismic P-wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Miao; Jiang, Mei; Li, Zhong-Hai; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhu, Lupei; Chan, Winston; Chen, Youlin; Wang, Youxue; Yu, Changqing; Lei, Jianshe; Zhang, Lishu; Li, Qingqing; Xu, Lehong

    2016-01-01

    On the eastern margin of the Himalayan orogenic belt, the rapid uplift of the Namche Barwa metamorphic terrane and significant bending of the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone occur. The formation mechanism and dynamics of the Eastern Himalaya Syntaxis (EHS) is still debated. In order to better understand the deep structures beneath the EHS, we deployed 35 broadband seismic stations around the Namche Barwa Mountain. The data were integrated with existing datasets for a 3-D teleseismic P-wave tomography. The results demonstrate complex deep structures and significantly contrasting Indian subduction styles in the eastern Himalaya. In the western region of the EHS, the Indian slab flatly subducts under southern Tibet and might extend to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture. In contrast, a (north)eastward steep subduction occurred in the eastern region of EHS. The contrasting subduction styles result in tearing and fragmentation of the Indian lithosphere between the flat and steep subducting slabs beneath the EHS. Consequently, the hot asthenospheric mantle may rise through the slab window, which might further lead to the rapid uplift of Namche Barwa and the formation of EHS. The lateral variation in subduction/collision mode and slab tearing induced asthenospheric mantle upwelling is similar to that observed in the Hellenide and Anatolide domains of the Tethyan orogen.

  16. Long Indian Slab in the Mantle Transition Zone Under Eastern Tibet: Evidence from Teleseismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.; Zhao, D.; Zha, X.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new 3-D P-wave velocity model of the upper mantle under eastern Tibet determined from 113,831 high-quality teleseismic arrival-time data. Our data are hand-picked from seismograms of 784 teleseismic events (30o-90o) with magnitudes of 5.2 or greater. These events were recorded by 21 portable seismic stations deployed in Yunnan during April 2010 to July 2011 and 259 permanent stations of Chinese provincial seismic networks during September 2008 to December 2011 in the study region. Our results provide new insights into the mantle structure and dynamics of eastern Tibet. High-velocity (high-V) anomalies are revealed down to 200 km depth under stable cratonic regions, such as Sichuan basin, Ordos and Alashan blocks. Prominent low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are revealed in the upper mantle under the Kunlun-Qinling fold zone, Songpan-Ganzi, Qiangtang, Lahsa, and Chuan-Dian diamond blocks, suggesting that the eastward moving low-V materials are obstructed by Sichuan basin, Ordos and Alashan blocks, and they could be extruded through the Qinling fold zone and the Chuan-Dian block to eastern China. In addition, the extent and thickness of these low-V anomalies are well correlated with the surface topography, suggesting that uplift of eastern Tibet is closely related to the low-V anomalies which may reflect hot materials and have strong buoyancy. In the mantle transition zone, broad high-V anomalies are visible from the Burma arc northward to the Kunlun fault and eastward to the Xiaojiang fault, which extend for a total of approximately 700 km. The high-V anomalies are connected upward to the Wadati-Benioff seismic zone beneath the Burma arc. These results suggest that the Indian slab has subducted horizontally for a long distance in the mantle transition zone after it descended into the mantle, and its deep dehydration has contributed to forming the low-V anomalies in the big mantle wedge above the slab. Our present results shed new light on the formation and

  17. Surface sediment dynamics along the Tunisian coast at Skhira (Gulf of Gabès, south-eastern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahim, Mouldi; Abdelfattah, Atoui; Sammari, Chérif; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-12-01

    An investigation was conducted in the summer of 2012 at 24 study stations along the Tunisian coast near Skhira (south-eastern Mediterranean Sea) through high resolution of analyses, grain size and mineral composition of surface sediment. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Skhira's main coastal current to follow a direction 60°E, with its main axis south-west/north-east parallel to the coastline and its minor axis east-west. Current speeds were approximately 13 cm s-1 and 4.5 cm s-1 for the major and minor axes, respectively. Parallel to the coast, currents were generally mild to moderate, but often exceeded 20 cm s-1. An Argonaut meter recorded the dominant current direction as north/north-east with a speed not exceeding 18 cm s-1. Orthogonal Empirical Function analysis of tidal currents showed that the major axis velocity dispersion was north-east/south-west, the water mass flow parallel to the shoreline being almost unidirectional, driving littoral drift parallel to the coast. Spatial distribution of particle size, along with speed and current direction analysis, furnish an overview of the Skhira area's sediment dynamics and transport. Average sand grain size shows that the bottom consists of fine and especially of medium sands near the coast, with muddy sands offshore. The fine fraction percentage (<63 microns) as opposed to the coarse fraction (>63 microns) is higher at the two offshore study stations, 20 m deep. Fine particles are discharged into the sea by rip currents. Sediment dynamics along the Skhira coast are complex, being subject to the combined effect of swell and tide. Sediments are permanently re-suspended and in constant movement, especially during storms.

  18. Geochemistry and mineralogy of REY-rich mud in the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Kazutaka; Liu, Hanjie; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Machida, Shiki; Haraguchi, Satoru; Ishii, Teruaki; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kato, Yasuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Deep-sea sediments in parts of the Pacific Ocean were recently found to contain remarkably high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium (REY) of possible economic significance. Here we report similar REY-rich mud in a core section from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 213 in the eastern Indian Ocean. The sediments consist mainly of siliceous ooze, with subordinate zeolitic clay that contains relatively high REY concentrations. The maximum and average total REY (ΣREY) contents of this material are 1113 and 629 ppm, respectively, which are comparable to those reported from the Pacific Ocean. The REY-rich mud at Site 213 shows enrichment in heavy rare-earth elements, negative Ce anomalies, and relatively low Fe2O3/ΣREY ratios, similar to those in the Pacific Ocean. In addition, the major-element composition of the Indian Ocean REY-rich mud indicates slight enrichment in lithogenic components, which probably reflects a contribution from southern African eolian dust. A volcaniclastic component from neighboring mid-ocean ridges or intraplate volcanoes is also apparent. Elemental compositions and X-ray diffraction patterns for bulk sediment, and microscopic observation and elemental mapping of a polished thin section, demonstrate the presence of phillipsite and biogenic apatite, such as fish debris, in the REY-rich mud. The strong correlation between total REY content and apatite abundance implies that apatite plays an important role as a host phase of REY in the present deep-sea sediment column. However, positive correlations between ΣREY and elements not present in apatite (e.g., Fe2O3, MnO, and TiO2) imply that the REY-rich mud is not formed by a simple mixture of REY-enriched apatite and other components.

  19. Origin of crude oil in eastern Gulf Coast: Upper Jurassic, Upper Cretaceous, and lower Tertiary source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.

    1988-02-01

    Analysis of rock and crude oil samples suggests that three source rocks have given rise to most crude oil in reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coast. Carbonate source rocks of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are characterized by algal-derived kerogen preserved in an anoxic and hypersaline environment, resulting in crude oils with distinct compositions. Migration commenced during the Cretaceous, explaining the emplacement of Smackover-derived crude oil in Jurassic and in some Cretaceous reservoirs. Upper Cretaceous clastic and carbonate source rocks are also present. Much crude oil in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs has been derived from organic-rich marine shales of the Tuscaloosa Formation. These shales are characterized by algal and higher plant kerogen, resulting in distinct crude oil compositions. Migration commenced during the Tertiary, but was mostly focused to Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Tertiary shales, including those of the Wilcox Formation, are quite organic-rich and include downdip marine facies characterized by both algal and higher plant kerogen. Crude oils in lower Tertiary reservoirs are dissimilar to crude oils from deeper and older source rocks. Migration from lower Tertiary shales commenced during the late Tertiary and charged Tertiary reservoirs. Although most crude oil in the eastern Gulf Coast has been emplaced by short-range migration, often with a strong vertical component, some long-range lateral migration (> 100 km) has occurred along lower Tertiary sands. The framework of crude oil generation and migration onshore has important implications with respect to origin of crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. Influence of summer conditions on the larval fish assemblage in the eastern coast of Tunisia (Ionian Sea, Southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrad, Rafik; Alemany, Francisco; Rodriguez, José-María; Jarboui, Othman; Lopez-Jurado, José-Luis; Balbin, Rosa

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the summer larval fish assemblage off the eastern coast of Tunisia and its relation to environmental conditions was studied, from ichthyoplankton samples taken during a survey conducted between 23rd June and 9th July 2008. A total of 68 larval fish taxa were identified, 52 to species level. The taxonomic composition and abundance of the larval fish assemblage showed high spatial heterogeneity. Mesoscale hydrographic features, such as eddies, seem to play an important role in the spatial distribution of fish larvae in the area, enhancing concentration and retention. The larval fish assemblage was dominated by the small pelagic species Sardinella aurita (26.6% of the total larval fish abundance), followed by Engraulis encrasicolus (22.6%), Spicara spp. (8.6%) and Mullus barbatus (6.8%). Shannon-Weaver index (H') ranged between 0 and 2.62. The highest values were found offshore, at 95 miles east of Sousse, over depths around 250 m. The diversity was higher in this region as a result of transport by currents and retention by eddies. It has also been shown that the eastern coast of Tunisia is a spawning ground for the tuna species Auxis rochei, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus alalunga. Larvae of mesopelagic fishes represented 5.46% of the total abundance, with Cyclothone braueri, Ceratoscopelus maderensis and Lampanyctus crocodilus being the most important species. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that depth was the most important environmental factor in explaining species distribution.

  1. Structure of the Ninetyeast Ridge North of the Equator, Eastern Indian Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopala Rao, D.; Sreekrishna, K.; Levchenko, O.; W. Sager, W.; Paul, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Ninetyeast Ridge in the eastern Indian Ocean is an aseismic volcanic ridge that marks the Keruguelen hotspot trace between 35°S and 17°N, depicting significant changes in morphology and crust/lithosphere structure. Age progression, younger ages in the south to older ages, 90 Ma (anomaly 34) in the north of the ridge has been reported from linear magnetic anomalies adjoining the ridge and rocks drilled from it during the DSDP/ODP cruises. The bathymetric expression of it is visible up to Lat. 10°N but seismic reflection data indicate its buried anticlinal shape beneath the Bengal Fan, extending up to about Lat.17°N. Gravity anomalies are strongly positive over the exposed segment of the ridge but are subdued over the buried portion. A prominent break in the continuity of the Sunda-trench gravity low reflects that the ridge impinges upon the island arc and seismic reflection data indicate that the ridge approaches close to the trench. The crest of the ridge consists of numerous peaks and sediment filled basins. The sediments are likely to be volcnoclastic and/or shallow water carbonates depending upon submarine to sub- aerial conditions of the parts of the ridge overlain by hemi-pelagic to turbidites of varied thickness. Seismic sequences of the sediments are < 2 km, < 6 km and > 6 km over the ridge, along the eastern flank and on the western flank respectively. The velocity structure of the sedimentary sequences, from top to bottom, consists of 1.6 to 1.9, 2.4 to 2.7, 3.2 to 3.4, 4.5 to 4,6 and 5.2 to 5.7 km/s layers along the western flank, 1.7 to 2.0, 2.3 to 3.2 and 4.6 to 5.7 km/s of Quaternary, pre-Miocene and pre-Paleocene respectively over the crest of the ridge and 2.3, 2.9 and 4.8 km/s velocity along the eastern flank of the ridge underlain by 6.4 km/s velocity oceanic layer 2. Tight folds and closely spaced faults (normal and reverse), some of them extending to the basement and deforming the crust of the ridge, have been imaged seismically. The en

  2. A 10 Myrs long record of mantle exhumation at the eastern Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, D.; Cannat, M.; Andreani, M.; Birot, D.; Bronner, A.; Brunelli, D.; Carlut, J. H.; Delacour, A.; Guyader, V.; Mendel, V.; Ménez, B.; MacLeod, C. J.; Pasini, V.; Rouméjon, S.; Ruellan, E.; Searle, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Although detachment faulting is thought to be a fundamental, widespread style of accretion of oceanic lithosphere, the kinematic evolution of faulting and the link between deformation and magmatic emplacement are still poorly known. Here we use newly acquired geological and geophysical data from the eastern Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) to address this question. The eastern SWIR displays the widest expanses known to date of seafloor with no evidence for a volcanic upper crustal layer. Deep tow TOBI sidescan sonar images and dredged rock samples were collected over two areas with contrasting styles of non volcanic seafloor. In the first survey area (centered at 62°30'E) several broad smooth elongated and symmetric ridges are oriented SW-NE, oblique to the spreading direction (~NS). TOBI images show that the hillsides of these ridges, facing toward and away from the axial valley, correspond to smooth surfaces with mass wasting features and almost no evidence of volcanism. Some of these ridges display highly backscattering fuzzy textures with rounded shape features of unknown origin. Serpentinized mantle-derived peridotites were systematically dredged in those areas. Volcanic textures are only observed at the eastern and western ends of these ridges. The second survey area (centered at 64°35'E) covers the edge between volcanic and non volcanic seafloor. There, ridges are perpendicular to the spreading direction and display mainly an asymmetric shape. TOBI sidescan sonar images show that the inward facing gentle slope of these ridges are smooth and sedimented surfaces covered locally by small sized volcanic patches. Outward facing slopes are steeper and may be covered with volcanic textures. Serpentinized mantle-derived peridotites were also systematically dredged outside these volcanic areas. We interpret the successive non volcanic ridges as the result of large low angle normal faults which exhume mantle rocks alternatively to the northern and to the southern flank

  3. Chelidoperca stella, a new species of perchlet (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Matsunuma, Mizuki; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A new species of serranid fish, Chelidoperca stella, is described on the basis of five specimens from the Andaman Sea in the eastern Indian Ocean. The species can be readily distinguished from all valid congeners by having fewer pored lateral-line scales (34 or 35 vs. 40-45 in the latter) and the pelvic fin white with several small yellow spots (vs. spots absent). The species is also characterized by having relatively high counts of small serrae on the posterior margins of the preopercle (33-43 serrae), interopercle (7-10) and subopercle (18-28), despite the small body size (51.7-61.8 mm SL). Although Chelidoperca stella resembles C. margaritifera in having 2.5 scale rows between lateral line and the sixth dorsal-fin spine base, a relatively wider interorbital region, and the interorbital scales not reaching a vertical through the orbit anterior margin, but differs by having the above-mentioned diagnostic characters plus a slightly shorter longest anal-fin soft ray [17.4-18.7 (mean 18.1) % SL vs. 22.6-26.4 (24.4) % SL in C. margaritifera]. PMID:27394461

  4. East African pigs have a complex Indian, Far Eastern and Western ancestry.

    PubMed

    Noce, A; Amills, M; Manunza, A; Muwanika, V; Muhangi, D; Aliro, T; Mayega, J; Ademun, R; Sànchez, A; Egbhalsaied, S; Mercadé, A; Masembe, C

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have characterized the mitochondrial diversity of 81 swine from Uganda. Median-joining network analysis of D-loop sequences from these individuals and others characterized in previous studies allowed us to determine that Ugandan pigs cluster with populations from the West (Europe/North Africa), Far East and India. In addition, partial sequencing of the Y-chromosome UTY locus in 18 Ugandan domestic pigs revealed the segregation of a single HY1 lineage that has a cosmopolitan distribution. A Western and Far Eastern ancestry for East African pigs had been already reported, but this is the first study demonstrating an additional contribution from the Indian porcine gene pool. This result is consistent with the high frequency of zebuine alleles in cattle from East Africa. The geographic coordinates of East Africa, at the crossroads of many trading routes that, through the ages, linked Europe, Africa and Asia, might explain the rich and complex genetic heritage of livestock native to this area. PMID:26011180

  5. Atmospheric deposition—Another source of nutrients enhancing primary productivity in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean during positive Indian Ocean Dipole phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswanto, Eko

    2015-07-01

    This study used in situ and multisensor satellite data and combinations of various primary productivity (PP) and surface nitrate models to assess the contributions of upwelling and atmospheric deposition to modulating PP in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean (ETIO) during positive phases of the Indian Ocean Dipole (+IOD). Surprisingly, atmospheric deposition of nutrients from wildfires accounted for a higher portion of enhanced PP during +IODs than wind-driven nutrient upwelling. Substantial atmospheric nutrient deposition likely also maintains high PP postupwelling and postwildfire. Multiple regression analysis further supported the importance of atmospheric deposition in determining ETIO PP with a significantly large partial regression coefficient for aerosol optical thickness. It is possible that aerosols from major wildfire areas worldwide contribute nutrients that also nontrivially modulate PP in the oceans' main upwelling systems.

  6. Genetic species identification and population structure of Halophila (Hydrocharitaceae) from the Western Pacific to the Eastern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Indo-Pacific region has the largest number of seagrass species worldwide and this region is considered as the origin of the Hydrocharitaceae. Halophila ovalis and its closely-related species belonging to the Hydrocharitaceae are well-known as a complex taxonomic challenge mainly due to their high morphological plasticity. The relationship of genetic differentiation and geographic barriers of H. ovalis radiation was not much studied in this region. Are there misidentifications between H. ovalis and its closely related species? Does any taxonomic uncertainty among different populations of H. ovalis persist? Is there any genetic differentiation among populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean, which are separated by the Thai-Malay peninsula? Genetic markers can be used to characterize and identify individuals or species and will be used to answer these questions. Results Phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region based on materials collected from 17 populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed that some specimens identified as H. ovalis belonged to the H. major clade, also supported by morphological data. Evolutionary divergence between the two clades is between 0.033 and 0.038, much higher than the evolutionary divergence among H. ovalis populations. Eight haplotypes were found; none of the haplotypes from the Western Pacific is found in India and vice versa. Analysis of genetic diversity based on microsatellite analysis revealed that the genetic diversity in the Western Pacific is higher than in the Eastern Indian Ocean. The unrooted neighbor-joining tree among 14 populations from the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed six groups. The Mantel test results revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations. Results from band-based and allele frequency-based approaches from Amplified Fragment Length

  7. Paleoseismic Records of 1762 and Similar Prior Earthquakes Along the South-Eastern Coast of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Mortlock, R. A.; Gurung, D.; Bastas-Hernandez, A.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Mustaque, S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Akhter, S. H.; Saha, P.

    2014-12-01

    The great 1762 Arakan earthquake caused subsidence and uplift along 700km of the Arakan coast, and is thought to derive from a huge megathrust rupture reaching northward onto the southeastern coast of Bangladesh. Paleoseismic investigations were conducted in that area to document effects of that and prior earthquakes. U/Th ages obtained from isochron analysis of uplifted dead coral heads of the Poritesspecies, collected along a south to north transect from the islands east coast reveal at least three growth interruptions caused by abrupt relative sea-level changes within the past 1300 years that we interpret to be associated with megathrust ruptures. The ages show distinct events approximately 250, 900 and 1300 years ago. The youngest of these events corresponds to the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake. The two prior events at ~1100 and 700 AD, suggest an average recurrence interval of 400-600 years. Along the coast of Teknaf, we mapped a ~2m uplifted terrace. Marine shells on top of the terrace dated with C-14 at 1695-1791 AD link the uplift to the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake. Based on this evidence and previous work (Wang et al., 2013 and Aung et al., 2008), we estimated the 1762 rupture to be at least 700 km long, from Chebuda Island to the Sitakund anticline encompassing the Teknaf Peninsula. Considering 14 mm/yr convergence rate and 400-600 yrs recurrence interval, this rupture zone has now accumulated elastic deformation to generate a M~8.4 earthquake, close to the M8.8 estimated by Cummins (2007) for the 1762 earthquake. Published recurrence intervals based on C-14 ages along the Myanmar coast ~90 km south of Bangladesh reveal three ruptures within the last 3400 years with an average recurrence interval of 1000-2000 years (Aung et al., 2008). While the 1762 rupture reached across both areas, some of the prior ruptures may be confined to one or the other of these areas, with a smaller magnitude. Our precise U-Th ages provide evidence of recurrence intervals of

  8. Final Project Closeout Report for Sprint Hydrogen Fuel Cell (HFC) Deployment Project in California, Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Kevin; Bradley, Dwayne

    2015-09-01

    Sprint is one of the telecommunications industry leaders in the deployment of hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) systems to provide backup power for their mission critical wireless network facilities. With several hundred fuel cells commissioned in California, states in the gulf coast region, and along the upper eastern seaboard. A strong incentive for advancing the integration of fuel cells into the Sprint network came through the award of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant focused on Market Transformation activities for project (EE0000486). This grant was funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The funding provided by DOE ($7.295M) was allocated to support the installation of 260 new HFC systems, equipped with an on-site refillable Medium Pressure Hydrogen Storage Solution (MPHSS), as well as for the conversion of 21 low pressure hydrogen systems to the MPHSS, in hopes of reducing barriers to market acceptance.

  9. Observational analysis on the run-up height and inundation along the Andhra coast during December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaik, K. V. K. R. K.; Arun Kumar, S. V. V.; Venkata Ramu, Ch.; Prasad, K. V. S. R.

    2012-02-01

    The 26 December 2004 earthquake with magnitude of 9.3 triggered one of the most destructive tsunamis in the Indian Ocean and caused widespread inundation and extensive damage in terms of life and property along the coasts of several Asian countries. In India, the Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands, the coastal states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala were severely affected. Post tsunami field surveys were conducted along the Andhra coast (central part of east coast of India) to assess the tsunami run-up heights and inundation. Estimation of tsunami run-up heights and inundation relative to the mean sea level were made based on the water marks on permanent structures and marks of debris on trees. Observations revealed that the Andhra coast was largely affected by the tsunami and in general the intensity of the tsunami along the Andhra coast decreased from south to north. Maximum run-up heights of 4.5 m were observed in the southern parts and minimum run-up heights of 2 m were observed in the northern parts of the Andhra coast. While, the distance of inundation varied from 60 to 900 m along the coast. The interdependency between the tsunami run-up height and inundation with the physical setup of the shoreline has been identified. Also local features such as dunes, vegetation and steepness of beaches played vital role in reducing the impact of tsunami. Dependency of tsunami parameters on Coastal Characteristic Index (CCI) was attempted for the first time for the Indian coast. Good correlation has been observed between run-up heights, inundation and CCI. The width of the continental shelf also played a crucial role in causing damage to the coast.

  10. Deep-tow magnetic survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Carlut, J. H.; Searle, R. C.; Sauter, D.; Cannat, M.

    2011-12-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining magnetic data, geology mapping from side-scan sonar images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the side-scan images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. This allows us to hypothesis that magnetic anomalies are caused by serpentinized peridotites or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may results from fluid-rocks interaction along the detachment faults as well as from the repartition of the volcanic material and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in order to better constrain tectonic mechanisms that occur during the formation of this

  11. Antarctic-type blue whale calls recorded at low latitudes in the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Kathleen M.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Tolstoy, Maya; Chapp, Emily; Mellinger, David K.; Moore, Sue E.

    2004-10-01

    Blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus, were once abundant around the Antarctic during the austral summer, but intensive whaling during the first half of the 20th century reduced their numbers by over 99%. Although interannual variability of blue whale occurrence on the Antarctic feeding grounds was documented by whalers, little was known about where the whales spent the winter months. Antarctic blue whales produce calls that are distinct from those produced by blue whales elsewhere in the world. To investigate potential winter migratory destinations of Antarctic blue whales, we examined acoustic data for these signals from two low-latitude locales: the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. Antarctic-type blue whale calls were detected on hydrophones in both regions during the austral autumn and winter (May-September), with peak detections in July. Calls occurred over relatively brief periods in both oceans, suggesting that there may be only a few animals migrating so far north and/or producing calls. Antarctic blue whales appear to use both the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans concurrently, indicating that there is not a single migratory destination. Acoustic data from the South Atlantic and from mid-latitudes in the Indian or Pacific Oceans are needed for a more global understanding of migratory patterns and destinations of Antarctic blue whales.

  12. Modeling of storm-induced deformations of a sandy coast (based on the example of the eastern Gulf of Finland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leont'yev, I. O.; Ryabchuk, D. V.; Sergeev, A. Yu.

    2015-02-01

    An improved version of the CROSS-P model for the simulation of storm-induced deformations in coastal profiles is suggested. It is shown that the model reproduces the formation of the erosion profile adequately both in the laboratory and field conditions. Though the main features of the accretion profile are also reflected in the model, further testing based on more relevant data is needed. The profile types predicted by the model agree with the well-known empirical criterion. An important new step is that the foredune overflow effect caused by storm surges is also included into the model. The model is applied to the coasts of the eastern Gulf of Finland exposed to high storm surges. This makes it possible to present the coast change as a result of a conveyor delivering sand material from the foredune to the beach under the impact of extreme storms. During the periods of low wave activity, this conveyor transports the beach material to the underwater slope. The sediment conveyer works only in one direction; thus, the losses of the dune material turn out to be irreversible. Modeling shows that, during the foredune overflow process (typical for the southern segment of the studied area), a certain amount of sediments is carried on to the rear dune slope, and the dune belt gradually moves inland simultaneously decreasing in height. It is expected that the destructive trends in the coastal evolution will continued within the nearest decades.

  13. Three-dimensional lithospheric mapping of the eastern Indian shield: A multi-parametric inversion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Kumar, Niraj; Zeyen, H.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed satellite gravity and geoid anomaly and topography data to determine the 3D lithospheric density structure of the Singhbhum Protocontinent. Our density model shows that distinct vertical density heterogeneities exist throughout the lithosphere beneath the Singhbhum Protocontinent. The crustal structure identified includes a lateral average crustal density variation from 2800 to 2890 kg/m3 as well as a relatively flat Moho at 35-40 km depth in Singhbhum Protocontinent and Bastar Craton. A similar Moho depth range is found for the Mahanadi, Damodar, and Bengal basins. In the northern part of the area, Moho undulates between more than 40 km under the confluence of Mahanadi-Damodar Gondwana basins and the Ganga foreland basin, and 36-32 km under the Eastern Ghats Mobile belt and finally reaches 24 km in the Bay of Bengal. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) across the Singhbhum Protocontinent is at a depth of about 130-140 km. In the regions of Bastar Craton and Bengal Basin, the LAB dips to about 155 ± 5 km depth. The confluence of Mahanadi and Damodar Gondwana basins toward the north-west and the foreland Ganga Basin toward the north are characterized by a deeper LAB lying at a depth of over 170 and 200 km, respectively. In the Bay of Bengal, the LAB is at a shallower depth of about 100-130 km except over the 85 0E ridge (150 km), and off the Kolkata coast (155 km). Significant density variation as well as an almost flat crust-mantle boundary indicates the effect of significant crustal reworking. The thin (135-140 km) lithosphere provides compelling evidence of lithospheric modification in the Singhbhum Protocontinent. Similarities between the lithospheric structures of the Singhbhum Craton, Chhotanagpur Gneiss Complex, and Northern Singhbhum Mobile Belt confirm that the repeated thermal perturbation controlled continental lithospheric modification in the Singhbhum Protocontinent.

  14. Initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation and strengthening of the northeast Indian monsoon: Ocean Drilling Program Site 758, eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anil K.; Thomas, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    The Indian monsoon system, as recorded by ocean-floor biota (benthic foraminifera) at Ocean Drilling Program Site 758 in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, has varied dramatically over the past 5.5 m.y., long after the onset of the monsoons at 10 8 Ma. Benthic foraminifera that thrive with high productivity year-round were common before the formation of Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets ca. 3.1 2.5 Ma, indicating that the summer (southwest) monsoon had high intensity and long seasonal duration. Ca. 2.8 Ma benthic faunas became dominated by taxa that flourish with a seasonally strongly fluctuating food supply, indicating that the northeast (winter) monsoon, during which primary productivity is relatively low, increased in duration and strength to form a system similar to that of today. The change occurred coeval with the initiation of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation, documenting a close link between the development of the Indian monsoon and Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  15. Perspective on eastern migration studies: stopover ecology of migratory landbirds in the Gulf Coast region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Johnson Randall, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Millions of Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds move through the coastal habitats of the Gulf of Mexico each spring and autumn as they migrate across and around the Gulf. Migration routes in the Gulf region are not static and they shift year to year and season to season according to prevailing wind patterns. Using data from field and radar studies, we mapped patterns of migration movement and landfall in the Gulf of Mexico region. Map categories include coastal areas where migrant numbers are consistently high, consistently common, sporadically common-abundant, sporadically common, or sparse. Weather surveillance radar data indicates that habitats along the Northwest Gulf Coast are consistently used each year.

  16. The sensitivity of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to enhanced freshwater discharge along the entire, eastern and western coast of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Gao, Yongqi; Otterå, Odd Helge

    2016-03-01

    The possible responses of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) to increased freshwater discharge along the Greenland coast has become an issue of growing concern given the increasing rate of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) melting. A recent model study suggested a weakened AMOC of about 13-30 % when a freshwater anomaly of 0.1 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1) was released along the entire Greenland coast during the late twentieth century (1965-2000). In this study we use a fully coupled climate model to examine the sensitivity of AMOC to a similar amount of freshwater forcing, but released separately along the eastern, the western and the entire Greenland coast. Our results show that in all three cases there is a general weakening of the AMOC mainly due to a reduced formation of Labrador Sea Water. Moreover, when additional freshwater is released along the eastern coast of Greenland, the AMOC weakens more compared to the other two cases. The different degree of convective mixing reduction in the Irminger Sea is the main reason for the spread in AMOC responses in the three freshwater-hosing experiments. Compared to the other two experiments, the eastern-coast experiment shows a relative warming in the Labrador Sea and the generation of a negative Greenland tip jet-like wind-pattern anomaly. These anomalies lead to a weaker convective mixing in the southern Irminger Sea, and result subsequently in less formation of the simulated Upper Labrador Sea Water (ULSW) in the eastern coast experiment. This study therefore highlights a potential important role for ULSW formation in determining the sensitivity of the AMOC in response to large GrIS melting.

  17. Warming of the Indian Ocean Threatens Eastern and Southern Africa, but could be Mitigated by Agricultural Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Brown, Molly E.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Barlow, Mathew; Howell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high and declining per capita agricultural capacity retards progress towards Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation identify another problematic trend. Main growing season rainfall receipts have diminished by approximately 15% in food insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus late 20th century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling millions of undernourished people as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people. On the other hand, modest increases in per capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability.

  18. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  19. Alien bryozoans in the eastern Mediterranean Sea--new records from the coast of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Harmelin, Jean-Georges

    2014-01-01

    The Levant Basin (SE Mediterranean) is the most exposed to the introduction of non-indigenous species. The current assessment of exotic bryozoans present along the coast of Lebanon has been completed by the recording of fourteen cheilostome species (one cryptogenic) collected by diving in 17 localities (2-42 m). This set of exotic bryozoans comprises ten genera, including four (Akatopora Davis, 1934, Drepanophora Harmer, 1957, Mucropetraliella Stach, 1936 and Predanophora Tilbrook, 2006) not previously reported in the Mediterranean, while Celleporaria is the most successful extra-Mediterranean genus with four species in the survey collection. A new Celleporina species, C. bitari n. sp., also collected in the Red Sea, is described. Although lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal is the main pathway for exotic bryozoans in this region, the geographic origin of some species suggests that shipping through Gibraltar Strait is also responsible to a large extent. PMID:25544525

  20. Wave climate and trends along the eastern Chukchi Arctic Alaska coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Jensen, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Due in large part to the difficulty of obtaining measurements in the Arctic, little is known about the wave climate along the coast of Arctic Alaska. In this study, numerical model simulations encompassing 40 years of wave hind-casts were used to assess mean and extreme wave conditions. Results indicate that the wave climate was strongly modulated by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and that mean and extreme wave heights and periods exhibited increasing trends in both the sea and swell frequency bands over the time-period studied (1954-2004). Model simulations also indicate that the upward trend was not due to a decrease in the minimum icepack extent. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  1. Defecation Frequency and Stool Form in a Coastal Eastern Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Manas Kumar; Kar, Sanjib Kumar; Ghoshal, Uday C

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Data on normal stool form and frequency, which are important for defining constipation, are scanty; hence, we studied these in an eastern Indian population. Methods One thousand and two hundred apparently healthy asymptomatic subjects were evaluated for predominant stool form (Bristol chart with descriptor) and frequency. Data on demographic and life-style (diet and physical activity) were collected. Results Of 1,200 subjects (age 42 ± 14.5 years, 711, 59% male), most passed predominantly Bristol type IV stool (699 [58.2%]; other forms were: type I (23 [1.9%]), type II (38 [3.2%]), type III (99 [8.2%]), type V (73 [6%]), type VI (177 [14.7%]), type VII (7 [0.6%]) and an irregular combination (84 [7%]). Weekly stool frequency was 12.1 ± 4.7 (median 14, range 2-42). Less than 3 stools/week was noted in 32/1,200 (2.6%). Female subjects (n = 489) passed stools less frequently than males (n = 711) (11.1 ± 5.6/week vs. 12.8 ± 3.8/week, P < 0.001) and tended to pass harder forms (type I: 17, type II: 20, type III: 39 vs. 6, 18 and 60, respectively, P = 0.061). Vegetarians (n = 252) and physically active (n = 379) subjects tended to pass stool more frequently than occasional (n = 553) and regular non-vegetarian (n = 395) (11.8 ± 4.5 and 12.8 ± 4.7 vs. 11.3 ± 4.7; P < 0.05) and sedentary (n = 464) and intermediately active (n = 357) subjects (13.4 ± 4.0 and 12.3 ± 4.5 vs. 10.9 ± 5.1, P = 0.080) in different age groups, respectively. Older age was associated with less frequent stool, particularly among female population. Female gender and age > 35 years were significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Median stool frequency in the studied population was 14/week (range 2-42) and predominant form was Bristol type IV. Older age was associated with lesser stool frequency, particularly among female subjects. PMID:23875105

  2. Deep-tow geophysical survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Sauter, D.; Carlut, J.; Searle, R.; Cannat, M.

    2012-04-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the easternmost part of the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining multibeam bathymetric data, magnetic data, geology mapping from sidescan sonar (TOBI) images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the sidescan sonar images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. We investigate the possibility that magnetic anomalies are either caused by serpentinized peridotites and/or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may result from fluid-rock interactions along the detachment faults as well as from the occurrence of small sized and thin volcanic patches and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in

  3. Five Indian Tribes of Eastern Oklahoma: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Dorothy; Bland, Anna

    The 18 lessons in this unit of study are intended to promote an awareness of the contribution of the American Indian to the development of Oklahoma and to preserve the culture and heritage of the American Indians of the state. Each lesson includes a concept (one-sentence statement of the main idea), background information, learning activities…

  4. Lightning characteristics over the eastern coast of the Mediterranean during different synoptic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ami, Y.; Altaratz, O.; Yair, Y.; Koren, I.

    2015-11-01

    Thunderstorm activity takes place in the eastern Mediterranean mainly through the boreal fall and winter seasons during synoptic systems of Red Sea Trough (RST), Red Sea Trough that closed a low over the sea (RST-CL), and Cyprus Low (during fall - FCL and winter - WCL). In this work we used the Israeli Lightning Location System ground strokes data set, between October 2004 and December 2010, for studying the properties of lightning strokes and their link to the thermodynamic conditions in each synoptic system. It is shown that lightning activity dominates over sea during WCL and FCL systems (with maximum values of 1.5 in WCL, and 2.2 km-2 day-1 in FCL) and have a dominant component over land during the RST and RST-CL days. The stronger instability (high Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) values of 762 ± 457 J kg-1) during RST-CL days together with the higher altitude of the clouds' mixed-phase region (3.6 ± 0.3 km), result in a slightly higher density of ground strokes during this system but a lower fraction of positive ground strokes (3 ± 0.5 %). In general the fraction of positive strokes was found to be inversely correlated with the sea surface temperature: it increases from 1.2 % in early fall to 17.7 % in late winter, during FCL and WCL days. This change could be linked to the variation in the charge center's vertical location during those months. The diurnal cycle in the lightning activity was examined for each synoptic system. During WCL conditions, no preferred times were found through the day, as it relates to the random passage timing of the frontal systems over the study region. During the fall systems (FCL and RST-CL) there is a peak in lightning activity during the morning hours, probably related to the enhanced convection driven by the convergence between the eastern land breeze and the western synoptic winds. The distributions of peak currents in FCL and WCL systems also change from fall to winter and include more strong negative and

  5. Wave-height hazard analysis in Eastern Coast of Spain - Bayesian approach using generalized Pareto distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egozcue, J. J.; Pawlowsky-Glahn, V.; Ortego, M. I.

    2005-03-01

    Standard practice of wave-height hazard analysis often pays little attention to the uncertainty of assessed return periods and occurrence probabilities. This fact favors the opinion that, when large events happen, the hazard assessment should change accordingly. However, uncertainty of the hazard estimates is normally able to hide the effect of those large events. This is illustrated using data from the Mediterranean coast of Spain, where the last years have been extremely disastrous. Thus, it is possible to compare the hazard assessment based on data previous to those years with the analysis including them. With our approach, no significant change is detected when the statistical uncertainty is taken into account. The hazard analysis is carried out with a standard model. Time-occurrence of events is assumed Poisson distributed. The wave-height of each event is modelled as a random variable which upper tail follows a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). Moreover, wave-heights are assumed independent from event to event and also independent of their occurrence in time. A threshold for excesses is assessed empirically. The other three parameters (Poisson rate, shape and scale parameters of GPD) are jointly estimated using Bayes' theorem. Prior distribution accounts for physical features of ocean waves in the Mediterranean sea and experience with these phenomena. Posterior distribution of the parameters allows to obtain posterior distributions of other derived parameters like occurrence probabilities and return periods. Predictives are also available. Computations are carried out using the program BGPE v2.0.

  6. Numerical simulations of the North Gorringe Avalanche, Eastern Atlantic Ocean, and of the consequent tsunami impacting the Iberian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniboni, F.; Lo Iacono, C.; Tinti, S.; Gracia, E.; Pagnoni, G.; Dañobeitia, J.; Lourenco, N.; Abreu, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Continental margins are commonly interested by mass movements caused by gravitational instability, usually triggered by sediment erosion and seismic shaking. Such events can involve considerable masses of sediments and rocks, that can reach high velocities due to the slope steepness and provoke huge tsunamis, even if their source is located in deep water and far from the coast. The continuous advances in bathymetric techniques allowed a detailed characterization of continental margin morphologies also in deep environments, thus unveiling mass failure features related to past events and improving the geohazard assessment of those areas most prone to sediment instability. An example of a huge mass failure in a seismically active area is the North Gorringe landslide. This landslide is located along the north-eastern flank of the Gorringe Bank, west of the Portuguese coasts in the Atlantic Ocean, where the convergent boundary between the European and African Plates occurs. Bathymetric data revealed the existence of a well defined headwall, 7 km large, at 2900 m sea depth, and of a depositional zone with massive rock blocks and debris avalanche material. The deposits cover a sub-horizontal area (average slope 1.5°) of almost 280 km2 at a depth of about 5100 m , for a maximum run-out of 27 km and a drop of 2200 m. The interpretation of multichannel seismic profiles and the reconstruction through bathymetric data lead us to estimate the volume of the mass failure to be around 70-80 km3. In order to assess the consequence of such event on the Iberian coasts, a scenario involving the North Gorringe landslide has been set up and explored by means of numerical simulation codes that study separately the slide dynamics and the tsunami generation and propagation. After reconstructing the initial slide geometry and position, the Lagrangian code UBO-BLOCK2, assuming the mass as partitioned into a matrix of interacting constant volume blocks, was applied to compute the time

  7. Two new marine Gastrotricha from the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Todaro, M Antonio; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bownes, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    The study is part of a larger research programme aimed at shedding light on the gastrotrich communities of the subtropical east coast province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In previous papers, faunistic and preliminary taxonomic data on marine and freshwater gastrotrichs found in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, were reported. Here two new interesting marine macrodasyidan species in the families Dactylopodolidae and Thaumastodermatidae are described based on observations carried out on living specimens and using differential interference contrast microscopy. The two novel species are named in honor of two great South African icons recently deceased: Nadine Gordimer and Nelson Mandela. Dactylopodola nadine sp. n. is the third species in the genus to bear red eye-spots; it can easily be distinguished from the closely-related red-eyed D. baltica and D. roscovita by its smaller size (Total length = 230 μm vs 275 μm vs 450 μm, respectively) and the lower number of adhesive tubes of the anterior, lateral and posterior series (on each side: 3, 4 and 4 vs 5, 6 and 8 vs 2, 9 and 12-15). Pseudostomella mandela sp. n. is a fairly large species (up to 481 μm in length), with a cuticular covering made up of tetrancres and relatively long caudal pedicles (up to 44 μm in length ). The most evident autoapomorphic trait of the new species is the presence of 7 pairs of 'cirrata' tubes, two emerging in a lateral position along the pharyngeal region and five from the dorsolateral sides of the trunk. Additional relevant taxonomic characters include: 4 tubes of the anterior series, 11 tubes of the ventrolateral series and 3 tubes of the posterior series per side, 5 papillae on the dorsal margin and 6 papillae on the ventral margin of the oral palps. The high number of putative new species discovered among the South African gastrotrich fauna during our relatively short survey, highlights the relevance of this region with regard to the diversity of this group and stresses once again

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  9. Sex determination in skeletal remains from the medieval Eastern Adriatic coast – discriminant function analysis of humeri

    PubMed Central

    Bašić, Željana; Anterić, Ivana; Vilović, Katarina; Petaros, Anja; Bosnar, Alan; Madžar, Tomislav; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the usefulness of humerus measurement for sex determination in a sample of medieval skeletons from the Eastern Adriatic Coast. Additional aim was to compare the results with contemporary female population. Methods Five humerus measurements (maximum length, epicondylar width, maximum vertical diameter of the head, maximum and minimum diameter of the humerus at midshaft) for 80 male and 35 female medieval and 19 female contemporary humeri were recorded. Only sufficiently preserved skeletons and those with no obvious pathological or traumatic changes that could affect the measurements were included. For ten samples, analysis of DNA was performed in order to determine sex using amelogenin. Results The initial comparison of men and women indicated significant differences in all five measures (P < 0.001). Discriminant function for sex determination indicated that as much as 85% of cases could be properly categorized, with better results in men (86%) than women (80%). Furthermore, the comparison of the medieval and contemporary women did not show significant difference in any of the measured features. Sex results obtained by anthropological and DNA analysis matched in all 10 cases. Conclusion The results indicate that humerus measurement in Croatian medieval population may be sufficient to determine the sex of the skeleton. Furthermore, it seems that secular changes have not substantially affected contemporary population, suggesting that the results of this study are transferable to contemporary population as well. PMID:23771758

  10. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Brown, Molly E.; Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ≈15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling “millions of undernourished people” as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. PMID:18685101

  11. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, C.; Dettinger, M.D.; Michaelsen, J.C.; Verdin, J.P.; Brown, M.E.; Barlow, M.; Hoell, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ???15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling 'millions of undernourished people' as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  12. Geomorphology of Lake Lisan terraces along the eastern coast of the Dead Sea, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Kempe, Stephan

    2009-07-01

    Lake Lisan, the lake that filled the Jordan graben during the Last Glacial, left behind a well developed sequence of erosional and depositional shore terraces in the south east of the current Dead Sea. These terraces record a series of stillstands that were caused by small transgressions within an overall trend of falling lake levels. The terraces were observed in places where they had not been identified previously. The morphology of the terraces was investigated in six cross-sections using differential GPS altimetry. The levels of the terraces range between - 370 and - 148 m a.s.l. The high stand of Lake Lisan at - 148 m correlates well with the high level of - 150 m reported by Bowman and Gross [Bowman, D., Gross, T., 1992. The highest stand of Lake Lisan: ~ 150 meters below MSL. Israel Journal of Earth-Science 41, 233-237.] along the western coast of Lake Lisan. The lake terraces are horizontal, elongated and tectonically undisturbed, and have a sub-horizontal foreshore (tread) with an average slope of 8.2° and steep backshore cliff (riser) with an average slope of 17.7°. The six cross-sections show a good altitudinal correlation between their terraces. Moreover, the terraces appear in undisturbed continuity on the aerial photos. These morphological characteristics demonstrate that the retreat of the lake was a result of substantial climatic changes, not of tectonic subsidence. In-situ stromatolites were found on most of the terraces, reflecting a shallow water environment and emphasizing that these terraces are recessional. Well-developed desert varnish and Tafoni observed on blocks sitting on the terrace surfaces imply a long period of exposure and a low rate of post lacustrine erosion. The formation of Lisan terraces is constrained mainly by coastal slope, water depth and underlying lithology. The morphological analysis of these terraces allows identification of two kinds of pseudo-terraces, which were formed as a result of tread or riser destruction. U

  13. Strong Endemism of Bloom-Forming Tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with Description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

    2014-01-01

    Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent. PMID:25329833

  14. Strong Endemism of bloom-forming tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

    2014-01-01

    Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent. PMID:25329833

  15. Comparison of Indonesian Throughflow transport observations, Makassar Strait to eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranes, Kevin; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2005-05-01

    The Pacific to Indian Ocean transport within the passageways of the Indonesian seas (ITF) varies on interannual and longer time scales associated with ENSO, the Asian monsoons and interannual climate variability of the Indian Ocean. Although direct current measurements of the ITF are of limited duration, none long enough to properly describe greater than annual variability of the ITF, observations indicate that the bulk of the ITF passes through Makassar Strait. The repeat expendable bathythermograph (XBT) IX1 section begun in 1983 provides the longest time series of the full ITF introduced into the Indian Ocean between northwest Australia and Java. We find that the surface to 600 dbar Makassar Strait transport, as measured by current meter moorings from December 1996 to July 1998, correlates at r = 0.77 +/- 0.14 with the geostrophic transport constructed from IX1 XBT data for that time interval, with a 98 day lag.

  16. Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the south-eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Best, G.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Hornberger, G.M.; Meyer, J.L.; Robinson, P.J.; Stenberg, J.R.; Turner, R.E.; Vera-Herrera, F.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4??C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought. The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  17. Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater Ecosystems of the South-Eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Best, G. Ronnie; Coutant, Charles C.; Hornberger, George M.; Meyer, Judy L.; Robinson, Peter J.; Stenberg, John R.; Turner, R. Eugene; Vera-Herrera, Francisco; Wetzel, Robert G.

    1997-06-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4°C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought.The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  18. The structure and evolution of seasonal wind anomalies over the near-equatorial eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutzler, David S.; Harrison, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The longitude-height-time structure and evolution of near-equatorial wind variability over the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans are studied using data obtained from a network of eight radiosonde stations extending from southern India to the central Pacific Ocean. The seasonal zonal wind anomalies observed at the cross section beween Trivandrum and Majuro stations are analyzed using an empirical orthogonal function. The Walker Circulation fluctuations are described in terms of standing oscillations in the longitude-height plane, and it is determined that Southern Oscillation propagation anomaly best represents the wind fluctuations. A complex empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) analysis and an El Nino compositing methodology are applied to the seasonal zonal wind anomalies. It is determined that the composite El Nino anomalies correspond to the spatial structure and temporal evolution of anomalies implied by the CEOF analysis.

  19. Coastal aquaculture development in eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean: prospects and problems for food security and local economies.

    PubMed

    Rönnback, Patrik; Bryceson, Ian; Kautsky, Nils

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews the experience and status of coastal aquaculture of seaweeds, mollusks, fish and crustaceans in eastern Africa and the islands of the western Indian Ocean. In many respects, coastal aquaculture is still in its infancy in the region, and there is a pressing need to formulate development strategies aimed at improving the income and assuring the availability of affordable protein to coastal communities. This paper also draws from positive and negative experiences in other parts of the world. The requirements of feed and fry, and the conversion of mangroves are used to illustrate how some aquaculture activities constitute a net loss to global seafood production. The paper presents both general and specific sustainability guidelines based on the acknowledgement of aquaculture as an ecological process. It is concluded that without clear recognition of its dependence on natural ecosystems, the aquaculture industry is unlikely to develop to its full potential in the region. PMID:12572819

  20. Surveillance of Enteric Viruses and Microbial Indicators in the Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Harvest Waters along Louisiana Gulf Coast.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Naim; Maite, Morgan; Liu, Da; Cormier, Jiemin; Landry, Matthew; Shackleford, John; Lampila, Lucina E; Achberger, Eric C; Janes, Marlene E

    2015-05-01

    Noroviruses are the most common causative agent of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and are responsible for major foodborne illnesses in the United States. Filter-feeding molluscan shellfish exposed to sewage-contaminated waters bioaccumulate viruses, and if consumed raw, transmit the viruses to humans and cause illness. We investigated the occurrence of norovirus GI and GII and microbial indicators of fecal contamination in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and water from commercial harvesting areas along the Louisiana Gulf Coast (January to November of 2013). Microbial indicators (aerobic plate count, enterococci, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, male-specific coliphages, and somatic coliphages) were detected at the densities lower than public health concerns. Only one oyster sample was positive for norovirus GII at 3.5 ± 0.2 log10 genomic equivalent copies/g digestive tissues. A stool specimen obtained from an infected individual associated with a norovirus outbreak and the suspected oysters (Cameron Parish, La., area 30, January 2013) were also analyzed. The norovirus strain in the stool belonged to GII.4 Sydney; however, the oysters were negative and could not be linked. In general, no temporal trend was observed in the microbial indicators. Low correlation among bacterial indicators was observed in oysters. Strongest correlations among microbial indicators were observed between enterococci and fecal coliforms (r = 0.63) and between enterococci and E. coli (r = 0.64) in water (P < 0.05); however, weak correlations were found in oysters (r < 0.45) and between oysters and harvest water (r ≤ 0.36, P > 0.05). Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring of pathogenic viruses in commercial oyster harvesting areas to reduce the risks of viral gastroenteritis incidences. PMID:25899121

  1. The identification of source regions of black carbon at a receptor site off the eastern coast of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Hu, Min; Guo, Song; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Weiwei; Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Wei; Wu, Yusheng; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The black carbon (BC) mass concentration and the particle chemical compositions were continually measured at Changdao Island, which is a regional receptor site off the eastern coast of China. This island is in the transport passage of the continental outflow to the Pacific Ocean when the East Asia monsoon prevails in the winter and spring. The campaign period was for March and April 2011, which corresponded to heating and non-heating periods in northern China. The effect of BC emission source regions on BC measured at Changdao Island between the heating and non-heating periods was determined by integrating the total potential source contribution function (TPSCF) model with the new monthly emission inventory in 2010 and the fire counts retrieved from MODIS during the campaign. BC concentrations were determined to be highest for similar times of day for both the heating and non-heating periods: 4.27 μg m-3 at 8:00 AM and 3.06 μg m-3 at 9:00 AM, respectively. The probable source regions for BC were primarily located in Shandong and Jiangsu provinces (and in other neighboring provinces) for both periods. However, the source regions for the non-heating period extended more to the north and southwest than those of the heating period. TPSCF values were correlated with the emission rates from residential, industry, transportation, and power plants sources in the anthropogenic emission inventory. This correlation provides an indirect and qualitative process to verify the emission inventory. In the heating period, the predominant source was the residential source in the emission inventory, and this source had a significant effect on the BC concentration. The differing peak concentrations between the two periods may be observed because of the increased residential heating during the heating period, which suggested that the measures employed by the government and environmental managers to reduce the emissions of pollutants should be stricter in the identified source regions

  2. Retrieval and Validation of Precipitable Water Vapor using GPS Datasets of Mobile Observation Vehicle in the Eastern Coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, G. T.; Choi, B. C.; Shim, J.; Kim, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    The results from the global positioning system (GPS) measurements of mobile observation vehicle (MOVE) in the eastern coast of Korea have been compared with a fixed observation reference (REF) values from the fixed GPS sites to assess performance of precipitable water vapor (PWV) retrievals in a kinematic environment. MOVE-PWV retrievals have comparatively similar trends and reasonable agreement with REF-PWV with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 7.4 mm and R2 of 0.61 indicating a statistical significance at the 1% level (p-value of 0.01). Especially PWV retrievals from the June cases showed better agreement (mean bias of 2.1 mm and RMSE of 3.8 mm) with the other cases. We further investigated the relationships of determinant factors of GPS signals with the PWV retrievals for the detailed error analysis. As a result, both multipath (MP) errors of L1 and L2 pseudo-range had the best indices (0.75~0.99 m) for the June cases. We also found that both position dilution of precision (PDOP) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) values in June cases during the 1st period (0000~0100 UTC) are better (lower and higher) than those in Non-June cases, which is strongly associated with good accuracy (RMSE of 3.5 mm) of PWV in June cases. These results clearly demonstrate those effects on PWV accuracy, that is, analytic results of the key factors (MP errors, PDOP, and SNR) that could affect GPS signals should be considered for obtaining more stable performance. Taking advantage of MOVE, we would provide water vapor information with high spatial and temporal resolutions in case that weather dramatically changes such as in Korean Peninsula.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in an urban eastern Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, D S; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok K; Das, B C

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of hypertension and to identify predictors of adult hypertension specifically in an underdeveloped urban region of eastern India. Study design Population-based cross-sectional study, with multi-stage random sampling technique. Settings A main urban city located in South Orissa in eastern India. Participants 1178 adults 20–80 years of age randomly selected from 37 electoral wards of an urban locale. Statistical methods Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 36%. Significant predictors of hypertension were age, central obesity, inadequate fruit intake, diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein level and physical inactivity. Conclusions One-third of the adults in this urban population of eastern India are reported to be hypertensive and the classical risk factors have been found to contribute to the increased burden, which reinforces the importance of preventive cardiovascular interventions in tackling this burden.

  4. The Southern Oscillation in Surface Circulation and Climate over the Tropical Atlantic, Eastern Pacific, and Indian Oceans as Captured by Cluster Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Klaus

    1987-04-01

    Clusters of sea level pressure (SLP), surface wind, cloudiness, and sea surface temperature (SST) in the domain of the tropical Atlantic, eastern Pacific, and Indian Oceans are introduced and discussed in terms of general circulation and climate. They appear to capture well the large-scale degrees of freedom of the seasonal fields. In the Atlantic and, to a lesser extent, in the eastern Pacific, most analyzed fields group into zonally oriented `trade wind' clusters. These are separated distinctly by the near-equatorial trough axis. By contrast the Indian Ocean features strong interhemispheric connections associated with the monsoon systems of boreal summer and, to a lesser degree, of boreal winter.The usefulness of clusters thus established is elucidated with respect to the Southern Oscilation (SO). General circulation changes associated with this planetary pressure seesaw are deduced from correlation maps of surface field clusters for January/February and July/August. During the positive SO phase (i.e., anomalously high pressure over the eastern Pacific and anomalously low pressure over Indonesia), both the Atlantic and eastern Pacific near-equatorial troughs are inferred to be shifted towards the north from July/August SLP, wind, and cloudiness fields. While eastern Pacific trade winds are weakened in both seasons in the positive SO phase, the Atlantic trades appear strengthened at the same time in the winter hemisphere only. Over the Indian Ocean, the monsoon circulation seems to be strengthened during the positive SO phase, with the summer monsoon displaying a more complex picture. Its SLP, cloudiness and SST fields support an enhanced southwest monsoon, while its surface winds appear largely inconclusive. SST is lowered during the positive SO phase in all three tropical oceans.Since all major tropical circulation components over the Atlantic, eastern Pacific, and Indian Ocean participate in the Southern Oscillation, as is evidenced by field significance tests

  5. Three Plate Reconstruction in the Eastern Indian Ocean: New Constraints on Wharton and Australian-Antarctic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, J.; Dyment, J.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the continuous seismicity and repeated occurrence of major earthquakes in Sumatra and the neighboring area requires detailed constrains on the subducting plate. In this study we analyze the past plate kinematics evolution of the Wharton basin, eastern Indian Ocean through a three plate reconstruction involving Australia (AUS), Antarctica (ANT), and India (IND). We compile marine magnetic identifications in the Australian-Antarctic Basin [1,2], the Crozet and Central Indian basins (Yatheesh et al, in prep.) and the Wharton Basin [3]. The Wharton Basin is characterized by an extinct spreading center dated by anomaly 18 (38 Ma). The southern flank of the basin exhibits a continuous sequence of anomalies 20n (42 Ma) to 34n (84 Ma), whereas the northern flank lacks some of the older anomalies because a significant part has been subducted in the Sunda Trench. The three-plate reconstructions have provided set of rotation parameters describing the evolution of IND-AUS. Using these parameters, we have reconstructed the missing isochrons of the northern flank and the detailed geometry of the subducted part of the Wharton basin. Such an exercise provides useful constraints on the age and structure of the plate in subduction under Indonesia. As a byproduct, the three plate reconstruction provided set of rotation parameters for AUS-ANT as well, which constrains the conjugate fit between the basins. Previous studies [1,2,4,5] have achieved such a fit on the base of ill-defined fracture zones. We consider the well-defined fracture zones from the Crozet, Central Indian, and Wharton basins, but avoid using the poor fracture zone imprints from the Australian-Antarctic Basin. As a result from this approach, we conclude that the relative motion of AUS with respect to ANT initially followed a north-south direction, then changed to northwest-southeast at anomaly 32ny, and reverted to northeast southwest at anomaly 24no prior to the establishment of the Southeast Indian

  6. Eastern Indian 3800-million-year-old crust and early mantle differentiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basu, A.R.; Ray, S.L.; Saha, A.K.; Sarkar, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Samarium-neodymium data for nine granitic and tonalite gneisses occurring as remnants within the Singhbhum granite batholith in eastern India define an isochron of age 3775 ?? 89 ?? 106 years with an initial 143Nd/144Nd ratio of 0.50798 ?? 0.00007. This age contrasts with the rubidium-strontium age of 3200 ?? 106 years for the same suite of rocks. On the basis of the new samarium-neodynium data, field data, and petrologic data, a scheme of evolution is proposed for the Archean crust in eastern India. The isotopic data provide evidence that parts of the earth's mantle were already differentiated with respect to the chondritic samarium-neodymium ratio 3800 ?? 106 years ago.

  7. Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations.

    PubMed

    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2010-03-01

    Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J(*)(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:19809480

  8. Nd isotopic composition and REE pattern in the surface waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and its adjacent seas

    SciTech Connect

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Alibo, D.S.; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-05-01

    The Nd isotopic composition and dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) have been measured in the surface waters along the 1996/97 R.V. Hakuho-Maru Expedition route from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean, southwest of Australia, through the Philippine and Indonesian Archipelago, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of {minus}1.3 and {minus}1.4 were found in the Sulu Sea and near the Lombok Strait, indicating the strong influence of surrounding volcanic islands, whereas non-radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of less than {minus}10 were found in the Southern Ocean and the Bay of Bengal suggesting Nd of continental origin. The dissolved Nd concentrations also showed a wide range of variation from 2.8 to 19.6 pmol/kg and the trivalent REE patterns exhibited characteristic features that can be grouped into each different oceanic province. The geographical distribution of dissolved Nd is different from that of atmospherically derived {sup 210}Pb, but generally resembles that of coastally derived {sup 228}Ra. This strongly suggests that fluvial and coastal input predominates over eolian input for dissolved Nd in the surface ocean. However, the riverine dissolved Nd flux appears to be relatively minor, and remobilization of Nd from coastal and shelf sediments may play an important role in the total Nd input to the ocean. By modeling the distributions of the isotopic composition and concentration of Nd together with the activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in the southeastern Indian Ocean, the authors estimate a mean residence time of Nd in the surface mixed layer to be 1.5--2.6 years. The short mean residence time is comparable with, or slightly longer than that of {sup 210}Pb suggesting similar chemical reactivity.

  9. Exceptional warming in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean warm pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and warm SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the warming of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent warming in the Indian–Pacific warm pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the warm pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and numerical experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).

  10. Braarudosphaera-rich sediments on the Exmouth Plateau, eastern Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Siesser, W.G. ); Bralower, T.J. ); Carlo, E.H. de )

    1991-03-01

    Calcareous nannofossil assemblages enriched in Braarudosphaera occur in lower Oligocene to lower Miocene sediments at Ocean Drilling Program Sites 762 and 763 on the central Exmouth Plateau. Although beds of Braarudosphaera-rich sediments are well known in the Oligocene of the South Atlantic (the Braarudosphaera Chalk), this is the first published report of this phenomenon in the easter Indian Ocean. Braarudosphaerids appear rather abruptly in the lower Oligocene (in Zone NP 21) on the Exmouth Plateau. They reach their greatest numbers in the lower Oligocene (in Zones NP 22 and NP 23), where they comprise up to 10% of some samples. Braarudosphaera bigelowii is the overwhelmingly dominant species, occurring together with rare specimens of B. discula and Micrantholithus pinguis. The holococcoliths Peritrachelina joidesa and Lanternithus minutus are also associated with the Braarudosphaera enrichment. There are two populations of B. bigelowii: one of normal size (10-14 {mu}m) and one of large specimens (20-22 {mu}m). The larger braarudosphaerids are more common than the smaller forms. Braarudosphaera-rich sediments are absent at the nearby Wombat Plateau sites during the same time interval. The authors attribute this to latitudinal control, since the Wombat sites are about 4{degree} north of the Central Exmout Plateau sites. The occurrence of braarudosphaerids on the Exmouth Plateau is related to an Oligocene to early Miocene oceanographic event. Stable-isotope and trace-element analyses suggest that upwelling of cool, low-salinity, nutrient-rich water along a Divergent Zone created the Braarudosphaera-rich sediments in the Indian Ocean.

  11. Agricultural fingerprints in salt-marsh sediments and adaptation to sea-level rise in the eastern Cantabrian coast (N. Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Artola, Ane; Cearreta, Alejandro; Irabien, María Jesús; Leorri, Eduardo; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Corbett, D. Reide

    2016-03-01

    A multi-proxy approach based on benthic foraminifera, sand content, short-lived radioisotope activities, heavy metal concentrations and aerial photography was developed to characterise the process of human disturbance on the intensely impacted eastern Cantabrian coast (N. Spain) over the last two centuries. Analysis of two 50 cm long sediment cores from different saltmarshes in the Santoña estuary and their comparison with previous results in nearby coastal areas defines criteria to identify records of agricultural activities in salt-marsh sediments. Agricultural occupation of saltmarshes and the later regeneration was recognised based on foraminifera and sand content. Saltmarshes in the eastern Cantabrian coast are expected to adapt to ongoing sea-level rise based on the high sedimentation rates (14-18 mm yr-1) observed during the regeneration process of previously reclaimed areas. These findings can potentially be useful in other temperate saltmarshes with abundant sediment input, as a cost-effective adaptation measure to counteract the effects of sea-level rise.

  12. Sedimentary pigments and nature of organic matter within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (Indian margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasiq, K. T.; Kurian, S.; Karapurkar, S. G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentary pigments, carbon and nitrogen content and their stable isotopes were studied in three short cores collected from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS). Nine pigments including chlorophyll a and their degradation products were quantified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Astaxanthin followed by canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin were the major carotenoids detected in these cores. The total pigment concentration was high in the core collected from 500 m water depth (6.5 μgg-1) followed by 800 m (1.7 μgg-1) and 1100 m (1.1 μgg-1) depths respectively. The organic carbon did not have considerable control on sedimentary pigments preservation. Pigment degradation was comparatively high in the core collected from the 800 m site which depended not only the bottom dissolved oxygen levels, but also on the faunal activity. As reported earlier, the bottom water dissolved oxygen and presence of fauna have good control on the organic carbon accumulation and preservation at Indian margin OMZ sediments. The C/N ratios and δ13C values for all the cores conclude the marine origin of organic matter and δ15N profiles revealed signature of upwelling associated denitrification within the water column.

  13. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project. PMID:26054458

  14. Evolution of Eastern Indian Ocean: Evidences from Paleoceanography of DSDP Sites - 217A & 218

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.

    2012-12-01

    The present study was pursued on the benthic foraminifera obtained from the samples from the Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 217A and 218 to understand paleoceanographic changes during Miocene to Recent. Total 13 core samples of site-217A and 28 core samples of site-218 were analyzed for this study. Total 53 species were identified from the 13 samples of DSDP Hole 217A and 37 species were identified from 28 samples of DSDP Hole 218. The ecological preferences of some selected species are adapted from the various previous studies on recent benthic foraminifera and used for paleoceanographic interpretation. Owing to the low sample resolution, benthic foraminifera were classified into Labile organic carbon group, High organic carbon group, reducing environment group, Cibicides group and Total Miliolids on the basis of their ecological preferences. At Hole 217A, the samples were mainly clustered within the Pleistocene and high fluctuations in faunal abundance during Pleistocene indicate rapid changes in environment. Five phases of paleoenvironmental changes (e.g. well oxygenated, high organic carbon etc.) were recorded during the Pleistocene. High productivity depends upon the increase in high organic carbon and labile organic carbon. The increased number of cibicides and total miliolids indicate well oxygenated environmental condition. The scenario is not so clear for the Site 218. On the basis of the group wise abundance data, the total studied interval (Miocene to Pleistocene) is again subdivided into five periods depending upon the paleoenvironmental changes. The Miocene in the studied interval is mainly representing a high productive span. The change of paleoenvironment from the high organic to well oxygenated during Mid Pliocene may be related to the initiation and intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) during which the Active well oxygenated Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) flushed the bottom part of the Indian Ocean.

  15. Potential contribution of dopaminergic gene variants in ADHD core traits and co-morbidity: a study on eastern Indian probands.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Subhamita; Sarkar, Kanyakumarika; Ghosh, Paramita; Karmakar, Arijit; Bhattacharjee, Animesh; Sinha, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan

    2014-05-01

    Association of dopaminergic genes, mainly receptors and transporters, with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been investigated throughout the world due to the importance of dopamine (DA) in various physiological functions including attention, cognition and motor activity, traits. However, till date, etiology of ADHD remains unknown. We explored association of functional variants in the DA receptor 2 (rs1799732 and rs6278), receptor 4 (exon 3 VNTR and rs914655), and transporter (rs28363170 and rs3836790) with hyperactivity, cognitive deficit, and co-morbid disorders in eastern Indian probands. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV was followed for recruitment of nuclear families with ADHD probands (N = 160) and ethnically matched controls (N = 160). Cognitive deficit and hyperactive traits were measured using Conner's parents/teachers rating scale. Peripheral blood was collected after obtaining informed written consent and used for genomic DNA isolation. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-based methods followed by population- as well as family-based statistical analyses. Association between genotypes and cognitive/hyperactivity traits and co-morbidities was analyzed by the Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) software. Case-control analysis showed statistically significant difference for rs6278 and rs28363170 (P = 0.004 and 1.332e-007 respectively) while family-based analysis exhibited preferential paternal transmission of rs28363170 '9R' allele (P = 0.04). MDR analyses revealed independent effects of rs1799732, rs6278, rs914655, and rs3836790 in ADHD. Significant independent effects of different sites on cognitive/hyperactivity traits and co-morbid disorders were also noticed. It can be summarized from the present investigation that these gene variants may influence cognitive/hyperactive traits, thereby affecting the disease etiology and associated co-morbid features. PMID:24585059

  16. Association of single-nucleotide polymorphism of cholecystokinin receptor A gene with schizophrenia in an Eastern Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Jayanta K.; Dasgupta, Anindya; Singh, Omprakash; Banerjee, Ushasi; Basu, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cholecystokinin A receptor (CCK-AR) gene polymorphism is being increasingly reported in schizophrenia. It varies among different population groups but is associated with several complications of schizophrenia. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess whether the CCK-AR polymorphism is stabilized and is more consistently associated with schizophrenia in an Eastern Indian sub-population. Settings and Design: It was carried out as a cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study on 95 schizophrenia patients and 138 control subjects selected by the method of convenience. Materials and Methods: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms located in the regulatory region of the CCK-AR gene were assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified product of CCK-AR gene in study subjects. RFLP was done by the digestion of the PCR product by the restriction enzyme Pst-1 followed by gel electrophoresis. Statistical Analysis: Assessment of the stability of C/T polymorphism in the study population was done by applying Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium rule. The significance of difference in the allelic distribution between case and controls was analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) test and odds ratio (OR) analysis. Result: CCK-R polymorphism was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in both groups. Distribution of the C allele of this gene was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients (χ2 = 4.35, OR = 1.51; confidence interval at 95% =1.04–2.20). Conclusion: C/T polymorphism of the CCK-R gene is a stable polymorphism in our study population. Moreover, the C allele is significantly more abundant in schizophrenia patients imparting them a greater risk of development of complications like auditory hallucination. PMID:26600580

  17. New Cascadia subduction zone tsunami inundation modeling to guide relocation of coastal infrastucture for Indian tribes on the northern Washington coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, T. J.; LeVeque, R. J.; Adams, L. M.; Schelling, J.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Cakir, R.

    2015-12-01

    There have been advances in understanding the potential for great tsunamigenic earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone, motivating an effort to update the assessment of tsunami hazards on the Washington coast. Fine resolution (1/3 arc-second) digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and northern Olympic Peninsula have recently been made available, and coastal Indian tribes (Quinault, Hoh, and Quileute) have made plans to move important infrastructure out of their tsunami hazard zones. We have made numerical simulations of tsunamis incident on the Quinault, Hoh, Quileute, and Makah Reservations and adjacent coast with the GeoClaw numerical model [http://depts.washington.edu/clawpack/geoclaw/] for a local tsunami generated by a 9.1M Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake, designated L1 by Witter and others (DOGAMI Special Paper 43). This scenario is estimated to have `2% probability of nonexceedance in 50 years, which would be comparable to the International Building Code standard for seismic loading on structures of high importance, and provides appropriate guidance to the affected communities for siting of their significant infrastructure.

  18. Identification and characterization of tsunami deposits off southeast coast of India from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Rock magnetic and geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Basavaiah, N.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Deenadayalan, K.

    2014-06-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) had a major impact on the geomorphology and sedimentology of the east coast of India. Estimation of the magnitude of the tsunami from its deposits is a challenging topic to be developed in studies on tsunami hazard assessment. Two core sediments (C1 and C2) from Nagapattinam, southeast coast of India were subjected to textural, mineral, geochemical and rock-magnetic measurements. In both cores, three zones (zone I, II and III) have been distinguished based on mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic data. Zone II is featured by peculiar rock-magnetic, textural, mineralogical and geochemical signatures in both sediment cores that we interpret to correspond to the 2004 IOT deposit. Textural, mineralogical, geochemical and rock-magnetic investigations showed that the tsunami deposit is featured by relative enrichment in sand, quartz, feldspar, carbonate, SiO 2, TiO 2, K 2O and CaO and by a depletion in clay and iron oxides. These results point to a dilution of reworked ferromagnetic particles into a huge volume of paramagnetic materials, similar to what has been described in other nearshore tsunami deposits (Font et al. 2010). Correlation analysis elucidated the relationships among the textural, mineral, geochemical and magnetic parameters, and suggests that most of the quartz-rich coarse sediments have been transported offshore by the tsunami wave. These results agreed well with the previously published numerical model of tsunami induced sediment transport off southeast coast of India and can be used for future comparative studies on tsunami deposits.

  19. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  20. Organochlorine compounds in surface sediments from the northern coast of Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean: Levels, possible sources and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, F; Pazi, I; Gonul, L T; Duman, M

    2016-08-15

    Organochlorines (OCs) were determined in sediments collected from different regions of northern coast of Cyprus. The OCPs and Aroclors had a wide range from 2.78 to 306 and 15 to 325ngg(-1), respectively. The highest level was found at Yedi Dalga site. DDE was the most abundant compound. The ratios of metabolites to parent DDT showed that DDTs were derived mostly from the aged and weathered inputs. Comparing our results with the previous studies showed that POPs in sediments were found to be lower than those in samples for Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. The SQG implied that, Aroclor1254 exceeded the TEL values, showing that adverse biological effects are expected occasionally at some of the sediment samples. DDTs were dominant and more ecotoxicological concern in the northern Cyprus. Altogether, it may be summarized that DDTs will impose ecologically hazardous impacts in the sedimentary environment at the present. PMID:27234367

  1. Morphological study of the genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) on the coast of eastern Guangdong, China, with a description of H. pinnata sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lanping; Tan, Huaqiang; Zhang, Quanliang; Zeng, Lingzhao; Huang, Bingxin

    2016-03-01

    We present a taxonomic study of taxa of the red algae genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae), collected from the coast of eastern Guangdong, China. We made detailed morphological studies and considered recent taxonomic criteria for species delimitation, and are making the first report of five different species on the coast of Guangdong, including a new species. The species identified were H. caespitosa Tseng, H. hollenbergii Dawson, H. pecten - veneris (Harvey) Falkenberg, H. subdisticha Okamura and H. pinnata Ding and Tan sp. nov. H. pinnata sp. nov. is characterized by bright green thalli; most parts of the feathery thalli are free of the substratum; determinate branches and indeterminate branches are arranged in a chaotic sequence; the primary axis has bare segments; the determinate branch has 9-11 periaxial cells per segment; vegetative trichoblasts are abundant; and tetrasporangia are formed on the middle of the determinate branch with 1-8 successive segments in a single rectilinear series. This paper is also the first record of sporophyte plants of H. pecten-veneris.

  2. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia. PMID:26624084

  3. Genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. A study to support control of East Coast fever.

    PubMed

    Elisa, Mwega; Hasan, Salih Dia; Moses, Njahira; Elpidius, Rukambile; Skilton, Robert; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle from the Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. Thirty-nine (62%) positive samples were genotyped using 14 mini- and microsatellite markers with coverage of all four T. parva chromosomes. Wright's F index (F(ST) = 0 × 094) indicated a high level of panmixis. Linkage equilibrium was observed in the two zones studied, suggesting existence of a panmyctic population. In addition, sequence analysis of CD8+ T-cell target antigen genes Tp1 revealed a single protein sequence in all samples analysed, which is also present in the T. parva Muguga strain, which is a component of the FAO1 vaccine. All Tp2 epitope sequences were identical to those in the T. parva Muguga strain, except for one variant of a Tp2 epitope, which is found in T. parva Kiambu 5 strain, also a component the FAO1 vaccine. Neighbour joining tree of the nucleotide sequences of Tp2 showed clustering according to geographical origin. Our results show low genetic and antigenic diversity of T. parva within the populations analysed. This has very important implications for the development of sustainable control measures for T. parva in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania, where East Coast fever is endemic. PMID:25417727

  4. Westerly Wind Events in the Eastern Indian Ocean as a Precursor to El Nino: A Case Study for the 2002-03 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Gu, Guojun

    2003-01-01

    This paper extends the work of our previous study, which showed the potential of using precipitation in the eastern Indian Ocean to predict when an El Nino would begin. The paper begins by showing the successful prediction of the 2002-03 El Nino. However, precipitation is really used as a substitute for wind (storms are usually accompanied by heavy wind), because a popular hypothesis is that winds (especially % winds out of the West) stir up the ocean surface in the western Pacific sending currents of warm waters to the east Pacific where El Ninos form. This paper shows that it is typical for storms that produce strong winds in the western Pacific to have traveled from the Indian Ocean. We begin in the Indian Ocean looking at strong bursts of wind over several days. The number of windy days seems to increase in the months prior to El Nino. We examined these relationships in detail for November 2001 to April 2002, before the recent El Nino, using NASA's TRMM and QuikSCAT data. We found in one case that a warming of the eastern Indian Ocean occurred about 25 days before heavy rainfall formed. As the stormed moved eastward it was followed (6 days later) by strong winds out of the West. The entire storm system (and warming of the sea) moved eastward through a small strip of water between Indonesia and Australia, before reaching the western Pacific. Thus, this paper increases our understanding of the physical processes leading to the formation of El Nino.

  5. Sexual risk behaviour among migrant tribals living in urban slums of an eastern Indian city: implications on the spread of HIV.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suchismita; Swain, Basanta Kumar; Babu, Bontha Veerraju

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports the sexual risk behaviour among migrant tribal community living in an eastern Indian city. The age at marriage is very low in this community and 54% of women had first intercourse before the age of 15 years with the mean of 15.8 years and it is 19.5 years for men. Pre and extramarital relations, including multi-partnered sex is prevalent. Safe sexual practices are not reported and the risk perception is very low. High prevalence of behavioral risk factors leaves a potential risk for rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) both in slums as well as in remote tribal areas. PMID:18494181

  6. Health risk assessment from mercury levels in bycatch fish species from the coasts of Guerrero, Mexico (Eastern Pacific).

    PubMed

    Spanopoulos-Zarco, P; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Meza-Montenegro, M; Osuna-Sánchez, K; Amezcua-Martínez, F

    2014-09-01

    With the aim of determining Hg distribution in muscle and liver of bycatch fish from Guerrero state in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and assess the potential risk to consumer, Hg was quantified in 14 species of bycatch fish. For the majority of fish the order of Hg levels was liver > muscle. The highest concentration corresponded to the liver of Isopisthus remifer (2.05 µg g(-1)) and the lowest (0.02 µg g(-1)) was detected in muscle of Prionotus sp. The highest hazard quotient (0.75) was found in the Mexican milkfish Micropogonias ectenes; considering all the individuals, mean hazard quotient was 0.336. PMID:24902649

  7. Study of satellite geoid and gravity anomaly data of conjugate regions of Bay of Bengal and Enderby Basin new constraints on early evolution of the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. S.; Michael, L.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Majumdar, T. J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2006-12-01

    Timing for breakup of the Indian plate from eastern Gondwanaland and evolution of the lithosphere in the Bay of Bengal still remain debated because of lack of confident identification of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and fracture zones. Satellite geoid and gravity data of the two conjugate regions, Bay of Bengal (BOB) and Enderby Basin (EB), are coupled with ship-borne data for investigation of early evolution of the eastern Indian Ocean, particularly the lithosphere formed earlier to seafloor magnetic anomaly 34. The magnetic anomaly 34 is identified with greater confidence in north and northwestern periphery of the EB and in the distal Bengal Fan region. In BOB no correlatable magnetic anomaly related to M-sequence is identified, therefore EB holds the key for understanding of the breakups that had occurred between eastern margin of India and east Antarctica. Recent identifications of pairs of M-sequence anomalies (from M9N to M2) and extinct ridge segment in the eastern Enderby Basin suggest that formation of the lithosphere in the BOB was no earlier than anomaly M2. High-resolution geoid and gravity data of the BOB reveal the presence of prominent tectonic features such as Sunda trench, Ninetyeast and 85°E ridges, etc. Geoidal gradient of the BOB trends in WSW-ENE direction and does not follow the direction of the plate motion as expected, instead it trends in the resultant direction between the plate motion direction and geoidal low lying south of Sri Lanka. While in the EB the geoidal gradients trend in N-S to NW-SE following the general trends of the plate motion directions. Two prominent NW-SE trending fracture zones and five isolated NE-SW elongated structural rises are observed in residual geoidal and free-air gravity anomaly data between eastern margin of India and the 85°E Ridge. The rises are associated with low gravity anomalies and are oriented in orthogonal to the fracture zones trend. We interpret these structures as extinct ridge

  8. A new genus of mellitid sand dollar (Echinoidea: Mellitidae) from the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Coppard, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    Lanthonia gen. nov. Coppard 2016 is a genus of clypeasteroid sand dollar whose members inhabit shallow, sandy waters from Mexico (including the Gulf of California) to Colombia in the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific. Lanthonia includes Lanthonia longifissa (Michelin, 1858) and Lanthonia grantii (Mortensen, 1948), with L. longifissa hereby designated as the type species. Both L. longifissa and L. grantii were previously placed in the genus Mellita (L. Agassiz, 1841). However, levels of genetic divergence between a lineage containing L. longifissa and L. grantii and a lineage containing all other species of Mellita, including the type species M. quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778), indicate genus level differentiation. The systematic interpretation of this group also supports the designation of this new genus as it allows the tree topology to be recovered from the nomenclature and clarifies the historical biogeography of these clades. This has resulted in members of both lineages today being sympatric in the eastern Pacific. Members of Lanthonia are morphologically differentiated from the type species of Mellita and all Pacific Mellita in having very narrow ambulacral regions between the food grooves and the ambulacral lunules on the oral surface, these being very broad in both M. quinquiesperforata and M. notabilis. The dentation of the bidentate pedicellariae also differentiate these genera, with small peripheral teeth present along the edge of the blade in species of Lanthonia and one to three enlarged intersecting teeth present distally in all species of Mellita. PMID:27394905

  9. Elemental uptake by seaweed, Plocamium corallorhirza along the Kwazulu-natal coast of Indian Ocean, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Misheer, Natasha; Kindness, A; Jonnalagadda, S B

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the elemental uptake by Plocamium corallorhiza, a Rhodophyta class of coralline alga grown richly along KwaZulu-Natal coastline. The uptake of seven important elements, namely Fe, Mn, As, B, Ti, Zn and Hg, selected based on their abundance in the samples, were investigated for a one-year cycle, from June 2002 to May 2003, at four chosen sites located along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline. The sites spread over 150 km from North to South Coast are Zinkwasi, Ballito, Treasure Beach and Park Rynie. P. corallorhiza possess good manganese and arsenic-accumulating ability and has potential to be an excellent indicator for most of the metals studied. A typical P. corallorhiza sample at Park Rynie (winter) recorded Mn (14 ppm), Fe (6.02 ppm), As (8.4 ppm), B (1580 ppb), Zn (234 ppb), Ti (751 ppb) and Hg (15.8 ppb). The general trend found at all sites was a large decrease in iron concentration in spring and summer and increase in winter. Mercury uptake was lowest in winter and autumn at all sites. The highest mercury levels in the seaweeds were recorded during spring or summer. PMID:16893787

  10. Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color imagery in the presence of absorbing aerosols off the Indian coast using a neuro-variational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brajard, J.; Moulin, C.; Thiria, S.

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the atmospheric correction accuracy between the standard sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) algorithm and the NeuroVaria algorithm for the ocean off the Indian coast in March 1999. NeuroVaria is a general method developed to retrieve aerosol optical properties and water-leaving reflectances for all types of aerosols, including absorbing ones. It has been applied to SeaWiFS images of March 1999, during an episode of transport of absorbing aerosols coming from pollutant sources in India. Water-leaving reflectances and aerosol optical thickness estimated by the two methods were extracted along a transect across the aerosol plume for three days. The comparison showed that NeuroVaria allows the retrieval of oceanic properties in the presence of absorbing aerosols with a better spatial and temporal stability than the standard SeaWiFS algorithm. NeuroVaria was then applied to the available SeaWiFS images over a two-week period. NeuroVaria algorithm retrieves ocean products for a larger number of pixels than the standard one and eliminates most of the discontinuities and artifacts associated with the standard algorithm in presence of absorbing aerosols.

  11. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    PubMed

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  12. Distribution and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in grapevines from production vineyards along the eastern Adriatic coast.

    PubMed

    Likar, Matevž; Hančević, Katarina; Radić, Tomislav; Regvar, Marjana

    2013-04-01

    The colonisation and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on roots of grapevines were investigated in production vineyards located along a 500-km-long stretch of karst along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. AMF communities on roots of grapevines were analysed using temporal temperature gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the 18S and internal transcribed spacer segments of the rDNA operon. The AMF colonisation of these grapevines roots was consistent along the whole of this east Adriatic karst region, at 64 to 82% of fine roots. The comparison of the AMF communities on the roots of these grapevines showed that the fungal community associated with grapevine roots seems to be relatively stable, with inter-vineyard variability comparable to intra-vineyard variability. Some of the changes in the fungal communities were attributed to environmental factors (plant-available P) and location of the vineyard, although the latter could also have been influenced by an unmeasured environmental factor. A total of 27 taxa of fungi were identified, including taxa from Glomus group B, based on the sequencing of 18S rDNA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA yielded 30 different fungal taxa, which comprised eight different Glomeromycota taxa, including Glomus sinuosum and Glomus indicum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of grapevine colonisation by G. indicum. PMID:23053577

  13. Mercury Redox Chemistry in Waters of the Eastern Asian Seas: From Polluted Coast to Clean Open Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Yin, Yongguang; Chen, Jinsheng; Wang, Shiwei

    2016-03-01

    We performed incubation experiments using seawaters from representative marine environments of the eastern Asian seas to determine the mercury (Hg) available for photoreduction (Hgr(II)), to investigate the Hg redox reaction kinetics, and to explore the effect of environmental factors and water chemistry on the Hg redox chemistry. Results show that Hgr(II) accounted for a considerable fraction of total Hg (THg) (%Hgr(II)/THg: 24.90 ± 10.55%, n = 27) and positively correlated with THg. Filtration decreased the Hgr(II) pool of waters with high suspended particulate matter (SPM). The positive linear relationships were found between pseudo-first order rate constants of gross Hg(II) photoreduction (kr) and gross Hg(0) photo-oxidation (ko) with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Under the condition of PAR of 1 m mol m(-2) s(-1), the kr were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than ko (kr/ko: 0.86 ± 0.22). The Hg(0) dark oxidation were significantly higher than the Hg(II) dark reduction. The Hg(II) dark reduction was positively correlated to THg, and the anaerobic condition favored the Hg(II) dark reduction. Filtration significantly influenced the Hg photoredox chemistry of waters with high SPM. UVB radiation was important for both Hg(II) photoreduction and Hg(0) photo-oxidation, and the role of other wavebands in photoinduced transformations of Hg varied with the water chemistry. PMID:26863412

  14. Biomonitoring study of heavy metals in biota and sediments in the South Eastern coast of Mediterranean sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Maha A M; Abdallah, Aly M A

    2008-11-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Fe were determined in biota and sediment samples collected from the Eastern Harbour and El-Mex Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The levels of Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Fe in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha compressa (green algae) and Jania rubens (red algae), recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Fe was the most predominant metal in the seaweed. The two species of bivalves, Donax trunculus and Paphia textile, showed different amounts of metals in their tissue. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the mussel samples was found in the order Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Co> Cd and Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Co, respectively for the two species. The metals concentrations were generally higher compared with the previous studies in mussels from the same area. The levels of metals accumulated in the investigated fish samples, Saurida undosquamis, Siganus rivulatus, Lithognathus mormyrus and Sphyraena sphyraena, were higher than those of Marmara Sea (Turkey), for Co and Cd and lower for Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. El-Mex Bay having the highest metals concentration in sediments as their order of abundance were Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Co. Nevertheless, a high variability in the metal levels occurs among the studied algae and biota and also between the investigated Harbour. A significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found for each of Zn and Fe in P. textile and of Co in D. trunculus relative to their concentrations in surficial sediments. PMID:18074236

  15. Distribution of (137)Cs in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea Coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baltas, H; Kiris, E; Dalgic, G; Cevik, U

    2016-06-15

    This study presents the results of (137)Cs and (40)K radionuclide concentrations in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples collected during the period of February-November 2014 from twelve different stations within the border of the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Also, these radionuclide concentrations were determined in sea water and sediment samples. The activity concentrations in seawater, sediment and mussel tissue samples were between 1.12-1.69mBqL(-1), 3.26-30.74 and 1.61-3.16Bqkg(-1) for (137)Cs and 231.41-399.49mBqL(-1), 215.71-450.07 and 286.84-382.16Bqkg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. These values are also in accordance with the concentrations reported for similar regions. Additionally, radiological impact parameters such as daily intake of (137)Cs and (40)K, annual committed effective dose and carcinogenic risk due to the consumption of mussel were calculated and compared with the international data. Lifetime cancer risk values are lower than the limit of 10(-3). PMID:27021268

  16. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play

  17. Evidence for post last-glacial-maximum punctuated sea level rise found on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Oded; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2015-04-01

    The eustatic sea level curve for the eastern Mediterranean presents a general trend characterized by rapid post last-glacial-maximum rise (20,000 years ago), slowing approximately 6000 years ago and stabilizing at current sea-level 4000 years ago. Sea level evidence from portions of the Israeli coastline, suggest minimal to no hydro-glacio-isostatic influence on the local relative sea level curve, and no tectonic offsets for at least the past two thousand years. Recently, a submerged series of relict wave cut notches and erosional pits were identified along a sequence of coastal sites located approximately 20 km from one another (Michmoret, Olga, Caesarea, Dor) at 3 m and 6 m water depths. The features were carved into an upper-Pleistocene to Holocene eolianite sandstone, the age of which was previously constrained by OSL measurements to MIS 1-3. Elsewhere, similar features are widely used as sea-level markers. In this study, at some of the sites, we found a coinciding 3 m to 6 m submerged cliff with overhanging upper part, morphology that is comparable to the morphology of the modern coastal cliff. These submerged features should either suggest a tectonic offset, which is not favorable for the study area, or they might suggest that sea level rise has not been gradual, but rather punctuated, exhibiting pulses of sea level rise followed by periods of sea level stagnation. For the study site, the last stagnation took place at a few meters below current sea-level and enabled the development of the observed wave induced morphology within the eolianite. At present sea level, similar features exist and are being actively formed within the same host rock. At some of the sites, artificially-cut archaeological features from about the last 2000 years present with notches or erosional pits thereby providing insight into the period of time required for their creation due to their archaeological associations. Sea level rise might impacts the coastline significantly, with

  18. Changes in ecosystem components induced by climate variability off the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula during 1960 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Suam; Bae, Sang-Won

    2000-10-01

    To understand the variations of ecosystem components in response to changing environment, especially relating to a shift in the climate regime during mid 1970s, we analyzed the physical and biological time-series data collected from the eastern part of the Korean Peninsula during 1960-1990. The Northeast Pacific Pressure Index (NEPPI) in winter seasons showed a negative correlation ( r=-0.384, p<0.05) with SOI in summer. The standardized chronologies of tree ring-width showed high correlations with precipitation of Ulleung Island and Kangrung city ( r=0.408, p<0.05; r=0.410, p<0.05) and seawater temperatures ( r=0.407, p<0.05). Sharp increases in tree growth appeared in 1969, 1973, 1979, 1983, and 1987. Among these years, all except 1979 seem to have a close connection with the El Niño which had persisted more than five seasons. Air temperatures in spring at Ulleung Island and Kangrung area appeared comparatively higher during the intense Aleutian low period after 1976. The Mixed Layer Depth (MLD) was shallower (18.2 m) and less variable during 1961-1975 compared to that (26.1 m) of 1976-1990. The shallower MLD in spring during the earlier period resulted in the higher chl a concentration than in the later years. Consequently, estimated zooplankton biomass in spring tended to decrease from the 1960s to the late 1980s in accordance with the phytoplankton decreases. In the East Sea, composition changes in fish species as well as fish catches were observed. Catches of pollock, sardine, and saury had good correlations with annual NEPPI.

  19. Benthic associations in bathyal and hadal depths off the Pacific coast of north eastern Japan: physiognomies and site factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikoshi, Masuoki; Fujita, Toshihiko; Ohta, Suguru

    Off north-eastern Japan, the continental slope is rather narrow. It slopes steeply down to a depth of 1000m, but then forms a flat terrace between 1000 and 3000 m. Beyond 3000m the slope drops steeply down to the axis of the Japan Trench (7500m). Only one community type occurs in the upper bathyal zone (200-600m), an Ophiura association whose physiognomy is a “turf” of ophiuroids. The middle bathyal zone (600-1200m) is occupied by two types of community. The predominant community is an association characterized by an asteroid, Ceramaster, and a demersal fish, Sebastolobus, which has no characteristic physiognomy. The second is a comatulid community, which occurs on the shoulder of the slope as a comatulid “park”. The lower bathyal zones (1200-3000m) is inhabited by two distinct associations one of which has two facies. Most of the terrace area is occupied by an amphiurid association. In the plateau-like areas where there is a higher flow regime, there are sporadic, or sometimes rather dense stands of a coelenterate - the Radicipes facies. Whereas at the deeper site current are slower and the sediment is muddy, a Megayoldia - Ascorhynchus facies occurs in which a bivalve and a gigantic pycnogonid are found associated with amphiurids. The other community-type is a tubicolous-polychaete association which consists of a dominant polychaete species with a rather thin sandy tube which is associated always with a caprellid. This association is found on a shoulder-like topography, where bottom currents are expected to be constant and sediment is sandy. In the axis of the Japan Trench, where the sediment is soft mud, a small globular bivalve, Kelliella, is numerically dominant, which is associated with a holothurian, Elpidia, and a demersal fish, Careproctus. Nearby where the topography is a gentle slope, the community is typified by a dominant isopod, Storthyngura sp., accompanied by a bivalve, Spinula, and an actiniarian, Galatheanthemum.

  20. Spatial-temporal trend and health implications of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in resident oysters, South China Sea: A case study of Eastern Guangdong coast.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zi-Ling; Lin, Qin; Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Sun, Run-Xia

    2016-09-15

    Spatial and temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Eastern Guangdong coast, China. Total PAH concentrations in oysters ranged from 231 to 1178ng/g with a mean concentration of 622ng/g dry weight. Compared with other bays and estuaries, PAH levels in oysters were moderate. Spatial distribution of PAHs was site specific, with relatively high PAH concentrations observed in Zhelin Bay and Kaozhouyang Bay. Based on the Spearman test analysis, only PAH concentration in oysters from Jiazi Harbor showed a significant increasing trend (P<0.05). Three-ring PAHs were the most abundant, accounting for 54.2%-88.4% of total PAHs. Diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs were derived mainly from petroleum origin. BaP and ∑4PAH concentrations were well within the European Union limits (5ng/g and 30ng/g wet weight, respectively). The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for PAHs were <10(-5), indicating that the adverse health risks associated with oyster consumption in this area were minimal. PMID:27345707

  1. Cultural inter-population differences do not reflect biological distances: an example of interdisciplinary analysis of populations from Eastern Adriatic coast

    PubMed Central

    Bašić, Željana; Fox, Ayano R; Anterić, Ivana; Jerković, Ivan; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun; Holland, Mitchell M; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare the population group from the Šopot graveyard with population groups from traditional Croatian medieval graveyards by using anthropological, craniometrics, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) analysis and to examine if the cultural differences between population groups reflect biological differences. Methods We determined sex, age at death, pathological, and traumatic changes of skeletal remains from the Šopot graveyard and compared them with a cumulative medieval sample from the same region. We also performed principal component analysis to compare skeletal remains from Šopot with those from Ostrovica and other Central European samples according to 8 cranial measurements. Finally, we compared 46 skeletons from Šopot with medieval (Ostrovica) and contemporary populations using mDNA haplogroup profiling. Results The remains from Šopot were similar to the cumulative sample in lifestyle and quality of life markers. Principal component analysis showed that they were closely related to Eastern Adriatic coast sites (including Ostrovica and Šopot) in terms of cranial morphology, indicating similar biological makeup. According to mDNA testing, Šopot population showed no significant differences in the haplogroup prevalence from either medieval or contemporary populations. Conclusion This study shows that the Šopot population does not significantly differ from other medieval populations from this area. Besides similar quality of life markers, these populations also had similar biological markers. Substantial archeological differences can therefore be attributed to apparent cultural influences, which in this case do not reflect biological differences. PMID:26088847

  2. Distribution and enrichment of trace metals in marine sediments from the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic, off the Coast of Ghana in the Gulf of Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mahu, Edem; Nyarko, Elvis; Hulme, Samuel; Coale, Kenneth H

    2015-09-15

    We present results of a preliminary geochemical assessment of Cd, Pb, V, As, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mg, Al, K, Ca, and Fe in marine sediments from the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic, off the Coast of Ghana. Samples were taken along 4 regions G1, G2, G3 and G4 at approximately 25m, 100m, and 250m, 500m and 1000m depths. Elemental compositions were assessed through the estimation of Al-normalized enrichment factors and geochemical accumulation indices, and the concentrations determined to produce any potential toxic effects to biota. Significant enrichment of the bottom sediments with Cd, Ni and As were observed at some locations with sediments showing signs of heavy pollution with As at region G4. Apart from Ni, V and As which were beyond threshold effects levels at most regions, all other metals were below probable effect levels. Both natural and anthropogenic processes controlled trace metal accumulation and distribution in the Ghanaian coastal environment. PMID:26139460

  3. Seasonal variation in species composition and abundance of demersal fish and invertebrates in a Seagrass Natural Reserve on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Wentao; Wu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Seagrass habitats are structurally complex ecosystems, which support high productivity and biodiversity. In temperate systems the density of seagrass may change seasonally, and this may influence the associated fish and invertebrate community. Little is known about the role of seagrass beds as possible nursery areas for fish and invertebrates in China. To study the functioning of a seagrass habitat in northern China, demersal fish and invertebrates were collected monthly using traps, from February 2009 to January 2010. The density, leaf length and biomass of the dominant seagrass Zostera marina and water temperature were also measured. The study was conducted in a Seagrass Natural Reserve (SNR) on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China. A total of 22 fish species and five invertebrate species were recorded over the year. The dominant fish species were Synechogobius ommaturus, Sebastes schlegelii, Pholis fangi, Pagrus major and Hexagrammos otakii and these species accounted for 87% of the total number of fish. The dominant invertebrate species were Charybdis japonica and Octopus variabilis and these accounted for 98% of the total abundance of invertebrates. There was high temporal variation in species composition and abundance. The peak number of fish species occurred in August-October 2009, while the number of individual fish and biomass was highest during November 2009. Invertebrate numbers and biomass was highest in March, April, July and September 2009. Temporal changes in species abundance of fishes and invertebrates corresponded with changes in the shoot density and leaf length of the seagrass, Zostera marina.

  4. The distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in marine surface samples of the eastern Indian Ocean in relation to environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, I.; Young, M.; Mohtadi, M.; Lückge, A.; Behling, H.

    2012-04-01

    The eastern Indian Ocean is characterised by a complex system of surface currents that move according to the monsoon-dominated wind regime and show a strong seasonality. The Indonesian Throughflow, which originates in the northwestern and tropical Pacific and passes through the Indonesian archipelago into the Indian Ocean, is the only low-latitude oceanic connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and represents a key element in the global thermohaline circulation and hence the global climate system. In recent decades it has become increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanographic processes involved in climate variations. Assemblages of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) from marine surface samples provide insights into the relationship between the spatial distribution of dinocysts and modern local environmental conditions (e.g. sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, productivity). These information are of great value for the interpretation of past variations in surface water conditions. We present an extensive data-set of marine surface samples (n=116) from the Eastern Indian Ocean. The conducted Principal Component Analysis (PCA) illustrates the variation of species association between the sites and reveals a geographical affinity of the samples to the regions of (1) Western Indonesia, (2) Java, (3) the Indonesian Throughflow and (4) Western Australia including the Timor Sea. The results of the PCA further indicate the existence of two environmental gradients in the study area, a nutrient gradient increasing from Western Indonesia towards the Indonesian Throughflow region and a temperature gradient increasing from Western Australia towards Western Indonesia. The Redundancy Analysis indicates the presence of three dominating taxa in the sample set, namely Spiniferites spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp., and reveals significant correlations of the three dominant taxa to specific environmental

  5. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Eastern coast of South America

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG) inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA) populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Results Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. Conclusion The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of degeneration of the HEG

  6. Denudation history of Eastern Indian peninsula from apatite fission track analysis: Linking possible plume-related uplift and the sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Himansu S.; Raab, Matthias J.; Kohn, Barry P.; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.; Kumar, Devender

    2013-11-01

    The Late Archaean-Early Proterozoic (~ 2.5 Ga) Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), eastern India, which underlies much of the drainage basins of the Krishna and Godavari rivers, has undergone an erosionally controlled evolution since the Pan African event (~ 500-550 Ma). This evolution has been responsible for the sedimentation and overall development of the Krishna-Godavari (KG) sedimentary basin. In order to reconstruct the denudation history of the EDC, which forms the hinterland to the petroliferous KG basin, we report apatite fission track (AFT) data from 41 samples. Thermal history modelling suggests that little denudation occurred before Mid-Cretaceous time. However, during the Late Cretaceous, accelerated cooling commenced from a temperature range of 60-75 °C. Assuming a low palaeogeothermal gradient of 10 °C/km, similar to that of the present day, cooling of the EDC translates to ~ 0.5-2 km of denudation during the Late Cretaceous and a total of ~ 4 km since that time. The denudation history is closely related to the sedimentary record in the KG basin. The episode of accelerated cooling in the Late Cretaceous is interpreted as a geomorphic response to uplift of the Indian peninsula possibly resulting from an ascending mantle plume, which produced the voluminous Deccan Traps at the K-T boundary. The denudation history coupled with previous palaeocurrent studies in the KG basin suggest that the Krishna-Godavari drainage system was established in Late Cretaceous time.

  7. Late Holocene diffused interaction between a transform fault and nearby continental margin, extracted by comparing biological sea-level indicators and hydro-isostatic numerical predictions along the eastern Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattner, U.; Sivan, D.; Morhange, C.; Lambeck, K.; Boaretto, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Dendropoma petraeum are fixed vermitides that construct the abrasion platform rims. These endemic mollusks are considered good Relative Sea Level (RSL) indicators in the eastern and the southern Mediterranean, due to their narrow habitat at the sea surface (+/- 10cm). The observed RSL values recorded (submerged, uplifted or at present MSL) reflect a superposition of eustatic, isostatic, tectonic and possibly local sedimentary instabilities. The present study examines fossil Dendropoma samples gathered along the Levant coast, from northern Israel to eastern Turkey. Conventional radiocarbon dates (from Turkey, Syria and partly in Lebanon) and C14 AMS (from Lebanon and Israel) yields Dendropoma ages ranging through Late Holocene. A numerical model is used for calculating the change in sea level through the Holocene as a function of glacio-hydrology and isostasy of the eastern Mediterranean. Space-time dependent subtractions of the model values are used to eliminate the eustatic component of the RSL, in order to obtain the tectonic factor. Results show a general northward increase in tectonic uplift of the Levant coast. This differential uplift corresponds well to the major tectonic segments comprising the Levant continental margin since the Pleistocene, from the Carmel fault to the East Anatolian fault.

  8. Tourism and Indian Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

  9. An integrated multi-parameter monitoring approach for the quantification and mitigation of the climate change impact on the coasts of Eastern Crete, S. Aegean Sea (Project AKTAIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghionis, George; Alexandrakis, George; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Sifnioti, Dafni; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Andreadis, Olympos; Petrakis, Stelios; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Lipakis, Michalis

    2014-05-01

    The AKTAIA project aims at the production of new knowledge regarding the forms of manifestation of the climate change and its influence on the stability and evolution of the coastal landforms along the shoreline of eastern Crete (approximate length: 757 km), taking into account the various aspects of human intervention. Aerial photographs, satellite images and orthophotomaps have been used to produce a detailed coastline map and to study the morphological characteristics of the coastal zone of Eastern Crete. More than 100 beach zones have been visited during three field campaigns, which included geomorphological and human intervention mapping, topographic, meteorological and oceanographic measurements and sedimentological sampling and observations. In addition, two pilot sites (one in the north and one in the south part of Crete) are being monitored, via the installation of coastal video monitoring systems, shore-based meteorological stations and wave-tide recorders installed in the nearshore zone. Detailed seafloor mapping with the use of side scan sonar and scuba diving and bathymetric surveys were conducted in the two pilot sites. Meteorological and oceanographic data from all existing land-based meteorological stations, oceanographic buoys and the ERA-interim dataset are used to determine the wind and wave climate of each beach. The collected climatic, sedimentological and coastal environmental data are being integrated in a GIS database that will be used to forecast the climatic trends in the area of Crete for the next decades and to model the impact of the climatic change on the future evolution of the coastal zone. New methodologies for the continuous monitoring of land-sea interaction and for the quantification of the loss of sensitive coastal zones due to sea-level rise and a modified Coastal Vulnerability Index for a comparative evaluation of the vulnerability of the coasts are being developed. Numerical modelling of the nearshore hydrodynamics and the

  10. AMS 14 C dating controlled records of monsoon and Indonesian throughflow variability from the eastern Indian Ocean of the past 32,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. Y.; Chen, M. T.; Shi, X.; Liu, S.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Zi-Ye Li a, Min-Te Chen b, Hou-Jie Wang a, Sheng-Fa Liu c, Xue-Fa Shi ca College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, P.R. Chinab Institute of Applied Geosciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan 20224, ROCc First Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Qingdao 266100, P.R. China Indonesian throughflow (ITF) is one of the most important currents responsible for transporting heat and moisture from the western Pacific to the Indian Oceans. The ITF is also well-known as effectively in modulating the global climate change with the interactions among ENSO and Asian monsoons. Here we present an AMS 14C dating controlled sea surface temperature (SST) record from core SO184-10043 (07°18.57'S, 105°03.53'E), which was retrieved from 2171m water depth at a north-south depression located at the southeastern offshore area of Sumatera in the eastern Indian Ocean. Based on our high-resolution SST using Mg/Ca analyses based on planktonic foraminifera shells of Globigerinoides ruber and alkenone index, U k'37-SST, oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and AMC 14C age-controls, our records show that, during the past 32,000 years, the SSTs were decreased which imply weaker ITF during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and 3. The weaker UTF may respond to strengthened northeast monsoon during the boreal winter. During 21 to 15ka, the southeast monsoon had been stronger and the northeast monsoon was relatively weaker. During 15 to 8ka, rapid sea level rising may allow the opening of the gateways in the Makassar Strait and Lombok Strait that may have further strengthened the ITF. During the early Holocene, the northeast and southeast monsoons seem to be both strengthened. We will discuss the implications of the hydrographic variability and their age uncertainties in this paper during the meeting.

  11. Monsoon-ocean coupled modes in the South China Sea and their linkage with the eastern Indian Ocean-western Pacific warm pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fei; Yang, Yuxing; Huang, Jian

    2008-02-01

    Monsoon-ocean coupled modes in the South China Sea (SCS) were investigated by a combined singular value decomposition (CSVD) analysis based on sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface wind stress (SWS) fields from SODA (Simple Ocean Data Assimilation) data spanning the period of 1950 1999. The coupled fields achieved the maximum correlation when the SST lagged SWS by one month, indicating that the SCS coupled system mainly reflected the response of the SST to monsoon forcing. Three significant coupled modes were found in the SCS, accounting for more than 80% of the cumulative squared covariance fraction. The first three SST spatial patterns from CSVD were: (I) the monopole pattern along the isobaths in the SCS central basin; (II) the north-south dipole pattern; and (III) the west-east seesaw pattern. The expansion coefficient of the SST leading mode showed interdecadal and interannual variability and correlation with the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP), suggesting that the SCS belongs to part of the IPWP at interannual and interdecadal time scales. The second mode had a lower correlation coefficient with the warm pool index because its main period was at intra-annual time scales instead of the interannual and interdecadal scales with the warm pools. The third mode had similar periods to those of the leading mode, but lagged the eastern Indian Ocean warm pool (EIWP) and western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) by five months and one year respectively, implying that the SCS response to the warm pool variation occurred from the western Pacific to the eastern Indian Ocean, which might have been related to the variation of Indonesian throughflow. All three modes in the SCS had more significant correlations with the EIWP, which means the SCS SST varied much more coherently with the EIWP than the WPWP, suggesting that the SCS belongs mostly to part of the EIWP. The expansion coefficients of the SCS SST modes all had negative correlations with the Niño3 index, which they lag

  12. Increased frequency of extreme Indian Ocean Dipole events due to greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenju; Santoso, Agus; Wang, Guojian; Weller, Evan; Wu, Lixin; Ashok, Karumuri; Masumoto, Yukio; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-06-12

    The Indian Ocean dipole is a prominent mode of coupled ocean-atmosphere variability, affecting the lives of millions of people in Indian Ocean rim countries. In its positive phase, sea surface temperatures are lower than normal off the Sumatra-Java coast, but higher in the western tropical Indian Ocean. During the extreme positive-IOD (pIOD) events of 1961, 1994 and 1997, the eastern cooling strengthened and extended westward along the equatorial Indian Ocean through strong reversal of both the mean westerly winds and the associated eastward-flowing upper ocean currents. This created anomalously dry conditions from the eastern to the central Indian Ocean along the Equator and atmospheric convergence farther west, leading to catastrophic floods in eastern tropical African countries but devastating droughts in eastern Indian Ocean rim countries. Despite these serious consequences, the response of pIOD events to greenhouse warming is unknown. Here, using an ensemble of climate models forced by a scenario of high greenhouse gas emissions (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), we project that the frequency of extreme pIOD events will increase by almost a factor of three, from one event every 17.3 years over the twentieth century to one event every 6.3 years over the twenty-first century. We find that a mean state change--with weakening of both equatorial westerly winds and eastward oceanic currents in association with a faster warming in the western than the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean--facilitates more frequent occurrences of wind and oceanic current reversal. This leads to more frequent extreme pIOD events, suggesting an increasing frequency of extreme climate and weather events in regions affected by the pIOD. PMID:24919920

  13. Temporal changes in surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide and carbonate saturation state in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during the 1962-2012 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Yu, W.; Wang, H.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Feng, L.; Gao, L.; Li, K.; Li, Z.; Wei, Q.; Ning, C.

    2014-11-01

    Information on changes in the oceanic carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and air-sea CO2 flux as well as on ocean acidification in the Indian Ocean is very limited. In this study, temporal changes of the inorganic carbon system in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO, 5° N-5° S, 90-95° E) are examined using partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) data collected in May 2012, historical pCO2 data since 1962, and total alkalinity (TA) data calculated from salinity. Results show that sea surface pCO2 in the equatorial belt (2° N-2° S, 90-95° E) increased from ∼307 μatm in April 1963 to ∼373 μatm in May 1999, ∼381 μatm in April 2007, and ∼385 μatm in May 2012. The mean rate of pCO2 increase in this area (∼1.56 μatm yr-1) was close to that in the atmosphere (∼1.46 μatm yr-1). Despite the steady pCO2 increase in this region, no significant change in air-sea CO2 fluxes was detected during this period. Ocean acidification as indicated by pH and saturation states for carbonate minerals has indeed taken place in this region. Surface water pH (total hydrogen scale) and saturation state for aragonite (Ωarag), calculated from pCO2 and TA, decreased significantly at rates of -0.0016 ± 0.0001 and -0.0095 ± 0.0005 yr-1, respectively. The respective contributions of temperature, salinity, TA, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the increase in surface pCO2 and the decreases in pH and Ωarag are quantified. We find that the increase in DIC dominated these changes, while contributions from temperature, salinity, and TA were insignificant. The increase in DIC was most likely associated with the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and the transport of accumulated anthropogenic CO2 from a CO2 sink region via basin-scale ocean circulations. These two processes may combine to drive oceanic DIC to follow atmospheric CO2 increase.

  14. Indian Monsoon Depression: Climatology and Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Huang, Wan-Ru

    2012-03-09

    The monsoon climate is traditionally characterized by large seasonal rainfall and reversal of wind direction (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Most importantly this rainfall is the major source of fresh water to various human activities such as agriculture. The Indian subcontinent resides at the core of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon system, with the monsoon trough extended from northern India across Indochina to the Western Tropical Pacific (WTP). Large fraction of annual rainfall occurs during the summer monsoon season, i.e., June - August with two distinct maxima. One is located over the Bay of Bengal with rainfall extending northwestward into eastern and central India, and the other along the west coast of India where the lower level moist wind meets the Western Ghat Mountains (Saha and Bavardeckar 1976). The rest of the Indian subcontinent receives relatively less rainfall. Various weather systems such as tropical cyclones and weak disturbances contribute to monsoon rainfall (Ramage 1971). Among these systems, the most efficient rain-producing system is known as the Indian monsoon depression (hereafter MD). This MD is critical for monsoon rainfall because: (i) it occurs about six times during each summer monsoon season, (ii) it propagates deeply into the continent and produces large amounts of rainfall along its track, and (iii) about half of the monsoon rainfall is contributed to by the MDs (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Therefore, understanding various properties of the MD is a key towards comprehending the veracity of the Indian summer monsoon and especially its hydrological process.

  15. Biology of the silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis (Carcharhinidae) in the eastern Indian Ocean, including an approach to estimating age when timing of parturition is not well defined.

    PubMed

    Hall, N G; Bartron, C; White, W T; Dharmadi; Potter, I C

    2012-04-01

    Biological data were recorded for 1265 silky sharks Carcharhinus falciformis collected from fish landing sites in eastern Indonesia. These represented catches taken in most calendar months by gillnetting and longlining in the eastern Indian Ocean and contained individuals ranging from embryos to fully mature adults. The growth zones in centra, which were shown to form annually, were counted in the vertebrae in a sub-sample of 200 fish for ageing purposes. The embryo lengths in the 5 months for which there were such data, and the presence of neonates in virtually all months, however, indicated that birth occurs throughout the year and thus there was no well-defined birth date for ageing individual fish. The approximate birth date of each individual was thus estimated from a combination of the total length (L(T) ) at capture and backcalculated L(T) at the formation of the birth zone and at the first and last growth zones in the vertebral centra, together with the period that had elapsed between the formation of those last two growth zones. The number of eggs or embryos in uteri ranged from two to 14, with a mean of 7·2. The estimated mean L(T) at birth of females (811 mm, range: 799-823 mm) and males (812 mm, range: 794-830 mm), derived from the backcalculations corresponding to the birth zones in the centra, were not significantly different (P > 0·05). The L(T) ranges in the catches of post-natal females (570-2592 mm) and males (553-2289 mm) taken by gillnetting were wider than those of the females (1177-2623 mm) and males (1184-2409 mm) taken by longlining. The oldest female and male were 19 and 20 years-old, respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth curves for the two sexes did not differ significantly. The growth coefficient, k, and the asymptotic length, L(T∞). were 0·066 year⁻¹ and 2994 mm for the curve fitted to the combined data for females and males. The lengths L(T50) and ages A(50) at which C. falciformis attained maturity were 2156 mm and 15 years

  16. On a new species of Neoechinorhynchus Hamann, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) from Indian threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gudivada, Mani; Chikkam, Vijayalakshmi; Vankara, Anu Prasanna

    2010-10-01

    A new acanthocephalan of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Hamman, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoaechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) parasitic on threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India is described. Neoechinorhynchus indicus sp. nov is characterized by an enormous body size, structural characteristics of the hooks on proboscis, presence of body annulations, two guard cells, unequal lemnisci, sub-terminal genital pore and the host. N. indicus sp.nov is included in the genus by the presence of three rows of six hooks each on the proboscis and a single layered proboscis receptacle. PMID:21966127

  17. Fault Model of the 1703 Genroku Kanto Earthquake Based on Newly Imaged Upper- Surface of Philippine Sea Plate, Coseismic Coastal Movements, and Tsunami Inundation Heights Along the Eastern Boso Coast, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namegaya, Y.; Shishikura, M.; Satake, K.

    2008-12-01

    We propose a fault model of the 1703 Genroku Kanto earthquake by using recently imaged shape of Philippine Sea Plate, distributions of coseismic coastal movements, and tsunami inundation heights along the eastern Boso coast. The Genroku Kanto earthquake occurred in southern Kanto, less than 100 km away from Tokyo, on December 31, 1703. Its magnitude is estimated to be 7.9-8.2 (Usami, 2003). The source is located on subducting Philippine Sea Plate. Several fault models have been proposed from distributions of the coseismic coastal vertical movements or tsunami inundated heights (e.g. Kasahara et al., 1973; Matsuda et al., 1978; Aida, 1991; Shishikura, 2003). Recently, upper-surface of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate has been imaged in detail by using deep seismic reflection profiling (e.g. Sato et al., 2005; Takeda et al., 2007; Tsumura et al., 2008). One of the features is low dip angle in the shallow region (Tsumura et al., 2008). In this study, we first compiled the above three images and estimated the shape of the plate. Next, 49 subfaults whose size is 10 km x 10 km are located on the upper surface of Philippine Sea Plate in such a way that they do not overlap with each other. Vertical movement on the coast from each subfault (Green functions) is calculated for a unit amount of slip. The slip amounts of each subfault are estimated by an inversion of measured vertical movement (Shishikura, 2000). As a result, the slip amount of more than 10 m is estimated on the plate surface in the south part of Boso peninsula and Miura peninsula, while small slip is estimated between two peninsulas. To discuss with tsunami inundation height, we next locate additional large two faults whose size is 30 km x 28 km and 50 km x 28 km off southern (S) and southeastern (SE) Boso peninsula, respectively. Tsunami inundation heights along the eastern Boso coast is calculated using the estimated slip distribution of the 49 subfaults and the additional two faults with slip amount of 7

  18. Geochemical And Hydrodynamic Behavior Of The Karstic Aquifer System In The Portion Between Akumal And Boca Paila, In The South Eastern Coast Of The Yucatan Peninsula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez Oliman, G.; Leal Bautista, R. M.; Perry, E. C.; Carrol, M.; Wagner, N.; Castillo Oliman, P.

    2008-12-01

    We report here aspects of the geochemistry and hydrodynamics of a nearly 450 km2 area that constitutes part of the rapidly developing tourist corridor between Akumal and Boca Paila, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Some of the largest explored submerged cave systems in the world, including Nohoch Nah Chic and Dos Ojos, are within the study area. The presence of these and other highly permeable conduits highlights the importance of a better understanding of the aquifer system both to assess its vulnerability and to facilitate sustainable water management. This study focuses on major ion, trace element, and stable isotope geochemistry of groundwater and on monitoring system hydrodynamics through water levels measurements. Sampling along approximately 30 km of coast was accomplished by means of a network of 29 sampling sites arranged along three NW-SE transverse lines running approximately perpendicular to the coast and each extending about 16 km inland. To date 52 samples have been taken. In addition, vertical specific conductivity profiles have helped delineate the thickness of the freshwater lens, which has a maximum thickness of 33.5 m in the southwestern part of the study area, approximately 13.5 km from the coast. In the northeastern corner of the study area, 7.5 m of brackish water overlies sea water near the coast. Water level monitoring is by means of Schlumberger pressure transducers installed at 11 sites. Water table changes record tidal oscillation, confirming the interconnectedness of the system, an observation supported by conductivity measurements that indicate oscillatory vertical movement of the saline interface. (SO4/Cl) ratios, expressed as 1000(SO4/Cl) in meq/kg, are useful tracers of groundwater provenance. The ratio is approximately 100 for seawater and is much greater for groundwater in southern Quintana Roo that has dissolved evaporite (Perry et al, 2002). Ratios in the study area, which are 100 or less, indicate no contact with evaporite. Background

  19. Dissolved Fe and Al in the upper 1000 m of the eastern Indian Ocean: A high-resolution transect along 95°E from the Antarctic margin to the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, Maxime M.; Measures, Christopher I.; Hatta, Mariko; Hiscock, William T.; Landing, William M.; Morton, Peter L.; Buck, Clifton S.; Barrett, Pamela M.; Resing, Joseph A.

    2015-03-01

    A high-resolution section of dissolved iron (dFe) and aluminum (dAl) was obtained along ~95°E in the upper 1000 m of the eastern Indian Ocean from the Antarctic margin (66°S) to the Bay of Bengal (18°N) during the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) CO2 Repeat Hydrography I08S and I09N sections (February-April 2007). In the Southern Ocean, low concentrations of dAl (<1 n M) reflect the negligible dust inputs impacting the water masses subducted in the circumpolar domain. The low dAl concentrations characterizing the Southern Ocean terminate near 45°S, probably because of the advection of subtropical water masses that received dust and sedimentary inputs in their formation region. Our subsurface dFe data near the southern Kerguelen Plateau were significantly higher than historical observations in other Indian sectors of the Southern Ocean. We surmise that the offshore advection of dFe-rich waters along the western flank of the southern Kerguelen plateau and enhanced vertical mixing could contribute to this elevated subsurface dFe inventory. Elevated subsurface particulate and dFe levels downstream of the northern Kerguelen Plateau may reflect long-range lateral transport from the plateau's sediments and/or remineralization inputs. At the northern edge of the south Indian subtropical gyre, the deposition of Australian dust, possibly combined with the advection of dAl-enriched waters from the Indonesian Throughflow, creates a region of elevated dAl in the upper 400 m but without a corresponding enrichment in dFe. In the northern Indian Ocean, the South Equatorial Current constitutes a remarkable biogeochemical front separating the oxygen-rich and dFe-poor subtropical gyre waters from the dFe-rich and oxygen-depleted waters of the northern Indian Ocean. By tracing the accumulation of macronutrients and dFe along the advective pathway of Indian Central Water, we show that the central waters of the northern Indian Ocean receive excess dFe in addition

  20. Future change of the Indian Ocean basin-wide and dipole modes in the CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jung-Eun; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin; Kim, Byeong-Hee; Chung, Chul Eddy

    2014-07-01

    The Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability has been represented with the two dominant variability modes: the Indian Ocean basin-wide (IOBW) and dipole (IOD) modes. Here we investigate future changes of the two modes together with mean state and El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) relationship under the anthropogenic global warming using 20 coupled models that participated in the phase five of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project by comparing the historical run from 1950 to 2005 and the RCP 4.5 run from 2050 to 2099. The five best models are selected based on the evaluation of the 20 models' performances in simulating the two modes and Indian Ocean basic state for the latest 56 years. They are capable of capturing the IOBW and IOD modes in their spatial distribution, seasonal cycle, major periodicity, and relationship with ENSO to some extent. The five best models project the significant changes in the Indian Ocean mean state and variability including the two dominant modes in the latter part of twenty-first century under the anthropogenic warming scenario. First, the annual mean climatological SST displays an IOD-like pattern change over the Indian Ocean with enhanced warming in the northwestern Indian Ocean and relatively weaker warming off the Sumatra-Java coast. It is also noted that the monthly SST variance is increased over the eastern and southwestern Indian Ocean. Second, the IOBW variability on a quasi-biennial time scale will be enhanced due to the strengthening of the ENSO-IOBW mode relationship although the total variance of the IOBW mode will be significantly reduced particularly during late summer and fall. The enhanced air-sea coupling over the Indian-western Pacific climate in response to El Nino activity in the future projection makes favorable condition for a positive IOD while it tends to derive relatively cold temperature over the eastern Indian Ocean. This positive IOD-like ENSO response weakens the relationship between the

  1. Seasonal variations of sea-surface salinity and temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donguy, Jean-Rene; Meyers, Gary

    1996-02-01

    Measurements of sea-surface temperature and sea-surface salinity obtained from ships-of-opportunity are used to map the fields in the tropical Indian Ocean. The seasonal variation is described in detail along the six shipping tracks that have the best data coverage: Gulf of Aden to La Reunion island, Persian Gulf to Cape Town, Gulf of Aden to east Africa, Gulf of Aden to Indonesia, Sri Lanka to Torres Strait through Malacca Strait, and along the west coast of Australia. Seasonal variation with large amplitude is found in an extensive area in the western Indian Ocean. In the eastern Indian Ocean, seasonal variation is small, except where it is linked to local features such as coastal upwelling, local wind or rainfall-runoff. Water masses, defined from the surface T- S diagram, are related to winds and currents or are formed locally. The movement of these water masses is linked to currents driven by the monsoon circulation.

  2. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  3. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  4. Trace metal enrichments in nearshore sediments and accumulation in mussels (Modiolus capax) along the eastern coast of Baja California, Mexico: environmental status in 1995.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barbosa, Albino; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel

    2013-12-15

    The biogeochemistry of trace metals in nearshore sediments and mussel was studied at 15 stations along a 1000 km long transect paralleling the west coast of the Gulf of California (GOC). Total trace metal (Me) and enrichment factor (EF(Me)) values in sediments were low due to negligible anthropogenic influence in the region. Past copper mining, however, near Santa Rosalia caused concentrations of Pb, Mn, Co, Zn and Cu which were 10-3.3×10(3) times greater than the average for the rest of the transect. Mussels also showed relatively high trace metal concentrations at the Santa Rosalia stations, but the variability in the spatial distribution was low and had undefined trends. Our results show that, with the exception of Co and Cu, the contamination caused by the copper mine affected sediments to a greater extent than mussels. PMID:24237993

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base on the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: Characterization and risk implications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Qin

    2016-09-15

    We investigated distribution, sources, and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the largest mariculture base in the eastern part of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Total concentrations of ∑PAHs were 29.38-815.46ng/g (dry weight), with a mean of 421.48ng/g. The composition of PAHs was characterized by an abundance of low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 benzenoid ring), and Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (AN) and Fluoranthene (FA) were the predominant constituents. PAHs in this area appear to have mainly originated from petroleum sources and the combustion of grass, wood, and coal. PAHs in surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 9% incidence of causing adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms, according to the mean effects range-median quotient. PMID:27287864

  6. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  7. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  8. Refinement of Late Early to Middle Miocene Diatom Biostratigraphy for the Eastern Coast of the United States - Application to IODP 313 Coring on the New Jersey Shallow Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Miller, K. G.; Sugarman, P.; Scienceparty, E.; Scientific Team Of Iodp Leg 313

    2010-12-01

    Marine diatoms have been employed for biostratigraphic correlation of lower and middle Miocene sediments deposited on the Atlantic Coastal Plain between Florida and New Jersey for over 50 years. Biotratigraphic zonations developed during the 1970’s and early 1980’s by George W. Andrews and William H. Abbott relied primarily on benthic and shallow shelf-dwelling diatoms ( Actinoptychus, Delphineis, Rhaphoneis, Sceptroneis ) that are common in these deposits. Limited age control was provided by sporadic occurrences of oceanic planktonic diatoms, calcareous nannofossils, and planktonic foraminifera. The transect of holes cored on the shallow New Jersey shelf during IODP Leg 313 provided an opportunity to further develop this east coast diatom biostratigraphy and to refine its correlation with the geologic time scale. In particular, Hole M0029A, at 39°31.170500’N, 73°24.792500’W in 35.97 m of water recovered a nearly continuous sequence of diatom-rich sediments between ~695 and 325 m subbottom depth that preliminary strontium and planktonic microfossil assigned to the late early and middle Miocene. Detailed light microscope study of this sequence revealed the occurrence of numerous oceanic planktonic diatoms (species of Actinocyclus, Annellus, Azpeitia, Crucidenticula, Denticulopsis, Thalassiosira) that have been proven to be useful for diatom biostratigraphy in the equatorial and North Pacific during the past 30 years, where their datum levels (first and last occurrences) have been directly tied to paleomagnetic stratigraphy. Comparison of the stratigraphic positions of these diatom datum levels with calcareous nannofossil, planktonic foraminiferal, and strontium isotope stratigraphy results in a refined age model for Hole M0029A ranging in age between ~19.0 and 13.0 Ma. The continuous occurrence in Hole M0029A of an evolutionary sequence of diatom species of Delphineis (D. ovata, D. lineata, D. penelliptica, D. angustata, D. novacaesarae, D. biseriata) that

  9. Spreading of the Indonesian Throughflow in the Indian Ocean: Tracer Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Q.; Gordon, A. L.; Visbeck, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) spreading pathways and time scales are investigated in two numerical tracer experiments, one being a transit time probability density function (PDF) tracer experiment and the other Lagrangian trajectory experiment, in an ocean general circulation model. The model climatology is in agreement with observations and other model results except within the region of the Leeuwin Current. The thermocline ITF water eventually exits the Indian Ocean along the western boundary, that is, the Mozambique Channel and the east coast of Madagascar and, further south, the Agulhas Current region. Crossing the Indian Ocean within the South Equatorial Current (SEC), the ITF water is affected by the bifurcation at the western boundary, with about 40% flowing southward to join the Agulhas Current consequently exiting the Indian Ocean and the rest about 60% northward to the northern Indian Ocean. Most of the ITF water that turns to the north rejoins the SEC and subsequently is advected to the western boundary by undergoing vertical transfer from the thermocline to the surface layer through upwelling, mainly the summer coastal upwelling off the coast of Somalia and the year-round open ocean upwelling in a broad region between the Equator and about 13°S, and southward horizontal advection in the surface layer by Ekman transport. The fate of this branch of ITF water is determined, again, at the western boundary. The spreading time scales, represented by the elapsed time corresponding to the maximum of transit time PDF, show that in the thermocline the ITF crosses the Indian Ocean, from the Makassar Strait to the east coast of African continent, on a time scale of 9 years, reaches the Arabian Sea on a time scale of 20 years and returns to the eastern Indian Ocean in the southern subtropics on a time scale of 18 years.

  10. The First Guess: Testing predictions of coastal change from shoreline orientation and wave climate along Cape Cod and the U.S. Eastern Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, A. D.; Biolchi, L. G.; Nienhuis, J.

    2015-12-01

    Myriad factors, including sea-level rise, cross-shore sediment transport, tidal inlet mechanics, geological inheritance, and, more recently, anthropogenic activities affect the shape and rates of change of the shoreline. However, the generally smooth shape of many sandy shorelines provides a rather clear demonstration that alongshore sediment transport, through gradients in this flux, exerts a first-order control on coastal shape. Fisher (1968) has also previously observed that the mid-to-northern USA coast, spanning the Cape Cod, Long Island, New Jersey, and Delmarva shores, share many basic traits, as they are comprised of a series of erosional headlands flanked by accretionary spits and, towards their southern/western extension, increasingly disjointed barrier island chains. Here, using ~30-year hindcast wave data and modern shoreline orientations, we test the first-order prediction that alongshore sediment transport drives the long-term evolution of the shorelines of these systems. We find that, in many cases, predictions of erosion and accretion from shoreline orientation and wave climate alone match historical trends in shoreline change. These first-order predictions, however, do not explain all of the historical shoreline changes, and our analysis can highlight the regions where other processes must be invoked to understand long-term shoreline change. However, we find that changes to the shoreline orientation are sufficient to explain many well-documented locations of rapid shoreline change, further suggesting that in these locations geologic and cross-shore controls may be playing secondary roles in shoreline change.

  11. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  12. Plant invasion impacts on the gross and net primary production of the salt marsh on eastern coast of China: Insights from leaf to ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Guo, Hai-Qiang; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2015-01-01

    exotic Spartina alterniflora from North America has been rapidly invading the entire Chinese coast, while the impacts of plant invasion on the gross (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) of the coastal salt marshes were less known. In this study, we investigated the photosynthetic performance, leaf characteristics, and primary production of the exotic C4 grass and the dominant native C3 grass (Phragmites australis) in two marsh mixtures (equipped with eddy covariance systems) in the Yangtze Estuary. The light-saturated photosynthetic rate and annual peak leaf area index (LAI) of S. alterniflora was higher than that of P. australis throughout the growing season. The leaf nitrogen content of P. australis declined sharper during the latter growing season than that of S. alterniflora. The leaf-to-canopy production model with species-specific (C3 and C4 types) parameterizations could reasonably simulate the daily trends and annual GPP amount against the 3 year flux measurements from 2005 to 2007, and the modeled NPP agreed with biomass measurements from the two species during 2012. The percentage contributions of GPP between S. alterniflora and P. australis were on average 5.82:1 and 2.91:1 in the two mixtures, respectively. The annual NPP amounts from S. alterniflora were higher by approximately 1.6 times than that from P. australis. Our results suggested that higher photosynthesis efficiency, higher LAI, and longer growing season resulted in greater GPP and NPP in the exotic species relative to the native species. The rapid expansion rate of S. alterniflora further made it the leading contributor of primary production in the salt marsh.

  13. Hanging by a coastal strand: breeding system of a federally endangered morning-glory of the south-eastern Florida coast, Jacquemontia reclinata

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Torres, Elena; Koptur, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Coastal development has led to extensive habitat destruction and the near extinction of the beach clustervine, Jacquemontia reclinata (Convolvulaceae), an endangered, perennial vine endemic to dune and coastal strand communities in south-eastern Florida. We examined the breeding system of this rare species, and observed visitors to its flowers, as part of a larger effort to document its status and facilitate its recovery. Methods Reproductively mature experimental plants were grown from seed collected from wild plants in two of the largest remaining populations. Controlled hand pollinations on potted plants were conducted to determine the level of compatibility of the species and to investigate compatibility within and between populations. Seeds from the hand pollinations were planted in soil, and they were monitored individually, recording time to seed germination (cotyledon emergence). Wild plants were observed in several of the remaining populations to determine which species visited the flowers. Key Results Hand pollination and seed planting experiments indicate that J. reclinata has a mixed mating system: flowers are able to set fruit with viable seeds with self-pollen, but outcross pollen produces significantly greater fruit and seed set than self-pollen (≥50 % for crosses vs. <25 % for self-pollinations). Visitors included a wide array of insect species, primarily of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. All visitors captured and examined carried J. reclinata pollen, and usually several other types of pollen. Conclusions Remnant populations of beach clustervine will have greater reproductive success not only if floral visitor populations are maintained, but also if movement of either pollen or seed takes place between populations. Restoration efforts should include provisions for the establishment and maintenance of pollinator populations. PMID:19797424

  14. Status of (137)Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, (137)Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed (137)Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow (137)Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported (137)Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of (137)Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of (137)Cs, i

  15. Factors influencing spatio-temporal variation of methane and nitrous oxide emission from a tropical mangrove of eastern coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Rita; Datta, Arindam; Ramanathan, AL.; Adhya, T. K.

    2015-04-01

    We have studied the seasonal and tidal variation of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from the intertidal sediment of Bhitarkanika mangrove in the east coast of India. Seasonal variability study was conducted at five sites (three replicate of each site) inside the core area of the national park during three different seasons (summer, monsoon and winter) whereas tidal variation was studied at three different sites outside the core area during monsoon and winter season. Both CH4 and N2O emission from the intertidal sediment were significantly higher under the low tide condition during the winter season. During the study period CH4 emission from five different sites was ranged between 0.08 and 2.30 mg m-2 h-1 and the N2O emission was ranged between 9.0 and 187.58 μg m-2 h-1. Average seasonal N2O emission (μg m-2 h-1) from five different sites followed the order: winter (115.60 ± 21.90) > summer (45.29 ± 7.78) > monsoon (16.98 ± 2.54). CH4 and N2O emission was also recorded significantly higher during the winter season over the tidal cycle of three sampling locations. The CH4 emission was negatively correlated with sediment salinity (r = -0.91, P < 0.05) and SO4-2 (r = -0.89, P < 0.05) concentration whereas; the N2O emission was positively correlated with sediment salinity (r = 0.48) and NO3--N (r = 0.88, P < 0.05) concentration during the monsoon season. Positive correlation of N2O emission with the sediment NO3--N indicates possible influence of upstream anthropogenic activities on N2O emission from the mangrove sediment. In general, methylamine utilizing methanogen and denitrifying bacterial population was significantly higher during winter season in the mangrove sediment. The study concludes that the CH4 and N2O emission from the sediment at different sites during different seasons are influenced by allochthonous carbon and nitrogenous materials.

  16. Coasts under pressure.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1994-01-01

    In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection. PMID:12287493

  17. Sedimentary Signature of the 26 December 2004 Mega Tsunami on the Eastern Coast of Banda Aceh, Indonesia P. Wassmer, F. Lavigne, J. Sartohadi, Ph. Baumert, R. Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmer, P. C.; Franck, L.; Sartohadi, J.; Baumert, P.; Paris, R.

    2007-05-01

    The eastern part of Banda Aceh was hit by a series of waves with flow depth measured up to 15 meters. In the Kajuh district, at least seven waves were observed by eyewitnesses. They emplaced sand deposits up to 80cm in thickness. We carried out a sedimentological study of these deposits along a 2km long transect oriented according to the main run up flow direction. The sedimentary signature of the tsunami moving landward shows a succession of sequences of normally graded deposit, except for the ungraded basal layer. Close to the shoreline only one or two sequences can be observed. The number of sequences increases progressively landward to reach a maximum of seven up to 2km from the former shoreline. Further inland, the thickness of the deposits is very limited. The sequences are attributed to sediment pulses related to each new wave reaching our investigation sites. Each pulsation corresponds to the arrival of a wave front. The high turbulence led to the deposit of the coarse basal material of each sequence. At the end of each pulse the decreasing of the energy allowed deposition of the finer material. The basal layer, which is undoubtedly related to the first wave, seems to have been truncated by the second and highest wave. This explains the absence of the fine material at the top of the basal layer. Close to the shoreline, the high energy of each new wave, and probably of the backwash, may explain the small amount of sedimentary sequences.The energy decreasing 2km from the shoreline allows each wave to sign his passage, emplacing a new sequence. This sedimentary record is of high interest for its exceptional number of sequences rarely observed so far. Such recording is to be related to several factors: the succession of several high waves progressing far inland, the presence on the shore of a stock of heterometric sediments easily removable, a flat topography which reduced the turbulence of the incoming flows. However, we put in light the key role played by the

  18. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  19. Iridium in sediments containing large abundances of Australasian microtektites from DSDP hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gerhard; Zhou, Lei; Wasson, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Excess Ir found in sediments at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary and in other (e.g., Pliocene) sediments from deep sea drilling cores is widely interpreted as evidence of major impact events. The Australasian tektites originated in an impact event approximately 0.77 Ma ago; microtektites have been found in deep-sea sediment cores from throughout the Indian Ocean, the Philippine Sea, and western Pacific Ocean, but Ir has not been previously reported in these horizons. The deep-sea record of tektites is of particular interest, because in contrast to most continental occurrences, the stratigraphy preserves the original depositional position. Recently several cores having exceptionally high contents of Australasian microtektites have been investigated, Glass and Wu found shocked quartz associated with the microtektites. We used neutron activation to determine concentrations of Ir and other elements in two cores bearing microtektites, one from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and one from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea (near Mindanao, Philippines). The sedimentation age for the microtektite layers in core 758B lies between 0.73 - 0.78 Ma and agrees well with the mean laser-fusion Ar-40/Ar-39 age of Australasian tektites of 0.77 +/- 0.02 Ma by Izett et al. We are able to resolve a small positive Ir enhancement in 758B. Core 769A shows too much scatter to allow resolution of an Ir peak.

  20. Satellite-Based Surface Heat Budgets and Sea Surface Temperature Tendency in the Tropical Eastern Indian and Western Pacific Oceans for the 1997/98 El Nino and 1998/99 La Nina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2002-01-01

    The 1997/98 is a strong El Nino warm event, while the 1998/99 is a moderate La Nina cold event. We have investigated surface heat budgets and sea surface temperature (SST) tendency for these two events in the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans using satellite-retrieved surface radiative and turbulent fluxes. The radiative fluxes are taken from the Goddard Satellite-retrieved Surface Radiation Budget (GSSRB), derived from radiance measurements of the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The GSSRB covers the domain 40 deg S - 4 deg N, 90 deg E-17 deg W and a period from October 1997 to December 2000. The spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg lat-long and the temporal resolution is 1 day. The turbulent fluxes are taken from Version 2 of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF-2). The GSSTF-2 has a spatial resolution of 1 deg x 1 deg lat-long over global Oceans and a temporal resolution of 1 day covering the period July 1987-December 2000. Daily turbulent fluxes are derived from the S S M (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) surface wind and surface air humidity, and the SST and 2-m air temperature of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, using a stability-dependent bulk flux algorithm. The changes of surface heat budgets, SST and tendency, cloudiness, wind speed, and zonal wind stress of the 1997/98 El Nino relative to the1998/99 La Nina for the northern winter and spring seasons are analyzed. The relative changes of surface heat budgets and SST tendency of the two events are quite different between the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans. For the tropical western Pacific, reduced solar heating (more clouds) is generally associated with decreased evaporative cooling (weaker winds), and vise versa. The changes in evaporative cooling over-compensate that of solar heating and dominate the spatial variability of the changes in net surface heating. Both solar heating and evaporative cooling offset each other to reduce

  1. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  2. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  3. Dynamical analysis of the Indian Ocean climate network and its correlation with Australian Millennium Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Laura; Masoller, Cristina; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Ravetti, Martín G.

    2015-04-01

    During the period between the mid-1990s and late 2000s Australia had suffered one of the worst droughts on record. Severe rainfall deficits affected great part of southeast Australia, causing widespread drought conditions and catastrophic bushfires. The "Millennium Drought", as it was called, was unusual in terms of its severity, duration and extent, leaving important environmental and financial damages. One of the most important drivers of Australia climate variability is the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), that is a coupled ocean and atmosphere phenomenon in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The IOD is measured by an index (DMI) that is the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the western and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Its positive phase is characterized by lower than normal sea surface temperatures in the tropical eastern coast, and higher than normal in the tropical western Indian Ocean. Extreme positive IOD (pIOD) events are associated to severe droughts in countries located over the eastern Indian Ocean, and to severe floods in the western tropical ones. Recent research works projected that the frequency of extreme pIOD events will increase significantly over the twenty-first century and consequently, the frequency of extreme climate conditions in the zones affected by it. In this work we study the dynamics of the Indian Ocean for the period of 1979-2014, by using climate networks of skin temperature and humidity (reanalysis data). Annual networks are constructed by creating links when the Pearson correlation coefficient between two nodes is greater than a specific value. The distance distribution Pd(k), that indicates the fraction of pairs of nodes at distance k, is computed to characterize the dynamics of the network by using Information Theory quantifiers. We found a clear change in the Indian Ocean dynamics and an increment in the network's similarities quantified by the Jensen-Shannon divergence in the late 1990s. We speculate that

  4. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The strong seasonal cycle of sea level along the west coast of India (WCI) has important consequences for ecosystem and fisheries, and the Lakshadweep high/low in the southeast Arabian Sea is important for fisheries and the Indian summer monsoon. Previous studies suggested that WCI sea level variability is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from the Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean through coastal Kelvin wave propagation. Using a linear ocean model, we demonstrate that wind forcing in a relatively small region around the southern tip of India and east of Sri Lanka contribute to ~60% of this variability. Wind variations from the rest of the Bay and the equator only account respectively for ~20% and ~10%. Sea level signals forced by the "southern tip" winds extend westward into the eastern Arabian Sea through Rossby wave propagation, with more than 50% contribution in the Lakshadweep high/low region.

  5. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  6. Seasonal Characteristics of Circulation in the Southeastern Tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, T.; Meyers, G.

    2004-12-01

    The circulation in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean is studied using historical temperature and salinity data. A southward shift of the subtropical gyre at increasing depth dominates the structure of the annual mean circulation. Near the southern Indonesian coast, the westward South Equatorial Current (SEC) is at the sea surface and strongest near 10°-11°S, reflecting strong influence of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). In latitudes 13°-25°S the SEC is a subsurface flow and its velocity core deepens toward the south, falling below 500 m at 25°S. The Eastern Gyral Current (EGC) is a surface flow overlying the SEC, associated with the meridional gradients of near-surface temperature and salinity. The ITF supplies water to the SEC mainly in the upper 400 m, and below that depth the flow is reversed along the coast of Sumatra and Java. Monsoon-winds strongly force the annual variation in circulation. Dynamic height at the sea surface has a maximum amplitude at 10°-13°S, and the maximum at deeper levels is located further south. Annual variation is also strong in the coastal wave guides, but is mainly confined to the near-surface layer. Although the South Java Current at the sea surface is not well resolved in the present dataset, semiannual variation is markedly evident at depth and tends to extend much deeper than annual variation along the coast of Sumatra and Java.

  7. Acid rains over semi-urban atmosphere at eastern Himalaya and near coast of Bay of Bengal and alkaline rains over typical urban atmosphere in India: A study on precipitation chemistry during monsoon, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arindam; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji

    A study has been made on precipitation chemistry over three different atmosphere in India. Rain samples were collected during the entire period of monsoon (June-October) in the year of 2013 over Kolkata (22.6 (°) N, 89.4 (°) E), a mega city with typical urban atmosphere; Falta (22.3 (°) N, 88.1 (°) E), a rural atmosphere near eastern coast of Bay of Bengal and Darjeeling (27.01 (°) N, 88.15 (°) E), a high altitude (2200 m asl)hill station over eastern Himalaya in India. The major focus of the study is to investigate the composition of various types of aerosol ionic components scavenged and its effect on the acidity and how it differs between these three distinctly different atmospheres. The results showed that the sea-salt components were higher in Falta (140 mueqv/lit) followed by Kolkata (120 mueqv/lit) and minimum in Darjeeling (30 mueqv/lit). Over all the stations, Na (+) and Cl (-) showed strong correlations indicating common marine source. The marine air masses originated from Bay of Bengal (BoB) were found to significantly enrich sea-salt particles over Falta, the nearest station from BoB and having least effect on Darjeeling, the farthest station from BoB. Dust and anthropogenic aerosols particles were significantly higher over Kolkata compared to other two stations. Dust particles were found to scavenge more in the initial phase of monsoon and it gradually decreased as the monsoon progressed. The average pH of rain water over Kolkata was 6.0 indicating alkaline in nature. pH over Falta was 5.2 indicating slightly acidic in nature and the most important fact is that pH over Darjeeling was 4.6 indicating highly acidic in nature. It was found that Ca (2+) , Mg (2+) and NH _{4} (+) neutralized the acidity of rain water over all the stations with the maximum neutralizing factor for Ca (2+) . However, NH _{4} (+) played important role over Darjeeling in neutralizing rain water acidity. The major reason for high acidity of rain water was not due to high

  8. Education "for" American Indians: Threat or Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tax, Sol; Thomas, Robert K

    1969-01-01

    Results of this Carnegie Corporation of New York sponsored research project in literacy training among the Cherokee Indians of Eastern Oklahoma indicate that alienation rather than lack of opportunity is the chief difficulty in American Indian education. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue "Linguistic-Cultural Differences…

  9. Osceola. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert Proctor

    Osceola was the guiding spirit and moving force behind the Second Seminole War. In 1830, when it became the official policy of the United States government to move all the Eastern Indians to a new Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, the Seminoles resisted. Under Osceola's leadership, a thousand Seminole warriors held off the entire…

  10. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  11. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  12. Geologic impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, B.M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Morton, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a large submarine earthquake (magnitude ???9.1) with an epicenter located under the seafloor in the eastern Indian Ocean near northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The resulting tsunami was measured globally and had significant geologic impacts throughout the Indian Ocean basin. Observations of tsunami impacts, such as morphologic change, sedimentary deposits, and water-level measurements, are used to reconstruct tsunamogenic processes. Data from Sumatra, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives provide a synoptic view of tsunami characteristics from a wide range of coastal environments both near- and far-field from the tsunami origin. Impacts to the coast as a result of the tsunami varied depending upon the height of the wave at impact, orientation of the coast with regard to direction of wave approach, and local topography, bathymetry, geology, and vegetation cover. Tsunami deposits were observed in all the countries visited and can be generally characterized as relatively thin sheets (<80 cm), mostly of sand. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  13. Structural Evolution of the India-Arabia Plate Boundary from Miocene to Present-Day (NW Indian Ocean) and Comparison with the Dead Sea Fault (Eastern Mediterranean Sea).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Chamot Rooke, N.; Fournier, M.; Delescluse, M.; Ben Avraham, Z.; Ten Brink, U. S.

    2014-12-01

    Arabia is bounded by the Dead Sea Transform (DST) to the west and by the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ) to the east. These present-day major strike-slip fault systems activated during the Plio-Pleistocene, which contrasts with the age of inception of strike-slip motion, assumed to begin around 13-18 Ma for the DST and around 20 Ma at the edge of the Owen-Murray Ridge (OMR) for the India-Arabia plate boundary. This discrepancy between the age of the active strike-slip systems and the age of inception of strike-slip motion raises the question of the kinematic driver for the transition between successive generations of strike-slip faults. Using a recent mutibeam and seismic dataset crossing the OFZ and the OMR, we provide a new geodynamic framework for the Miocene to present-day structural evolution of the India-Arabia plate boundary, and highlight some similarities with the structural evolution of the DST. We first document a Late Miocene episode of uplift of the OMR uplift along the Miocene India-Arabia plate boundary. The onset of this uplift is coeval with a plate reorganization event marked by the onset of intra-plate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean. The OFZ emplaced around 3 Ma, with major pull-apart basins opening (20°N Basin, Dalrymple Trough) dated at 2.4 Ma by far-field correlation with ODP Sites. The opening of pull-apart basins is coeval with the last structural reorganization of the Makran accretionnary wedge, marked by the regional M-unconformity, and with a major intensification of the Indian monsoon. A Late Miocene episode of folding is also recognized at the Lebanon ranges prior to the onset of the present-day DST, which occurred in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. The similarities between the geological history of the India-Arabia plate boundary and the DST in the Late Miocene and the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene suggest that both plate boundaries recorded the same kinematic changes. Late Miocene (i.e. Tortonian) deformation is widely

  14. Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Liao, Shiyu; Qi, Xuebin; Liu, Jiewei; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Zhaohui; Serey, Bun; Sovannary, Tuot; Bunnath, Long; Seang Aun, Hong; Samnom, Ham; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of an Asian-specific Y-chromosome lineage (O2a1-M95)—the dominant paternal lineage in Austro-Asiatic (AA) speaking populations, who are found on both sides of the Bay of Bengal—led to two competing hypothesis of this group’s geographic origin and migratory routes. One hypothesis posits the origin of the AA speakers in India and an eastward dispersal to Southeast Asia, while the other places an origin in Southeast Asia with westward dispersal to India. Here, we collected samples of AA-speaking populations from mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and southern China, and genotyped 16 Y-STRs of 343 males who belong to the O2a1-M95 lineage. Combining our samples with previous data, we analyzed both the Y-chromosome and mtDNA diversities. We generated a comprehensive picture of the O2a1-M95 lineage in Asia. We demonstrated that the O2a1-M95 lineage originated in the southern East Asia among the Daic-speaking populations ~20–40 thousand years ago and then dispersed southward to Southeast Asia after the Last Glacial Maximum before moving westward to the Indian subcontinent. This migration resulted in the current distribution of this Y-chromosome lineage in the AA-speaking populations. Further analysis of mtDNA diversity showed a different pattern, supporting a previously proposed sex-biased admixture of the AA-speaking populations in India. PMID:26482917

  15. Solution structure of BTK-2, a novel hK(v)1.1 inhibiting scorpion toxin, from the eastern Indian scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Senthil; Upadhyay, Sanjeev; Mathew, M K; Sarma, Siddhartha P

    2011-04-01

    The three dimensional structure of a 32 residue three disulfide scorpion toxin, BTK-2, from the Indian red scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus has been determined using isotope edited solution NMR methods. Samples for structural and electrophysiological studies were prepared using recombinant DNA methods. Electrophysiological studies show that the peptide is active against hK(v)1.1 channels. The structure of BTK-2 was determined using 373 distance restraints from NOE data, 66 dihedral angle restraints from NOE, chemical shift and scalar coupling data, 6 constraints based on disulfide linkages and 8 constraints based on hydrogen bonds. The root mean square deviation (r.m.s.d) about the averaged co-ordinates of the backbone (N, C(α), C') and all heavy atoms are 0.81 ± 0.23Å and 1.51 ± 0.29Å respectively. The backbone dihedral angles (ϕ and ψ) for all residues occupy the favorable and allowed regions of the Ramachandran map. The three dimensional structure of BTK-2 is composed of three well defined secondary structural regions that constitute the α-β-β structural motif. Comparisons between the structure of BTK-2 and other closely related scorpion toxins pointed towards distinct differences in surface properties that provide insights into the structure-function relationships among this important class of voltage-gated potassium channel inhibiting peptides. PMID:21256986

  16. Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Liao, Shiyu; Qi, Xuebin; Liu, Jiewei; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Zhaohui; Serey, Bun; Sovannary, Tuot; Bunnath, Long; Seang Aun, Hong; Samnom, Ham; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of an Asian-specific Y-chromosome lineage (O2a1-M95)--the dominant paternal lineage in Austro-Asiatic (AA) speaking populations, who are found on both sides of the Bay of Bengal--led to two competing hypothesis of this group's geographic origin and migratory routes. One hypothesis posits the origin of the AA speakers in India and an eastward dispersal to Southeast Asia, while the other places an origin in Southeast Asia with westward dispersal to India. Here, we collected samples of AA-speaking populations from mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and southern China, and genotyped 16 Y-STRs of 343 males who belong to the O2a1-M95 lineage. Combining our samples with previous data, we analyzed both the Y-chromosome and mtDNA diversities. We generated a comprehensive picture of the O2a1-M95 lineage in Asia. We demonstrated that the O2a1-M95 lineage originated in the southern East Asia among the Daic-speaking populations ~20-40 thousand years ago and then dispersed southward to Southeast Asia after the Last Glacial Maximum before moving westward to the Indian subcontinent. This migration resulted in the current distribution of this Y-chromosome lineage in the AA-speaking populations. Further analysis of mtDNA diversity showed a different pattern, supporting a previously proposed sex-biased admixture of the AA-speaking populations in India. PMID:26482917

  17. Interannual Variability of South-Eastern African Summer Rainfall. Part 1: Relationships with Air-Sea Interaction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Alfredo; Simmonds, Ian

    1997-03-01

    This paper investigates the role that air-sea interaction processes may play in interannual variability of south-eastern African summer rainfall. The principal spatial modes of south-eastern African summer rainfall are first identified using principal component analysis. Four modes are retained. The most important mode of variability is found to represent rainfall variability over most of the domain, particularly in the regions to the south.The influence of ENSO (as measured by the SOI) on summer rainfall is investigated in detail for different SOI leads. The relationship is such that during the summer following the onset of an ENSO event, south-eastern Africa tends to experience dry conditions. Strongest relationships are found with the SOI leading rainfall by about 3 to 6 months.A second index, the Brandon-Marion Index (BMI) which is indicative of changes in the pressure field over the Indian Ocean correlates with rainfall better than the SOI. Strongest correlations are found when this index leads rainfall by about 1 to 3 months. More importantly, a partial correlation analysis reveals that the BMI influences rainfall independently of ENSO. Both the SOI and the BMI are potential predictors of summer rainfall.An investigation of rainfall associations with global SST anomalies reveals areas in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans that are linked with rainfall changes over the subcontinent. The relationship is such that warm anomalies tend to be followed by dry conditions over much of south-eastern Africa. Strongest relationships are found when SSTs lead the rainfall season by about 1 to 3 months. Well-defined atmospheric anomalies are identified during dry south-eastern African summers. These include, amongst others, anomalously warm tropospheric temperatures and marked low-level cyclonic circulation anomalies over the central Indian Ocean, which generate abnormally weak easterly winds along much of the south-eastern coast of Africa. These perturbations to the

  18. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  19. Report on the Economic Impact of American Indians in the State of Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Margaret Abudu; And Others

    This report assesses the economic impact created by the presence of American Indians in Oklahoma. In 1980, American Indians in Oklahoma numbered 169,459, or 5.6% of the state's population. Most Indians lived in central and eastern counties. Compared to the general population, Indians were younger, less educated, and had higher unemployment and…

  20. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Margit H.; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J.C.; Hall, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique. PMID:26686943

  1. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Margit H.; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J. C.; Hall, Ian R.

    2015-12-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique.

  2. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years.

    PubMed

    Simon, Margit H; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J C; Hall, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique. PMID:26686943

  3. Tishomingo folio, Indian Territory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taff, Joseph A.

    1903-01-01

    The Tishomingo quadrangle is bounded by meridians 96° 30' and 97° and parallels 34° and 34° 30', and occupies one-quarter of a square degree of the earth's surface.  It is 34.5 miles long north and south and 28.58 miles wide, and contains about 986 square miles.  It lies in the southeastern part of the Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, the eastern edge being nearly 3 miles west of the Choctaw-Chickasaw boudary line, and the southern side about 3 miles north of the nearest approach of Red River.

  4. Two flavors of the Indian Ocean Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Satoru; Tozuka, Tomoki

    2015-07-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is known as a climate mode in the tropical Indian Ocean accompanied by negative (positive) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the eastern (western) pole during its positive phase. However, the western pole of the IOD is not always covered totally by positive SST anomalies. For this reason, the IOD is further classified into two types in this study based on SST anomalies in the western pole. The first type (hereafter "canonical IOD") is associated with negative (positive) SST anomalies in the eastern (central to western) tropical Indian Ocean. The second type (hereafter "IOD Modoki"), on the other hand, is associated with negative SST anomalies in the eastern and western tropical Indian Ocean and positive SST anomalies in the central tropical Indian Ocean. Based on composite analyses, it is found that easterly wind anomalies cover the whole equatorial Indian Ocean in the canonical IOD, and as a result, positive rainfall anomalies are observed over East Africa. Also, due to the basin-wide easterly wind anomalies, the canonical IOD is accompanied by strong sea surface height (SSH) anomalies. In contrast, zonal wind anomalies converge in the central tropical Indian Ocean in the IOD Modoki, and no significant precipitation anomalies are found over East Africa. Also, only weak SSH anomalies are seen, because equatorial downwelling anomalies induced by westerly wind anomalies in the west are counteracted by equatorial upwelling anomalies caused by easterly wind anomalies in the east.

  5. Two flavors of the Indian Ocean Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Satoru; Tozuka, Tomoki

    2016-06-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is known as a climate mode in the tropical Indian Ocean accompanied by negative (positive) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the eastern (western) pole during its positive phase. However, the western pole of the IOD is not always covered totally by positive SST anomalies. For this reason, the IOD is further classified into two types in this study based on SST anomalies in the western pole. The first type (hereafter "canonical IOD") is associated with negative (positive) SST anomalies in the eastern (central to western) tropical Indian Ocean. The second type (hereafter "IOD Modoki"), on the other hand, is associated with negative SST anomalies in the eastern and western tropical Indian Ocean and positive SST anomalies in the central tropical Indian Ocean. Based on composite analyses, it is found that easterly wind anomalies cover the whole equatorial Indian Ocean in the canonical IOD, and as a result, positive rainfall anomalies are observed over East Africa. Also, due to the basin-wide easterly wind anomalies, the canonical IOD is accompanied by strong sea surface height (SSH) anomalies. In contrast, zonal wind anomalies converge in the central tropical Indian Ocean in the IOD Modoki, and no significant precipitation anomalies are found over East Africa. Also, only weak SSH anomalies are seen, because equatorial downwelling anomalies induced by westerly wind anomalies in the west are counteracted by equatorial upwelling anomalies caused by easterly wind anomalies in the east.

  6. First record of the twostripe goby, Valenciennea helsdingenii (Gobiidae, Gobiiformes) from the southeast coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, K.; Sureshkumar, K.; Ranjith, L.; Joshi, K. K.; Madan, M. S.; John, Sajan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two specimens of Valenciennea helsdingenii (Bleeker, 1858) were collected off Punnakayal coast, from Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India in November 2012. The morphometric and meristic characters of the recorded specimens are described and discussed. This is the first record of the species from the Indian waters that is a range extension of its known range within the Indian Ocean. PMID:24003316

  7. Indian Reservations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weewish Tree, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Answers to questions asked by junior high school students about American Indian reservations are given. The areas covered include nearly every facet of reservation life from the first Federal issuance of particles of land to the American Indians to present conditions on the reservations. (AH)

  8. Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  9. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu

  10. Interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon associated with the air-sea feedback in the northern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ravi P.; Huang, Bohua

    2016-03-01

    Using observation-based analyses, this study identifies the leading interannual pattern of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) independent of ENSO and examines the potential mechanisms of its formation. For this purpose, an objective procedure is used to isolate the variability of the summer precipitation associated with the contemporary ENSO state and in previous winter-spring, which influence the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) region in opposite ways. It is shown that the leading pattern of these ENSO-related monsoon rainfall anomalies reproduces some major ISMR features and well represents its connections to the global-scale ENSO features in both lower and upper troposphere. On the other hand, the leading pattern derived from the precipitation anomalies with the ENSO component removed in the ISM and surrounding region also accounts for a substantial amount of the monsoon precipitation centered at the eastern coast of the subtropical Arabian Sea, extending into both the western Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent. The associated atmospheric circulation change is regional in nature, mostly confined in the lower to mid troposphere centered in the Arabian Sea, with a mild connection to an opposite tendency centered at the South China Sea. Further analyses show that this regional pattern is associated with a thermodynamic air-sea feedback during early to mid summer season. Specifically, before the monsoon onset, an anomalous atmospheric high pressure over the Arabian Sea causes excessive shortwave radiation to the sea surface and increases SST in May. The warm SST anomalies peak in June and reduce the sea level pressure. The anomalous cyclonic circulation generates regional convection and precipitation, which also induces subsidence and anticyclonic circulation over the South China Sea. The combined cyclonic-anticyclonic circulation further transport moisture from the western Pacific into the Indian Ocean and causes its convergence into the Arabian Sea. As a